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Journal of Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549147/prevalence-and-concordance-of-cutaneous-beta-human-papillomavirus-infection-at-mucosal-and-cutaneous-sites
#1
Shalaka S Hampras, Dana E Rollison, Anna R Giuliano, Sandrine McKay-Chopin, Lucia Minoni, Karen Sereday, Tarik Gheit, Massimo Tommasino
Background: Cutaneous beta human papillomavirus (HPV) infection across cutaneous and mucosal tissues within individuals has not been examined. Methods: A sub-cohort of men (n=87) participating in the 'HPV infection in men' (HIM) study provided eyebrow hairs, forearm skin swabs, genital skin swabs, oral rinse samples and anal swabs. Beta HPV DNA in the five tissues was detected using a multiplex assay and site-specific beta HPV prevalence was examined. Results: Any beta HPV was most prevalent in genital skin (81...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549145/six-month-safety-data-of-recombinant-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-zaire-ebola-virus-envelope-glycoprotein-vaccine-in-a-phase-3-double-blind-placebo-controlled-randomized-study-in-healthy-adults
#2
Scott A Halperin, Jose R Arribas, Richard Rupp, Charles P Andrews, Laurence Chu, Rituparna Das, Jakub K Simon, Matthew T Onorato, Kenneth Liu, Jason Martin, Frans A Helmond
Background.: This study (NCT02503202) evaluated the safety of recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-Zaire Ebola virus envelope glycoprotein vaccine (rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP). Methods.: Overall, 1197 subjects were randomized 2:2:2:2:1; 1194 were vaccinated with 1 dose of 1 of 3 lots of rVSVΔG- ZEBOV-GP (2 × 107 plaque-forming units [pfu], n = 797; combined-lots group), a single high-dose lot of rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP (1 × 108 pfu, n = 264; high-dose group), or placebo (n = 133)...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541483/malaria-host-candidate-genes-validated-by-association-with-current-recent-and-historic-measures-of-transmission-intensity
#3
Nuno Sepúlveda, Alphaxard Manjurano, Susana G Campino, Martha Lemnge, John Lusingu, Raimos Olomi, Kirk A Rockett, Christina Hubbart, Anna Jeffreys, Kate Rowlands, Taane G Clark, Eleanor M Riley, Chris J Drakeley
Background: Human malaria susceptibility is determined by multiple genetic factors. It is however unclear which genetic variants remain important over time. Methods: Genetic associations of 175 high quality polymorphisms within several malaria candidate genes were examined in a sample of 8,096 individuals from northeast Tanzania using altitude, seroconversion rates and parasite rates as proxies of historical, recent and current malaria transmission intensity. A principal component (PC) analysis was used to derive two alternative measures of overall malaria propensity of a location across different time scales...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541516/providing-structure-to-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-vaccine-development
#4
James M Fleckenstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 24, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541500/prophylactic-efficacy-of-hyperimmune-bovine-colostral-antiadhesin-antibodies-against-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-diarrhea-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-1-trial
#5
Stephen J Savarino, Robin McKenzie, David R Tribble, Chad K Porter, Aisling O'Dowd, Joyce A Cantrell, Stephanie A Sincock, Steven T Poole, Barbara DeNearing, Colleen M Woods, Hye Kim, Shannon L Grahek, Carl Brinkley, Joseph H Crabb, A Louis Bourgeois
Background.: Tip-localized adhesive proteins of bacterial fimbriae from diverse pathogens confer protection in animal models, but efficacy in humans has not been reported. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) commonly elaborate colonization factors comprising a minor tip adhesin and major stalk-forming subunit. We assessed the efficacy of antiadhesin bovine colostral IgG (bIgG) antibodies against ETEC challenge in volunteers. Methods.: Adults were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to take oral hyperimmune bIgG raised against CFA/I minor pilin subunit (CfaE) tip adhesin or colonization factor I (CFA/I) fimbraie (positive control) or placebo...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541457/bumped-kinase-inhibitor-gastrointestinal-exposure-is-necessary-to-treat-cryptosporidium-infection
#6
Samuel L M Arnold, Ryan Choi, Matthew A Hulverson, Deborah A Schaefer, Sumiti Vinayak, Rama S R Vidadala, Molly C McCloskey, Grant R Whitman, Wenlin Huang, Lynn K Barrett, Kayode K Ojo, Erkang Fan, Dustin J Maly, Michael W Riggs, Boris Striepen, Wesley C Van Voorhis
There is a substantial need for novel therapeutics to combat the widespread impact caused by Crytosporidium infection. However, there is a lack of knowledge on which drug pharmacokinetic characteristics are key to generate an in vivo response specifically if systemic drug exposure is crucial for in vivo efficacy. To identify which pharmacokinetic properties are correlated with in vivo efficacy, we generated physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to simulate systemic and gastrointestinal (GI) drug concentrations for a series of bumped kinase inhibitors (BKI) that have nearly identical in vitro potency against Cryptosporidium but display divergent pharmacokinetic properties...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535276/live-attenuated-pertussis-vaccine-bpze1-protects-baboons-against-b-pertussis-disease-and-infection
#7
Camille Locht, James F Papin, Sophie Lecher, Anne-Sophie Debrie, Marcel Thalen, Ken Solovay, Keith Rubin, Nathalie Mielcarek
Evidence suggests that the resurgence of pertussis in many industrialized countries may result from the failure of current vaccines to prevent nasopharyngeal colonization by Bordetella pertussis, the principal causative agent of whooping cough. Here, we used a baboon model to test the protective potential of the novel, live attenuated pertussis vaccine candidate BPZE1. A single intranasal/intratracheal inoculation of juvenile baboons with BPZE1 resulted in transient nasopharyngeal colonization and induction of IgG and IgA to all antigens tested, while causing no adverse symptoms or leukocytosis...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535267/the-plasma-and-mucosal-igm-iga-and-igg-responses-to-the-vibrio-cholerae-o1-protein-immunome-in-adults-with-cholera-in-bangladesh
#8
Richelle C Charles, Rie Nakajima, Li Liang, Al Jasinskas, Amanda Berger, Daniel T Leung, Meagan Kelly, Peng Xu, Pavol Kovác, Samantha R Giffen, James D Harbison, Fahima Chowdhury, Ashraful I Khan, Stephen B Calderwood, Taufiqur Rahman Bhuiyan, Jason B Harris, Philip L Felgner, Firdausi Qadri, Edward T Ryan
Background.: Cholera is a severe dehydrating illness of humans caused by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae O1 or O139. Identification of immunogenic V. cholerae antigens could lead to a better understanding of protective immunity in human cholera. Methods.: We probed microarrays containing 3652 V. cholerae antigens with plasma and antibody-in-lymphocyte supernatant (ALS, a surrogate marker of mucosal immune responses) from patients with severe cholera caused by V...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531322/evaluation-of-ifitm3-rs12252-association-with-severe-pediatric-influenza-infection
#9
Adrienne G Randolph, Wai-Ki Yip, E Kaitlyn Allen, Carrie M Rosenberger, Anna A Agan, Stephanie A Ash, Yu Zhang, Tushar R Bhangale, David Finkelstein, Natalie Cvijanovich, Peter M Mourani, Mark Hall, Helen C Su, Paul G Thomas
Background: Interferon inducible transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) restricts endocytic fusion of influenza virus. IFITM3 rs12252_C, a putative alternate splice site, has been associated with influenza severity in adults. IFITM3 has not been evaluated in pediatric influenza. Methods: The PICFLU Study enrolled children with suspected influenza infection across 38 pediatric intensive care units November 2008 to April 2016. IFITM3 was sequenced in patients and parents were genotyped for specific variants for family-based association testing...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531291/a-novel-virus-vectored-respiratory-mucosal-vaccine-enhances-anti-tuberculosis-immunity-in-a-humanized-model-system
#10
Yushi Yao, Rocky Lai, Sam Afkhami, Siamak Haddadi, Anna Zganiacz, Fatemeh Vahedi, Ali A Ashkar, Charu Kaushic, Mangalakumari Jeyanathan, Zhou Xing
Background: The translation of pre-clinically promising novel tuberculosis (TB) vaccines to ultimate human applications has met with the challenge of lacking markedly improved animal models for vaccine testing with an immune system of human equivalent in its genetic diversity and level of susceptibility to TB. Methods: We have developed a humanized mice (Hu-mice) TB model system to investigate the clinical relevance of a novel virus-vectored (VV) TB vaccine administered via respiratory mucosal (RM) or parenteral route...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525596/antiretroviral-therapy-containing-hiv-protease-inhibitors-enhances-fracture-risk-by-impairing-osteoblast-differentiation-and-bone-quality
#11
Hiroyuki Hirakawa, Hiroyuki Gatanaga, Hiroki Ochi, Toru Fukuda, Satoko Sunamura, Shinichi Oka, Shu Takeda, Shingo Sato
Long-term ART is associated with increased fracture risk, but the mechanism remains elusive. We measured serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin and pentosidine (markers of poor bone quality) in HIV-infected patients treated with protease inhibitors (PIs) or an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI)-containing regimens. The results demonstrated significantly higher undercarboxylated osteocalcin and pentosidine in PIs-treated patients. Switching to INSTI resulted in significant decrease in these markers. We also showed impaired bone mechanical properties with higher undercarboxylated osteocalcin level in PIs-treated mice and inhibited osteoblast differentiation in PIs-treated osteogenic cells...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520958/the-development-use-and-impact-of-a-global-laboratory-database-during-the-2014-ebola-outbreak-in-west-africa
#12
Kara N Durski, Shalini Singaravelu, Junxiong Teo, Dhamari Naidoo, Luke Bawo, Amara Jambai, Sakoba Keita, Ali Ahmed Yahaya, Beatrice Muraguri, Brice Ahounou, Victoria Katawera, Fredson Kuti-George, Yacouba Nebie, T Henry Kohar, Patrick Jowlehpah Hardy, Mamoudou Harouna Djingarey, David Kargbo, Nuha Mahmoud, Yewondwossen Assefa, Orla Condell, Magassouba N'Faly, Leon Van Gurp, Margaret Lamanu, Julia Ryan, Boubacar Diallo, Foday Daffae, Dikena Jackson, Fayyaz Ahmed Malik, Philomena Raftery, Pierre Formenty
Background: The international impact, rapid widespread transmission, and reporting delays during the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa highlighted the need for a global, centralized database to inform outbreak response. The World Health Organization and Emerging and Dangerous Pathogens Laboratory Network addressed this need by supporting the development of a global laboratory database. Methods: Specimens were collected in the affected countries from patients and dead bodies meeting the case definitions for EVD...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520948/relationship-between-body-mass-index-and-outcomes-among-hospitalized-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#13
Anna M Bramley, Carrie Reed, Lyn Finelli, Wesley H Self, Krow Ampofo, Sandra R Arnold, Derek J Williams, Carlos G Grijalva, Evan J Anderson, Chris Stockmann, Christopher Trabue, Sherene Fakhran, Robert Balk, Jonathan A McCullers, Andrew T Pavia, Kathryn M Edwards, Richard G Wunderink, Seema Jain
Background: The effect of body mass index (BMI) on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) severity is unclear. Methods: We investigated the relationship between BMI and CAP outcomes [hospital length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and invasive mechanical ventilation] in hospitalized CAP patients from the CDC Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) study, adjusting for age, demographics, underlying conditions, and smoking status (adults only)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520912/lower-levels-of-cervicovaginal-tryptophan-are-associated-with-natural-clearance-of-chlamydia-in-women
#14
Stephen J Jordan, Kristin M Olson, Stephen Barnes, Landon S Wilson, Taylor F Berryhill, Rakesh Bakshi, LaDraka' T Brown, Christen G Press, William M Geisler
Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection causes significant morbidity. In vitro studies demonstrate Ct growth inhibition occurs by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-mediated depletion of intracellular tryptophan, and some Ct strains utilize extracellular indole to restore tryptophan levels. Whether tryptophan levels are associated with Ct infection in clearance humans remains unknown. We evaluated tryptophan, indole, and IFN-γ levels in cervicovaginal lavages from women with either naturally cleared Ct infection or persisting Ct infection...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520899/increased-urinary-trimethylamine-n-oxide-tmao-following-cryptosporidium-infection-and-protein-malnutrition-independent-of-microbiome-effects
#15
D T Bolick, J Mayneris-Perxachs, G L Medlock, G L Kolling, J Papin, J R Swann, R L Guerrant
Cryptosporidium infections have been associated with growth stunting even in the absence of diarrhea. Having previously detailed the effects of protein deficiency on both microbiome and metabolome in this model, we now describe the specific gut microbial and biochemical effects of Cryptosporidium infection. Protein deficient mice were infected with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts for 6-13 days and compared to uninfected controls. Following infection there was an increase in the urinary excretion of choline- and amino acid-derived metabolites...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510725/ifitm3-tlr3-and-cd55-genes-snps-and-cumulative-ge-netic-risks-for-severe-outcomes-in-chinese-patients-with-h7n9-h1n1pdm09-influenza
#16
Nelson Lee, Bin Cao, Changwen Ke, Hongzhou Lu, Yunwen Hu, Ht Claudia Tam, Cw Ronald Ma, Dawei Guan, Zhaoqin Zhu, Hui Li, Lin Mulei, Rity Yk Wong, Irene Mh Yung, Tin-Nok Hung, Kirsty Kwok, Peter Horby, Sc David Hui, Cw Martin Chan, Ks Paul Chan
Background: We examined associations between SNPs (single-nucleotide-polymorphisms) of IFITM3, TLR3, and CD55 genes and influenza clinical outcomes in Chinese patients. Methods: A multicenter-study was conducted on 275 adult cases of prospectively-diagnosed H7N9 and H1N1pdm09 infections. Host DNA was extracted from diagnostic respiratory samples; IFITM3 rs12252, TLR3 rs5743313, CD55 rs2564978, and TLR4 rs4986790/4986791 were targeted for genotyping by Sanger-sequencing...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510701/sputum-microscopy-and-tuberculosis-infectiousness
#17
R M Anthony
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510693/sputum-microscopy-with-fluorescein-diacetate-predicts-tuberculosis-infectiousness
#18
Sumona Datta, Jonathan M Sherman, Marco A Tovar, Marjory A Bravard, Teresa Valencia, Rosario Montoya, Willi Quino, Nikki D'Arcy, Eric S Ramos, Robert H Gilman, Carlton A Evans
Background.: Sputum from patients with tuberculosis contains subpopulations of metabolically active and inactive Mycobacterium tuberculosis with unknown implications for infectiousness. Methods.: We assessed sputum microscopy with fluorescein diacetate (FDA, evaluating M. tuberculosis metabolic activity) for predicting infectiousness. M. tuberculosis was quantified in pre-treatment sputum of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis using FDA microscopy, culture and acid-fast microscopy...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505338/concordance-between-anal-and-oral-human-papillomavirus-hpv-infections-among-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#19
Martin Steinau, Pamina Gorbach, Beau Gratzer, Jim Braxton, Peter R Kerndt, Richard A Crosby, Elizabeth R Unger, Lauri E Markowitz, Elissa Meites
Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections was assessed among 1033 young men who have sex with men (MSM) aged 18-26 years. HPV (any type) was detected in 742 (71.8%) anal specimens and 101 (9.8%) oral specimens. Although HPV was detected in specimens from both anatomical sites in 83 (8.0%) participants, type-specific concordance for at least one HPV type was found in only 35 (3.4%) participants. HIV and smoking were associated with higher prevalence at both sites and frequency of concordant types. Coinfections of identical HPV types were rare, suggesting independent infection events and/or different modes of clearance...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498998/mechanism-of-human-influenza-virus-rna-persistence-and-virion-survival-in-feces-mucus-protects-virions-from-acid-and-digestive-juices
#20
Ryohei Hirose, Takaaki Nakaya, Yuji Naito, Tomo Daidoji, Yohei Watanabe, Hiroaki Yasuda, Hideyuki Konishi, Yoshito Itoh
Although viral RNA or infectious virions have been detected in the feces of individuals infected with human influenza A/B virus (IAV/IBV), the mechanism of viral survival in the gastrointestinal tract remains unclear. We developed a model that attempts to recapitulate the conditions encountered by a swallowed virus. While IAV/IBV is vulnerable to simulated digestive juices (gastric acid and bile/pancreatic juice), highly viscous mucus protects viral RNA and virions, allowing the virus to retain its infectivity...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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