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Journal of Infectious Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077729/vaccination-to-reduce-reactivation-of-herpes-simplex-virus-2
#1
EDITORIAL
Jeffrey I Cohen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077730/effect-of-an-early-dose-of-measles-vaccine-on-morbidity-between-18-weeks-and-9-months-of-age-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-guinea-bissau
#2
Vu An Do, Sofie Biering-Sørensen, Ane Bærent Fisker, Carlito Balé, Stine Møller Rasmussen, Lone Damkjær Christensen, Kristoffer Jarlov Jensen, Cesário Martins, Peter Aaby, Christine Stabell Benn
BACKGROUND:  Children in Guinea-Bissau receive measles vaccine (MV) at 9 months of age, but studies have shown that an additional dose before 9 months of age might have beneficial nonspecific effects. Within a randomized trial designed to examine nonspecific effects of early MV receipt on mortality, we conducted a substudy to investigate the effect of early MV receipt on morbidity. METHODS:  Children were randomly assigned at a ratio of 2:1 to receive 2 doses of MV at 18 weeks and age 9 months (intervention group) or 1 dose of MV at age 9 months, in accordance with current practice (control group)...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073859/experimental-therapies-for-ebola-virus-disease-what-have-we-learned
#3
EDITORIAL
Frederick G Hayden, Martin Friede, Daniel G Bausch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073858/boosting-immune-responses-following-fractional-dose-inactivated-poliovirus-vaccine-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Sonia Resik, Alina Tejeda, Manuel Diaz, Hiromasa Okayasu, Carolyn Sein, Natalie A Molodecky, Magile Fonseca, Nilda Alemany, Gloria Garcia, Lai Heng Hung, Yenisleydis Martinez, Roland W Sutter
BACKGROUND:  Fractional-dose administration of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (fIPV) could increase IPV affordability and stretch limited supplies. We assessed immune responses following fIPV administered intradermally, compared with full-dose IPV administered intramuscularly, among adults with a history of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) receipt. METHODS:  We conducted a randomized, controlled noninferiority trial in Cuba. fIPV or IPV were administered on days 0 and 28; serum was collected on days 0, 7, 28, and 56 for analysis by a neutralization assay...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073857/first-newborn-baby-to-receive-experimental-therapies-survives-ebola-virus-disease
#5
Jenny Dörnemann, Chiara Burzio, Axelle Ronsse, Armand Sprecher, Hilde De Clerck, Michel Van Herp, Marie-Claire Kolié, Vesselina Yosifiva, Severine Caluwaerts, Anita K McElroy, Annick Antierens
A neonate born to an Ebola virus-positive woman was diagnosed with Ebola virus infection on her first day of life. The patient was treated with monoclonal antibodies (ZMapp), a buffy coat transfusion from an Ebola survivor, and the broad-spectrum antiviral GS-5734. On day 20, a venous blood specimen tested negative for Ebola virus by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The patient was discharged in good health on day 33 of life. Further follow-up consultations showed age-appropriate weight gain and neurodevelopment at the age of 12 months...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039355/dengue-virus-denv-specific-antibodies-enhance-brazilian-zika-virus-zikv-infection
#6
Priscila Ms Castanha, Eduardo J M Nascimento, Braga Cynthia, Marli T Cordeiro, Otávio V de Carvalho, Leila R de Mendonça, Elisa An Azevedo, Rafael Fo França, Dhalia Rafael, Ernesto Ta Marques
Anti-Flavivirus antibodies are highly cross-reactive and may facilitate Zika virus (ZIKV) infection through the antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) mechanism. We demonstrate that dengue-specific antibodies enhance the infection of a primary Brazilian ZIKV isolate in FcγRII-expressing K562 cell line. In addition, we demonstrate that serum samples from dengue-immune pregnant women enhanced ZIKV infection. These findings highlight the need of epidemiological studies and animal models to further confirm the role of ADE in the development of congenital and neurological complications associated with Zika virus infections...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039354/changing-antimalarial-drug-resistance-patterns-identified-by-surveillance-at-three-sites-in-uganda
#7
Patrick Tumwebaze, Stephen Tukwasibwe, Aimee Taylor, Melissa Conrad, Emmanuel Ruhamyankaka, Victor Asua, Andrew Walakira, Joaniter Nankabirwa, Adoke Yeka, Sarah G Staedke, Bryan Greenhouse, Samuel L Nsobya, Moses R Kamya, Grant Dorsey, Philip J Rosenthal
We assessed Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance markers in parasites collected in 2012, 2013, and 2015 at 3 sites in Uganda. The prevalence and frequency of parasites with mutations in putative transporters previously associated with resistance to aminoquinolines, but increased sensitivity to lumefantrine (pfcrt 76T; pfmdr1 86Y and 1246Y), decreased markedly at all sites. Antifolate resistance mutations were common, with apparent emergence of mutations (pfdhfr 164L; pfdhps 581G) associated with high level resistance...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035011/invariant-nkt-cells-are-pathogenic-in-the-hla-dr4-transgenic-humanized-mouse-model-of-toxic-shock-syndrome-and-can-be-targeted-to-reduce-morbidity
#8
Peter A Szabo, Patrick T Rudak, Joshua Choi, Stacey X Xu, Robert Schaub, Bhagirath Singh, John K McCormick, S M Mansour Haeryfar
During toxic shock syndrome (TSS), bacterial superantigens trigger a polyclonal T cell response leading to a potentially catastrophic 'cytokine storm'. Whether innate-like invariant natural killer T(iNKT) cells, with remarkable immunomodulatory properties, participate in TSS is unclear. Using genetic and cell depletion approaches, we generated iNKT cell-deficient, superantigen-sensitive HLA-DR4-transgenic (DR4tg) mice, which were compared with their iNKT-sufficient counterparts for responsiveness to staphylococcal enterotoxin B(SEB)...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035010/pneumococcal-protein-antigen-serology-varies-with-age-and-may-predict-antigenic-profile-of-colonizing-isolates
#9
T Azarian, L R Grant, M Georgieva, L L Hammitt, R Reid, S D Bentley, D Goldblatt, M Santosham, R Weatherholtz, P Burbidge, N Goklish, C M Thompson, W P Hanage, K L O'Brien, M Lipsitch
BACKGROUND: Several Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins play a role in pathogenesis and are being investigated as vaccine targets. It is largely unknown whether naturallyacquired antibodies reduce the risk of colonization with strains expressing a particular antigenic variant. METHODS: Serum IgG titers to 28 pneumococcal protein antigens were measured among 242 individuals, aged < 6 months - 78 years in Native American communities between 2007-2009. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected at least 30 days after serum collection, and the protein antigen variant in each pneumococcal isolate was determined using genomic data...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031259/contact-travel-and-transmission-the-impact-of-winter-holidays-on-influenza-dynamics-in-the-united-states
#10
Anne Ewing, Elizabeth C Lee, Cécile Viboud, Shweta Bansal
BACKGROUND: The seasonality of influenza is thought to vary according to environmental factors and human behavior. During winter holidays, potential disease-causing contact and travel deviate from typical patterns, and we aim to understand these changes on age-specific and spatial flu transmission. METHODS: We characterized the changes to transmission and epidemic trajectories among children and adults in a spatial context before, during, and after the winter holidays among aggregated physician medical claims in the United States from 2001 to 2009 and among synthetic data simulated from a deterministic, age-specific spatial metapopulation model...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031258/christmas-new-year-influenza-lull-not-too-late-for-vaccination
#11
EDITORIAL
James L Hadler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013248/kynurenine-pathway-activation-in-human-african-trypanosomiasis
#12
Jeremy M Sternberg, Caroline M Forrest, R Neil Dalton, Charles Turner, Jean Rodgers, Trevor W Stone, Peter Ge Kennedy
BACKGROUND: The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan oxidation is associated with CNS inflammatory pathways. Inhibition of this pathway ameliorates CNS inflammation in rodent models of the late (meningoencephalitic) stage of Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). In this study we evaluate whether the kynurenine pathway is activated in clinical HAT and if it is associated with CNS inflammatory responses. METHODS: We measured cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tryptophan and kynurenine metabolite concentrations in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense patients using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
December 24, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013247/evidence-for-hepatitis-a-virus-endemic-circulation-in-israel-despite-universal-toddlers-vaccination-since-1999-and-low-clinical-incidence-in-all-age-groups
#13
Yosef Manor, Matthew Lewis, Daniela Ram, Nili Daudi, Orna Mor, Michal Savion, Zipi Kra-Oz, Yonat Shemer Avni, Rivka Sheffer, Daniel Shouval, Ella Mendelson
BACKGROUND: Universal toddlers vaccination (UTV) introduced in 1999, reduced hepatitis A incidence in Israel from 50.4 to <1.0/100,000. The current Hepatitis A virus (HAV) molecular epidemiology in Israel was studied 13-14y post UTV introduction.. METHODS: An outbreak in Tel-Aviv with 75 cases in 2012-2013 was investigated. Real-time RT-PCR and sequencing of the VP1-2A region (1100bp) was done on: a. serum samples from patients with acute Hepatitis A (12/ 75 in Tel-Aviv and 31 patients hospitalized in 3 other major cities in 2011-2013); b...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011922/detection-of-ebola-virus-rna-through-aerosol-sampling-of-animal-biosafety-level-4-rooms-housing-challenged-nonhuman-primates
#14
David E Harbourt, Sara C Johnston, James Pettitt, Travis K Warren, William R Dorman
Ebola Virus Disease is a serious illness of humans and nonhuman primates (NHPs). Direct contact has been shown to be the primary source of Ebola (EBOV) transmission. We utilized a high volume air sampler to determine if EBOV could be detected during three independent studies with EBOV challenged NHPs. Viral RNA was recovered during days 9 and 10 of Study I and days 7 and 8 of Study III. Viral RNA levels were below LOD during all other collections. The results demonstrate that the BSL-4 suit protects workers from aerosols in a BSL-4 environment using proper engineering and administrative controls...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011921/long-term-durability-of-responses-to-2-or-3-doses-of-hepatitis-a-vaccination-in-hiv-positive-adults-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#15
LETTER
Aristine Cheng, Sui-Yuan Chang, Hsin-Yun Sun, Mao-Song Tsai, Wen-Chun Liu, Yi-Ching Su, Pei-Ying Wu, Chien-Ching Hung, Shan-Chwen Chang
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the durability of serological response is impaired in successfully vaccinated HIV-positive subjects after receiving 2 doses of inactivated hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine. We aimed to evaluate whether 3 doses compared to 2 doses of HAV vaccine could improve the long-term seroprotection for this susceptible group. METHODS: Antibody persistence among HIV-positive men who have sex with men aged between 18 to 40 years who had received 2 or 3 doses of HAV vaccine according to a 0-6 month or a 0-1-6 month schedule between June 2009 and December 2010 was evaluated bi-annually for 5 consecutive years in this prospective non-randomized cohort study...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011920/nasopharyngeal-pneumococcal-carriage-during-childhood-community-acquired-alveolar-pneumonia-relationship-between-specific-serotypes-and-co-infecting-viruses
#16
David Greenberg, Noga Givon-Lavi, Yaniv Fainguelernt, Shalom Ben-Shimol, Yonat Shemer Avni, Jacob Bar-Ziv, Ron Dagan
BACKGROUND: Respiratory viruses and S. pneumoniae are known to be co-pathogens in childhood pneumonia. However, it is unclear whether all pneumococcal serotypes are equally prone to such interaction. We attempted to determine association between carried pneumococcal serotypes and respiratory viruses during childhood community-acquired alveolar pneumonia (CAAP). METHODS: The study was conducted during RSV seasons, before pneumococcal vaccine introduction. Children <5 years diagnosed with CAAP, with positive pneumococcal nasopharyngeal cultures from whom viral diagnostic tests were obtained were enrolled...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011919/hpv-6-molecular-variants-association-with-the-development-of-genital-warts-in-men-the-him-study
#17
Ema Flores-Díaz, Karen A Sereday, Silvaneide Ferreira, Bradley Sirak, João Simão Sobrinho, Maria Luiza Baggio, Lenice Galan, Roberto C Silva, Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce, Anna R Giuliano, Luisa L Villa, Laura Sichero
BACKGROUND: HPV-6 and 11 are the etiological agents of approximately 90% genital warts (GWs). The impact of HPV-6 genetic heterogeneity on persistence and progression to GWs remains undetermined. METHODS: HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study participants who had HPV-6 genital swabs and/or GWs preceded by a viable normal genital swab were analyzed. Variants characterization was performed by PCR-sequencing and samples classified within lineages (A, B) and sub-lineages (B1, B2, B3, B4, B5)...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011918/hepatitis-b-virus-reactivation-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-undergoing-biologics-treatment
#18
Ming-Han Chen, Ming-Huang Chen, Chun-Yu Liu, Chang-Youh Tsai, De-Feng Huang, Hsiao-Yi Lin, Mei-Hsuan Lee, Yi-Hsiang Huang
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressants can induce hepatitis B virus(HBV) reactivation, however, informative data regarding the risk of different immunosuppressive regimens including biologics on HBV reactivation(HBVr) among patients with rheumatoid arthritis(RA) is unsettled. METHODS: Among 2334 RA patients who had available HBsAg data, 123 patients positive for hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg) without receiving anti-HBV prophylaxis were enrolled. These patients undergoing varied mono- or combination immunosuppressive therapy, including 36 receiving biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs(bDMARDs)...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011917/toll-like-receptor-2-and-4-mediated-reciprocal-th17-and-antibody-responses-to-group-a-streptococcus-infection
#19
Xiaoshuang Wang, Xin Fan, Shuai Bi, Ning Li, Beinan Wang
BACKGROUND: The role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in adaptive immunity is incompletely understood. Recurrent human infections by Group A Streptococcus (GAS) and associated autoimmune conditions suggest that the immunity to GAS is intricately regulated and TLRs may be involved in the regulation. METHODS: This study investigated adaptive mucosal immune responses to GAS in TLR2(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice with an intranasal infection model. RESULTS: FACS analyses of Nasal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT) cells showed that robust Th17 responses to GAS in WT mice were reduced in TLR2(-/-) mice by 50%...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011916/immune-responses-after-two-versus-three-doses-of-hpv-vaccination-up-to-4%C3%A2-years-post-vaccination-an-observational-study-among-dutch-routinely-vaccinated-girls-hpv2d
#20
Robine Donken, Tessa M Schurink-van 't Klooster, Rutger M Schepp, Fiona R M van der Klis, Mirjam J Knol, Chris J L M Meijer, Hester E de Melker
BACKGROUND: In 2014 the Netherlands switched from three- to two-doses for routine vaccination with the prophylactic bivalent human papillomavirus (HPV)-vaccine. This study explored whether antibody responses are non-inferior after two- compared to three-doses in girls. METHODS: Girls vaccinated at twelve years of age with two-(0,6 months) or three-doses (0,1,6 months) of the bivalent HPV vaccine were identified in the vaccination registration system. Type-specific antibody concentrations and avidity against HPV16/18/31/33/45/52/58 were assessed...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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