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Journal of Infectious Diseases

Matthew S Bramble, Nicole Hoff, Pavlo Gilchuk, Patrick Mukadi, Kai Lu, Reena H Doshi, Imke Steffen, Bradly P Nicholson, Allen Lipson, Neerja Vashist, Cyrus Sinai, D'andre Spencer, Garrard Olinger, Emile Okitolonda Wemakoy, Benoit Kebela Illunga, James Pettitt, James Logue, Jonathan Marchand, Justin Varughese, Richard S Bennett, Peter Jahrling, Guy Cavet, Tito Serafini, Erica Ollmann Saphire, Eric Vilain, Jean Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum, Lisa E Hensely, Graham Simmons, James E Crowe, Anne W Rimoin
One year after a Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) outbreak occurred in the Boende Health Zone of the Democratic Republic of the Congo during 2014, we sought to determine the breadth of immune response against diverse filoviruses including EBOV, Bundibugyo (BDBV), Sudan (SUDV), and Marburg (MARV) viruses. After assessing the 15 survivors, 5 individuals demonstrated some degree of reactivity to multiple ebolavirus species and, in some instances, Marburg virus. All 5 of these survivors had immunoreactivity to EBOV glycoprotein (GP) and EBOV VP40, and 4 had reactivity to EBOV nucleoprotein (NP)...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Felicity C Fitzgerald, Edouard Lhomme, Kathryn Harris, Julia Kenny, Ronan Doyle, Cissy Kityo, Liam B Shaw, George Abongomera, Victor Musiime, Adrian Cook, Julianne R Brown, Anthony Brooks, Ellen Owen-Powell, Diana M Gibb, Andrew J Prendergast, A Sarah Walker, Rodolphe Thiebaut, Nigel Klein
Objective: Immune activation is associated with morbidity/mortality in HIV-infection despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). We investigated whether microbial translocation drives immune activation in HIV-infected Ugandan children. Methods: Nineteen markers of immune activation/inflammation were measured over 96 weeks in HIV-infected Ugandan children in CHAPAS-3 (ISRCTN69078957) and HIV-uninfected age-matched controls. Microbial translocation was assessed using molecular techniques including next-generation sequencing...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
N I Mazur, N Horsley, J A Englund, M Nederend, A Magaret, A Kumar, S R Jacobino, de Haan Xander, S K Khatry, S C LeClerq, M C Steinhoff, J M Tielsch, J Katz, B S Graham, L J Bont, J H W Leusen, H Y Chu
Background: Transplacental RSV antibody transfer has been characterized, but little is known about the protective effect of breast milk RSV-specific antibodies. Serum antibodies against the prefusion RSV fusion protein (pre-F) exhibit high neutralizing activity. We investigate protection of breast milk pre-F antibodies against RSV acute respiratory infection (ARI). Methods: Breast milk at 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum and mid-nasal swabs during infant illness episodes were collected in mother-infant pairs in Nepal...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Dimitrios Chanouzas, Michael Sagmeister, Sian Faustini, Peter Nightingale, Alex Richter, Charles J Ferro, Matthew David Morgan, Paul Moss, Lorraine Harper
Background: Infection is the leading cause of death in ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). Expansion of CD4+CD28null T-cells is associated with increased risk of infection and mortality, but is only present in cytomegalovirus-seropositive individuals. We hypothesised that subclinical cytomegalovirus reactivation drives CD4+CD28null T-cell expansion; that this is associated with impaired immune response to heterologous antigens, and that anti-viral therapy may ameliorate this. Methods: In a proof-of-concept open-label clinical trial, 38 cytomegalovirus-seropositive AAV patients were randomised to receive valaciclovir for 6-months or no intervention...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Christine Thoens, Andreas Heinold, Monika Lindemann, Peter A Horn, Dae-In Chang, Norbert Scherbaum, Joerg Timm, Falko M Heinemann
In this study we examined the impact of the rs9264942 SNP, previously shown to be associated with HIV infection status and HLA-C expression, on the HCV status in 359 people who inject drugs (PWID). The linkage of rs9264942 alleles to HLA-C antigens assigned to different expression levels was confirmed. Multivariate analysis revealed the age (p=0.003) and the rs9264942 genotype (p=0.006) to be independent factors for the classification to the PWID groups. Our study showed that the presence of the rs9264942 C/C genotype was associated with persisted seronegativity...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Rodrigo Velázquez-Moctezuma, Andrea Galli, Mansun Law, Jens Bukh, Jannick Prentoe
Global control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) depends on development of a prophylactic vaccine. We studied escape for cross-genotype-reactive neutralizing antibody AR4A, providing valuable information for HCV vaccine design. We cultured HCV Core-NS2 recombinants H77(genotype 1a)/JFH1 or the highly-antibody-sensitive hypervariable region 1 (HVR1)-deleted variants H77/JFH1∆HVR1 and J6(genotype 2a)/JFH1∆HVR1 in Huh7.5 cells with AR4A. Long-term AR4A exposure of H77/JFH1 and H77/JFH1∆HVR1 did not yield resistance...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jean Popovici, Lindsey Pierce-Friedrich, Saorin Kim, Sophalai Bin, Vorleak Run, Dysoley Lek, Hee Kim Hor Daryl, Lawrence Lee Soon-U, Matthew V Cannon, David Serre, Didier Menard
Background: Plasmodium vivax resistance to chloroquine has been reported worldwide, although the WHO clinical drug efficacy studies protocol does not allow to classify patient outcomes. Methods: We enrolled 40 vivax malaria patients in northeastern Cambodia, where >17% treatment failures were previously reported. Patients were treated with chloroquine (30mg/kg) and followed for two months, with frequent clinical examination and capillary blood sample collection for microscopy, molecular parasite detection and genotyping, and drug concentration measurements...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Romy Kerber, Ralf Krumkamp, Misa Korva, Toni Rieger, Stephanie Wurr, Sophie Duraffour, Lisa Oestereich, Martin Gabriel, Daouda Sissoko, Xavier Anglaret, Denis Malvy, Jürgen May, Tatjana Avšic Županc, César Muñoz-Fontela, Stephan Günther
Background: The pathophysiology of Ebola virus disease (EVD) is still poorly understood. This study aimed at identifying soluble biomarkers that inform on disease mechanisms. Methods: Fifty-four soluble mediators of the immune, coagulation, and endothelial system were measured in baseline and follow-up samples from hospitalized patients with EVD, using Luminex technology. Cross-sectional expression levels and changes over time were correlated with outcome. Results: Levels of circulating proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as markers of endothelial dysfunction and coagulopathy, were elevated on admission to hospital in patients who died from EVD as compared to survivors...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Xiao Bao, Aimee L Hanson, Margaret M Madeleine, Sophia S Wang, Stephen M Schwartz, Felicity Newell, Ulrika Pettersson-Kymmer, Kari Hemminki, Sven Tiews, Winfried Steinberg, Janet S Rader, Felipe Castro, Mahboobeh Safaeian, Eduardo L Franco, François Coutlée, Claes Ohlsson, Adrian Cortes, Mhairi Marshall, Pamela Mukhopadhyay, Katie Cremin, Lisa G Johnson, Suzanne M Garland, Sepehr N Tabrizi, Nicolas Wentzensen, Freddy Sitas, Cornelia Trimble, Julian Little, Maggie Cruickshank, Ian H Frazer, Allan Hildesheim, Matthew A Brown, Emma L Duncan, YingPu Sun, Paul J Leo
Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women, and we recently reported human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles showing strong associations with cervical neoplasia risk and protection. HLA ligands are recognised by killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) expressed on a range of immune cell subsets, governing their proinflammatory activity. We hypothesized that the inheritance of particular HLA-KIR combinations would increase cervical neoplasia risk. Methods: Here, we used HLA and KIR dosages imputed from SNP genotype data from 2,143 cervical neoplasia cases and 13,858 healthy controls of European decent...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Golnaz Namazi, Jesse M Fajnzylber, Evgenia Aga, Ron Bosch, Edward P Acosta, Radwa Sharaf, Wendy Hartogensis, Jeffrey M Jacobson, Elizabeth Connick, Paul Volberding, Daniel Skiest, David Margolis, Michael C Sneller, Susan J Little, Sara Gianella, Davey Smith, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Roy M Gulick, John W Mellors, Vikram Mehraj, Rajesh T Gandhi, Ronald Mitsuyasu, Robert T Schooley, Keith Henry, Pablo Tebas, Steve Deeks, Tae-Wook Chun, Ann C Collier, Jean-Pierre Routy, Frederick M Hecht, Bruce D Walker, Jonathan Z Li
Background: HIV post-treatment controllers are rare individuals who start antiretroviral therapy (ART), but maintain HIV suppression after treatment interruption. The frequency of post-treatment control and post-treatment interruption viral dynamics have not been well-characterized. Methods: Post-treatment controllers were identified from 14 studies and defined as individuals who underwent treatment interruption with viral loads ≤400 copies/mL at ≥2/3 of time points for ≥24 weeks...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Kerry J Lavender, Brandi N Williamson, Greg Saturday, Cynthia Martellaro, Amanda Griffin, Kim J Hasenkrug, Heinz Feldmann, Joseph Prescott
Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) outbreaks are highly lethal, and infection results in a hemorrhagic fever with complex etiology. These zoonotic viruses dysregulate the immune system to cause disease, in part by replicating within myeloid cells that would normally innately control viral infection and shape the adaptive immune response. We used triple knockout (TKO)-bone marrow, liver, thymus (BLT) humanized mice to recapitulate the early in vivo human immune response to filovirus infection. Disease severity in TKO-BLT mice was dissimilar between EBOV and MARV with greater severity observed during EBOV infection...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Robert F Garry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 4, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Sanghyuk S Shin, Chawangwa Modongo, Yeonsoo Baik, Christopher Allender, Darrin Lemmer, Rebecca E Colman, David M Engelthaler, Robin M Warren, Nicola M Zetola
Background: Heteroresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections (concomitant infection with drug-resistant and drug-susceptible Mtb) may explain the higher risk of poor tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcomes observed among patients with mixed-strain Mtb infections. We investigated the clinical effect of mixed infections while controlling for pre-treatment heteroresistance among a population-based sample of TB patients starting first-line TB therapy in Botswana. Methods: We performed 24-locus MIRU-VNTR and targeted deep sequencing on baseline primary cultured isolates to detect mixed infections and heteroresistance, respectively...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Gilles Darcis, Ben Berkhout
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
James R Johnson, Brian D Johnston, Stephen Porter, Paul Thuras, Maliha Aziz, Lance B Price
Background: The distinguishing characteristics of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains are incompletely defined. Methods: We characterized 292 diverse-source human E. coli isolates (116 fecal, 27 cystitis, 30 pyelonephritis, 93 blood) for phylogenetic group, sequence type complex (STc), and 49 putative ExPEC-associated virulence genes. We then assessed these traits and ecological source as predictors of illness severity in a murine sepsis model...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Stephanie N Seifert, Jonathan E Schulz, M Jeremiah Matson, Trenton Bushmaker, Andrea Marzi, Vincent J Munster
Sequencing viral genomes during an outbreak can facilitate response and containment efforts. In this study, we describe a reverse transcription long-range polymerase chain reaction for efficient amplification and sequencing of the Ebola virus (EBOV) genome in 2 seminested reactions. We demonstrate that our method remains robust with complex biological samples by amplifying and sequencing the EBOV genome from EBOV-infected nonhuman primates (NHPs). We further demonstrate that we are able to recover viral genomes from starting concentrations as low as 103 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50)/mL, suggesting that this method can be employed to sequence EBOV genomes from ecologically or clinically derived samples...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Hannah E Maier, Roger Lopez, Nery Sanchez, Sophia Ng, Lionel Gresh, Sergio Ojeda, Raquel Burger-Calderon, Guillermina Kuan, Eva Harris, Angel Balmaseda, Aubree Gordon
Epidemiologic studies indicate that obesity increases the risk of severe complications and death from influenza virus infections, especially in elderly individuals. This work investigates the effect of obesity on the duration of viral shedding within household transmission studies in Managua, Nicaragua, over 3 seasons (2015-2017). Symptomatic obese adults were shown to shed influenza A virus 42% longer than nonobese adults (adjusted event time ratio [ETR], 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.89); no association was observed with influenza B virus shedding duration...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Hayley Loy, Denise I T Kuok, Kenrie P Y Hui, Miranda H L Choi, W Yuen, John M Nicholls, J S Malik Peiris, Michael C W Chan
Background: Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses can cause severe forms of acute lung injury (ALI) in humans, where pulmonary flooding leads to respiratory failure. Therapeutic benefits of bone-marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) have been demonstrated in an influenza H5N1 ALI model. However, clinical translation is impractical and limited by declining efficacy with increase in donor age. Umbilical cord MSCs (UC-MSCs) are easier to obtain in comparison, and their primitive source may offer more potent therapeutic effects...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Satoru Watanabe, Nicole Wei Wen Tan, Kitti Wing Ki Chan, Subhash G Vasudevan
Pre-existing immunity to Zika virus (ZIKV) or dengue virus (DENV) may alter the course of their infection and here we use robust mouse models to examine pathological outcomes following passive immunization, sequential cross-infection or vaccination with inactivated virus. DENV infection was enhanced (ADE) or suppressed by both DENV and ZIKV immunity. Notably inactivated ZIKV vaccination enhanced dengue disease severity, although it was highly protective against ZIKV infection. On the other hand, ADE was not observed upon ZIKV infection in mice that were passively immunized or pre-infected with DENV...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ingeborg E A Wijting, Cynthia Lungu, Bart J A Rijnders, Marchina E van der Ende, Hanh T Pham, Thibault Mesplede, Suzan D Pas, Jolanda J C Voermans, Rob Schuurman, David A M C van de Vijver, Patrick H M Boers, Rob A Gruters, Charles A B Boucher, Jeroen J A van Kampen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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