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Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064148/community-weight-loss-to-combat-obesity-and-disability-in-at-risk-older-adults
#1
W Jack Rejeski, Walter T Ambrosius, Jonathan H Burdette, Michael P Walkup, Anthony P Marsh
BACKGROUND: Among older, overweight, and obese adults with either cardiovascular disease or the metabolic syndrome, reduced mobility and loss of leg strength are important risk factors for morbidity, disability, and mortality. It is unclear whether community-based approaches to weight loss may be an effective solution to this public health challenge. METHODS: An 18-month three-site, randomized controlled trial conducted by YMCA staff, with blinded assessors, enrolled 249 older, overweight, and obese adults with either cardiovascular disease or metabolic syndrome with randomization to three interventions: weight loss alone (WL), weight loss + aerobic training (WL + AT), and weight loss + resistance training (WT + RT)...
January 6, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057695/cancer-and-cognitive-function-the-path-through-life-project
#2
Sarang Kim, Nicolas Cherbuin, Kaarin J Anstey
BACKGROUND: A limited number of studies have shown that cancer diagnosis plays a protective role in Alzheimer's disease. However, the effect of the cancer diagnosis on general cognitive function/cognitive decline has not been previously examined. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cancer diagnosis and cognitive function and mild cognitive impairment/disorders (MCI/MCD), adjusting for cancer treatments. METHODS: These data were drawn from the Personality and Total Health (PATH) Through Life Study, a population-based Australian cohort study...
January 4, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052981/variation-in-functional-status-after-hip-fracture-facility-and-regional-influence-on-mobility-and-self-care
#3
Srinivas Teppala, Kenneth J Ottenbacher, Karl Eschbach, Amit Kumar, Soham Al Snih, Winston J Chan, Timothy A Reistetter
BACKGROUND: Recent reports show substantial geographic variation in postacute health care spending. Little is known about variation in functional outcomes after postacute rehabilitation for patients with hip fracture. We examined variation in mobility and self-care after hip fracture rehabilitation across inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs), hospital referral regions (HRRs) and states. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) from 2006 to 2009...
January 3, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052980/metabolites-associated-with-lean-mass-and-adiposity-in-older-black-men
#4
Rachel A Murphy, Steven C Moore, Mary Playdon, Osorio Meirelles, Anne B Newman, Iva Milijkovic, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Ann Schwartz, Bret H Goodpaster, Joshua Sampson, Peggy Cawthon, Eleanor M Simonsick, Robert E Gerszten, Clary B Clish, Tamara B Harris
To identify biomarkers of body mass index, body fat, trunk fat, and appendicular lean mass, nontargeted metabolomics was performed in plasma from 319 black men in the Health, Aging and Body Composition study (median age 72 years, median body mass index 26.8 kg/m(2)). Body mass index was calculated from measured height and weight; percent fat, percent trunk fat, and appendicular lean mass were measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Pearson partial correlations between body composition measures and metabolites were adjusted for age, study site, and smoking...
January 3, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049634/physical-activity-and-alzheimer-s-disease-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Ruth Stephen, Kristiina Hongisto, Alina Solomon, Eija Lönnroos
The current literature includes several studies investigating the association between physical activity and risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate available evidence on this association. Medline via PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for original English language research articles assessing the relationship between physical activity and incident AD. The review was limited to prospective observational and intervention studies. Criteria for exclusion were studies focusing on individuals with dementia, cross-sectional study design, and case reports...
January 3, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043942/a-cognitive-turning-point-in-development-of-clinical-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-biracial-population-study
#6
Kumar B Rajan, Robert S Wilson, Lisa L Barnes, Neelum T Aggarwal, Jennifer Weuve, Denis A Evans
BACKGROUND: Cognitive changes during the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia have been characterized among European Americans (EAs), but studies of preclinical changes among African Americans (AAs) are notably absent. METHODS: Preclinical changes in cognition before the development of AD dementia and mild cognitive impairment over a period of 18 years were examined using change points in a biracial sample of 2,125 older adults. RESULTS: Of 2,125 participants, 442 (21%) developed AD dementia and 661 (31%) developed mild cognitive impairment...
January 1, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025308/2-5-dimethyl-celecoxib-extends-drosophila-life-span-via-a-mechanism-that-requires-insulin-and-target-of-rapamycin-signaling
#7
Qi Wu, Ting Lian, Xiaolan Fan, Chaochun Song, Uma Gaur, Xueping Mao, Deying Yang, Matthew D W Piper, Mingyao Yang
The search for antiaging drugs is a key component of gerontology research. A few drugs with positive effects on life span in model organisms have been found. Here, we report that 2,5-dimethyl-celecoxib, a derivative of the anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib, can extend Drosophila life span and delay aging by a mechanism involving insulin signaling and target of rapamycin signaling. Importantly, its positive effects were apparent when the treatment window was restricted to the beginning of life or the later half...
December 26, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003375/assessing-and-measuring-chronic-multimorbidity-in-the-older-population-a-proposal-for-its-operationalization
#8
Amaia Calderón-Larrañaga, Davide L Vetrano, Graziano Onder, Luis A Gimeno-Feliu, Carlos Coscollar-Santaliestra, Angelo Carfí, Maria S Pisciotta, Sara Angleman, René J F Melis, Giola Santoni, Francesca Mangialasche, Debora Rizzuto, Anna-Karin Welmer, Roberto Bernabei, Alexandra Prados-Torres, Alessandra Marengoni, Laura Fratiglioni
BACKGROUND: Although the definition of multimorbidity as "the simultaneous presence of two or more chronic diseases" is well established, its operationalization is not yet agreed. This study aims to provide a clinically driven comprehensive list of chronic conditions to be included when measuring multimorbidity. METHODS: Based on a consensus definition of chronic disease, all four-digit level codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) were classified as chronic or not by an international and multidisciplinary team...
December 21, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003374/effects-of-calorie-restriction-in-obese-older-adults-the-crossroads-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Jamy D Ard, Barbara Gower, Gary Hunter, Christine S Ritchie, David L Roth, Amy Goss, Brooks C Wingo, Eric V Bodner, Cynthia J Brown, David Bryan, David R Buys, Marilyn C Haas, Akilah Dulin Keita, Lee Anne Flagg, Courtney P Williams, Julie L Locher
BACKGROUND: We lack a comprehensive assessment of the risks and benefits of calorie restriction in older adults at high risk for cardiometabolic disease. Calorie restriction may reduce visceral adipose tissue (VAT) but also have negative effects on lean mass and quality of life. METHODS: We conducted a 52-week, randomized controlled trial involving 164 older adults with obesity taking at least one medication for hyperlipidemia, hypertension, or diabetes. Interventions included an exercise intervention alone (Exercise), or with diet modification and body weight maintenance (Maintenance), or with diet modification and energy restriction (Weight Loss)...
December 21, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003373/chronic-inflammation-accelerator-of-biological-aging
#10
REVIEW
Bertrand Fougère, Eric Boulanger, Fati Nourhashémi, Sophie Guyonnet, Matteo Cesari
Biological aging is characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammation level. This chronic phenomenon has been named "inflamm-aging" and is a highly significant risk factor for morbidity and mortality in the older persons. The most common theories of inflamm-aging include redox stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, glycation, deregulation of the immune system, hormonal changes, epigenetic modifications, and dysfunction telomere attrition. Inflamm-aging plays a role in the initiation and progression of age-related diseases such as type II diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, frailty, sarcopenia, osteoporosis, and cancer...
December 21, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994005/associations-of-brain-structure-with-adiposity-and-changes-in-adiposity-in-a-middle-aged-and-older-biracial-population
#11
B Gwen Windham, Seth T Lirette, Myriam Fornage, Emelia J Benjamin, Kirby G Parker, Stephen T Turner, Clifford R Jack, Michael E Griswold, Thomas H Mosley
BACKGROUND: Studies of adiposity and brain pathology in African Americans (AA) are sparse despite higher rates of obesity, dementia, and dementia-associated brain pathology in AA. This study examined relations of adiposity to white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and total brain volume (TBV) in AA and non-Hispanic whites (NHW). METHODS: Waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy study at Visits 1 (mean age 57 [±11]) and 2 (mean age 61 [±10], mean 5...
December 18, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994004/biological-aging-and-the-future-of-geriatric-psychiatry
#12
REVIEW
Bret R Rutherford, Warren D Taylor, Patrick J Brown, Joel R Sneed, Steven P Roose
Advances in understanding the biological bases of aging have intellectually revitalized the field of geriatric psychiatry and broadened its scope to include promoting successful aging and studying resilience factors in older adults. To describe the process by which this paradigm shift has occurred and illustrate its implications for treatment and research of late-life brain disorders, late-life depression is discussed as a prototype case. Prior phases of geriatric psychiatry research were focused on achieving depressive symptom relief, outlining pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences between older and younger adults, and identifying moderators of treatment response...
December 18, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927764/circulating-microrna-are-predictive-of-aging-and-acute-adaptive-response-to-resistance-exercise-in-men
#13
Lee M Margolis, Sarah J Lessard, Yassine Ezzyat, Roger A Fielding, Donato A Rivas
Circulating microRNA (c-miRNA) have the potential to function as novel noninvasive markers of the underlying physiological state of skeletal muscle. This investigation sought to determine the influence of aging on c-miRNA expression at rest and following resistance exercise in male volunteers (Young: n = 9; Older: n = 9). Primary findings were that fasting c-miRNA expression profiles were significantly predictive of aging, with miR-19b-3p, miR-206, and miR-486 distinguishing between age groups. Following resistance exercise, principal component analysis revealed a divergent response in expression of 10 c-miRNA, where expression profiles were upregulated in younger and downregulated in older participants...
December 7, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927763/rhythmic-interlimb-coordination-impairments-and-the-risk-for-developing-mobility-limitations
#14
Eric G James, Suzanne G Leveille, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Thomas Travison, David N Kennedy, Katherine L Tucker, Soham Al Snih, Kyriakos S Markides, Jonathan F Bean
BACKGROUND: The identification of novel rehabilitative impairments that are risk factors for mobility limitations may improve their prevention and treatment among older adults. We tested the hypothesis that impaired rhythmic interlimb ankle and shoulder coordination are risk factors for subsequent mobility limitations among older adults. METHODS: We conducted a 1-year prospective cohort study of community-dwelling older adults (N = 99) aged 67 years and older who did not have mobility limitations (Short Physical Performance Battery score > 9) at baseline...
December 7, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927762/urinary-incontinence-incident-parkinsonism-and-parkinson-s-disease-pathology-in-older-adults
#15
Noa M Buchman, Sue E Leurgans, Raj J Shah, Veronique VanderHorst, Robert S Wilson, Yaacov G Bachner, David Tanne, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett, Aron S Buchman
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that urinary incontinence (UI) is associated with incident parkinsonism in older adults. METHODS: We used data from 2,617 older persons without dementia. Assessment included baseline self-report UI and annual structured exam which assessed parkinsonian signs, motor performances, cognitive function, and self-report disabilities. We used a series of Cox proportional hazards models to examine the association of UI with parkinsonism and adverse health outcomes and a mixed-effect model to examine the association of UI with the annual rate of cognitive decline...
December 7, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927761/response-to-kim-et-al
#16
LETTER
Bjørn H Strand, Andrew K Wills, Ellen Melbye Langballe, Tor A Rosness, Knut Engedal, Torunn Holm Totland, Oddvar Myhre, Espen Bjertness
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927760/letter-to-the-editor
#17
LETTER
Ki-Su Kim, Yu-Mi Lee, Duk-Hee Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 7, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927759/cd4-8-ratio-above-5-is-associated-with-all-cause-mortality-in-cmv-seronegative-very-old-women-results-from-the-belfrail-study
#18
Wim Adriaensen, Graham Pawelec, Bert Vaes, Klaus Hamprecht, Evelyna Derhovanessian, Gijs van Pottelbergh, Jean-Marie Degryse, Catharina Matheï
The occurrence and general applicability of the CD4:8 ratio as a surrogate predictor of mortality among the oldest old have only been tested in a few longitudinal studies. Here, the predictive value of CD4:8 ratio for mortality with respect to the role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection was investigated. Using polychromatic flow cytometry, the CD4:8 ratio and T-cell subsets of 235 individuals aged 81.5 years or older were analyzed, and mortality data were collected after a mean period of 3.3 years. The hazard for all-cause mortality adjusted for age, comorbidity, and CMV serostatus increased 1...
December 7, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927758/mitochondrial-aging-is-there-a-mitochondrial-clock
#19
Dmitry B Zorov, Vasily A Popkov, Ljubava D Zorova, Ivan A Vorobjev, Irina B Pevzner, Denis N Silachev, Savva D Zorov, Stanislovas S Jankauskas, Valentina A Babenko, Egor Y Plotnikov
Fragmentation (fission) of mitochondria, occurring in response to oxidative challenge, leads to heterogeneity in the mitochondrial population. It is assumed that fission provides a way to segregate mitochondrial content between the "young" and "old" phenotype, with the formation of mitochondrial "garbage," which later will be disposed. Fidelity of this process is the basis of mitochondrial homeostasis, which is disrupted in pathological conditions and aging. The asymmetry of the mitochondrial fission is similar to that of their evolutionary ancestors, bacteria, which also undergo an aging process...
December 7, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927757/walking-pace-and-the-risk-of-cognitive-decline-and-dementia-in-elderly-populations-a-meta-analysis-of-prospective-cohort-studies
#20
Minghui Quan, Pengcheng Xun, Cheng Chen, Ju Wen, Yiyu Wang, Ru Wang, Peijie Chen, Ka He
BACKGROUND: Data on the longitudinal association of walking pace with the risk of cognitive decline and dementia are inconsistent and inconclusive. Therefore, researchers conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to quantitatively assess the association of walking pace with the risk of cognitive decline and dementia among elderly populations. METHODS: Eligible studies were searched in PubMed and EMBASE through April 22, 2016. Additional information was retrieved through Google Scholar or hand review of the reference lists from the relevant studies...
December 7, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
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