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Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739839/dog-ownership-supports-the-maintenance-of-physical-activity-during-poor-weather-in-older-english-adults-cross-sectional-results-from-the-epic-norfolk-cohort
#1
Yu-Tzu Wu, Robert Luben, Andy Jones
BACKGROUND: Dog ownership has been suggested to encourage physical activity in older adults and may enhance resilience to poor environmental conditions. This study investigates the role of dog ownership and walking as a means of supporting the maintenance of physical activity in older adults during periods of inclement weather. METHODS: The analysis used data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Norfolk cohort. Daily physical activity (counts per minute) and minutes of sedentary behaviour were measured using accelerometers over 7 days...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739838/unravelling-migrants-health-paradoxes-a-transdisciplinary-research-agenda
#2
REVIEW
Maria Roura
The Social Determinants of Health literature has consistently found that a higher socioeconomic status is associated with better health outcomes even after adjusting for traditional risk factors. However, research findings in the field of Migrants' Health suggest that the socioeconomic/health gradient does not always behave as expected for migrants and their descendants. The mismatch of findings in these two long-standing parallel research traditions is exemplified by frequent reports of paradoxical findings in the scientific literature: the healthy migrant paradox, the ethnic density paradox and the diminishing returns paradox...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739837/mortality-and-causes-of-death-among-homeless-in-finland-a-10-year-follow-up-study
#3
Agnes Stenius-Ayoade, Peija Haaramo, Hannu Kautiainen, Mika Gissler, Kristian Wahlbeck, Johan G Eriksson
BACKGROUND: Homelessness is associated with increased mortality, and some predictors of mortality have been previously identified. We examined the overall and cause-specific mortality among homeless men in Helsinki and the associations of social background and health service use with mortality. METHODS: To assess cause-specific mortality in a competing risks framework, we performed a register-based, case-control study of 617 homeless men and an age-matched control group of 1240 men from the general population that were followed for 10 years between 2004 and 2014...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733459/advice-given-by-nhs-direct-in-wales-do-deprived-patients-get-more-urgent-decisions-study-of-routine-data
#4
Julie Peconi, Steven Macey, Sarah Rodgers, Ian Russell, Helen Snooks, Alan Watkins
BACKGROUND: In the UK, National Health Service Direct Wales (NHSDW) uses computerised decision support software to advise patients on appropriate care. However, the effect of deprivation on the advice given is not known. We aimed to estimate the effect of deprivation on advice given by nurses in NHSDW adjusting for confounding variables. METHODS: We included 400 000 calls to NHSDW between January 2002 and June 2004. We used logistic regression to model the effect of deprivation on advice given by nurses in response to calls seeking advice or information...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710105/regional-deprivation-is-associated-with-the-distribution-of-vulnerable-asylum-seekers-a-nationwide-small-area-analysis-in-germany
#5
Kayvan Bozorgmehr, Oliver Razum, Joachim Szecsenyi, Werner Maier, Christian Stock
BACKGROUND: Newly arriving asylum seekers in many European Union countries are assigned a place of residence based on administrative quota. This may have important consequences for the exposure to contextual health risks. We assessed the association between regional deprivation and the distribution of asylum seekers in Germany considered as vulnerable (women, children <7 years, persons >64 years) because of their increased health needs. METHODS: Using nationally representative data, we analysed the rates of observed to expected numbers of asylum seekers and vulnerable subgroups in Bayesian spatial models...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696927/maternal-smoking-during-pregnancy-and-offspring-antisocial-behaviour-findings-from-a-longitudinal-investigation-of-discordant-siblings
#6
Angela D Paradis, Edmond D Shenassa, George D Papandonatos, Michelle L Rogers, Stephen L Buka
BACKGROUND: Although many observational studies have found a strong association between maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSP) and offspring antisocial behaviour, the likelihood that this relationship is causal remains unclear. To comment on the potential causality of this association, the current investigation used a between-within decomposition approach to examine the association between MSP and multiple indices of adolescent and adult antisocial behaviour. METHODS: Study participants were offspring of women enrolled in the Providence and Boston sites of the Collaborative Perinatal Project...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689177/further-thoughts-on-limitations-uncertainties-and-competing-interpretations-regarding-chemical-exposures-and-diabetes
#7
LETTER
Gregory G Bond, Daniel R Dietrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 8, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679541/alcohol-consumption-and-all-cause-mortality-an-analysis-of-general-practice-database-records-for-patients-with-long-term-conditions
#8
Duncan Stewart, Lu Han, Tim Doran, Jim McCambridge
BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a risk factor for ill health and reduced life expectancy, but little is known about the impact of alcohol on mortality for people with existing long-term conditions. We used primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) to study relationships between alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality among general practice patients with long-term conditions. METHODS: Data were accessed from a sample of 125 general practices from the CPRD database...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679540/assessing-the-measurement-properties-of-a-frailty-index-across-the-age-spectrum-in-the-canadian-longitudinal-study-on-aging
#9
David M Kanters, Lauren E Griffith, David B Hogan, Julie Richardson, Christopher Patterson, Parminder Raina
BACKGROUND: Frailty is a way to appreciate the variable vulnerability to declining health status of people as they age. No consensus for measuring frailty has been established. This study aimed to adapt a Frailty Index (FI) to the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) and evaluate its applicability in both younger and older adults. METHODS: An FI was created based on 90 potential health deficits collected from adults aged 45-85 years at recruitment (N=21 241, 49...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679539/a-glossary-of-terms-for-understanding-political-aspects-in-the-implementation-of-health-in-all-policies-hiap
#10
Goldameir Oneka, Faraz Vahid Shahidi, Carles Muntaner, Ahmed M Bayoumi, Deb Finn Mahabir, Alix Freiler, Patricia O'Campo, Ketan Shankardass
Health in All Policies (HiAP) is a strategy that seeks to integrate health considerations into the development, implementation and evaluation of policies across various non-health sectors of the government. Over the past 15 years, there has been an increase in the uptake of HiAP by local, regional and national governments. Despite the growing popularity of this approach, most existing literature on HiAP implementation remains descriptive rather than explanatory in its orientation. Moreover, prior research has focused on the more technical aspects of the implementation process...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679538/the-intervention-effect-of-local-alcohol-licensing-policies-on-hospital-admission-and-crime-a-natural-experiment-using-a-novel-bayesian-synthetic-time-series-method
#11
Frank de Vocht, Kate Tilling, Triantafyllos Pliakas, Colin Angus, Matt Egan, Alan Brennan, Rona Campbell, Matthew Hickman
BACKGROUND: Control of alcohol licensing at local government level is a key component of alcohol policy in England. There is, however, only weak evidence of any public health improvement. We used a novel natural experiment design to estimate the impact of new local alcohol licensing policies on hospital admissions and crime. METHODS: We used Home Office licensing data (2007-2012) to identify (1) interventions: local areas where both a cumulative impact zone and increased licensing enforcement were introduced in 2011; and (2) controls: local areas with neither...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679537/a-cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-condom-distribution-programmes-for-the-prevention-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-england
#12
Susannah Sadler, Jon Tosh, Rebekah Pennington, Andrew Rawdin, Hazel Squires, Carmen Romero, Alastair Fischer, James Chilcott
BACKGROUND: Prevention of sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence in England is a high priority, particularly among young people, men who have sex with men (MSM) and black ethnic minorities. An economic evaluation of condom distribution programmes (CDPs) to reduce STI transmission is presented. METHODS: An economic model using a Bernoulli process estimated the number of people acquiring an STI as a function of its prevalence, transmission rate, condom use, condom failure rate and number of sexual contacts...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679536/smoking-and-suicide-biological-and-social-evidence-and-causal-mechanisms
#13
EDITORIAL
Margaret Green, Sarah Turner, Jitender Sareen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674077/physicians-are-more-likely-than-non-physicians-to-use-brand-name-drugs-to-treat-their-chronic-conditions
#14
REVIEW
Mariana Carrera, Niels Skipper
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the treatments physicians choose for themselves compared with how they treat their patients. We determine if physicians prescribe different treatments to patients than to themselves. METHODS: Population-based cohort study from 2004 to 2012 examining prescription claims of all Danish primary care physicians (PCP; n=3088) and all other Danish adults (n=2 334 590) who received a first-time prescription from a PCP for a statin (n=455 586), calcium channel blocker (CCB, n=330 369), serotonin-norepinephrine/selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SN/SSRIs, n=423 740), proton pump inhibitor (PPI, n=671 965) or antihistamine (n=456 018)...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663442/the-relationship-between-early-childhood-head-injury-and-later-life-criminal-behaviour-a-longitudinal-cohort-study
#15
Tracy L Jackson, Joseph M Braun, Michael Mello, Elizabeth W Triche, Stephen L Buka
BACKGROUND: Childhood head injury has been associated with the development of behavioural and psychological problems. This study examined the relationship between head injury in young childhood and subsequent criminal behaviour. METHODS: Data were from the Providence cohort of the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a multicentre longitudinal study aimed at identifying the role of perinatal and prenatal factors on child health. History of head injury between ages 0 and 7 years was ascertained from health records of 2893 children...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663441/the-influence-of-health-concerns-in-scientific-and-policy-debates-on-climate-change
#16
EDITORIAL
Stefanie Schütte, Anneliese Depoux, Sara Vigil, Corinne Kowalski, François Gemenne, Antoine Flahault
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 29, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659387/foreign-born-blacks-no-different-from-whites-for-odds-of-stroke
#17
Lorinette S Wirth, Betelihem B Tobo, Leslie Hinyard, Michael G Vaughn
BACKGROUND: Blacks have higher risk for stroke than whites. However, combining foreign-born and US-born blacks could mask important health differences. We examined the relationship between nativity and stroke risk in US adults. METHODS: Data were obtained from the National Health Interview Survey, 2006-2014. Study population (n=189, 409) included non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks born in the Caribbean, and non-Hispanic blacks born in Africa. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between stroke and race/nativity, adjusting for covariates such as insurance status, hypertension, age and duration of US residence...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468831/how-to-work-with-local-communities-to-improve-population-health-big-data-and-small-data
#18
Rafael Cofiño, Sonia Lopez-Villar, Oscar Suárez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592420/patterns-of-cannabis-use-during-adolescence-and-their-association-with-harmful-substance-use-behaviour-findings-from-a-uk-birth-cohort
#19
Michelle Taylor, Simon M Collin, Marcus R Munafò, John MacLeod, Matthew Hickman, Jon Heron
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the role of cannabis as a gateway drug is inconsistent. We characterise patterns of cannabis use among UK teenagers aged 13-18 years, and assess their influence on problematic substance use at age 21 years. METHODS: We used longitudinal latent class analysis to derive trajectories of cannabis use from self-report measures in a UK birth cohort. We investigated (1) factors associated with latent class membership and (2) whether latent class membership predicted subsequent nicotine dependence, harmful alcohol use and recent use of other illicit drugs at age 21 years...
August 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566281/double-burden-or-double-counting-of-child-malnutrition-the-methodological-and-theoretical-implications-of-stuntingoverweight-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#20
Katie Bates, Arjan Gjonça, Tiziana Leone
BACKGROUND: There is increasing concern at research and policy levels about the double burden of child malnutrition (DBCM)-with stunting and overweight found across different groups of children. Despite some case studies suggesting that stunting and overweight can occur concurrently in children, here known as 'stuntingoverweight', and major drives to reduce all forms of malnutrition in low and middle income countries (LMICs), stuntingoverweight is continually overlooked. This research evidences the prevalence of stuntingoverweight across LMICs, exploring the theoretical and methodological implications of failing to acknowledge this form of malnutrition...
August 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
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