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Journal of Infectious Diseases

Nicolas F Schlecht, Angela Diaz, Viswanathan Shankar, Arnold H Szporn, Maoxin Wu, Anne Nucci-Sack, Ken Peake, Howard D Strickler, Robert D Burk
BACKGROUND:  Uptake of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in the United States is slow, and the real-world effectiveness of the vaccine has not been assessed in high-risk adolescent populations. METHODS:  We conducted a longitudinal study of 1139 sexually-active, inner-city adolescent women receiving the 3-dose quadrivalent (4vHPV) vaccine. Cervical and anal specimens collected semi-annually were tested using a L1-PCR assay. Post-vaccination incidence of 4vHPV vaccine and non-vaccine HPV types, and risk of cervical cytological abnormalities, were assessed in relation to time-to-completion of all three vaccine doses...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
A Castellanos-Gonzalez, H Sparks, S Nava, W Huang, Z Zhang, K Rivas, M Hulverson, L Barrett, K K Ojo, E Fan, W C Van Voorhis, A C White
Cryptosporidium is recognized as one of the main causes of childhood diarrhea worldwide. However, the current treatment for cryptosporidiosis is suboptimal. Calcium flux is essential for entry in apicomplexan parasites. Calcium dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are distinct from protein kinases of mammals, and the CDPK1 of the apicomplexan Cryptosporidium lack side-chains that typically block a hydrophobic pocket in protein kinases. We exploited this to develop bumped kinase inhibitors (BKI) that selectively target CDPK1...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
William J Liu, Shuguang Tan, Min Zhao, Chuansong Quan, Yuhai Bi, Ying Wu, Shuijun Zhang, Haifeng Zhang, Haixia Xiao, Jianxun Qi, Jinghua Yan, Wenjun Liu, Hongjie Yu, Yuelong Shu, Guizhen Wu, George F Gao
BACKGROUND:  The emergence of infections by the novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus has posed a threat to human health. Cross-immunity between H7N9 and other heterosubtypic influenza viruses affected by antigenicity-dependent substitutions needs to be investigated. METHODS:  We investigated the cellular and humoral immune responses against H7N9 and the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses, by serological and T-cell-specific assays in a healthy population. The molecular bases of the cellular and humoral antigenic variability of H7N9 were illuminated by structural determination...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Eric A F Simões
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Terho Heikkinen, Emilia Ojala, Matti Waris
BACKGROUND:  Vaccines and antivirals against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are being developed, but there are scarce data on the full impact of RSV infection on outpatient children. METHODS:  We analyzed the burden of RSV in a prospective cohort study of children aged ≤13 years during 2 consecutive respiratory seasons in Turku, Finland (2231 child-seasons of follow-up). We examined the children and obtained nasal swabs for the detection of RSV during each respiratory illness...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ali N Russell, Xiaojing Zheng, Catherine M O'Connell, Harold C Wiesenfeld, Sharon L Hillier, Brandie D Taylor, Michelle Picard, Jessica Flechtner, Wujuan Zhong, Lauren C Frazer, Toni Darville
BACKGROUND:  Natural infection induces partial immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis Identification of chlamydial antigens that induce interferon-γ secretion by T cells of immune women could advance vaccine development. METHODS:  Interferon-γ production by CD4 and CD8 peripheral blood T cells from 58 high-risk women was measured after co-culture with antigen presenting cells preincubated with recombinant Escherichia coli expressing a panel of 275 chlamydial antigens...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Francesca Latronico, Waleed Nasser, Kai Puhakainen, Jukka Ollgren, Hanne-Leena Hyyryläinen, Stephen B Beres, Outi Lyytikäinen, Jari Jalava, James M Musser, Jaana Vuopio
BACKGROUND:  Many countries worldwide have reported increasing numbers of emm89 group A Streptococcus (GAS) cases during last decade. Pathogen genetic factors linked to this increase need assessment. METHODS:  We investigated epidemiological characteristics of emm89 bacteremic GAS cases, including 7-day and 30-day case fatality (CF), in Finland during 2004-2014 and linked them to whole-genome sequencing data obtained from corresponding strains. Fisher exact test and exact logistic regression were used to compare differences between emm89 bacteremic GAS cases belonging to different genetic clades and subclades...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Alina Lelic, Chris P Verschoor, Vivian W C Lau, Robin Parsons, Carole Evelegh, Dawn M Bowdish, Jonathan L Bramson, Mark B Loeb
BACKGROUND:  Little is known about the immunogenicity of live-attenuated Oka/Merck varicella zoster vaccine (VZV) vaccine in frail nursing homes residents nor about immune phenotypes associated with a response. METHODS:  A cohort of 190 frail nursing home residents between the ages of 80 and 102 years and a cohort of 50 community dwelling seniors, ages 60 to 75 years, a comparison group, were vaccinated with the VZV vaccine. IFN-γ ELISpot assay was measured prior to and six-weeks following vaccination...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Joseph C Mudd, Soumya Panigrahi, Benjamin Kyi, So Hee Moon, Maura M Manion, Souheil-Antoine Younes, Scott F Sieg, Nicholas T Funderburg, David A Zidar, Michael M Lederman, Michael L Freeman
Increases in inflammation, coagulation, and CD8 T cell numbers are associated with elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated HIV infection. Circulating memory CD8 T cells that express the vascular endothelium-homing receptor CX3CR1 (fractalkine receptor) are enriched in ART-treated HIV-infected subjects. Thrombin-activated receptor (PAR-1) expression is increased in ART-treated HIV-infected subjects and is particularly elevated on CX3CR1+ CD8 T cells, suggesting that these cells could interact with coagulation elements...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Mangalakumari Jeyanathan, Daniela Damjanovic, Yushi Yao, Jonathan Bramson, Fiona Smaill, Zhou Xing
BACKGROUND:  Whether a candidate TB vaccine induces clinically relevant protective T cell repertoires in humans is not known until the completion of costly efficacy clinical trials. METHODS:  We have developed an integrated immunologic approach to investigate the clinical relevance of a novel TB vaccine-induced T cells in a phase 1 trial. This approach consists of screening for likely dominant T cell epitopes, establishing Ag-specific memory T cell lines for identifying CD8 and CD4 T cell epitopes, determining the ability of vaccine-induced T cells to inhibit mycobacterial growth in infected cells, and examining the genetic diversity of HLA recognition and clinical relevance of identified T cell epitopes...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Xiaolu Xiong, Jun Jiao, Anthony E Gregory, Pengcheng Wang, Yujing Bi, Xiaoyi Wang, Yongqiang Jiang, Bohai Wen, Daniel A Portnoy, James E Samuel, Chen Chen
Coxiella burnetii is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes acute and chronic Q fever. Due to the severe adverse effect of whole cell vaccination, identification of immunodominant antigens of C. burnetii has become a major focus of Q fever vaccine development. We hypothesized that secreted C. burnetii Type IV secretion system (T4SS) effectors may represent a major class of CD8(+) T cell antigens due to their cytosolic localization. Twenty-nine peptides were identified that elicited robust CD8(+) T cell IFN-γ recall responses from mice infected with C...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Florence Fenollar, Didier Raoult
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Joshua C Pritchett, Jaime S Green, Angela M Thomm, Konstance K Knox, Michael R Verneris, Troy C Lund
Human herpesvirus-6B (HHV-6B) commonly reactivates after umbilical cord blood transplant (UCBT) and is associated with delayed engraftment, fever, rash, and CNS dysfunction. Recently CD134 (OX40) has been implicated as a potential viral entry receptor. We evaluated CD4(+)CD134(+)/(neg-lo) and CD8(+) CD134(+)/(neg-lo) cells at day +28 after UCBT in 20 subjects with previously documented HHV-6 reactivation and persistent viremia. Analysis of CD4(+)CD134(+) cells compared to CD4(+)CD134(neg-lo) cells showed 0...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Janet A Englund, Helen Y Chu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Joanne M Langley, Naresh Aggarwal, Azhar Toma, Scott A Halperin, Shelly A McNeil, Laurence Fissette, Walthere Dewé, Maarten Leyssen, Jean-François Toussaint, Ilse Dieussaert
BACKGROUND:  RSV is a leading cause of childhood bronchiolitis and pneumonia, particularly in early infancy. Immunization of pregnant women could boost pre-existing immune responses, providing passive protection to the newborn through placental transfer of anti-RSV antibody. METHODS:  In this first-in-humans clinical trial of a purified recombinant RSV protein F vaccine engineered to preferentially maintain pre-fusion conformation (RSV-PreF), 128 healthy men 18-44 years old were randomized to one dose of a RSV-PreF vaccine containing 10, 30 or 60 µg of RSV-PreF antigen with or without alum adjuvant, or control, and followed for one year for safety and immunogenicity outcomes...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Scott B Halstead
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Katherine W Kooij, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Thijs Booiman, Marc van der Valk, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff, Neeltje A Kootstra, Peter Reiss
Smoking may affect cardiovascular disease risk more strongly in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected individuals. We hypothesized that an interaction at the level of the immune system may contribute to this increased risk. We assessed soluble markers of inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP]), immune activation (soluble [s]CD14 and sCD163) and coagulation (D-dimer) in HIV-infected and uninfected never, former and current smokers. Smoking was independently associated with higher hsCRP levels and lower sCD163 levels, and at borderline significance with higher sCD14 and D-dimer levels; we found no evidence of a differential effect of smoking in HIV-infected compared to uninfected individuals...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
J Hengst, C S Falk, V Schlaphoff, K Deterding, M P Manns, M Cornberg, H Wedemeyer
BACKGROUND:  Persistent infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes profound alterations of the cytokine and chemokine milieu in peripheral blood. However, it is unknown to what extend these alterations affect the progression of liver disease and whether HCV clearance normalizes soluble inflammatory mediators. METHODS:  We performed multianalyte profiling of 50 plasma proteins of 28 patients with persistent HCV infection and advanced stages of liver fibrosis or cirrhosis and 20 controls with fatty liver disease...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Arvid Edén, Staffan Nilsson, Lars Hagberg, Dietmar Fuchs, Henrik Zetterberg, Bo Svennerholm, Magnus Gisslén
We examined longitudinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples (median 5, IQR 3-8) in 75 neuroasymptomatic HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy.Twenty-seven (36%) patients had ≥1 CSF-HIV-RNA >20 copies/ml (23% >50), in median 50 (IQR 32-77) copies/ml. In plasma 42 (52%) and 22 (29%) subjects had HIV-RNA >20 and >50 copies/ml. Two subjects had increased CSF-virus in consecutive samples representing possible CSF escape. Of 418 samples, 9% had HIV-RNA >20 (5% >50) copies/ml in CSF and 19% (8% >50) in plasma...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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