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Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health

Graham Kirkwood, Thomas C Hughes, Allyson M Pollock
BACKGROUND: A pilot injury data collection exercise at the emergency departments (EDs) of Oxford University Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust (OUH) ran from 2012 to 2014 to inform the current development of the new NHS England emergency care data set. METHODS: Data collected at the EDs of OUH 1 January 2012 to 30 March 2014 analysed for Oxford City and Cherwell District Council areas. Data completeness and quality checked against Hospital Episode Statistic (HES) returns...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Jinwook Bahk, John W Lynch, Young-Ho Khang
BACKGROUND: South Korea has experienced rapid economic development and a substantial increase in life expectancy in an extremely short period. Whether this rapid development has been able to adequately address inequalities in health in South Korea may have important policy implications. This paper explores long-term trends in inequalities in mortality related to education in South Korea between 1970 and 2010. METHODS: We used secondary data on population size and deaths in 1970 and 1980 from a previously published study, and census and death certificate data from Statistics Korea from 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Irene Moor, Jacob Spallek, Matthias Richter
BACKGROUND: Material, psychosocial and behavioural factors are important explanatory pathways for socioeconomic inequalities in health. The aim of this systematic review was to summarise the available evidence on empirical studies and to analyse the relative contribution of these factors for explaining inequalities in self-rated health. METHODS: The study was performed in compliance with PRISMA guidelines. The literature search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed and Web of Science (1996-2016) as well as by screening of reference lists of obtained articles...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Tanja A J Houweling, Ivan Arroyave, Alex Burdorf, Mauricio Avendano
BACKGROUND: Low-income and middle-income countries have introduced different health insurance schemes over the past decades, but whether different schemes are associated with different neonatal outcomes is yet unknown. We examined the association between the health insurance coverage scheme and neonatal mortality in Colombia. METHODS: We used Colombian national vital registration data, including all live births (2 506 920) and neonatal deaths (17 712) between 2008 and 2011...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Shiwei Liu, Mei Zhang, Ling Yang, Yichong Li, Limin Wang, Zhengjing Huang, Linhong Wang, Zhengming Chen, Maigeng Zhou
BACKGROUND: China consumes about 40% of the world's cigarettes, predominantly by men, following a large increase in recent decades. We assess sex-specific prevalence and changing patterns of smoking in Chinese adults in the current decade. METHODS: A nationally representative survey of smoking was conducted in 2010 among 100 000 Chinese adults aged ≥18 years, using a multistage stratified cluster sampling method. Information on smoking frequency, type, amount, age started and quitting was collected...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Pasquale E Rummo, David K Guilkey, James M Shikany, Jared P Reis, Penny Gordon-Larsen
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how diet-related and activity-related amenities relate to residential location behaviour. Understanding these relationships is essential for addressing residential self-selection bias. METHODS: Using 25 years (6 examinations) of data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study (n=11 013 observations) and linked neighbourhood-level data from the 4 CARDIA baseline cities (Birmingham, Alabama; Chicago, Illinois; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Oakland, California, USA), we characterised participants' neighbourhoods as having low, average or high road connectivity and amenities using non-hierarchical cluster analysis...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Katherine Keenan, George B Ploubidis, Richard J Silverwood, Emily Grundy
BACKGROUND: Marital and partnership history is strongly associated with health in midlife and later life. However, the role of health behaviours as an explanatory mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate prospective associations between life-course partnership trajectories (taking into account timing, non-marital cohabitation, remarriage and marital transitions) and health behaviours measured in midlife. METHODS: We analysed data from the British National Child Development Study, a prospective cohort study that includes all people born in 1 week of March 1958 (N=10 226)...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Chi Chiao
BACKGROUND: As a consequence of the global spread of HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa, the impact of the AIDS pandemic has contributed to more than 40 million orphaned and vulnerable children (OVC) in sub-Saharan Africa. The children's vulnerability is hypothesised to increase the risk of acute respiratory infection (ARI), which remains one of the major infectious causes of child mortality and morbidity in this region. This study examines the linkages between children's vulnerability and ARI symptoms, with a focus on the individual as well as community levels...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Nat Na-Ek, Panayotes Demakakos
BACKGROUND: Since our knowledge of the associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) over the life course and inflammatory and metabolic markers, which are excellent predictors of cardiovascular disease, remains limited, we examined the association between social mobility over the life course and these markers at older ages. METHODS: Our study used cross-sectionally collected data from 6142 participants aged 50 years and older from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Anna R Gagliardi, Anita Kothari, Ian D Graham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 19, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
William Fleischman, Joseph S Ross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 9, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Yusuke Sasabuchi, Hiroki Matsui, Hideo Yasunaga, Kiyohide Fushimi
BACKGROUND: The Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent tsunami and nuclear disaster on 11 March 2011 had a short-term influence on the increase in emergency department visits and hospital admissions due to various diseases. However, it remains unclear whether the earthquake and tsunami disaster affected the long-term health conditions of people in the affected areas. METHODS: Using a national inpatient database in Japan, we investigated people's ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSCs), which are defined as conditions for which effective management and treatment should prevent admission to a hospital...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Sharon Goldfeld, Amanda Kvalsvig, Emily Incledon, Meredith O'Connor
BACKGROUND: Until now, child mental health promotion efforts have focused primarily on reducing the prevalence and severity of problems; yet the absence of mental health problems does not necessarily imply the presence of healthy psychosocial functioning. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of child mental health competence in a full national population of school entrants. METHODS: The data source was the 2012 Australian Early Development Index, a national census of early childhood development completed for school entrants by teachers across Australia (n=275 800)...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Stella Maria Hartinger, Claudio Franco Lanata, Jan Hattendorf, Jennyfer Wolf, Ana Isabel Gil, Mariela Ortiz Obando, Magaly Noblega, Hector Verastegui, Daniel Mäusezahl
OBJECTIVE: Stimulation in early childhood can alleviate adverse effects of poverty. In a community-randomised trial, we implemented 2 home-based interventions, each serving as an attention control for the other. One group received an integrated household intervention package (IHIP), whereas the other group received an early child development (ECD) intervention. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of IHIP on diarrhoea and respiratory infections, the details of which are described elsewhere...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Angel R Zapata Moya, Clemente J Navarro Yáñez
BACKGROUND: Urban regeneration policies are area-based interventions addressing multidimensional problems. In this study, we analyse the impact of urban regeneration processes on the evolution of inequalities in mortality from certain causes. On the basis of Fundamental Cause Theory (FCT), our main hypothesis is that the impact of urban regeneration programmes will be more clearly observed on the causes of preventable deaths, as these programmes imply a direct or indirect improvement to a whole range of 'flexible resources' that residents in relevant areas have access to, and which ultimately may influence the inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and health...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Tim Crocker-Buque, Michael Edelstein, Sandra Mounier-Jack
BACKGROUND: In high-income countries, substantial differences exist in vaccine uptake relating to socioeconomic status, gender, ethnic group, geographic location and religious belief. This paper updates a 2009 systematic review on effective interventions to decrease vaccine uptake inequalities in light of new technologies applied to vaccination and new vaccine programmes (eg, human papillomavirus in adolescents). METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, ASSIA, The Campbell Collaboration, CINAHL, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Eppi Centre, Eric and PsychINFO for intervention, cohort or ecological studies conducted at primary/community care level in children and young people from birth to 19 years in OECD countries, with vaccine uptake or coverage as outcomes, published between 2008 and 2015...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Miriam Evensen, Torkild Hovde Lyngstad, Ole Melkevik, Anne Reneflot, Arnstein Mykletun
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that adolescent mental health problems are associated with lower employment probabilities and risk of unemployment. The evidence on how earnings are affected is much weaker, and few have addressed whether any association reflects unobserved characteristics and whether the consequences of mental health problems vary across the earnings distribution. METHODS: A population-based Norwegian health survey linked to administrative registry data (N=7885) was used to estimate how adolescents' mental health problems (separate indicators of internalising, conduct, and attention problems and total sum scores) affect earnings (≥30 years) in young adulthood...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Alice S Forster, Lauren Rockliffe, Amanda J Chorley, Laura A V Marlow, Helen Bedford, Samuel G Smith, Jo Waller
BACKGROUND: Uptake of some childhood immunisations in the UK is lower among those from some Black and Asian Minority Ethnic (BAME) backgrounds. This systematic review of qualitative research sought to understand the factors that are associated with ethnicity that influence the immunisation decisions of parents from BAME backgrounds living in the UK. METHODS: Databases were searched on 2 December 2014 for studies published at any time using the terms 'UK' and 'vaccination' and 'qualitative methods' (and variations of these)...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Iman Dadgar, Thor Norström
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that increases in gross domestic product (GDP) lead to increases in traffic deaths plausibly due to the increased road traffic induced by an expanding economy. However, there also seems to exist a long-term effect of economic growth that is manifested in improved traffic safety and reduced rates of traffic deaths. Previous studies focus on either the short-term, procyclical effect, or the long-term, protective effect. The aim of the present study is to estimate the short-term and long-term effects jointly in order to assess the net impact of GDP on traffic mortality...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
F De Vocht, J Heron, R Campbell, M Egan, J D Mooney, C Angus, A Brennan, M Hickman
BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol use contributes to public nuisance, antisocial behaviour, and domestic, interpersonal and sexual violence. We test whether licencing policies aimed at restricting its spatial and/or temporal availability, including cumulative impact zones, are associated with reductions in alcohol-related crime. METHODS: Reported crimes at English lower tier local authority (LTLA) level were used to calculate the rates of reported crimes including alcohol-attributable rates of sexual offences and violence against a person, and public order offences...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
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