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Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228107/the-impact-of-antipsychotic-drugs-on-long-term-care-nursing-home-admission-and-death-among-dementia-patients
#1
Michael Nerius, Kristina Johnell, Sara Garcia-Ptacek, Maria Eriksdotter, Britta Haenisch, Gabriele Doblhammer
Background: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia are commonly treated with antipsychotic drugs (APDs), which have been associated with adverse health effects. We examine the effect of APDs on long-term care (LTC), nursing home admission (NH), and death of dementia patients. Methods: We used health claims data of the largest German health insurer from 2004 to 2010 and followed newly-diagnosed dementia patients aged 60 years and older into LTC, NH, and until death...
December 8, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220420/fear-of-falling-predicts-incidence-of-functional-disability-two-years-later-a-perspective-from-an-international-cohort-study
#2
Mohammad Auais, Simon French, Beatriz Alvarado, Catherine Pirkle, Emmanuelle Belanger, Jack Guralnik
Objective: To study the extent to which fear of falling (FOF) is associated with the onset of functional disability over a 2-year period in older adults using self-reported and performance-based measures. Methods: In 2012, 1,601 participants (aged 65-74) were recruited from four sites: Kingston and Saint-Hyacinthe, Canada; Manizales, Colombia; and Natal, Brazil. They were re-assessed in 2014. We quantified FOF using the Fall Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I; range: 16-64)...
December 6, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216339/exercise-training-for-preventing-dementia-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-clinically-meaningful-cognitive-decline-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Philipe de Souto Barreto, Laurent Demougeot, Bruno Vellas, Yves Rolland
BACKGROUND: To assess the effects of long-term exercise on the onset of dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and other clinically meaningful cognitive decline in the elderly. METHODS: Systematic review with preplanned meta-analysis. Electronic searches were performed between November 2016 and May 2017. RCTs examining the effects of long-term exercise (intervention length 12 months or longer) on the onset of dementia, MCI, or clinically meaningful cognitive decline in older adults without dementia at baseline were eligible...
December 5, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216338/transcriptome-states-reflect-imaging-of-aging-states
#4
D Mark Eckley, Christopher E Coletta, Nikita V Orlov, Mark A Wilson, Wendy Iser, Paul Bastian, Elin Lehrmann, Yonqing Zhang, Kevin G Becker, Ilya G Goldberg
In this study, we describe a morphological biomarker that detects multiple discrete sub-populations (or "age states") at several chronological ages in a population of nematodes (C. elegans). We determined the frequencies of three healthy adult states and the timing of the transitions between them across the lifespan. We used short-lived and long-lived strains to confirm the general applicability of the state classifier and to monitor state progression. This exploration revealed healthy and unhealthy states, the former being favored in long-lived strains and the latter showing delayed onset...
December 5, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211879/cross-country-comparisons-of-disability-and-morbidity-evidence-from-the-gateway-to-global-aging-data
#5
Jinkook Lee, Drystan Phillips, Jenny Wilkens, Sandy Chien, Yu-Chen Lin, Marco Angrisani, Eileen Crimmins, Anne Newman
Background: International comparisons of disease prevalence have been useful in understanding what proportion of disease might be preventable and in informing potential policy interventions in different cultural and economic contexts. Using newly available, harmonized data from 20 countries, we compare disability and morbidity of older adults between the ages of 55 and 74. Methods: The Gateway to Global Aging Data, a data and information portal, provides access to easy-to-use individual-level longitudinal data from 10 surveys covering over 30 countries...
December 4, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186400/metabolites-associated-with-risk-of-developing-mobility-disability-in-the-health-aging-and-body-composition-study
#6
Rachel A Murphy, Steven Moore, Mary Playdon, Stephen Kritchevsky, Anne B Newman, Suzanne Satterfield, Hilsa Ayonayon, Clary Clish, Robert Gerszten, Tamara B Harris
Background: Metabolic pathways that give rise to functional decline and mobility disability in older adults are incompletely understood. Methods: To identify metabolic perturbations that may impact functional decline, non-targeted metabolomics was used to measure 350 metabolites in baseline plasma from 313 black men in the Health ABC Study (median age 74 years). Usual gait speed was measured over 20 meters. Cross-sectional relationships between gait speed and metabolites were explored with partial correlations adjusted for age, study site and smoking status...
November 25, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182712/sarcopenia-is-negatively-related-to-high-gravitational-impacts-achieved-from-day-to-day-physical-activity
#7
April Hartley, Celia L Gregson, Kimberly Hannam, Kevin C Deere, Emma M Clark, Jon H Tobias
Background: Sarcopenia has been associated with reduced physical activity (PA). We aimed to determine if sarcopenia, and specific components of muscle size, function and physical performance, are associated with high impacts achieved during habitual PA, as these are related to bone strength in community-dwelling older women. Methods: Participants were older women from the Cohort of Skeletal Health in Bristol and Avon. We defined sarcopenia using the EWGSOP criteria...
November 22, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165626/the-influence-of-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behavior-on-living-to-age-85-years-without-disease-and-disability-in-older-women
#8
Eileen Rillamas-Sun, Michael J LaMonte, Kelly R Evenson, Cynthia A Thomson, Shirley A Beresford, Mathilda C Coday, Todd M Manini, Wenjun Li, Andrea Z LaCroix
Background: Whether physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior influence the odds of women living to age 85 years without chronic disease or disability is not well described. Methods: Participants of the Women's Health Initiative (n=49,612) were categorized based on health status by age 85 years: 1) lived without developing major chronic disease or mobility disability ("healthy"); 2) lived and developed mobility disability with or without disease; 3) lived and developed major chronic disease, but not mobility disability; and 4) died before their 85 th birth year...
November 20, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165668/electrophysiological-measures-of-aging-pharynx-function-in-c-elegans-reveal-enhanced-organ-functionality-in-older-long-lived-mutants
#9
Joshua Coulter Russell, Nikolay Burnaevskiy, Bridget Ma, Miguel Arenas Mailig, Franklin Faust, Matt Crane, Matt Kaeberlein, Alexander Mendenhall
The function of the pharynx, an organ in the model system Caenorhabditis elegans, has been correlated with lifespan and motility (another measure of health) since 1980. In this study, in order to further understand the relationship between organ function and lifespan, we measured the age-related decline of the pharynx using an electrophysiological approach. We measured and analyzed electropharyngeograms of wild type animals, short-lived hsf-1 mutants, and long-lived animals with genetically decreased insulin signaling or increased heat shock pathway signaling; we recorded a total of 2,478 electropharyngeograms from 1,374 individuals...
November 18, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161342/oral-frailty-as-a-risk-factor-for-physical-frailty-and-mortality-in-community-dwelling-elderly
#10
Tomoki Tanaka, Kyo Takahashi, Hirohiko Hirano, Takeshi Kikutani, Yutaka Watanabe, Yuki Ohara, Hiroyasu Furuya, Tetsuo Tsuji, Masahiro Akishita, Katsuya Iijima
Background: Oral health is important for maintaining general health among the elderly. However, a longitudinal association between poor oral health and general health has not been reported. We investigated whether poor oral status can predict physical weakening (physical frailty, sarcopenia, subsequent disability) and identified the longitudinal impact of the accumulated poor oral health (i.e., oral frailty) on adverse health outcomes, including mortality. Methods: A total of 2,011 elderly individuals (aged ≥65 years) participated in the baseline survey of the Kashiwa study in 2012...
November 17, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155930/corrigendum-to-who-take-naps-self-reported-and-objectively-measured-napping-in-very-old-women
#11
Yue Leng, Katie Stone, Sonia Ancoli-Israel, Kenneth Covinsky, Kristine Yaffe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136099/sex-and-aging
#12
David G Le Couteur, Rozalyn M Anderson, Rafael de Cabo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121176/breaking-the-ceiling-of-human-maximal-lifespan
#13
Moshe Shay Ben-Haim, Yariv Kanfi, Sarah J Mitchel, Noam Maoz, Kelli Vaughan, Ninette Amariglio, Batia Lerrer, Rafael de Cabo, Gideon Rechavi, Haim Y Cohen
While average human life expectancy has increased dramatically in the last century, the maximum lifespan has only modestly increased. These observations prompted the notion that human lifespan might have reached its maximal natural limit of ~115 years. To evaluate this hypothesis, we conducted a systematic analysis of all-cause human mortality throughout the 20 th century. Our analyses revealed that, once cause of death is accounted for, there is a proportional increase in both median age of death and maximum lifespan...
November 7, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126143/understanding-how-dogs-age-longitudinal-analysis-of-markers-of-inflammation-immune-function-and-oxidative-stress
#14
Janet E Alexander, Alison Colyer, Richard M Haydock, Michael G Hayek, JeanSoon Park, Rafael de Cabo
As in human populations, advances in nutrition and veterinary care have led to an increase in the lifespan of companion animals. Detrimental physiological changes occurring later in life must be understood before interventions can be made to slow or reduce them. One important aspect of human aging is upregulation of the inflammatory response and increase in oxidative damage resulting in pathologies linked to chronic inflammation. To determine whether similar processes occur in the aging dog, changes in markers of inflammation and oxidative stress were investigated in 80 Labrador retrievers from adulthood to the end of life...
November 6, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126270/neural-plasticity-with-age-unilateral-maximal-strength-training-augments-efferent-neural-drive-to-the-contralateral-limb-in-older-adults
#15
Tiril Tøien, Runar Unhjem, Thomas Storehaug Øren, Ann Charlotte Gjertsen Kvellestad, Jan Hoff, Eivind Wang
Efferent neural drive during strong muscle contractions is attenuated with age, even after lifelong strength training. However, it is unknown if this deterioration may impede contralateral neural plasticity, and limit the clinical value of unilateral strength training. We assessed muscle force-generating capacity, evoked potentials recordings (V-wave and H-reflex normalized to M-wave; V/M-ratio and H/M-ratio) and voluntary activation (VA) in the plantar flexors of the contralateral limb following unilateral maximal strength training (MST) with the dominant limb for three weeks (9 sessions)...
November 4, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106478/physical-activity-and-frailty-among-older-adults-in-the-u-s-based-on-hourly-accelerometry-data
#16
Megan Huisingh-Scheetz, Kristen Wroblewski, Masha Kocherginsky, Elbert Huang, Dale William, Linda Waite, L Philip Schumm
Background/Objectives: Accelerometry measures older adult (in)activity with high resolution. Most studies summarize activity over the entire wear time. We extend prior work by analyzing hourly activity data to determine how frailty and other characteristics relate to activity among older adults. Methods: Using wrist accelerometry data collected from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (n=651), a nationally-representative probability sample of older adults, we used mixed effects linear regression to model the logarithm of hourly counts per minute (CPM) as a function of an adapted phenotypic frailty score, adjusting for demographic and health characteristics, season, day of week and time of day...
November 2, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099963/activity-of-the-hypothalamic-melanocortin-system-decreases-in-middle-aged-and-increases-in-old-rats
#17
Nóra Füredi, Alexandra Mikó, Balázs Gaszner, Diána Feller, Ildikó Rostás, Judit Tenk, Margit Solymár, Márta Balaskó, Erika Pétervári
Appearance of middle-aged obesity and aging anorexia both in humans and rodents suggests a role for regulatory alterations. Hypothalamic melanocortin agonist, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) produced in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) reduces body weight via inducing hypermetabolism and anorexia mainly through melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4R) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Orexigenic ARC-derived agouti-related protein (AgRP) is an inverse agonist on MC4R in the PVN. Previously we demonstrated that characteristic age-related shifts in the catabolic effects of alpha-MSH may contribute both to middle-aged obesity and aging anorexia...
November 1, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099924/the-temporal-association-between-executive-function-and-life-space-mobility-in-old-age
#18
Taina Poranen-Clark, Mikaela B von Bonsdorff, Merja Rantakokko, Erja Portegijs, Johanna Eronen, Katja Pynnönen, Johan G Eriksson, Anne Viljanen, Taina Rantanen
Background: Life-space mobility, an indicator of community mobility, describes person's movements in terms of the distance from home, the frequency of movement and the need of assistance for movement. Executive function (EF) is a higher order cognitive function that supervises motor control, and plays a key role in a person's ability to function independently. Cognitive impairment often co-occurs with restricted life-space mobility, however, the direction of the longitudinal associations between EF and life-space mobility is unclear...
November 1, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099917/cbp-1-acts-in-gabaergic-neurons-to-double-lifespan-in-axenically-cultured-c-elegans
#19
Huaihan Cai, Ineke Dhondt, Lieselot Vandemeulebroucke, Caroline Vlaeminck, Madina Rasulova, Bart P Braeckman
When cultured in axenic medium, C. elegans shows the largest lifespan extension compared to other dietary restriction regimens. However, the underlying molecular mechanism still remains elusive. The gene cbp-1, encoding the worm ortholog of p300/CBP (CREB-binding protein), is one of the very few key genes known to be essential for lifespan doubling under axenic dietary restriction (ADR). By using tissue-specific RNAi, we found that cbp-1 expression in the germline is essential for fertility whereas this gene functions specifically in the GABAergic neurons to support the full lifespan-doubling effect of ADR...
November 1, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099916/delirium-frailty-and-mortality-interactions-in-a-prospective-study-of-hospitalized-older-people
#20
Melanie Dani, Lucy H Owen, Thomas A Jackson, Kenneth Rockwood, Elizabeth L Sampson, Daniel Davis
Background: It is unknown if the association between delirium and mortality is consistent for individuals across the whole range of health states. A bimodal relationship has been proposed, where delirium is particularly adverse for those with underlying frailty, but may have a smaller effect (perhaps even protective) if it is an early indicator of acute illness in fitter people. We investigated the impact of delirium on mortality in a cohort simultaneously evaluated for frailty. Methods: We undertook an exploratory analysis of a cohort of consecutive acute medical admissions aged ≥70...
November 1, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
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