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Journal of Infectious Diseases

Masahiko Mori, Ellen Leitman, Bruce Walker, Thumbi Ndung'u, Mary Carrington, Philip Goulder
Background: HLA class I contributes to HIV immune control through antigen presentation to both cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. However, by contrast with investigations of CTL, studies of NK cells in HIV control through HLA-killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) interactions remain sparse in African cohorts. Methods: 312 treatment naïve, chronically HIV-infected adults were recruited from South Africa, and the effects of HLA-KIR pairs on clinical outcome were statistically analyzed...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Sam Jones, Eva Maria Hodel, Raman Sharma, Katherine Kay, Ian M Hastings
Background: Standard treatment for severe malaria is with artesunate; patient survival in the 24 hours immediately posttreatment is the key objective. Clinical trials use clearance rates of circulating parasites as their clinical outcome, but the pathology of severe malaria is attributed primarily to noncirculating, sequestered, parasites, so there is a disconnect between existing clinical metrics and objectives. Methods: We extend existing pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling methods to simulate the treatment of 10000 patients with severe malaria and track the pathology caused by sequestered parasites...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Dylan Small, Karl Seydel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
David X Liu, Donna L Perry, Lisa Evans DeWald, Yingyun Cai, Katie R Hagen, Timothy K Cooper, Louis M Huzella, Randy Hart, Amanda Bonilla, John G Bernbaum, Krisztina B Janosko, Ricky Adams, Reed F Johnson, Jens H Kuhn, Matthias J Schnell, Ian Crozier, Peter B Jahrling, Juan C de la Torre
Lassa fever (LF) survivors develop various clinical manifestations including polyserositis, myalgia, epididymitis, and hearing loss weeks to months after recovery from acute infection. We demonstrate a systemic lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic arteritis and periarteritis in guinea pigs more than 2 months after recovery from acute Lassa virus (LASV) infection. LASV was detected in the arterial tunica media smooth muscle cells by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and transmission electron microscopy...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Nora Pisanic, Sarah-Blythe Ballard, Fabiola D Colquechagua, Ruthly François, Natalie Exum, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Kellogg J Schwab, Douglas A Granger, Barbara Detrick, Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Holger Mayta, Gerardo J Sánchez, Robert H Gilman, Christopher D Heaney, Jan Vinjé, Margaret N Kosek
Background: Norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Routine norovirus diagnosis requires stool collection. The goal of this study was to develop and validate a noninvasive method to diagnose norovirus to complement stool diagnostics and to facilitate studies on transmission. Methods: A multiplex immunoassay to measure salivary immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to 5 common norovirus genotypes (GI.1, GII.2, GII.4, GII.6, and GII.17) was developed...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Nusrat Homaira, Nancy Briggs, Ju-Lee Oei, Lisa Hilder, Barbara Bajuk, Adam Jaffe, Saad B Omer
Objective: In a population-based cohort study we determined the association between age at first severe respiratory syncytial viral (RSV) disease and subsequent asthma. Methods: Incidence rates and rate ratios of first asthma hospitalisation beyond 2 years of age in children with RSV hospitalisation at <3 months, 3 - <6 months, 6 - <12 months, and 12 - 24 months were calculated. Results: The incidence/1000 child - years (95% CI) of asthma hospitalisation in children who had RSV hospitalisation at <3 months was 0...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Helen E Groves, Michael D Shields
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Venesa Dizdar, Trygve Hausken, Ole D Larum, Odd Helge Gilja, Nina Langeland, Kurt Hanevik
Objective: Persisting low grade inflammation is suggested to play a role in post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders (PI-FGID). The present study examined alterations in duodenal mucosal lymphocytes during and after Giardia gastroenteritis in patients who did, or did not, develop PI-FGID. Design: Duodenal mucosal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and lamina propria CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD20 lymphocytes were quantified in 28 chronic giardiasis (CG) patients, 66 patients with persistent abdominal symptoms after acute Giardia infection (PI-FGID), 19 recovered controls (RC) and 16 healthy volunteers (HC)...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Victor Chaumeau, Ladda Kajeechiwa, Bénédicte Fustec, Jordi Landier, Saw Naw Nyo, Saw Nay Hsel, Phabele Phatharakokordbun, Prapan Kittiphanakun, Suphak Nosten, May Myo Thwin, Saw Win Tun, Jacher Wiladphaingern, Gilles Cottrell, Daniel M Parker, Myo Chit Minh, Nittpha Kwansomboon, Selma Metaane, Céline Montazeau, Kitti Kunjanwong, Sunisa Sawasdichai, Chiara Andolina, Clare Ling, Warat Haohankhunnatham, Peter Christiensen, Sunaree Wanyatip, Kamonchanok Konghahong, Dominique Cerqueira, Mallika Imwong, Arjen M Dondorp, Theeraphap Chareonviriyaphap, Nicholas J White, François H Nosten, Vincent Corbel
Background: The objective of mass antimalarial drug administration (MDA) is to eliminate malaria rapidly by eliminating the asymptomatic malaria parasite reservoirs and interrupting transmission. In the Greater Mekong Subregion, where artemisinin resistant P. falciparum is now widespread, MDA has been proposed as an elimination accelerator, but the contribution of asymptomatic infections to malaria transmission has been questioned. The impact of MDA on entomological indices has not been characterised previously...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Laura M Mann, Eloisa Llata, Elaine W Flagg, Jaeyoung Hong, Lenore Asbel, Juli Carlos-Henderson, Roxanne P Kerani, Robert Kohn, Preeti Pathela, Christina Schumacher, Elizabeth A Torrone
Background: Approximately 90% of genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11. In the US, HPV vaccination has been recommended for females ≤26 years; and since 2011, males ≤21 years and gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) ≤26 years. Methods: Data were obtained from 27 clinics participating in the STD Surveillance Network (SSuN). Trends in the annual prevalence of anogenital warts (AGW) from 2010-2016 were described by sex and sex of sex partners...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Mehdi R Pirozyan, Nam Nguyen, Barbara Cameron, Fabio Luciani, Rowena A Bull, Amany Zekry, Andrew R Lloyd
Background: In hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, virus-specific CD8+ T cells are recruited to the liver for antiviral activity. Multiple chemokine ligands are induced by the infection, notably interferon-inducible chemokine, CXCL10. In HCV, intra-hepatic T cells express chemokine receptors (CCRs), including CXCR3, CXCR6, CCR1, and CCR5, but CCR expression on antigen-specific effector and memory T cells has not been investigated. Methods: Paired blood and liver samples were collected from subjects with chronic HCV for flow cytometric analysis of CCR expression on CD8+ T cells...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Monique R Bennett, Robin G Bombardi, Nurgun Kose, Erica H Parrish, Marcus B Nagel, Robert A Petit, Timothy D Read, Kevin L Schey, Isaac P Thomsen, Eric P Skaar, James E Crowe
The nutrient metal iron plays a key role in the survival of microorganisms. The iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) system scavenges heme-iron from the human host, enabling acquisition of iron in iron-deplete conditions in Staphylococcus aureus during infection. The cell surface receptors IsdB and IsdH bind hemoproteins and transfer heme to IsdA, the final surface protein before heme-iron is transported through the peptidoglycan. To define the human B-cell response to IsdA, we isolated human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to the surface Isd proteins and determined their mechanism of action...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Lynn El Haddad, Ella Ariza-Heredia, Roy F Chemaly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Philip E Pellett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Timothy F Murphy, Aimee L Brauer, Melinda M Pettigrew, Eric R LaFontaine, Hervé Tettelin
Background: Persistence of bacterial pathogens in the airways has profound consequences on the course and pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients with COPD continuously acquire and clear strains of Moraxella catarrhalis, a major pathogen in COPD. Some strains are cleared quickly and some persist for months to years. The mechanism of the variability in duration of persistence is unknown. Methods: Guided by genome sequences of selected strains, we studied the expression of Hag/MID, hag/mid gene sequences, adherence to human cells and autoaggregation in longitudinally-collected strains of M...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Mrinmoy Sanyal, Tyson H Holmes, Holden Maecker, Randy A Albrecht, Cornelia L Dekker, Xiao-Song He, Harry B Greenberg
Annual vaccination with influenza vaccines is recommended for protection against influenza in the United States. Past clinical studies and meta-analysis, however, have reported conflicting results on the benefits of annual vaccination. B-cell responses elicited following repeat influenza vaccinations over multiple seasons have not been examined in detail. We analyzed the B-cell and antibody responses in volunteers vaccinated yearly with seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (TIV) from 2010 or 2011 to 2014...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jing Sun, Ryan J Longchamps, Damani A Piggott, Christina A Castellani, Jason A Sumpter, Todd T Brown, Shruti H Mehta, Dan E Arking, Gregory D Kirk
Background: Low Mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA CN) is a predictor of adverse aging outcomes, and its status may be altered in HIV-infected persons. This study evaluated the cross-sectional and longitudinal change of mtDNA CN by HIV markers. Methods: mtDNA CN was measured in participants of the ALIVE cohort of persons with history of injecting drugs. Multivariate linear regression models controlling for demographics, behavior, and HCV seropositive status assessed the relationship of mtDNA CN to HIV markers (CD4 counts, viral load, ART use)...
November 24, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Natalie E Hofmann, Clara Antunes Moniz, Aurel Holzschuh, Kristina Keitel, Noémie Boillat-Blanco, Frank Kagoro, Josephine Samaka, Zainab Mbarack, Xavier C Ding, Iveth J González, Blaise Genton, Valérie D'Acremont, Ingrid Felger
Background: A novel ultra-sensitive malaria RDT (us-RDT) has been developed for improved active P.falciparum case detection. The utility of this us-RDT in clinical diagnosis and fever management has not been evaluated to date. Methods: Diagnostic performance of us-RDT was compared retrospectively to conventional RDT (co-RDT) in 3000 children and 515 adults presenting with fever to Tanzanian outpatient clinics. Parasite density by ultra-sensitive qPCR (us-qPCR) and HRP2 concentration by ELISA were measured...
November 24, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Chun-Kuang Lin, Chin-Kai Tseng, Yu-Hsuan Wu, Chun-Yu Lin, Chung-Hao Huang, Weng-Hung Wang, Chih-Chuang Liaw, Yen-Hsu Chen, Jin-Ching Lee
Background: Dengue virus (DENV), a common and widely spread arbovirus, causes life-threatening diseases, such as dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome. There is currently no effective therapeutic or preventive treatment for DENV infection. Methods: Next-generation sequencing analysis revealed that prostasin expression was decreased upon DENV infection. Prostasin expression level were confirmed by RT-qPCR in patients with dengue fever and DENV-infected mice model...
November 23, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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