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Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health

Griffith A Bell, Rajeshwari Sundaram, Sunni L Mumford, Hyojun Park, Miranda Broadney, James L Mills, Erin M Bell, Edwina H Yeung
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of female infertility and is associated with higher levels of circulating androgens. Exposure to higher levels of androgens in utero may be a risk factor for obesity among children of women with PCOS. METHODS: We examined whether maternal PCOS was associated with differences in offspring growth and obesity in the Upstate KIDS study, a prospective cohort study of infants born in New York State (excluding New York City) oversampled for fertility treatments and multiple births...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Arian Hatefi, Luke Allen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 21, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Leif Eriksson, Nguyen T Nga, Dinh T Phuong Hoa, Duong M Duc, Anna Bergström, Lars Wallin, Mats Målqvist, Uwe Ewald, Tran Q Huy, Nguyen T Thuy, Tran Thanh Do, Pham T L Lien, Lars-Åke Persson, Katarina Ekholm Selling
BACKGROUND: Little is know about whether the effects of community engagement interventions for child survival in low-income and middle-income settings are sustained. Seasonal variation and secular trend may blur the data. Neonatal mortality was reduced in a cluster-randomised trial in Vietnam where laywomen facilitated groups composed of local stakeholders employing a problem-solving approach for 3 years. In this analysis, we aim at disentangling the secular trend, the seasonal variation and the effect of the intervention on neonatal mortality during and after the trial...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Parke Edward Wilde, Zach Conrad, Colin D Rehm, Jennifer L Pomeranz, Jose L Penalvo, Frederick Cudhea, Jonathan Pearson-Stuttard, Martin O'Flaherty, Renata Micha, Dariush Mozaffarian
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal diets are a major contributor to cardiometabolic disease (CMD) mortality, and substantial disparities exist for both dietary quality and mortality risk across income groups in the USA. Research is needed to quantify how food pricing policies to subsidise healthy foods and tax unhealthy foods could affect the US CMD mortality, overall and by Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) eligibility and participation. METHODS: Comparative risk analysis based on national data on diet (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2012) and mortality (mortality-linked National Health Interview Survey) and meta-analyses of policy-diet and diet-disease relationships...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Emily M D'Agostino, Hersila H Patel, Zafar Ahmed, Eric Hansen, M Sunil Mathew, Maria I Nardi, Sarah E Messiah
BACKGROUND: Identifying how racial/ethnic residential segregation and mobility may impact health can guide innovative strategies for reducing youth disparities. METHODS: This natural experiment examined the association between change in residential segregation and cardiovascular health outcomes across race/ethnicity and gender for youth (n=2250, mean age 9.1 years, 54% male; 51% Hispanic, 49% non-Hispanic black (NHB); 49% high area poverty) attending a multisite park-based afterschool fitness programme in Florida, USA...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Anthony L Bui, Matthew M Coates, Ellicott C Matthay
BACKGROUND: To inform discussions on rates, burden and priority-setting in relation to police violence, we quantified the number and rate of years of life lost (YLLs) due to police violence by race/ethnicity and age in the USA, 2015-2016. METHODS: We used data on the number of deaths due to police violence from 'The Counted', a media-based source compiled by The Guardian . YLLs are the difference between an individual's age at death and their corresponding standard life expectancy at age of death...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Lin Yang, Liang Hu, J Aaron Hipp, Kellie R Imm, Rudolph Schutte, Brendon Stubbs, Graham A Colditz, Lee Smith
BACKGROUND: To investigate associations between active transport, employment status and objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a representative sample of US adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 5180 adults (50.2 years old, 49.0% men) were classified by levels of active transportation and employment status. Outcome measure was weekly time spent in MVPA as recorded by the Actigraph accelerometer...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Wilco Perini, Marieke B Snijder, Ron J G Peters, Karien Stronks, Anton E Kunst
BACKGROUND: International migrants differ from host populations in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. It has been postulated that these disparities narrow with longer residence duration. Our aim was to determine whether CVD risk still differs between migrants and host population after decades of residence and to determine whether this potential convergence of CVD risk would occur mainly among migrants with a strong cultural orientation towards the host culture. METHODS: In the Healthy Life in an Urban Setting study, we obtained data regarding residence duration, cultural orientation as estimated by the Psychological Acculturation Scale and CVD risk as estimated by SCORE among the Dutch host population and first generation migrants from South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Moroccan and Turkish ethnic background residing in Amsterdam...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Raisa Cassim, Elasma Milanzi, Jennifer J Koplin, Shyamali C Dharmage, Melissa Anne Russell
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in the role physical activity (PA) can play in the development and management of asthma. Understanding whether PA can have a positive effect is hindered by the potential influence of asthma on PA and a lack of relevant longitudinal data, leading to a debate on the existence and direction of these links. The aim of this study was to explore whether having asthma results in lower PA levels, and/or whether lower PA levels lead to more asthma in children and adolescents...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Hayley J Denison, Amanda Eng, Lucy A Barnes, Soo Cheng, Andrea 't Mannetje, Katharine Haddock, Jeroen Douwes, Neil Pearce, Lis Ellison-Loschmann
BACKGROUND: Health inequities between indigenous and non-indigenous people are well documented. However, the contribution of differential exposure to risk factors in the occupational environment remains unclear. This study assessed differences in the prevalence of self-reported exposure to disease risk factors, including dust and chemicals, physical factors and organisational factors, between Māori and non-Māori workers in New Zealand. METHODS: Potential participants were sampled from the New Zealand electoral rolls and invited to take part in a telephone interview, which included questions about current workplace exposures...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Reea Ahola, Heini Hölsä, Samuli Kiskola, Pirkka Ojala, Aino Pirttilä, Juhani Sand, Johanna Laukkarinen
BACKGROUND: Surgical resection is the best treatment option to improve the prognosis of pancreatic cancer (PC). Our aim was to analyse whether PC treatment strategies show regional variation in Finland, a country with a nationwide public healthcare system. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with PC in 2003 and 2008 were identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry. The data regarding tumour, treatment, demographics and timespans to treatment were recorded from the patient archives...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Yashvee Dunneram, Darren Charles Greenwood, Victoria J Burley, Janet E Cade
BACKGROUND: Age at natural menopause is a matter of concern for women of reproductive age as both an early or late menopause may have implications for health outcomes. METHODS: Study participants were women aged 40-65 years who had experienced a natural menopause from the UK Women's Cohort Study between baseline and first follow-up. Natural menopause was defined as the permanent cessation of menstrual periods for at least 12 consecutive months. A food frequency questionnaire was used to estimate diet at baseline...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Emanuela Taioli, Stephanie Tuminello, Wil Lieberman-Cribbin, Kristin Bevilacqua, Samantha Schneider, Maria Guzman, Samantha Kerath, Rebecca M Schwartz
Hurricane exposure can have a profound impact on mental health, leading to increased symptoms of stress, anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder that are still present years after the storm. Those displaced following a hurricane are particularly vulnerable to adverse mental health outcomes, especially if displaced to temporary shelters. The current work highlights the experiences and mental health challenges of displaced populations following Hurricane Sandy and Hurricane Harvey, as well as describing barriers to conducting research in the immediate aftermath of Hurricane Harvey and the need for more comprehensive interventions in these vulnerable populations...
April 29, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Paola Zaninotto, G David Batty, Michael Allerhand, Ian J Deary
BACKGROUND: Maintaining cognitive function is an important aspect of healthy ageing. In this study, we examined age trajectories of cognitive decline in a large nationally representative sample of older people in England. We explored the factors that influence such decline and whether these differed by gender. METHODS: Latent growth curve modelling was used to explore age-specific changes, and influences on them, in an 8-year period in memory, executive function, processing speed and global cognitive function among 10 626 participants in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Zhenghe Wang, Zhiyong Zou, Bin Dong, Jun Ma, Luke Arnold
BACKGROUND: The association between famine exposure in early life and risk of arthritis (combination of osteoarthritis and inflammatory arthritis) in adulthood is unclear. The aim of this study is to explore the association. METHODS: A total of 4124 subjects were selected from the national data of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2011-2012. Doctor-diagnosed arthritis was self-reported in participants' questionnaire. Birthdates were used to categorise participants into famine-exposed and non-exposed groups...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Collin F Payne, Justine I Davies, F Xavier Gomez-Olive, Katherine J Hands, Kathleen Kahn, Lindsay C Kobayashi, Brent Tipping, Stephen M Tollman, Alisha Wade, Miles D Witham
BACKGROUND: Age cohort differences in haemoglobin concentrations and associations with physical and cognitive performance among populations of lower income and middle-income countries have not previously been described. We examined the association between these factors among older men and women in rural South Africa. METHODS: We analysed cross-sectional data from a population-based study of rural South African men and women aged 40 and over (n=4499), with data drawn from questionnaire responses, a cognitive battery, objective physical function tests and blood tests...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Nina van den Broek, Jorien L Treur, Junilla K Larsen, Maaike Verhagen, Karin J H Verweij, Jacqueline M Vink
BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is correlated negatively with subjective well-being and positively with depressive symptoms. Whether these associations reflect causal effects is unclear. METHODS: We examined bidirectional, causal effects between BMI and mental health with Mendelian randomisation using summary-level data from published genome-wide association studies (BMI: n=339 224; subjective well-being: n=204 966; depressive symptoms: n=161 460). Genetic variants robustly related to the exposure variable acted as instrumental variable to estimate causal effects...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Long Zhou, Liancheng Zhao, Yong Wu, Yangfeng Wu, Xiangmin Gao, Ying Li, Jinzhuang Mai, Zhiqiang Nie, Yanqiu Ou, Min Guo, Xiaoqing Liu
BACKGROUND: The American Heart Association (AHA) developed a simplified assessment tool based on seven ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics, but the relationship between the AHA defined ideal CVH metrics and cardiovascular risk in Chinese population has not been well estimated. METHODS: The baseline survey were conducted among 938 Chinese men and women from four urban and rural population samples in China, aged 35-59 years in 1983-1984. The cohort was followed up for multiple cardiovascular endpoints up to 2005...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Janet Bouttell, Peter Craig, James Lewsey, Mark Robinson, Frank Popham
BACKGROUND: Many public health interventions cannot be evaluated using randomised controlled trials so they rely on the assessment of observational data. Techniques for evaluating public health interventions using observational data include interrupted time series analysis, panel data regression-based approaches, regression discontinuity and instrumental variable approaches. The inclusion of a counterfactual improves causal inference for approaches based on time series analysis, but the selection of a suitable counterfactual or control area can be problematic...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
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