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Journal of Infectious Diseases

Ana Cabrera, Dante Neculai, Vanessa Tran, Thomas Lavstsen, Louise Turner, Kevin C Kain
The interaction of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IEs) with the host receptor CD36 is among the most studied host-parasite interfaces. CD36 is a scavenger receptor that binds numerous ligands including the CIDRα domains of PfEMP1 expressed on the surface of IEs. CD36 is conserved across species but orthologs display differential binding of IEs. In this study we exploited these differences, combined with the recent crystal structure and 3D modelling of CD36, to investigate malaria-CD36 structure-function relationships and further define IE-CD36 binding interactions...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Yehudit Michelson, Yaniv Lustig, Shira Avivi, Eli Schwartz, Amos Danielli
Background: Zika virus has created global alarm as it has been associated with catastrophic fetal abnormalities, including microcephaly, spontaneous abortion, and intrauterine growth restriction. Current serological assays that detect antiviral antibodies suffer from low sensitivity and high cross-reactivity among different flaviviruses. Methods: Here, utilizing a novel Magnetic Modulation Biosensing (MMB) system and the Zika non-structural 1 (NS1) protein, we show highly sensitive and specific Zika serological assays...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Lillian Tugume, Joshua Rhein, Kathy Huppler Hullsiek, Edward Mpoza, Reuben Kiggundu, Kenneth Ssebambulidde, Charlotte Schutz, Kabanda Taseera, Darlisha A Williams, Mahsa Abassi, Conrad Muzoora, Abdu K Musubire, Graeme Meintjes, David B Meya, David R Boulware
Background: Cryptococcal meningitis can occur in persons with less apparent immunosuppression. We evaluated clinical characteristics and outcomes of persons with HIV-related Cryptococcus presenting with higher CD4 counts. Methods: We enrolled 736 participants from two prospective cohorts in Uganda and South Africa from November 2010 to May 2017. We compared participants with CD4 <50, 50-99, or ≥100 cells/mcL by clinical characteristics, CSF parameters, and 18-week survival...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Linda Grillová, Angel A Noda, Reto Lienhard, Orestes Blanco, Islay Rodríguez, David Šmajs
BACKGROUND: The increased prevalence of syphilis in Cuba prompted us to map the circulating Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA) allelic profiles in this geographic region. METHODS: Samples were collected from 2012-2017, from 83 male patients with ulcers or skin lesions, and were examined using MLST. Additionally, we analyzed the 23S rDNA and 16S rDNA regions for the presence of possible mutations leading to macrolide and tetracycline resistance. RESULTS: Among 94% of fully typed strains, we found seven different allelic profiles, from which four had not been previously described...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Youkyung Choi, Xiugen Zhang, Brianna Skinner
Background: Secondary spread of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection occurs often in endemic settings in developing countries. The host immune signatures contributing to protection against subsequent HEV reinfection are unknown. Methods: Twelve seroconverted rhesus macaques were re-inoculated with homologous HEV genotype 1 (gt1, Sar-55) and followed for 115 days. HEV RNA, HEV-specific T-cell responses, IgG anti-HEV antibody, and the IgG anti-HEV avidity index were tested...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jimmy Kapetshi, Hugues Fausther-Bovendo, Cindi Corbett, Anders Leung, Kamal Ait-Ikhlef, Justus Nsio, Aaron Aruna, Benoit Kebela Ilunga, Jean-Jacques Muyembe, Pierre Formenty, Gary P Kobinger
Detection of chains of transmission is critical to interrupt Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreaks. For >25 years, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction performed on biological fluids has been the reference standard for EBOV detection and identification. In the current study, we investigated the use of environmental sampling to detect EBOV shed from probable case patients buried without the collection of bodily fluids. During the 2012 Bundibugyo virus (BDBV) outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, environmental samples were screened for BDBV RNA by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Naomi R Lee, Rachel L Winer, Steven Cherne, Carolyn J Noonan, Lonnie Nelson, Angela A Gonzales, Jason G Umans, Dedra Buchwald
Background: High-risk human papillomavirus (HrHPV) causes cervical cancer. In the U.S., approximately 40% of women aged 14-59 years from all racial and ethnic groups are infected with HPV, and prevalence typically declines with age. However, American Indian women are insufficiently sampled to permit a population-specific estimate of HrHPV prevalence. Methods: Vaginal swabs were self-collected by 698 AI women aged 21-65 years from a tribal community in the Great Plains...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Caroline Huber, Lyn Finelli, Warren Stevens
Background: The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa was more devastating than all previous EVD outbreaks combined; however, many estimates of its economic burden did not capture its significant social costs. This study aimed to review all currently available estimates, identify social components missed by these estimates, and generate a comprehensive cost of the 2014 EVD outbreak. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the grey (reports produced by nonprofit or nongovernmental organizations, government, or industry) and published literature to identify current estimates of the burden of the outbreak...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Ruklanthi de Alwis, Le Thi Phuong Tu, Nhi Le Thi Quynh, Corinne N Thompson, Katherine L Anders, Nguyen Thi Van Thuy, Nguyen Trong Hieu, Lu Lan Vi, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Vu Thuy Duong, Tran Thi Hong Chau, Ha Thanh Tuyen, Tran Vu Thieu Nga, Pham Van Minh, Trinh Van Tan, Trang Nguyen Hoang Thu, Tran Do Hoang Nhu, Guy E Thwaites, Cameron Simmons, Stephen Baker
Background: Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) organisms are a major cause of gastroenteritis and bacteremia, but little is known about maternally acquired immunity and natural exposure in infant populations residing in areas where NTS disease is highly endemic. Methods: We recruited 503 pregnant mothers and their infants (following delivery) from urban areas in Vietnam and followed infants until they were 1 year old. Exposure to the dominant NTS serovars, Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis, were assessed using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O antigen-specific antibodies...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Esther Rodríguez-Gallego, Laura Tarancón-Diez, Felipe García, Jorge Del Romero, Jose Miguel Benito, Verónica Alba, Pol Herrero, Anna Rull, Beatriz Dominguez-Molina, Onofre Martinez-Madrid, Luisa Martin-Pena, Federico Pulido, Agathe León, Carmen Rodríguez, Norma Rallón, Joaquim Peraire, Consuelo Viladés, Manuel Leal, Francesc Vidal, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos
Background: Elite Controllers (EC) spontaneously control plasma HIV-1-RNA without antiretroviral therapy. However, 25% lose virological control over time. The aim of this work was to study the proteomic profile that preceded this loss of virological control to identify potential biomarkers. Methods: Plasma samples from EC who spontaneously lost virological control (Transient Controllers, TC), at two and one year before the loss of control, were compared with a control group of EC who persistently maintained virological control during the same follow-up period (Persistent Controllers, PC)...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Nicholas A Smith, Paul C Baresel, Conner L Jackson, Sidney Ogolla, Eunice N Toko, Sara Heit, Erwan Piriou, Odada P Sumba, Jaap M Middeldorp, Kathryn L Colborn, Rosemary Rochford
Background: The EBV viral glycoprotein gp350 has been proposed as a candidate antigen for an EBV vaccine. However, the proposed formulations of these vaccines have not taken into account the presence of two unique EBV strains (EBV-1 and EBV-2) present in areas of high incidence of the EBV associated cancer, Burkitt's lymphoma. Methods: In this study, we analyze the kinetics of EBV-1 and EBV-2 infection in an asymptomatic infant cohort from Kisumu, Kenya. We also analyzed the kinetics of the antibody response against five EBV antigens, gp350 (IgG and IgA), VCA (IgG), EBNA-1 (IgG), EAd (IgG), and Zta (IgG)...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Emma Birnie, Theodora A M Claushuis, Gavin C K W Koh, Direk Limmathurotsakul, Nicholas P J Day, Joris J T H Roelofs, Jerry Ware, Baidong Hou, Alex F de Vos, Tom van der Poll, Cornelis van 't Veer, W Joost Wiersinga
Background: Infection with the gram-negative bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei (melioidosis) is an important cause of pneumosepsis in Southeast Asia and has a mortality of up to 40%. We aimed to assess the role of platelets in the host response against B. pseudomallei infection. Methods: Association between platelet counts and mortality was determined in 1160 patients with culture-proven melioidosis. Mice treated with (low- or high-dose) platelet-depleting antibody were inoculated intranasally with B...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Kevin Wamae, Juliana Wambua, George Nyangweso, Gabriel Mwambingu, Faith Osier, Francis Ndung'u, Philip Bejon, Lynette Isabella Ochola-Oyier
Background: Plasmodium falciparum infections lead to febrile illness unless the host has sufficient immunity, in which case infection may cause no immediate symptoms (i.e. "asymptomatic parasitaemia"). Previous studies are conflicting on the role of asymptomatic parasitemia in determining the risk of developing febrile malaria. Methods: We monitored 2,513 children living in Kilifi (Kenyan Coast) with blood smears in 17 cross-sectional surveys to identify asymptomatic parasitemia and used active surveillance over 11,325 child-years of follow up to detect febrile malaria...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Dipika Sur, Caitlin Barkume, Bratati Mukhopadhyay, Kashmira Date, Nirmal Kumar Ganguly, Denise Garrett
Background: Enteric fever remains a threat to many countries with minimal access to clean water and poor sanitation infrastructure. As part of a multisite surveillance study, we conducted a retrospective review of records in 5 hospitals across India to gather evidence on the burden of enteric fever. Methods: We examined hospital records (laboratory and surgical registers) from 5 hospitals across India for laboratory-confirmed Salmonella Typhi or Salmonella Paratyphi cases and intestinal perforations from 2014-2015...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Amitabh B Suthar, William Coggin, Elliot Raizes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Marina Antillon, Neil J Saad, Stephen Baker, Andrew J Pollard, Virginia E Pitzer
Background: Blood culture is the standard diagnostic method for typhoid and paratyphoid (enteric) fever in surveillance studies and clinical trials, but sensitivity is widely acknowledged to be suboptimal. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine sources of heterogeneity across studies and quantified the effect of blood volume. Methods: We searched the literature to identify all studies that performed blood culture alongside bone marrow culture (a gold standard) to detect cases of enteric fever...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Carole L Wallis, Catherine Godfrey, Joseph E Fitzgibbon, John W Mellors
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Eduardo Pinheiro Amaral, Érika Machado de Salles, Caio Cesar Barbosa Bomfim, Rafael Moysés Salgado, Fabrício M Almeida, Paula Carolina de Souza, José Maria Alvarez, Mario H Hirata, Elena B Lasunskaia, Maria Regina D'Império-Lima
Background: Tuberculous pneumonia, necrotic granulomatous lesions, and bacterial dissemination characterize severe forms of mycobacterial infection. Methods: To evaluate the pulmonary CD4+ T-cell response during severe tuberculosis, C57BL/6 mice were infected with approximately 100 bacilli of 3 hypervirulent mycobacterial isolates (Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain Beijing 1471 and Mycobacterium bovis strains B2 and MP287/03) or the H37Rv M tuberculosis strain as reference for mycobacterial virulence...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jocelyn Turpin, David Yurick, Georges Khoury, Hai Pham, Stephen Locarnini, Anat Melamed, Aviva Witkover, Kim Wilson, Damian Purcell, Charles R M Bangham, Lloyd Einsiedel
The prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection is high in certain Indigenous Australian populations, but its impact on HTLV-1 has not been described. We compared 2 groups of Indigenous adults infected with HTLV-1, either alone or coinfected with HBV. The 2 groups had a similar HTLV-1 proviral load, but there was a significant increase in clonal expansion of HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes in coinfected asymptomatic individuals. The degree of clonal expansion was correlated with the titer of HBV surface antigen...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Yong-Qiao He, Xiao-Yu Liao, Wen-Qiong Xue, Ya-Fei Xu, Feng-Hua Xu, Fang-Fang Li, Xi-Zhao Li, Jiang-Bo Zhang, Tong-Min Wang, Fang Wang, Huan-Lin Yu, Qi-Sheng Feng, Li-Zhen Chen, Su-Mei Cao, Qing Liu, Jianbing Mu, Wei-Hua Jia
Background: Oral Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status reflects host EBV activity and potentially links to EBV-associated diseases, however, factors influencing oral EBV loads or reactivation, such as environmental exposures or host factors, are not fully understood. Methods: A 2-stage, multicenter, cross-sectional study of 6558 subjects from 21 administrative cities of southern China and 3 populations from representative geographical areas in China (referred to as the south, north, and northeastern populations) was performed...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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