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Journal of Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471363/proteome-analysis-of-an-m-avium-mutant-exposes-a-novel-role-of-the-bifunctional-protein-lysx-in-regulation-of-metabolic-activity
#1
Greana Kirubakar, Jayaseelan Murugaiyan, Christoph Schaudinn, Flavia Dematheis, Gudrun Holland, Murat Eravci, Christoph Weise, Uwe Roesler, Astrid Lewin
Lysyl-phosphatidylglycerol (L-PG) is one of the components of the mycobacterial membrane which contributes to the resistance towards cationic antimicrobial peptides, a host-induced frontline defense against invading pathogens. Its production is catalyzed by LysX, a bifunctional protein with lysyl transferase and lysyl-tRNA synthetase activity. Comparative proteome analysis of a lysX mutant of M. avium strain104 and the wild type indicated that the lysX mutant strain undergoes a transition in phenotype by switching the carbon metabolism to β-oxidation of fatty acids along with accumulation of lipid inclusions...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471497/increased-nk-cell-function-after-cessation-of-long-term-nucleos-t-ide-analogue-treatment-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-associates-with-liver-damage-and-hbsag-loss
#2
Christine L Zimmer, Franziska Rinker, Christoph Höner Zu Siederdissen, Michael P Manns, Heiner Wedemeyer, Markus Cornberg, Niklas K Björkström
Background: Treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) efficiently suppress HBV DNA but rarely leads to functional cure of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Following NA cessation, a fraction of HBeAg-negative CHB-patients experience HBsAg loss. Cellular immune responses, including those by natural killer cells, innate lymphocytes known to respond in CHB, explaining the virological events transpiring following NA treatment cessation remain elusive. Methods: In a single-center prospective trial, 15 HBeAg-negative CHB-patients on long-term NA treatment underwent structured NA cessation and were studied longitudinally...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471356/characterization-of-p57-a-stage-specific-antigen-of-pneumocystis-murina
#3
Lisa R Bishop, A Sally Davis, Kaitlynn Bradshaw, Monica Gamez, Ousmane H Cisse, Honghui Wang, Liang Ma, Joseph A Kovacs
Pneumocystis has a large multi-copy gene family encoding proteins related to the major surface glycoprotein (Msg) whose functions are largely unknown. We expressed one such protein of P. murina, p57, that is encoded by 3 highly conserved genes, and demonstrated by immunoblot that immunocompetent mice immunized with crude Pneumocystis antigens or that had cleared Pneumocystis infection developed antibodies to p57. Using hyper-immune anti-p57 serum combined with immunolabeling, we found that small trophic forms as well as intracystic bodies expressed p57, while it was not expressed on larger trophic forms or externally by cysts...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471332/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infected-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-unable-to-express-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-propagate-tuberculosis-in-mice
#4
Stephen T Reece, Alexis Vogelzang, Julia Tornack, Wolfgang Bauer, Ulrike Zedler, Sandra Schommer-Leitner, Georg Stingl, Fritz Melchers, Stefan H E Kaufmann
Persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within human bone marrow stem cells has been identified as a potential bacterial niche during latent tuberculosis. Using a murine model of tuberculosis, we show here that bone marrow stem and progenitor cells containing M. tuberculosis propagated tuberculosis when transferred to naive mice, given that both transferred cells and recipient mice were unable to express inducible nitric oxide synthase, which mediates killing of intracellular bacteria via nitric oxide. Our findings suggest that bone marrow stem and progenitor cells containing M...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471349/intestinal-colonization-traits-of-pandemic-multidrug-resistant-escherichia-coli-st131
#5
Sohinee Sarkar, Melanie L Hutton, Dimitrios Vagenas, Rinaldo Ruter, Stephanie Schüller, Dena Lyras, Mark A Schembri, Makrina Totsika
Background: Epidemiological studies point to the gut as a key reservoir of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli multilocus sequence type 131 (ST131), a globally dominant pathogenic clone causing urinary tract and bloodstream infections. Here we report a detailed investigation of its intestinal lifestyle. Methods: Clinical ST131 isolates and type 1 fimbriae null mutants were assessed for colonization of human intestinal epithelia and in mouse intestinal colonization models...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462492/chronic-helminth-infection-perturbs-the-gut-brain-axis-promotes-neuropathology-and-alters-behaviour
#6
Paul R Giacomin, Ann Katrin Kraeuter, Eduardo A Albornoz, Shuting Jin, Mia Bengtsson, Richard Gordon, Trent M Woodruff, Tim Urich, Zoltán Sarnyai, Ricardo J Soares Magalhães
Helminth infections in children are associated with impaired cognitive development, however the biological mechanisms for this remain unclear. Using a murine model of gastrointestinal helminth infection, we demonstrate that early-life exposure to helminths promotes local and systemic inflammatory responses and transient changes in the gastrointestinal microbiome. Behavioural and cognitive analyses performed 9-months post-infection revealed deficits in spatial recognition memory and an anxiety-like behavioural phenotype in worm-infected mice, which was associated with neuropathology and increased microglial activation within the brain...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452387/oas1-2-and-3-significance-during-active-tb
#7
Gina Leisching, Ian Wiid, Bienyameen Baker
Evidence to-date collectively points to a detrimental role of the type I IFN response during tuberculosis. The mechanisms underpinning the IFNαβ-mediated exacerbation of the disease is unclear. The 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS), namely OAS1, OAS2 and OAS3 are part of the interferon-induced genes which until now have been synonymous with an anti-viral function. Blood transcriptome profiling has continuously observed their upregulation in a number of gene expression signatures which discriminate active TB from latent TB infection, however the role of the OASs and the effect that their expression has on the pathogenesis and persistence of TB is unknown...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452380/relative-vaccine-effectiveness-of-high-dose-versus-standard-dose-influenza-vaccines-among-veterans-health-administration-patients
#8
Yinong Young-Xu, Robertus Van Aalst, Salaheddin M Mahmud, Kenneth J Rothman, Julia Thornton Snider, Daniel Westreich, Vincent Mor, Stefan Gravenstein, Jason K H Lee, Edward W Thommes, Michael D Decker, Ayman Chit
Background: To examine whether a high-dose inactivated influenza vaccine was more efficacious in preventing hospitalizations than a standard-dose vaccine in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) senior population. Methods: This study estimated the relative vaccine effectiveness (rVE) of high-dose versus standard-dose using a retrospective cohort of VHA patients 65 years of age or older in the 2015-16 influenza season. To adjust for measured confounders, we matched each high-dose recipient with up to four standard-dose recipients vaccinated at the same location within a two-week period and having two or more pre-existing medical co-morbidities...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452379/reply-to-san-giorgi-and-dikkers
#9
Basil Donovan, Denton Callander, Margaret Stanley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452366/prevalence-and-incidence-of-anal-and-cervical-high-risk-human-papillomavirus-hpv-types-covered-by-current-hpv-vaccines-among-hiv-infected-women-in-the-study-to-understand-the-natural-history-of-hiv-aids-in-the-era-of-effective-therapy-the-sun-study
#10
Erna Milunka Kojic, Lois Conley, Tim Bush, Susan Cu-Uvin, Elizabeth R Unger, Keith Henry, John Hammer, Gerome Escota, Teresa M Darragh, Joel M Palefsky, John T Brooks, Pragna Patel
Background: Nonavalent (9v) human papilloma virus vaccine targets high-risk (HR)-HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58, and low-risk 6, 11. We examined prevalence, incidence, and clearance of anal and cervical HR-HPV in HIV-infected women. Methods: From 2004-2006, the SUN Study enrolled 167 women from four US cities. Anal and cervical specimens were collected annually for cytology and identification of 37 HPV types; 14 HR include: 9v 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58; non-9v 35, 39, 51, 56, 59, 66, 68...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444257/comparison-of-strategies-and-incidence-thresholds-for-vi-conjugate-vaccines-against-typhoid-fever-a-cost-effectiveness-modeling-study
#11
Nathan C Lo, Ribhav Gupta, Jeffrey D Stanaway, Denise O Garrett, Isaac I Bogoch, Stephen P Luby, Jason R Andrews
Background: Typhoid fever remains a major public health problem globally. While new Vi conjugate vaccines hold promise for averting disease, the optimal programmatic delivery remains unclear. We aimed to identify the strategies and associated epidemiologic conditions under which Vi conjugate vaccines would be cost-effective. Methods: We developed a dynamic, age-structured transmission and cost-effectiveness model that simulated multiple vaccination strategies with a typhoid Vi conjugate vaccine from a societal perspective...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438519/convergent-evolution-of-human-isolated-h7n9-avian-influenza-a-viruses
#12
Dan Xiang, Xuejuan Shen, Zhiqing Pu, David M Irwin, Ming Liao, Yongyi Shen
Background: Avian influenza A virus (AIV) H7N9 has caused five epidemic waves of human infections in China since 2013. AIVs may face strong selection to adapt to novel conditions when establishing themselves in humans. In this study, we sought to determine whether adaptive evolution had occurred in human-isolated H7N9 viruses. Methods: We evaluated all available genomes of H7N9 AIVs. Maximum likelihood trees were separately reconstructed for all eight genes. Signals of positive selection and convergent evolution were then detected on branches that lead to changes in host tropism (from avian to human)...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438525/immunization-of-malaria-pre-exposed-volunteers-with-pfspz-vaccine-elicits-long-lived-igm-invasion-inhibitory-and-complement-fixing-antibodies
#13
Isabelle Zenklusen, Said Jongo, Salim Abdulla, Kamaka Ramadhani, B Kim Lee Sim, Hayley Cardamone, Erika L Flannery, Thao Nguyen, Matthew Fishbaugher, Ryan W J Steel, Will Betz, Nelly Carmago, Sebastian Mikolajczak, Stefan H I Kappe, Stephen L Hoffman, Brandon K Sack, Claudia Daubenberger
The assessment of antibody responses after immunization with radiation attenuated, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoites (SPZ) (Sanaria® PfSPZ Vaccine) has focused on IgG isotype antibodies. Here, we aimed to investigate if Pf sporozoite binding and invasion inhibitory IgM antibodies are induced following immunization of malaria pre-exposed volunteers with PfSPZ Vaccine. We found that in addition to anti-PfCSP IgG, Malaria pre-exposed volunteers developed anti-PfCSP IgM antibodies after immunization with PfSPZ Vaccine and that these IgM antibodies inhibited Pf sporozoite-invasion of hepatocytes in vitro...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438524/elevated-cyclic-amp-inhibits-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-stimulated-t-cell-ifn-%C3%AE-secretion-through-type-i-protein-kinase-a
#14
Yoon-Tae Chung, Virginia Pasquinelli, Javier O Jurado, Xisheng Wang, Na Yi, Peter F Barnes, Veronica E Garcia, Buka Samten
cAMP is critical in immune regulation, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) intoxicates macrophages through cAMP secretion. To examine the role of cAMP in the immune response to Mtb infection, we determined cAMP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from tuberculosis patients and the mechanisms for cAMP suppression of T cell IFN-γ production. PBMC from tuberculosis patients contained significantly higher cAMP levels than latent tuberculosis infected subjects (LTBI), with an inverse correlation with Mtb-stimulated IFN-γ production...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432596/high-turnover-of-tissue-macrophages-contributes-to-tuberculosis-reactivation-in-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-rhesus-macaques
#15
Marcelo J Kuroda, Chie Sugimoto, Yanhui Cai, Kristen M Merino, Smriti Mehra, Mariluz Araínga, Chad J Roy, Cecily C Midkiff, Xavier Alvarez, Elizabeth S Didier, Deepak Kaushal
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) profoundly affect the immune system and synergistically accelerate disease progression. It is believed that CD4+ T-cell depletion by HIV is the major cause of immunodeficiency and reactivation of latent TB. Previous studies demonstrated that blood monocyte turnover concurrent with tissue macrophage death from virus infection better predicted AIDS onset than CD4+ T-cell depletion in macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432590/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-and-hiv-coinfection-brings-fire-and-fury-to-macrophages
#16
Nargis Khan, Maziar Divangahi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425358/very-low-prevalence-of-vaccine-human-papillomavirus-hpv-types-among-18-to-35-year-old-australian-women-nine-years-following-implementation-of-vaccination
#17
Dorothy A Machalek, Suzanne M Garland, Julia M L Brotherton, Deborah Bateson, Kathleen McNamee, Mary Stewart, S Rachel Skinner, Bette Liu, Alyssa M Cornall, John M Kaldor, Sepehr N Tabrizi
Introduction: A quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination program targeting females aged 12-13 commenced in Australia in 2007, with catch-up vaccination of 14-26 year olds through 2009. We evaluated the program's impact on HPV prevalence among women aged 18-35 in 2015. Methods: HPV prevalence among women aged 18-24 and 25-35 was compared with prevalence among women in these age groups in 2005-2007. For women aged 18-24, we also compared prevalence with that in a post-vaccine study conducted in 2010-2012...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425322/hepatitis-delta-enters-a-new-therapeutic-era
#18
Vincent Soriano, Antonio Aguilera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425317/human-cervical-mucus-plugs-exhibit-insufficiencies-in-antimicrobial-activity-towards-group-b-streptococcus
#19
Jay Vornhagen, Phoenicia Quach, Verónica Santana-Ufret, Varchita Alishetti, Alyssa Brokaw, Blair Armistead, Hai Qing Tang, James W MacDonald, Theodor K Bammler, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Niels Uldbjerg, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and lacks an effective therapy. Ascending microbial infections from the lower genital tract lead to infection of the placenta, amniotic fluid and fetus causing preterm birth or stillbirth. Directly in the path of an ascending infection is the cervical mucus plug (CMP), a dense mucoid structure in the cervical canal with potential antimicrobial properties. In this study, we aimed to define the components of CMP responsible for antimicrobial activity against a common lower genital tract organism associated with preterm birth and stillbirths, namely Group B Streptococcus (GBS)...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425306/interferon-treatment-duration-in-patients-with-chronic-delta-hepatitis-and-its-effect-on-the-natural-course-of-the-disease
#20
Cihan Yurdaydin, Onur Keskin, Çagdas Kalkan, Fatih Karakaya, Aysun Çaliskan, Gökhan Kabaçam, F Oguz Önder, Senem Karatayli, Ersin Karatayli, Xheni Deda, Hakan Bozkaya, A Mithat Bozdayi, Ramazan Idilman
Background: Interferon is the only treatment option in chronic delta hepatitis (CDH). A CDH database (333 patients, 161 with interferon treatment history) was analyzed for effects of treatment duration on virologic response and clinical outcomes. Methods: Ninety-nine CDH patients who received at least 6 months of interferon were selected. Maintained virologic response (MVR) was defined as hepatitis D virus RNA negative for 2 years after treatment discontinuation...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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