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Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515210/impact-of-perceived-control-on-all-cause-and-cardiovascular-disease-mortality-in-three-urban-populations-of-central-and-eastern-europe-the-hapiee-study
#1
Magdalena Kozela, Andrzej Pająk, Agnieszka Micek, Agnieszka Besala, Ruzena Kubinova, Sofia Malyutina, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Hynek Pikhart, Anne Peasey, Yuri Nikitin, Michael Marmot, Martin Bobak
BACKGROUND: Inverse associations between perceived control and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been reported in studies from Western Europe and the USA. To assess this relationship across different populations, we investigated the association between perceived control and all-cause and CVD mortality in three population-based cohorts of Eastern European countries. METHODS: We analysed data from a prospective cohort study in random population samples in Krakow (Poland), Novosibirsk (Russia) and six Czech towns...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515209/for-a-healthier-future-a-virtuous-cycle-for-reducing-exposure-to-persistent-organic-pollutants
#2
REVIEW
Chisato Mori, Emiko Todaka
In the modern society, people are exposed to various pollutants during their lifetime. Worldwide, the status of children's health has changed in recent decades. Some studies have attempted to identify the causes of these changes and whether they relate to pollutant exposure; however, such attempts have faced major challenges because human life is complex, involving many social and environmental factors. Several long-term cohort studies are being conducted to determine the relationship between diseases and social and environmental factors in children...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490476/socioeconomic-status-in-childhood-and-c-reactive-protein-in-adulthood-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Richard S Liu, Allison E Aiello, Fiona K Mensah, Constantine E Gasser, Kuna Rueb, Billie Cordell, Markus Juonala, Melissa Wake, David P Burgner
BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a central role in cardiometabolic disease and may represent a mechanism linking low socioeconomic status (SES) in early life and adverse cardiometabolic health outcomes in later life. Accumulating evidence suggests an association between childhood SES and adult inflammation, but findings have been inconsistent. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies to quantify the association between childhood (age <18 years) SES and the inflammatory marker C reactive protein (CRP) in adulthood...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468831/how-to-work-with-local-communities-to-improve-population-health-big-data-and-small-data
#4
Rafael Cofiño, Sonia Lopez-Villar, Oscar Suárez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416573/changes-in-directly-alcohol-attributable-mortality-during-the-great-recession-by-employment-status-in-spain-a-population-cohort-of-22-million-people
#5
Ignacio Alonso, Fernando Vallejo, Enrique Regidor, M José Belza, Luis Sordo, Laura Otero-García, Gregorio Barrio
BACKGROUND: Macroeconomic fluctuations can impact differentially on alcohol-related problems across sociodemographic groups. We assess trend changes in directly alcohol-attributable (DAA) mortality in the population aged 25-64 during the post-2008 recession in Spain according to employment status and other sociodemographic factors. METHODS: Nationwide cohort study covering 21.9 million people living in Spain in 2001. People were classified by employment status and other factors...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416572/alternatives-assessment-new-ideas-frameworks-and-policies
#6
EDITORIAL
Joel Tickner, Christopher P Weis, Molly Jacobs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416571/negative-wealth-shock-and-short-term-changes-in-depressive-symptoms-and-medication-adherence-among-late-middle-aged-adults
#7
Lindsay R Pool, Belinda L Needham, Sarah A Burgard, Michael R Elliott, Carlos F Mendes de Leon
BACKGROUND: Experiencing a negative wealth shock in late middle age may cause high levels of stress and induce reductions in health-related consumption. METHODS: We used data on late middle age individuals (51-64 years) from the longitudinal US-based Health and Retirement Study (N=19 281) to examine the relationship between negative wealth shock and short-term outcomes that serve as markers of the pathways from wealth shock to health: elevated depressive symptoms, as a marker of the stress pathway and cost-related medication non-adherence (CRN), as a marker of the consumption pathway...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416570/taking-health-into-account-in-all-policies-raising-and-keeping-health-equity-high-on-the-political-agenda
#8
EDITORIAL
Lauri Kokkinen, Ketan Shankardass, Patricia O'Campo, Carles Muntaner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416569/association-between-smoking-and-health-outcomes-in-an-economically-deprived-population-the-liverpool-lung-project
#9
F C Sherratt, J K Field, M W Marcus
BACKGROUND: The association between smoking and several health outcomes among those from the most deprived communities in the UK has not previously been detailed. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of smoking on health outcomes specifically among a particularly deprived population in a developed country (Liverpool; one of the most deprived local authorities in England). METHODS: The Liverpool Lung Project recruited a prospective cohort of 8753 participants from across Liverpool, aged 45-79 years between 1998 and 2008...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408613/air-pollution-and-the-incidence-of-ischaemic-and-haemorrhagic-stroke-in-the-south-london-stroke-register-a-case-cross-over-analysis
#10
B K Butland, R W Atkinson, S Crichton, B Barratt, S Beevers, A Spiridou, U Hoang, F J Kelly, C D Wolfe
BACKGROUND: Few European studies investigating associations between short-term exposure to air pollution and incident stroke have considered stroke subtypes. Using information from the South London Stroke Register for 2005-2012, we investigated associations between daily concentrations of gaseous and particulate air pollutants and incident stroke subtypes in an ethnically diverse area of London, UK. METHODS: Modelled daily pollutant concentrations based on a combination of measurements and dispersion modelling were linked at postcode level to incident stroke events stratified by haemorrhagic and ischaemic subtypes...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385691/energy-density-of-foods-and-diets-in-mexico-and-their-monetary-cost-by-socioeconomic-strata-analyses-of-ensanut-data-2012
#11
Alfonso Mendoza, Ana E Pérez, Anju Aggarwal, Adam Drewnowski
BACKGROUND: In January 2014, Mexico implemented an 8% tax on non-essential foods with energy density ≥275 kcal/100 g, with a view to prevent obesity. This study explored energy density of foods and diets in Mexico and their monetary cost across population subgroups. METHODS: Dietary intakes for 3057 adults (ages ≥19 years) were obtained from the nationally representative Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (ENSANUT 2012). Energy density (kcal/g) was calculated for foods, food groups and total diets...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360117/are-babies-conceived-during-ramadan-born-smaller-and-sooner-than-babies-conceived-at-other-times-of-the-year-a-born-in-bradford-cohort-study
#12
Amanda Daley, Miranda Pallan, Sue Clifford, Kate Jolly, Maria Bryant, Peymane Adab, K K Cheng, Andrea Roalfe
BACKGROUND: It is not known whether infants exposed to intermittent maternal fasting at conception are born smaller or have a higher risk of premature birth than those who are not. Doctors are therefore unsure about what advice to give women about the safety of Ramadan fasting. This cohort study aimed to investigate these questions in Muslim mother-infant pairs to inform prenatal care. METHODS: Routinely collected data accessed from maternity records were the source for information...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356325/return-on-investment-of-public-health-interventions-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Rebecca Masters, Elspeth Anwar, Brendan Collins, Richard Cookson, Simon Capewell
BACKGROUND: Public sector austerity measures in many high-income countries mean that public health budgets are reducing year on year. To help inform the potential impact of these proposed disinvestments in public health, we set out to determine the return on investment (ROI) from a range of existing public health interventions. METHODS: We conducted systematic searches on all relevant databases (including MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; AMED; PubMed, Cochrane and Scopus) to identify studies that calculated a ROI or cost-benefit ratio (CBR) for public health interventions in high-income countries...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348205/association-between-socioeconomic-position-and-the-prevalence-of-type-2-diabetes-in-ghanaians-in-different-geographic-locations-the-rodam-study
#14
Juliet Addo, Charles Agyemang, Ama de-Graft Aikins, Erik Beune, Matthias B Schulze, Ina Danquah, Cecilia Galbete, Mary Nicolaou, Karlijn Meeks, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Silver Bahendaka, Frank P Mockenhaupt, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Anton Kunst, Karien Stronks, Liam Smeeth
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes has been shown to be socially patterned but the direction of the association in low-income countries and among migrant populations in Europe has varied in the literature. This study examined the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and diabetes in Ghanaians in Europe and in Ghana. METHODS: Data were derived from the multicentre Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants (RODAM) study of Ghanaian adults aged 25-70 years residing in Europe (Amsterdam, Berlin and London) and in urban and rural Ghana...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341623/twenty-miles-per-hour-speed-limits-a-sustainable-solution-to-public-health-problems-in-wales
#15
Sarah J Jones, Huw Brunt
BACKGROUND: Prevention, rather than treatment, is the key to longer healthier lives. Identifying interventions that will impact positively on road traffic injuries, air quality and encourage active travel is a significant public health challenge. This paper aimed to explore whether 20 mph limits could be useful in achieving this. METHODS: Research evidence was reviewed to identify the effect of 20 mph zones and limits on health and well-being. The evidence was then used to estimate the effect of a change to a 20 mph limit on road traffic casualties and air pollution...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298415/integrated-knowledge-translation-digging-deeper-moving-forward
#16
REVIEW
Anita Kothari, C Nadine Wathen
BACKGROUND: Integrated knowledge translation has risen in popularity as a solution to the underuse of research in policy and practice settings. It engages knowledge users-policymakers, practitioners, patients/consumers or their advocates, and members of the wider public-in mutually beneficial research that can involve the joint development of research questions, data collection, analysis and dissemination of findings. Knowledge that is co-produced has a better chance of being implemented...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298414/insomnia-as-a-predictor-of-job-exit-among-middle-aged-and-older-adults-results-from-the-health-and-retirement-study
#17
Liming Dong, Jacqueline Agnew, Ramin Mojtabai, Pamela J Surkan, Adam P Spira
OBJECTIVES: Poor health is a recognised predictor of workforce exit, but little is known about the role of insomnia in workforce exit. We examined the association between insomnia symptoms and subsequent job exit among middle-aged and older adults from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). METHODS: The study sample consisted of 5746 respondents aged between 50 and 70 who were working for pay when interviewed in the HRS 2004 and were followed up in the HRS 2006...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292784/payback-time-influence-of-having-children-on-mortality-in-old-age
#18
K Modig, M Talbäck, J Torssander, A Ahlbom
BACKGROUND: It is known that parents have lower mortality than childless individuals. Support from adult children to ageing parents may be of importance for parental health and longevity. The aim of this study was to estimate the association between having a child and the risk of death, and to examine whether the association increased at older ages when health starts to deteriorate and the need of support from a family member increases. METHODS: In this nationwide study, all men and women (born between 1911 and 1925 and residing in Sweden), as well as their children, were identified in population registers and followed over time...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289039/socioeconomic-gradients-in-all-cause-premature-and-avoidable-mortality-among-immigrants-and-long-term-residents-using-linked-death-records-in-ontario-canada
#19
Anam M Khan, Marcelo Urquia, Kathy Kornas, David Henry, Stephanie Y Cheng, Catherine Bornbaum, Laura C Rosella
BACKGROUND: Immigrants have been shown to possess a health advantage, yet are also more likely to reside in arduous economic conditions. Little is known about if and how the socioeconomic gradient for all-cause, premature and avoidable mortality differs according to immigration status. METHODS: Using several linked population-based vital and demographic databases from Ontario, we examined a cohort of all deaths in the province between 2002 and 2012. We constructed count models, adjusted for relevant covariates, to attain age-adjusted mortality rates and rate ratios for all-cause, premature and avoidable mortality across income quintile in immigrants and long-term residents, stratified by sex...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270504/do-differences-in-religious-affiliation-explain-high-levels-of-excess-mortality-in-the-uk
#20
Kevin Ralston, David Walsh, Zhiqiang Feng, Chris Dibben, Gerry McCartney, Dermot O'Reilly
BACKGROUND: High levels of mortality not explained by differences in socioeconomic status (SES) have been observed for Scotland and its largest city, Glasgow, compared with elsewhere in the UK. Previous cross-sectional research highlighted potentially relevant differences in social capital, including religious social capital (the benefits of social participation in organised religion). The aim of this study was to use longitudinal data to assess whether religious affiliation (as measured in UK censuses) attenuated the high levels of Scottish excess mortality...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
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