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Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health

Ying Liu, Wanqing Wen, Yu-Tang Gao, Hong-Lan Li, Gong Yang, Yong-Bing Xiang, Xiao-Ou Shu, Wei Zheng
BACKGROUND: Few studies have prospectively evaluated the association of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) with mortality in Asians, who are more susceptible to insulin resistance than their Caucasian counterparts. METHODS: Data from two large prospective cohort studies conducted in Shanghai were evaluated. After excluding participants who had a history of cancer, coronary heart disease or stroke at baseline, or who died within the first 3 years after study enrolment, 53 839 men and 66 888 women, followed for an average of 9...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Daniel Aggio, Lee Smith, Mark Hamer
BACKGROUND: Higher cognitive function in childhood is associated with healthier behaviours and a reduced risk of chronic disease in adulthood, but it is unclear whether this selection of healthier behaviours occurs in childhood or later in life. The present study investigated how cognitive function at age 3-7 years was associated with health behaviours at age 11. METHODS: Verbal, non-verbal and spatial abilities were assessed using the British Ability Scales at ages 3-7...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Mariette Chartier, Nathan C Nickel, Dan Chateau, Jennifer E Enns, Michael R Isaac, Alan Katz, Joykrishna Sarkar, Elaine Burland, Carole Taylor, Marni Brownell
BACKGROUND: Home visiting has been shown to reduce child maltreatment and improve child health outcomes. In this observational study, we explored whether Families First, a home visiting programme in Manitoba, Canada, decreased population-level inequities in children being taken into care of child welfare and receiving complete childhood immunisations. METHODS: De-identified administrative health and social services data for children born 2003-2009 in Manitoba were linked to home visiting programme data...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Maria C Magnus, Emma L Anderson, Laura D Howe, Carol J Joinson, Ian S Penton-Voak, Abigail Fraser
BACKGROUND: Previous studies of childhood psychosocial adversity and age at menarche mostly evaluated single or a few measures of adversity, and therefore could not quantify total psychosocial adversity. Limited knowledge is currently available regarding childhood psychosocial adversity in relation to age at menopause and reproductive lifespan. METHODS: We examined the associations of total and specific components of childhood psychosocial adversity with age at menarche (n=8984), age at menopause (n=945), and length of reproductive lifespan (n=841), in mothers participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Aliasghar Ahmad Kiadaliri, Aleksandra Turkiewicz, Martin Englund
BACKGROUND: Falls are the leading cause of fatal injuries among elderly adults. While socioeconomic status including education is a well-documented predictor of many individual health outcomes including mortality, little is known about socioeconomic inequalities in falls mortality among adults. This study aimed to assess educational inequalities in falls mortality among older adults in Sweden using multiple cause of death data. METHODS: All residents aged 50‒75 years in the Skåne region, Sweden, during 1998‒2013 (n=566 478) were followed until death, relocation outside Skåne or end of 2014...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Kylie Elizabeth King, Marisa Schlichthorst, Matthew J Spittal, Andrea Phelps, Jane Pirkis
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether a public health intervention-a three-part documentary called Man Up which explored the relationship between masculinity and mental health, well-being and suicidality-could increase men's intentions to seek help for personal and emotional problems. METHODS: We recruited men aged 18 years or over who were not at risk of suicide to participate in a double-blind randomised controlled trial. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) via computer randomisation to view Man Up (the intervention) or a control documentary...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Joseph L Saenz, Rebeca Wong, Jennifer A Ailshire
BACKGROUND: A growing body of research suggests exposure to high levels of outdoor air pollution may negatively affect cognitive functioning in older adults, but less is known about the link between indoor sources of air pollution and cognitive functioning. We examine the association between exposure to indoor air pollution and cognitive function among older adults in Mexico, a developing country where combustion of biomass for domestic energy remains common. METHOD: Data come from the 2012 Wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Jenni Ervasti, Mika Kivimäki, Jaana Pentti, Jaana I Halonen, Jussi Vahtera, Marianna Virtanen
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether changes in alcohol use predict changes in the risk of sickness absence in a case-crossover design. METHODS: Finnish public sector employees were surveyed in 2000, 2004 and 2008 on alcohol use and covariates. Heavy drinking was defined as either a weekly intake that exceeded recommendations (12 units for women; 23 for men) or having an extreme drinking session. The responses were linked to national sickness absence registers. We analysed the within-person relative risk of change in the risk of sickness absence in relation to change in drinking...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Tami Saito, Chiyoe Murata, Masashige Saito, Tokunori Takeda, Katsunori Kondo
BACKGROUND: Social relationships consist of mutually related but distinct dimensions. It remains unclear how these domains independently contribute to incident dementia. This large-scale, prospective cohort study examines associations between the social relationship domains as well as their combinations and incident dementia among community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: We analysed data from 13 984 community-dwelling adults aged 65+ without long-term care needs living in Aichi prefecture in Japan...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Ildefonso Hernández-Aguado, Elisa Chilet-Rosell
BACKGROUND: It is crucial to know the extent to which influences lead to policy capture-by which the policy-making process is shifted away from the public interest towards narrow private interests. Using the case study of Spain, our aim was to identify interactions between public administration, civil society and private companies that could influence health policies. METHODS: 54 semistructured interviews with key actors related to health policy. The interviews were used to gather information on main policy actors as well as on direct and subtle influences that could modify health policies...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
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October 27, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Charlotta Nilsen, Neda Agahi, Benjamin A Shaw
BACKGROUND: Government policies to promote ageing in place have led to a growing frail population living at home in advanced old age, many of whom live alone. Living alone in old age is associated with adverse health outcomes, but we know little about whether it moderates the health impact of other risk and protective factors. Engagement in leisure activities is considered critical to successful ageing. We investigated whether the association between different types of leisure activities and survival in non-institutionalised older adults (aged 76 and above) differs by living arrangement and gender...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Laura Anne Hughes-McCormack, Ewelina Rydzewska, Angela Henderson, Cecilia MacIntyre, Julie Rintoul, Sally-Ann Cooper
BACKGROUND: Prevalence of intellectual disabilities varies considerably between studies. People with intellectual disabilities experience health inequalities, but most studies comprise small or incomplete populations. We investigated in a whole country population the (1) prevalence of intellectual disabilities and (2) general health status compared with the general population. METHOD: Data were from Scotland's Census, 2011. We calculated the prevalence of intellectual disabilities, reported general health status of people with and without intellectual disabilities and the extent of health-related limitations to daily activities...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Kimmo Herttua, Olof Östergren, Olle Lundberg, Pekka Martikainen
BACKGROUND: Prices of alcohol and income tend to influence how much people buy and consume alcohol. Price and income may be combined into one measure, affordability of alcohol. Research on the association between affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related harm is scarce. Furthermore, no research exists on how this association varies across different subpopulations. We estimated the effects of affordability of alcohol on alcohol-related mortality according to gender and education in Finland and Sweden...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Joana Madureira-Lima, Sandro Galea
BACKGROUND: Alcohol control policy has a fundamental role in limiting negative health, economic and social harm caused by alcohol consumption. However, there is substantial international heterogeneity in country-level policy adoption, implementation and monitoring. Comparative measures so far focused on Europe or the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. METHODS: We created an Alcohol Control Policy Index (ACPI) for 167 countries using five different methodological approaches...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Maria Chiu, Farah Rahman, Simone Vigod, Andrew S Wilton, Paul Kurdyak
BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia have an increased burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD); however, little is known about the cardiovascular risk factor profiles of non-institutionalised individuals with schizophrenia. This study estimated the prevalence of CVD risk factors in a population-based sample of Canadians with and without schizophrenia. METHODS: Ontario respondents of the Canadian Community Health Survey were linked to administrative health databases; using a validated algorithm, we identified 1103 non-institutionalised individuals with schizophrenia and 156 376 without schizophrenia...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Louise Marryat, Lucy Thompson, Helen Minnis, Philip Wilson
BACKGROUND: This paper examines socioeconomic inequalities in mental health at school entry and explores changes in these inequalities over the first 3 years of school. METHODS: The study utilises routinely collected mental health data from education records and demographic data at ages 4 and 7 years, along with administrative school-level data. The study was set in preschool establishments and schools in Glasgow City, Scotland. Data were available on 4011 children (59...
October 22, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Man Ki Kwok, Yu Kang Tu, Ichiro Kawachi, C Mary Schooling
BACKGROUND: The declining or fluctuating trend in blood pressure (BP) despite the rising trend in body mass index (BMI) during childhood and adolescence is unexplained. We decomposed trends in BP and BMI to identify the relevance of early-life and contemporaneous factors. METHODS: We assessed the relative contribution of age, period and cohort to secular trends in BP in children and adolescents (9-18 years) from 1999 to 2014 and BMI (6-18 years) from 1996 to 2014 in Hong Kong, China...
October 22, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Benjamin J Gray, Emma R Barton, Alisha R Davies, Sara J Long, Janine Roderick, Mark A Bellis
BACKGROUND: To investigate whether sharing and linking routinely collected violence data across health and criminal justice systems can provide a more comprehensive understanding of violence, establish patterns of under-reporting and better inform the development, implementation and evaluation of violence prevention initiatives. METHODS: Police violence with injury (VWI) crimed data and emergency department (ED) assault attendee data for South Wales were collected between 1 April 2014 and 31 March 2016 to examine the rates and patterns of VWI...
October 22, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Georgios Tsakos, Carol C Guarnizo-Herreño, Rhiannon O'Connor, John Wildman, Jimmy G Steele, Patrick Finbarr Allen
BACKGROUND: Oral diseases are highly prevalent and impact on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). However, time changes in OHRQoL have been scarcely investigated in the current context of general improvement in clinical oral health. This study aims to examine changes in OHRQoL between 1998 and 2009 among adults in England, and to analyse the contribution of demographics, socioeconomic characteristics and clinical oral health measures. METHODS: Using data from two nationally representative surveys in England, we assessed changes in the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14), in both the sample overall (n=12 027) and by quasi-cohorts...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
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