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Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health

Mark Canney, Donal J Sexton, Neil O'Leary, Martin Healy, Rose Anne Kenny, Mark A Little, Conall M O'Seaghdha
BACKGROUND: Cystatin C has been proposed as a confirmatory test of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This is most applicable to older individuals with CKD, the majority of whom have a creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 45-59 mL/min/1.73 m2 (CKD stage 3a). We sought to examine the utility of cystatin C as a confirmatory test of CKD across the age range in the general population of older adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of 5386 participants from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, a cluster-sampled national cohort of community-dwelling adults aged ≥50 years...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Daniel Oudin Åström, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of death in most industrialised countries, including those in Europe. The mortality rates due to coronary heart disease (CHD), one of the most serious CVD conditions, have been decreasing in most European countries during the last decades. However, whether the trends over time in CHD mortality rates differ depending on neighbourhood deprivation has rarely been investigated. METHODS: For each year of the study period, 1988-2012, in Sweden, age-standardised mortality rates were calculated for three different types of neighbourhoods, characterised by a Neighbourhood Deprivation Index...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
James Higgerson, Emma Halliday, Aurora Ortiz-Nunez, Richard Brown, Ben Barr
BACKGROUND: There are large inequalities in levels of physical activity in the UK, and this is an important determinant of health inequalities. Little is known about the effectiveness of community-wide interventions to increase physical activity and whether effects differ by socioeconomic group. METHODS: We conducted interrupted time series and difference-in-differences analyses using local administrative data and a large national survey to investigate the impact of an intervention providing universal free access to leisure facilities alongside outreach and marketing activities in a deprived local authority area in the northwest of England...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Carolina Ibarra-Castillo, Marina Guisado-Clavero, Concepció Violan-Fors, Mariona Pons-Vigués, Tomàs López-Jiménez, Albert Roso-Llorach
BACKGROUND: Several studies have analysed the characteristics of multimorbidity patterns but none have evaluated the relationship with survival. The purpose of this study was to compare survival across older adults with different chronic multimorbidity patterns (CMPs). METHODS: Prospective longitudinal observational study using electronic health records for 190 108 people aged ≥65 years in Barcelona, Spain (2009-2014). CMPs were identified by cluster analysis...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Chris G Buse, Jordan Sky Oestreicher, Neville R Ellis, Rebecca Patrick, Ben Brisbois, Aaron P Jenkins, Kaileah McKellar, Jonathan Kingsley, Maya Gislason, Lindsay Galway, Ro A McFarlane, Joanne Walker, Howard Frumkin, Margot Parkes
The impacts of global environmental change have precipitated numerous approaches that connect the health of ecosystems, non-human organisms and humans. However, the proliferation of approaches can lead to confusion due to overlaps in terminology, ideas and foci. Recognising the need for clarity, this paper provides a guide to seven field developments in environmental public health research and practice: occupational and environmental health; political ecology of health; environmental justice; ecohealth; One Health; ecological public health; and planetary health...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Naoki Kondo, Yoshiki Ishikawa
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomically vulnerable people are likely to have more health risks because of inadequate behaviour choices related to chronic social stresses. Brain science suggests that stress causes cognitively biased automatic decision making, preferring instant stress relief and pleasure (eg, smoking, alcohol use and drug abuse) as opposed to reflectively seeking health-maintenance services (eg, health check-ups). As such, hedonic stimuli that nudge people towards preventive actions could reduce health behaviour disparities...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Laetitia Minary, François Alla, Linda Cambon, Joelle Kivits, Louise Potvin
BACKGROUND: Public health interventions are increasingly being recognised as complex and context dependent. Related to this is the need for a systemic and dynamic conception of interventions that raises the question of delineating the scope and contours of interventions in complex systems. This means identifying which elements belong to the intervention (and therefore participate in its effects and can be transferred), which ones belong to the context and interact with the former to influence results (and therefore must be taken into account when transferring the intervention) and which contextual elements are irrelevant to the intervention...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Shoko Konishi, Chris Fook Sheng Ng, Chiho Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Prospective cohort studies of contemporary populations in both Western and Asian settings have reported a U-shaped association between fertility and mortality. We examined whether an association exists between fertility and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a sample of Japanese women. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in one rural and one urban community in Gunma Prefecture, Japan, in 1993. A follow-up survey was conducted in the year 2000 in 4858 women aged 47-77 years, and information on demographic and lifestyle characteristics was collected...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Stephanie L Mayne, Lindsay R Pool, William A Grobman, Kiarri N Kershaw
BACKGROUND: Adverse pregnancy outcomes are associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk among mothers and future health problems of offspring. Neighbourhood crime may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes by increasing chronic stress, yet the association has been relatively understudied. METHODS: Electronic health records from 34 383 singleton births at a single hospital in Chicago (2009-2013) were geocoded and linked to 1-year rates of police-recorded crime at the neighbourhood (Chicago community area) level...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Mario Murcia, Mercedes Espada, Jordi Julvez, Sabrina Llop, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Jesus Vioque, Mikel Basterrechea, Isolina Riaño, Llucia González, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Adonina Tardón, Jesús Ibarluzea, Marisa Rebagliato
BACKGROUND: The effect of mild-to-moderate maternal iodine deficiency on the neuropsychological development of their offspring is uncertain. We aimed to assess the association between iodine status during pregnancy and the cognitive and motor development of children at 4-5 years. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study in four Spanish regions with recruitment of pregnant women between 2003 and 2008 and follow-up of their children up to 4-5 years (mean (SD)=4...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Hannah Cohen-Cline, Shirley A A Beresford, Wendy Elizabeth Barrington, Ross L Matsueda, Jon Wakefield, Glen E Duncan
BACKGROUND: Depression is an important contributor to the global burden of disease. Besides several known individual-level factors that contribute to depression, there is a growing recognition that neighbourhood environment can also profoundly affect mental health. This study assessed associations between three neighbourhood constructs-socioeconomic deprivation, residential instability and income inequality-and depression among adult twin pairs. The twin design is used to examine the association between neighbourhood constructs and depression, controlling for selection factors (ie, genetic and shared environmental factors) that have confounded purported associations...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Mauricio Avendano, Lidia Panico
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence of the impact of policies to promote work-family balance on family health. Exploiting the introduction of the UK Flexible Working Act (2003), we examined whether a policy that grants parents the right to request flexible work influences their health and well-being. METHODS: Using the UK Millennium Cohort Study, we focus on 6424 mothers employed in 2001-2002, when the cohort child was 9 months old, until their child's seventh birthday...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Lauren A Wise, Amelia K Wesselink, Elizabeth E Hatch, Kenneth J Rothman, Ellen M Mikkelsen, Henrik Toft Sørensen, Shruthi Mahalingaiah
BACKGROUND: The influence of marijuana use on human fertility has not been well studied. We evaluated the association between female and male use of marijuana and fecundability in Pregnancy Study Online, a prospective cohort of North American couples. METHODS: Female participants completed a baseline questionnaire on which they reported lifestyle and behavioural factors, including frequency of marijuana use within the previous 2 months. Male partners completed an optional baseline questionnaire on similar factors, including marijuana use...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Natalia Vadimovna Permyakova, Sunnee Billingsley
BACKGROUND: Previous studies show contradictory findings on the relationship between health and intergenerational living arrangements (ILAs), which may be due to variation in who selects themselves into and out of ILA. Addressing the selectivity into ILA and the health of the older generation, we assess whether there is a health-protective or health-damaging effect of ILA. We locate our study in the Russian context, where ILA is prevalent and men's health has become a public health issue...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Sharon Goldfeld, Meredith O'Connor, Dan Cloney, Sarah Gray, Gerry Redmond, Hannah Badland, Katrina Williams, Fiona Mensah, Sue Woolfenden, Amanda Kvalsvig, Anita T Kochanoff
BACKGROUND: Child health and developmental inequities exist in all countries. Comprehensive and robust concepts of disadvantage are fundamental to growing an evidence base that can reveal the extent of inequities in childhood, and identify modifiable leverage points for change. We conceptualise and test a multidimensional framework of child disadvantage aligned to a social determinants and bioecological perspective. METHODS: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children is a nationally representative sample of two cohorts of Australian children, including the birth cohort of 5107 infants, which commenced in May 2004...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Evangelos Kontopantelis, Mamas A Mamas, Harm van Marwijk, Andrew M Ryan, Iain E Buchan, Darren M Ashcroft, Tim Doran
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic deprivation is a key determinant for health. In England, the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) is a widely used composite measure of deprivation. However, little is known about its spatial clustering or persistence across time. METHODS: Data for overall IMD and its health domain were analysed for 2004-2015 at a low geographical area (average of 1500 people). Levels and temporal changes were spatially visualised for the whole of England and its 10 administrative regions...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Hong Yang, Mingguo Ma, Julian R Thompson, Roger J Flower
With rapid population growth, especially in low-income and middle-income countries, the generation of waste is increasing at an unprecedented rate. For example, annual global waste arising from waste electrical and electronic equipment alone will have increased from 33.8 to 49.8 million tonnes between 2010 and 2018. Despite incineration and other waste treatment techniques, landfill still dominates waste disposal in low-income and middle-income countries. There is usually insufficient funding for adequate waste management in these countries and uptake of more advanced waste treatment technologies is poor...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Andrew Pulford, Ruth Gordon, Lesley Graham, James Lewsey, Gerry McCartney, Mark Robinson
BACKGROUND: Health selection has been proposed to explain the patterning of alcohol-related mortality by area deprivation. This study investigated whether persons who die from alcohol-related conditions are more likely to experience social drift than those who die from other causes. METHODS: Deaths recorded in Scotland (2013, >21 years) were coded as 'alcohol-related' or 'other' and by deprivation decile of residence at death. Acute hospital admissions data from 1996 to 2012 were used to provide premortality deprivation data...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Adrien Boillot, Xavier Jouven, Hélène Rangé, Marie Cécile Perier, Frédérique Thomas, Catherine Guibout, Bruno Pannier, Pierre Boutouyrie, Jean-Philippe Empana, Philippe Bouchard
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of evidence on the impact of socioeconomic factors on masticatory efficiency. The present study investigates the relationship between individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic factors (main exposure) and the number of masticatory units (MUs) used as surrogate of the masticatory efficiency (main outcome). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study nested in the Paris Prospective Study 3, 4270 adults aged 50-75 and recruited from 13 June 2008 to 31 May 2012 underwent a full-mouth examination...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Irina Guseva Canu, Paul A Schulte, Michael Riediker, Liliya Fatkhutdinova, Enrico Bergamaschi
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) raise questions among the scientific community and public health authorities about their potential risks to human health. Studying a prospective cohort of workers exposed to ENMs would be considered the gold standard for identifying potential health effects of nanotechnology and confirming the 'no effect' levels derived from cellular and animal models. However, because only small, cross-sectional studies have been conducted in the past 5 years, questions remain about the health risks of ENMs...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
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