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Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health

G David Batty, George B Ploubidis, Alissa Goodman, David Bann
BACKGROUND: Although early life education for improved long-term health and the amelioration of socioeconomically generated inequalities in chronic disease is advocated in influential policy statements, the evidence base is very modest. AIMS: To address this dearth of evidence using data from a representative UK national birth cohort study. METHODS: The analytical sample comprised men and women in the 1958 birth cohort study with prospectively gathered data on attendance at nursery or primary school before the age of 5 years who had gone on to participate in social survey at 42 years (n=11 374), or a biomedical survey at 44/5 years of age (n=9210), or had data on vital status from 18 to 55 years (n=17 657)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Frédéric N Brière, Gabrielle Yale-Soulière, Daniela Gonzalez-Sicilia, Marie-Josée Harbec, Julien Morizot, Michel Janosz, Linda S Pagani
BACKGROUND: Engaging in sport has been suggested to be mitigate against psychological distress. Using a prospective-longitudinal design, we examine whether sport participation is associated with reduced psychological difficulties in adolescents and whether associations differ by sport and personal characteristics. METHODS: 17 550 adolescents from grade 7 to 10 (mean age=14.4 years old) self-reported on sport participation, depressive symptoms, social anxiety symptoms and loneliness in Spring 2007 and 1 year later...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Pepita Barlow, Paulo Serôdio, Gary Ruskin, Martin McKee, David Stuckler
Critics have long accused food and beverage companies of trying to exonerate their products from blame for obesity by funding organisations that highlight alternative causes. Yet, conclusions about the intentions of food and beverage companies in funding scientific organisations have been prevented by limited access to industry's internal documents. Here we allow the words of Coca-Cola employees to speak about how the corporation intended to advance its interests by funding the Global Energy Balance Network (GEBN)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Peter Clausing, Claire Robinson, Helmut Burtscher-Schaden
The present paper scrutinises the European authorities' assessment of the carcinogenic hazard posed by glyphosate based on Regulation (EC) 1272/2008. We use the authorities' own criteria as a benchmark to analyse their weight of evidence (WoE) approach. Therefore, our analysis goes beyond the comparison of the assessments made by the European Food Safety Authority and the International Agency for Research on Cancer published by others. We show that not classifying glyphosate as a carcinogen by the European authorities, including the European Chemicals Agency, appears to be not consistent with, and in some instances, a direct violation of the applicable guidance and guideline documents...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Frank Gabel, Hendrik Jürges, Kai E Kruk, Stefan Listl
BACKGROUND: Dental diseases are among the most frequent diseases globally and tooth loss imposes a substantial burden on peoples' quality of life. Non-experimental evidence suggests that individuals with more children have more missing teeth than individuals with fewer children, but until now there is no causal evidence for or against this. METHODS: Using a Two-Stage Least Squares (2SLS) instrumental variables approach and large-scale cross-sectional data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (study sample: 34 843 non-institutionalised individuals aged 50+from 14 European countries and Israel study years: 2015), we investigated the causal relationship between the number of biological children and their parents' number of missing natural teeth...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Belén Sanz-Barbero, Patricia López Pereira, Gregorio Barrio, Carmen Vives-Cases
BACKGROUND: The magnitude of intimate partner violence (IPV) in young women is a source of increasing concern. The prevalence of IPV has not been analysed in Europe as a whole. The objective was to assess the prevalence and main characteristics of experiencing physical and/or sexual and psychological-only IPV among young women in the European Union and to identify individual and contextual associated risk factors. METHODS: We analysed a cross-sectional subsample of 5976 ever-partnered women aged 18-29 years from the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights Violence Against Women Survey, 2012...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Paul Charles Cheshire, Stephen Gibbons, Jemma Mouland
BACKGROUND: The National Health Service (NHS) scores well internationally on access to healthcare. But access has been measured on methods likely to undersample the more disadvantaged. Social landlords have access to more disadvantaged groups and may be able to improve health outcomes for their tenants and reduce their NHS usage by simple interventions. METHODS: This is a randomised controlled trial of 547 London social housing 'general needs' tenants over 50 years of age...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Mingli He, Jin'e Wang, Qing Dong, Niu Ji, Pin Meng, Na Liu, Shan Geng, Sizhou Qin, Wenyan Xu, Chuantong Zhang, Dabo Li, Huamin Zhang, Jinping Zhu, Hua Qin, Rutai Hui, Yibo Wang
BACKGROUND: Building effective and efficient stroke care systems is a key step in improving prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of stroke. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this stroke system of care on stroke management during a 2-year follow-up. METHODS: A stroke system of care was developed from November 2009 to November 2010 in three townships in Ganyu County. Additional three matched townships were invited as controls. We first investigated the stroke incidence of these populations...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Katherine Ann Thurber, Grace Joshy, Rosemary Korda, Sandra J Eades, Vicki Wade, Hilary Bambrick, Bette Liu, Emily Banks
BACKGROUND: High body mass index (BMI) is the second leading contributor to Australia's burden of disease and is particularly prevalent among Aboriginal peoples. This paper aims to provide insight into factors relating to obesity among Aboriginal adults and Aboriginal-non-Aboriginal differences. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of data from the 45 and Up Study, comparing obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 ) prevalence and risk factors among 1515 Aboriginal and 213 301 non-Aboriginal adults in New South Wales...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Yosuke Inoue, Annie Green Howard, Amanda L Thompson, Penny Gordon-Larsen
BACKGROUND: Little attention has been paid to how the association between urbanisation and abdominal adiposity changes over the course of economic development in low-income and middle-income countries. METHODS: Data came from the China Health and Nutrition Survey waves 1993-2011 (seven waves). A mixed linear model was used to investigate the association between community-level urbanisation with waist-to-height ratio (WHtR; an indicator of abdominal adiposity). We incorporated interaction terms between urbanisation and study waves to understand how the association changed over time...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Rachel Jane Scantlebury, Alison Moody, Oyinlola Oyebode, Jennifer Susan Mindell
BACKGROUND: Healthy Start (HS) is a UK government programme, introduced in 2006, providing vouchers to pregnant women or families with children aged <4 who are in receipt of certain benefits. Vouchers can be exchanged for fruit and vegetables (F&V), milk or infant formula. We sought to identify any association between HS and F&V intake. METHODS: We analysed repeated cross-sectional data from the Health Survey for England. Study participants were classified into one of four groups: one HS-eligible group and three control groups, meeting only the income or demographic or no eligibility criterion...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Frank J Elgar, Natale Canale, Michael J A Wohl, Michela Lenzi, Alessio Vieno
BACKGROUND: Previous research has found that area-level income inequality and individual-level relative deprivation both contribute to disordered gambling in adults. However, the socioeconomic factors that contribute to disordered gambling in youths and protective factors in their social environment have not been fully explored. This study examined the association between relative deprivation and youth disordered gambling and the potential moderating role of social support in this association...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Jhumka Gupta, Tiara C Willie, Courtney Harris, Paola Abril Campos, Kathryn L Falb, Claudia Garcia Moreno, Claudia Diaz Olavarrieta, Cassandra A Okechukwu
BACKGROUND: Disrupting women's employment is a strategy that abusive partners could use to prevent women from maintaining economic independence and stability. Yet, few studies have investigated disruptions in employment among victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) in low-income and middle-income countries. Moreover, even fewer have sought to identify which female victims of IPV are most vulnerable to such disruptions. METHODS: Using baseline data from 947 women in Mexico City enrolled in a randomised controlled trial, multilevel latent class analysis (LCA) was used to classify women based on their reported IPV experiences...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Katherine Ann Morris
Comparative population health studies are becoming more common and are advancing solutions to crucial public health problems, but decades-old measurement equivalence issues remain without a common vocabulary to identify and address the biases that contribute to non-equivalence. This glossary defines sources of measurement non-equivalence. While drawing examples from both within-country and between-country studies, this glossary also defines methods of harmonisation and elucidates the unique opportunities in addition to the unique challenges of particular harmonisation methods...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Michael Marmot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Lei Yang, Kaarina Korhonen, Heta Moustgaard, Karri Silventoinen, Pekka Martikainen
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found depression to be negatively associated with the prognosis of both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, but this may partly reflect reverse causality. We limited the possibility of reverse causality by measuring depression before the first diagnosis of CVD or cancer. METHODS: We used an 11% longitudinal random sample of the Finnish population aged 25 years or older who are residents of Finland for at least 1 year between 1987 and 2007, with an 80% oversample of those who died during this period...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Brian J Hall, Peng Xiong, Kay Chang, Ming Yin, Xin-Ru Sui
Medical workplace violence (MWV) is a key occupational hazard facing medical professionals worldwide. MWV involves incident where medical staff are abused, threatened and assaulted. MWV affects the health and well-being of medical staff exposed, causes significant erosion of patient-physician trust and leads to poorer health outcomes for patients. In China, the prevalence of MWV appears to be rising. Laws were enacted to keep medical staff safe, but clear surveillance and enforcement is needed to improve the condition...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Rodrigo M Carrillo-Larco, J Jaime Miranda, Robert H Gilman, William Checkley, Liam Smeeth, Antonio Bernabé-Ortiz
BACKGROUND: Studies have reported the incidence/risk of becoming obese, but few have described the trajectories of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) over time, especially in low/middle-income countries. We assessed the trajectories of BMI and WC according to sex in four sites in Peru. METHODS: Data from the population-based CRONICAS Cohort Study were analysed. We fitted a population-averaged model by using generalised estimating equations. The outcomes of interest, with three data points over time, were BMI and WC...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Lucinda Hiam, Dominic Harrison, Martin McKee, Danny Dorling
Several independent analyses, by both epidemiologists and actuaries, have concluded that the previous rate of improvement of life expectancy in England and Wales has now slowed markedly, and at older ages may even be reversing. However, although these findings have led the pension industry to reduce estimates of future liabilities, they have failed to elicit any significant concern in the Department of Health and Social Care. In this essay, we review the evidence on changing life expectancy, noting that the problems are greatest among older women...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Gyu Ri Kim, Sun Ha Jee, Hynek Pikhart
BACKGROUND: The relationship between socioeconomic status and mortality has been well established; however, the extent to which biological factors mediate this relationship is less clear, and empirical evidence from non-Western settings is limited. Allostasis, a cumulative measure of physiological dysregulation, has been proposed as the underlying mechanism linking socioeconomic status to adverse health outcomes. The current study aimed to ascertain the contribution of allostatic load (AL) and health behaviours to socioeconomic inequalities in mortality among Korean adults...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
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