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Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health

Reza Omani-Samani, Amir Almasi-Hashiani, Saeid Safiri, Mahroo Rezaeinejad, Fatemeh Shokri, Esmaeil Khedmati Morasae, Saman Maroufizadeh, Mahdi Sepidarkish
BACKGROUND: Iran, as one of the low-income and middle-income countries, has experienced a remarkable increase in the caesarean section (CS) rate during the past three decades. Although several studies have been conducted on the prevalence and risk factors affecting CS, but few studies were done regarding socioeconomic factors influencing the CS rate. The aim of this study was to identify socioeconomic inequalities and its determinants in CS in Tehran, capital of Iran. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 5170 pregnancies in Tehran, since 2015...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Faraz Vahid Shahidi, Odmaa Sod-Erdene, Chantel Ramraj, Vincent Hildebrand, Arjumand Siddiqi
BACKGROUND: Social policies that improve the availability and distribution of key socioeconomic resources such as income, wealth and employment are believed to present the most promising avenue for reducing health inequalities. The present study aims to estimate the effect of social assistance recipiency on the health of low-income earners in the USA and Canada. METHODS: Drawing on nationally representative survey data (National Health Interview Survey and the Canadian Community Health Survey), we employed propensity score matching to match recipients of social assistance to comparable sets of non-recipient 'controls'...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Louise Hayes, Lynne Forrest, Jean Adams, Mira Hidajat, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Martin White, Linda Sharp
BACKGROUND: Older people experience poorer outcomes from colon cancer. We examined if treatment for colon cancer was related to age and if inequalities changed over time. METHODS: Data from the UK population-based Northern and Yorkshire Cancer Registry on 31 910 incident colon cancers (ICD10 C18) diagnosed between 1999-2010 were obtained. Likelihood of receipt of: (1) cancer-directed surgery, (2) chemotherapy in surgical patients, (3) chemotherapy in non-surgical patients by age, adjusting for sex, area deprivation, cancer stage, comorbidity and period of diagnosis, was examined...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Russell M Viner, Silvia Costa, William Johnson
BACKGROUND: Mixture modelling is a useful approach to identify subgroups in a population who share similar trajectories. We aimed to identify distinct body mass index (BMI) trajectories between 10 and 42 years and investigate how known early-life risk factors are related to trajectories. METHODS: Sample: 9187 participants in the 1970 British Birth Cohort Study, with BMI observations between 10 and 42 years and data on birth weight, parental BMI, socioeconomic status, breast feeding and puberty...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Annie Herbert, Gary A Abel, Sam Winters, Sean McPhail, Lucy Elliss-Brookes, Georgios Lyratzopoulos
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of cancer through emergency presentation is associated with poorer prognosis. While reductions in emergency presentations have been described, whether known sociodemographic inequalities are changing is uncertain. METHODS: We analysed 'Routes to Diagnosis' data on patients aged ≥25 years diagnosed in England during 2006-2013 with any of 33 common or rarer cancers. Using binary logistic regression we determined time-trends in diagnosis through emergency presentation by age, deprivation and cancer site...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Meifang Chen, Thomas Creger, Virginia Howard, Suzanne E Judd, Kathy F Harrington, Kevin R Fontaine
BACKGROUND: Emerging studies have investigated the contribution of food environment to obesity in the USA. However, the findings were inconsistent. Methodological explanations for the inconsistent findings included: (1) using individual store/restaurant exposure as food environment indicator, and (2) not accounting for non-stationarity assumption. This study aimed to describe the spatial distribution of obesity and examine the association between community food environment and obesity, and the variation of magnitude and direction of this association across the USA...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Guillem López-Casasnovas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Carla Bertossi Urzua, Milagros A Ruiz, Andrzej Pajak, Magdalena Kozela, Ruzena Kubinova, Sofia Malyutina, Anne Peasey, Hynek Pikhart, Michael Marmot, Martin Bobak
BACKGROUND: Social cohesion has a potential protective effect against depression, but evidence for Central and Eastern Europe is lacking. We investigated the prospective association between social cohesion and elevated depressive symptoms in the Czech Republic, Russia and Poland, and assessed whether alcohol drinking and smoking mediated this association. METHODS: Cohort data from 15 438 older urban participants from the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe project were analysed...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Patrick Präg, Lindsay Richards
BACKGROUND: Intergenerational social mobility is hypothesised to be a stressful process that has a negative effect on health. By examining the relationship between own socioeconomic position, parental socioeconomic position and allostatic load (AL) in a representative sample of the British population, we test this hypothesis. METHODS: Our study uses cross-sectional data from 9851 adult participants of waves 2 and 3 of Understanding Society. The relationship between parental occupational class at age 14 years, respondents' social class at the time of the interview and AL is explored by means of diagonal reference models, which allow us to disentangle the effects of parental social class, own social class and the mobility process...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Eric Hall, Travis Sanchez, Rob Stephenson, Aryeh D Stein, Robert Craig Sineath, Maria Zlotorzynska, Patrick Sullivan
BACKGROUND: HIV prevention research often involves the use of online surveys as data collection instruments. Incomplete responses to these surveys can introduce bias. We aimed to develop and assess innovative methods to incentivise respondents to complete surveys. METHODS: Adult men who have sex with men (MSM) living in the USA were recruited through banner advertisements on Facebook from 27 April 2015 to 6 May 2015 to participate in an online survey about HIV prevention and risk behaviours...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Urszula Tymoszuk, Meena Kumari, Rachel Batterham, Mai Stafford
BACKGROUND: Although social networks' influence on obesity has been increasingly recognised, it remains unclear if different dimensions of social support, for example, emotional or practical support, received from one's closest relationship are associated with weight outcomes over mid-life and old age. METHODS: Using linear mixed models we examined whether person-level body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) trajectories vary according to levels of emotional, practical and negative aspects of social support in a large UK-based cohort of healthy civil servant workers (n=5460) with objectively measured anthropometry data on five occasions over two decades (1989-1990 to 2012-2013)...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Fiona Pearson, Peijue Huangfu, Richard McNally, Mark Pearce, Nigel Unwin, Julia A Critchley
BACKGROUND: Many studies have found an increased risk of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) among those with diabetes mellitus (DM). However, evidence on whether the association is bidirectional remains sparse. This study investigates DM rates among those with and without prior tuberculosis (TB) disease as well as the reverse. METHODS: Data on a UK general practice population, between 2003 and 2009, were obtained from The Health Improvement Network database. A series of retrospective cohort studies were completed...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Rosario Ortolá, Esther García-Esquinas, Hosanna Soler-Vila, Jose M Ordovas, Esther López-García, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo
BACKGROUND: Some of the previously reported health benefits of low-to-moderate alcohol consumption may derive from health status influencing alcohol consumption rather than the opposite. We examined whether health status changes influence changes in alcohol consumption, cessation included. METHODS: Data came from 571 current drinkers aged ≥60 years participating in the Seniors-ENRICA cohort in Spain. Participants were recruited in 2008-2010 and followed-up for 8...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Lu Gram, Nayreen Daruwalla, David Osrin
Community mobilisation interventions have been used to promote health in many low-income and middle-income settings. They frequently involve collective action to address shared determinants of ill-health, which often requires high levels of participation to be effective. However, the non-excludable nature of benefits produced often generates participation dilemmas: community members have an individual interest in abstaining from collective action and free riding on others' contributions, but no benefit is produced if nobody participates...
October 30, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Lin Yang, Lee Smith, Mark Hamer
BACKGROUND: The aetiology of age-related sarcopenia is not known. OBJECTIVES: To investigate if risk of developing sarcopenia differs by gender and to identify gender-specific risk factors of incident sarcopenia in a large population-based cohort of older English adults. METHODS: The sample (n=3404; age 63.4 (SD 7.7) years; 54.1% women) comprised older community-dwelling adults recruited from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Sarcopenia was defined as handgrip <26 kg in men and <16 kg in women...
October 27, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Nancy Krieger, Mary Huynh, Wenhui Li, Pamela D Waterman, Gretchen Van Wye
BACKGROUND: Severe stressors can induce preterm birth (PTB; gestation <37 weeks), with such stressors including social and economic threats, interpersonal violence, hate crimes and severe sociopolitical stressors (ie, arising from political leaders' threatening rhetoric or from political legislation). We analysed temporal changes in risk of PTB among immigrant, Hispanic and Muslim populations targeted in the US 2016 presidential election and its aftermath. METHODS: Trend analysis of all singleton births in New York City from 1 September 2015 to 31 August 2017 (n=230 105)...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Marianna Virtanen, Linda Magnusson Hansson, Marcel Goldberg, Marie Zins, Sari Stenholm, Jussi Vahtera, Hugo Westerlund, Mika Kivimäki
BACKGROUND: Although long working hours have been shown to be associated with the onset of cardiometabolic diseases, the clinical risk factor profile associated with long working hours remains unclear. We compared the clinical risk profile between people who worked long hours and those who reported being never exposed to long hours. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in 22 health screening centres in France was based on a random population-based sample of 75 709 participants aged 18-69 at study inception in 2012-2016 (the CONSTANCES study)...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Lorraine T Dean, Emily A Knapp, Sevly Snguon, Yusuf Ransome, Dima M Qato, Kala Visvanathan
BACKGROUND: Credit scores have been identified as a marker of disease burden. This study investigated credit scores' association with chronic diseases and health behaviours that are associated with chronic diseases. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis included data on 2083 residents of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA in 2015. Nine-digit ZIP code level FICO credit scores were appended to individual self-reported chronic diseases (obesity, diabetes, hypertension) and related health behaviours (smoking, exercise, and salt intake and medication adherence among those with hypertension)...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Giuseppe Nicola Giordano, Jan Mewes, Alexander Miething
BACKGROUND: Within public health research, generalised trust has been considered an independent predictor of morbidity and mortality for over two decades. However, there are no population-based studies that have scrutinised both contextual-level and individual-level effects of generalised trust on all-cause mortality. We, therefore, aim to investigate such associations by using pooled nationally representative US General Social Survey (GSS) data linked to the National Death Register (NDI)...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Anne-Caroline Clause-Verdreau, Étienne Audureau, Alain Leplège, Joël Coste
BACKGROUND: Interest in monitoring health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in general populations has increased in the past 20 years, reinforced by population ageing and repeated economic crises. This study aims to identify temporal trends in HRQoL in France between 1995 and 2016 and to assess disparities according to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. METHODS: Data from repeated population-based cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1995, 2003 and 2016 were used...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
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