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Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918390/a-glossary-for-big-data-in-population-and-public-health-discussion-and-commentary-on-terminology-and-research-methods
#1
Daniel Fuller, Richard Buote, Kevin Stanley
The volume and velocity of data are growing rapidly and big data analytics are being applied to these data in many fields. Population and public health researchers may be unfamiliar with the terminology and statistical methods used in big data. This creates a barrier to the application of big data analytics. The purpose of this glossary is to define terms used in big data and big data analytics and to contextualise these terms. We define the five Vs of big data and provide definitions and distinctions for data mining, machine learning and deep learning, among other terms...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900029/young-adulthood-and-adulthood-adiposity-in-relation-to-incidence-of-pancreatic-cancer-a-prospective-study-of-0-5-million-chinese-adults-and-a-meta-analysis
#2
Yuanjie Pang, Michael V Holmes, Christiana Kartsonaki, Yu Guo, Ling Yang, Zheng Bian, Yiping Chen, Fiona Bragg, Andri Iona, Iona Y Millwood, Junshi Chen, Liming Li, Zhengming Chen
BACKGROUND: Adult adiposity is positively associated with pancreatic cancer in Western populations. Little is known, however, about the association in China where many have lower body mass index (BMI) or about the relevance of young adulthood adiposity for pancreatic cancer in both Western and East Asian populations. METHODS: The China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) recruited 512 891 adults aged 30-79 years during 2004-2008, recording 595 incident cases of pancreatic cancer during 8-year follow-up...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900028/education-and-health-and-well-being-direct-and-indirect-effects-with-multiple-mediators-and-interactions-with-multiple-imputed-data-in-stata
#3
Mashhood Ahmed Sheikh, Birgit Abelsen, Jan Abel Olsen
BACKGROUND: Previous methods for assessing mediation assume no multiplicative interactions. The inverse odds weighting (IOW) approach has been presented as a method that can be used even when interactions exist. The substantive aim of this study was to assess the indirect effect of education on health and well-being via four indicators of adult socioeconomic status (SES): income, management position, occupational hierarchy position and subjective social status. METHODS: 8516 men and women from the Tromsø Study (Norway) were followed for 17 years...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860201/mental-health-impacts-of-flooding-a-controlled-interrupted-time-series-analysis-of-prescribing-data-in-england
#4
Ai Milojevic, Ben Armstrong, Paul Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence that people affected by flooding suffer adverse impacts on their mental well-being, mostly based on self-reports. METHODS: We examined prescription records for drugs used in the management of common mental disorder among primary care practices located in the vicinity of recent large flood events in England, 2011-2014. A controlled interrupted time series analysis was conducted of the number of prescribing items for antidepressant drugs in the year before and after the flood onset...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855264/economic-insecurity-during-the-great-recession-and-metabolic-inflammatory-and-liver-function-biomarkers-analysis-of-the-uk-household-longitudinal-study
#5
Claire L Niedzwiedz, Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Aaron Reeves, Martin McKee, David Stuckler
BACKGROUND: Economic insecurity correlates with adverse health outcomes, but the biological pathways involved are not well understood. We examine how changes in economic insecurity relate to metabolic, inflammatory and liver function biomarkers. METHODS: Blood analyte data were taken from 6520 individuals (aged 25-59 years) participating in Understanding Society. Economic insecurity was measured using an indicator of subjective financial strain and by asking participants whether they had missed any bill, council tax, rent or mortgage payments in the past year...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847845/evolution-of-wikipedia-s-medical-content-past-present-and-future
#6
Thomas Shafee, Gwinyai Masukume, Lisa Kipersztok, Diptanshu Das, Mikael Häggström, James Heilman
As one of the most commonly read online sources of medical information, Wikipedia is an influential public health platform. Its medical content, community, collaborations and challenges have been evolving since its creation in 2001, and engagement by the medical community is vital for ensuring its accuracy and completeness. Both the encyclopaedia's internal metrics as well as external assessments of its quality indicate that its articles are highly variable, but improving. Although content can be edited by anyone, medical articles are primarily written by a core group of medical professionals...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28847843/economic-insecurity-during-the-great-recession-and-metabolic-inflammatory-and-liver-function-biomarkers-analysis-of-the-uk-household-longitudinal-study
#7
Claire L Niedzwiedz, Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Aaron Reeves, Martin McKee, David Stuckler
BACKGROUND: Economic insecurity correlates with adverse health outcomes, but the biological pathways involved are not well understood. We examine how changes in economic insecurity relate to metabolic, inflammatory and liver function biomarkers. METHODS: Blood analyte data were taken from 6520 individuals (aged 25-59 years) participating in Understanding Society. Economic insecurity was measured using an indicator of subjective financial strain and by asking participants whether they had missed any bill, council tax, rent or mortgage payments in the past year...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839078/fluoride-exposure-and-indicators-of-thyroid-functioning-in-the-canadian-population-implications-for-community-water-fluoridation
#8
Amanda M Barberio, F Shaun Hosein, Carlos Quiñonez, Lindsay McLaren
BACKGROUND: There are concerns that altered thyroid functioning could be the result of ingesting too much fluoride. Community water fluoridation (CWF) is an important source of fluoride exposure. Our objectives were to examine the association between fluoride exposure and (1) diagnosis of a thyroid condition and (2) indicators of thyroid functioning among a national population-based sample of Canadians. METHODS: We analysed data from Cycles 2 and 3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS)...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839077/alcohol-consumption-in-a-general-antenatal-population-and-child-neurodevelopment-at-2-years
#9
Jane L Halliday, Evelyne Muggli, Sharon Lewis, Elizabeth J Elliott, David J Amor, Colleen O'Leary, Susan Donath, Della Forster, Cate Nagle, Jeffrey M Craig, Peter J Anderson
BACKGROUND: Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is a community health problem with up to 50% of pregnant women drinking alcohol. The relationship between low or sporadic binge PAE and adverse child outcomes is not clear. This study examines the association between PAE in the general antenatal population and child neurodevelopment at 2 years, accounting for relevant contributing factors. METHODS: This prospective population-based cohort recruited 1570 pregnant women, providing sociodemographic, psychological and lifestyle information and alcohol use for five time periods...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830952/is-atmospheric-pollution-exposure-during-pregnancy-associated-with-individual-and-contextual-characteristics-a-nationwide-study-in-france
#10
Marion Ouidir, Johanna Lepeule, Valérie Siroux, Laure Malherbe, Frederik Meleux, Emmanuel Rivière, Ludivine Launay, Cécile Zaros, Marie Cheminat, Marie-Aline Charles, Rémy Slama
BACKGROUND: Exposure to atmospheric pollutants is a danger for the health of pregnant mother and children. Our objective was to identify individual (socioeconomic and behavioural) and contextual factors associated with atmospheric pollution pregnancy exposure at the nationwide level. METHOD: Among 14 921 women from the French nationwide ELFE (French Longitudinal Study of Children) mother-child cohort recruited in 2011, outdoor exposure levels of PM2.5, PM10 (particulate matter <2...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830951/excess-mortality-due-to-indirect-health-effects-of-the-2011-triple-disaster-in-fukushima-japan-a-retrospective-observational-study
#11
Tomohiro Morita, Shuhei Nomura, Masaharu Tsubokura, Claire Leppold, Stuart Gilmour, Sae Ochi, Akihiko Ozaki, Yuki Shimada, Kana Yamamoto, Manami Inoue, Shigeaki Kato, Kenji Shibuya, Masahiro Kami
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the indirect health impacts of disasters is limited. We assessed the excess mortality risk associated with the indirect health impacts of the 2011 triple disaster (earthquake, tsunami and nuclear disaster) in Fukushima, Japan. METHODS: The mortality rates in Soma and Minamisoma cities in Fukushima from 2006 to 2015 were calculated using vital statistics and resident registrations. We investigated the excess mortality risk, defined as the increased mortality risk between postdisaster and predisaster after excluding direct deaths attributed to the physical force of the disaster...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822980/principal-component-analysis-of-socioeconomic-factors-and-their-association-with-malaria-and-arbovirus-risk-in-tanzania-a-sensitivity-analysis
#12
Esha Homenauth, Debora Kajeguka, Manisha A Kulkarni
Principal component analysis (PCA) is frequently adopted for creating socioeconomic proxies in order to investigate the independent effects of wealth on disease status. The guidelines and methods for the creation of these proxies are well described and validated. The Demographic and Health Survey, World Health Survey and the Living Standards Measurement Survey are examples of large data sets that use PCA to create wealth indices particularly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), where quantifying wealth-disease associations is problematic due to the unavailability of reliable income and expenditure data...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822979/physical-activity-dog-ownership-and-falls-among-older-adults-a-breed-apart
#13
LETTER
Theodore D Cosco, Benjamin L Storey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 19, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822978/ecological-analysis-of-secular-trends-in-low-birth-weight-births-and-adult-height-in-japan
#14
Naho Morisaki, Kevin Yuji Urayama, Keisuke Yoshii, S V Subramanian, Susumu Yokoya
BACKGROUND: Japan, which currently maintains the highest life expectancy in the world and has experienced an impressive gain in adult height over the past century, has suffered a dramatic twofold increase in low birth weight (LBW) births since the 1970s. METHODS: We observed secular trends in birth characteristics using 64 115 249 live births included the vital statistics (1969-2014), as well as trends in average height among 3 145 521 adults born between 1969 and 1996, included in 79 surveys conducted among a national, subnational or community population in Japan...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822977/are-green-cities-healthy-and-equitable-unpacking-the-relationship-between-health-green-space-and-gentrification
#15
Helen V S Cole, Melisa Garcia Lamarca, James J T Connolly, Isabelle Anguelovski
While access and exposure to green spaces has been shown to be beneficial for the health of urban residents, interventions focused on augmenting such access may also catalyse gentrification processes, also known as green gentrification. Drawing from the fields of public health, urban planning and environmental justice, we argue that public health and epidemiology researchers should rely on a more dynamic model of community that accounts for the potential unintended social consequences of upstream health interventions...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798152/self-reported-vision-impairment-and-incident-prefrailty-and-frailty-in-english-community-dwelling-older-adults-findings-from-a-4-year-follow-up-study
#16
Ann E M Liljas, Livia A Carvalho, Efstathios Papachristou, Cesar De Oliveira, S Goya Wannamethee, Sheena E Ramsay, Kate R Walters
BACKGROUND: Little is known about vision impairment and frailty in older age. We investigated the relationship of poor vision and incident prefrailty and frailty. METHODS: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses with 4-year follow-up of 2836 English community-dwellers aged ≥60 years. Vision impairment was defined as poor self-reported vision. A score of 0 out of the 5 Fried phenotype components was defined as non-frail, 1-2 prefrail and ≥3 as frail. Participants non-frail at baseline were followed-up for incident prefrailty and frailty...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798151/socioeconomic-differences-in-children-s-growth-trajectories-from-infancy-to-early-adulthood-evidence-from-four-european-countries
#17
Cathal McCrory, Neil O'Leary, Silvia Fraga, Ana Isabel Ribeiro, Henrique Barros, Noora Kartiosuo, Olli Raitakari, Mika Kivimäki, Paolo Vineis, Richard Layte
BACKGROUND: Height is regarded as a marker of early-life illness, adversity, nutrition and psychosocial stress, but the extent to which differences in height are determined by early-life socioeconomic circumstances, particularly in contemporary populations, is unclear. This study examined socioeconomic differences in children's height trajectories from birth through to 21 years of age in four European countries. METHODS: Data were from six prospective cohort studies-Generation XXI, Growing Up in Ireland (infant and child cohorts), Millennium Cohort Study, EPITeen and Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study-comprising a total of 49 492 children with growth measured repeatedly from 1980 to 2014...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794061/socioeconomic-position-and-markers-of-adiposity-among-female-teachers-in-mexico
#18
Kelly A Hirko, Martin Lajous, Eduardo Ortiz-Panozo, Ruy Lopez-Ridaura, Paul J Christine, Felice Lȇ-Scherban, Megan S Rice, Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutierrez
BACKGROUND: Occupation is often used as an indicator of socioeconomic position (SEP) in epidemiological studies, although it is unclear whether variation in SEP within a single occupational group is associated with health outcomes, including adiposity measures. METHODS: We created a multidimensional SEP index using principal component analysis based on self-reported data from 36 704 female teachers in Mexico from 2008 to 2011. Multivariable Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to evaluate cross-sectional associations of SEP and markers of adiposity, including obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2)), elevated waist-to-hip ratio (WHR >85) and high waist circumference (WC >88 cm)...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790142/stress-resilience-and-cancer-risk-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#19
Beatrice Kennedy, Fang Fang, Unnur Valdimarsdóttir, Ruzan Udumyan, Scott Montgomery, Katja Fall
BACKGROUND: Stress resilience is recognised as a determinant of both psychiatric and somatic health, but the potential link between stress resilience and cancer development has not been explored. METHODS: In this nationwide cohort study, we examined the association between stress resilience in adolescence and subsequent cancer risk. We identified a cohort of 284 257 Swedish men, born 1952-1956, who underwent compulsory military enlistment examinations including measures of psychological stress resilience (median age 18 years)...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28784630/north-south-disparities-in-english-mortality-1965-2015-longitudinal-population-study
#20
Iain E Buchan, Evangelos Kontopantelis, Matthew Sperrin, Tarani Chandola, Tim Doran
BACKGROUND: Social, economic and health disparities between northern and southern England have persisted despite Government policies to reduce them. We examine long-term trends in premature mortality in northern and southern England across age groups, and whether mortality patterns changed after the 2008-2009 Great Recession. METHODS: Population-wide longitudinal (1965-2015) study of mortality in England's five northernmost versus four southernmost Government Office Regions - halves of overall population...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
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