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Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health

Mary E Kroll, Maria A Quigley, Jennifer J Kurinczuk, Nirupa Dattani, Yangmei Li, Jennifer Hollowell
BACKGROUND: Unexplained deaths in infancy comprise 'sudden infant death syndrome' (SIDS) and deaths without ascertained cause. They are typically sleep-related, perhaps triggered by unsafe sleep environments. Preterm birth may increase risk, and varies with ethnicity. We aimed to compare ethnic-specific rates of unexplained infant death, explore sociodemographic explanations for ethnic variation, and examine the role of preterm birth. METHODS: We analysed routine data for 4...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Yuanjie Pang, Christiana Kartsonaki, Yu Guo, Yiping Chen, Ling Yang, Zheng Bian, Fiona Bragg, Iona Y Millwood, Leijia Shen, Songgen Zhou, Jiben Liu, Junshi Chen, Liming Li, Michael V Holmes, Zhengming Chen
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is associated with higher risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Uncertainty remains about the relevance of duration of diabetes and about the association of blood glucose with CRC risk among individuals without diabetes. METHODS: The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank recruited 512 713 participants in 2004-2008 from 10 diverse areas in China. After 10 years of follow-up, 3024 incident cases of CRC (1745 colon, 1716 rectal) were recorded among 510 136 participants without prior cancer at baseline...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Talha Ali, Charlotte Juul Nilsson, Jennifer Weuve, Kumar B Rajan, Carlos F Mendes de Leon
BACKGROUND: Having a larger social network has been shown to have beneficial effects on health and survival in adults, but few studies have evaluated the role of network diversity, in addition to network size. We explore whether social network diversity is associated with mortality, cognition and physical function among older black and white adults. METHODS: Data are obtained from the Chicago Health and Aging Project, a longitudinal, population-based study of adults aged 65 years and older at baseline...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Sayid Zommorodi, Karin Leander, Joy Roy, Johnny Steuer, Rebecka Hultgren
BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic position (SEP) has been demonstrated to negatively influence outcome in several cardiovascular patient groups. The aim of this study was to analyse time trends of incidence of intact abdominal aortic aneurysm (iAAA) and ruptured AAA (rAAA), respectively, and to investigate whether SEP had any influence on the probability to present with rupture and, finally, to determine the impact of SEP on outcome. METHODS: Nationwide population-based study including all individuals with iAAA or rAAA in Sweden during 2001-2015...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Suzanne Tillmann, Danielle Tobin, William Avison, Jason Gilliland
BACKGROUND: It is commonly believed that nature has positive impacts on children's health, including physical, mental and social dimensions. This review focuses on how accessibility to, exposure to and engagement with nature affects the mental health of children and teenagers. METHODS: Ten academic databases were used to systematically search and identify primary research papers in English or French from 1990 to 1 March 2017. Papers were included for review based on their incorporation of nature, children and teenagers (0-18 years), quantitative results and focus on mental health...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Sebastian Franke, Hill Kulu
BACKGROUND: This paper examines cause-specific mortality by partnership status. Although non-marital cohabitation has spread rapidly in industrialised countries, only a few studies have investigated mortality by partnership status and no recent study has investigated cause-specific mortality by partnership status. METHODS: We use data from the Office for National Statistics Longitudinal Study and apply competing risks survival models. RESULTS: The simultaneous analysis shows that married individuals have lower mortality than non-married from circulatory, respiratory, digestive, alcohol and accident related causes of deaths, but not from cancer...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Maria Fleischmann, Ewan Carr, Baowen Xue, Paola Zaninotto, Stephen A Stansfeld, Mai Stafford, Jenny Head
BACKGROUND: Modifications in working conditions can accommodate changing needs of chronically ill persons. The self-employed may have more possibilities than employees to modify their working conditions. We investigate how working conditions change following diagnosis of chronic disease for employed and self-employed older persons. METHODS: We used waves 2-7 from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). We included 1389 participants aged 50-60 years who reported no chronic disease at baseline...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Hiroyuki Shimada, Sangyoon Lee, Masahiro Akishita, Koichi Kozaki, Katsuya Iijima, Kumiko Nagai, Shinya Ishii, Masamichi Tanaka, Hitomi Koshiba, Tomoki Tanaka, Kenji Toba
BACKGROUND: Although research indicates that a physically active lifestyle has the potential to prevent cognitive decline and dementia, the optimal type of physical activity/exercise remains unclear. The present study aimed to determine the cognitive benefits of a golf-training programme in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: We conducted a randomised controlled trial between August 2016 and June 2017 at a general golf course. Participants included 106 Japanese adults aged 65 and older...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Susitha Wanigaratne, Pamela Uppal, Manvir Bhangoo, Alia Januwalla, Deepa Singal, Marcelo L Urquia
BACKGROUND: Son-biased sex ratios at birth (M:F), an extreme manifestation of son preference, are predominately found in East and South Asia. Studies have examined sex ratios among first-generation migrants from these regions, but few have examined second-generation descendants. Our objective was to determine whether son-biased sex ratios persist among second-generation mothers with South Asian ethnicity in Ontario, Canada. METHODOLOGY: A surname algorithm identified a population-based cohort of mothers with South Asian ethnicity who gave birth in Ontario between 1993 and 2014 (n=59 659)...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Alma Sörberg Wallin, Peter Alleback, Jan-Eric Gustafsson, Tomas Hemmingsson
BACKGROUND: The association between childhood cognitive ability measured with IQ tests and mortality is well documented. However, studies on the association in women are few and conflicting, and the mechanisms underlying the association are unclear. METHODS: Data on IQ were collected at school at age 13 among 19 919 men and women born in 1948 and 1953. Information on childhood socioeconomic position, the participants' socioeconomic and social circumstances in middle age and mortality up to 2013 was collected through national registers...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Sarah E Rodgers, Rowena Bailey, Rhodri Johnson, Damon Berridge, Wouter Poortinga, Simon Lannon, Robert Smith, Ronan A Lyons
BACKGROUND: We investigated tenant healthcare utilisation associated with upgrading 8558 council houses to a national quality standard. Homes received multiple internal and external improvements and were analysed using repeated measures of healthcare utilisation. METHODS: The primary outcome was emergency hospital admissions for cardiorespiratory conditions and injuries for residents aged 60 years and over. Secondary outcomes included each of the separate conditions, for tenants aged 60 and over, and for all ages...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Erin Hetherington, Sheila McDonald, Tyler Williamson, Scott B Patten, Suzanne C Tough
BACKGROUND: Low social support is consistently associated with postpartum depression. Previous studies do not always control for previous mental health and do not consider what type of support (tangible, emotional, informational or positive social interaction) is most important. The objectives are: to examine if low social support contributes to subsequent risk of depressive or anxiety symptoms and to determine which type of support is most important. METHODS: Data from the All Our Families longitudinal pregnancy cohort were used (n=3057)...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Sören Kuitunen-Paul, Michael Roerecke
BACKGROUND: We summarise the evidence for an association between screening scores from the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and all-cause mortality. METHODS: Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, prospective cohort studies reporting all-cause mortality risk by AUDIT scores (complete AUDIT-10 or AUDIT-C) were identified through MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed and Web of Science up to September 2016. Risk estimates were pooled using random effects meta-analyses...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Ke Sun, Yue Zhang, Yue Tian, Xiubo Jiang
BACKGROUND: The association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and habitual snoring (HS) risk in children remains controversial. Therefore, a meta-analysis was carried out to evaluate and compare the effect of ETS by different family members and prenatal smoke exposure on the risk of HS in children. METHODS: Relevant studies published in English were identified by a search of PubMed, Embase and Web of Science up to December 2017. Random effect model and fixed effect model were used to pool the findings...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Edward Fottrell, Naveed Ahmed, Badrun Nahar, Sanjit Kumer Shaha, Abdul Kuddus, Carlos S Grijalva-Eternod, Tasmin Nahar, Caroline Fall, Clive Osmond, Virginia Govoni, Sarah Finer, Chittaranjan Yajnik, A K Azad Khan, Anthony Costello, Kishwar Azad, Graham A Hitman
BACKGROUND: Women's groups interventions in Bangladesh reduced neonatal deaths by 38% and improved hygienic delivery, newborn care practices and breast feeding. We explore the longer-term impact of exposure to women's groups during pregnancy on child growth at 2-4 years. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey of child anthropometric measures (analysed as z-scores) among children born to women who had participated in the women's groups interventions while pregnant, compared with an age-matched and sex-matched sample of children born to control mothers...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Raquel Garcia, Rosa Abellana, Jordi Real, José-Luis Del Val, Jose Maria Verdú-Rotellar, Miguel-Angel Muñoz
BACKGROUND: Information regarding the effect of social determinants of health on heart failure (HF) community-dwelling patients is scarce. We aimed to analyse the presence of socioeconomic inequalities, and their impact on hospitalisations and mortality, in patients with HF attended in a universal healthcare coverage system. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study carried out in patients with HF aged >40 and attended at the 53 primary healthcare centres of the Institut Català de la Salut in Barcelona (Spain)...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Long Wang, Ying Yang, Fangchao Liu, Aimin Yang, Qin Xu, Qiaomei Wang, Haiping Shen, Yiping Zhang, Donghai Yan, Zuoqi Peng, Yuan He, Yuanyuan Wang, Jihong Xu, Jun Zhao, Hongguang Zhang, Ya Zhang, Qiaoyun Dai, Xu Ma
BACKGROUND: To comprehensively evaluate the association of paternal smoking and spontaneous abortion. METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study among 5 770 691 non-smoking rural Chinese women, along with their husbands, participating in the National Free Pre-Pregnancy Checkups Project, regarding outcome events that occurred in 2010-2016. The main outcome was spontaneous abortion (SA). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate OR and 95% CI, and restricted cubic spline was used to estimate the non-linear relationship...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Frank de Vocht, Colin Angus, Kate Tilling, Alan Brennan, Matthew Hickman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 11, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Alet H Wijga, Sigrid M Mohnen, Judith M Vonk, Ellen Uiters
BACKGROUND: Quantification of the burden of overweight on the healthcare system is becoming increasingly urgent for health policy, but accurate estimates are hard to obtain. METHODS: In order to assess healthcare utilisation and expenditure of overweight and non-overweight children, we linked, on an individual basis, data on body mass index from a birth cohort study with administrative health insurance claims data. In children aged 14-15 years, we compared utilisation and expenditure on general practice care, dental care, hospital/specialist care, prescribed medication, allied healthcare and mental healthcare of overweight children (overweight at age 11 and 14, n=80) and non-overweight children (no overweight at age 11 and 14, n=1253)...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Ian Bennett-Britton, Alison Teyhan, John Macleod, Naveed Sattar, George Davey Smith, Yoav Ben-Shlomo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 30, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
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