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Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592420/patterns-of-cannabis-use-during-adolescence-and-their-association-with-harmful-substance-use-behaviour-findings-from-a-uk-birth-cohort
#1
Michelle Taylor, Simon M Collin, Marcus R Munafò, John MacLeod, Matthew Hickman, Jon Heron
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the role of cannabis as a gateway drug is inconsistent. We characterise patterns of cannabis use among UK teenagers aged 13-18 years, and assess their influence on problematic substance use at age 21 years. METHODS: We used longitudinal latent class analysis to derive trajectories of cannabis use from self-report measures in a UK birth cohort. We investigated (1) factors associated with latent class membership and (2) whether latent class membership predicted subsequent nicotine dependence, harmful alcohol use and recent use of other illicit drugs at age 21 years...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566281/double-burden-or-double-counting-of-child-malnutrition-the-methodological-and-theoretical-implications-of-stuntingoverweight-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#2
Katie Bates, Arjan Gjonça, Tiziana Leone
BACKGROUND: There is increasing concern at research and policy levels about the double burden of child malnutrition (DBCM)-with stunting and overweight found across different groups of children. Despite some case studies suggesting that stunting and overweight can occur concurrently in children, here known as 'stuntingoverweight', and major drives to reduce all forms of malnutrition in low and middle income countries (LMICs), stuntingoverweight is continually overlooked. This research evidences the prevalence of stuntingoverweight across LMICs, exploring the theoretical and methodological implications of failing to acknowledge this form of malnutrition...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515210/impact-of-perceived-control-on-all-cause-and-cardiovascular-disease-mortality-in-three-urban-populations-of-central-and-eastern-europe-the-hapiee-study
#3
Magdalena Kozela, Andrzej Pająk, Agnieszka Micek, Agnieszka Besala, Ruzena Kubinova, Sofia Malyutina, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Hynek Pikhart, Anne Peasey, Yuri Nikitin, Michael Marmot, Martin Bobak
BACKGROUND: Inverse associations between perceived control and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been reported in studies from Western Europe and the USA. To assess this relationship across different populations, we investigated the association between perceived control and all-cause and CVD mortality in three population-based cohorts of Eastern European countries. METHODS: We analysed data from a prospective cohort study in random population samples in Krakow (Poland), Novosibirsk (Russia) and six Czech towns...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515209/for-a-healthier-future-a-virtuous-cycle-for-reducing-exposure-to-persistent-organic-pollutants
#4
REVIEW
Chisato Mori, Emiko Todaka
In the modern society, people are exposed to various pollutants during their lifetime. Worldwide, the status of children's health has changed in recent decades. Some studies have attempted to identify the causes of these changes and whether they relate to pollutant exposure; however, such attempts have faced major challenges because human life is complex, involving many social and environmental factors. Several long-term cohort studies are being conducted to determine the relationship between diseases and social and environmental factors in children...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490476/socioeconomic-status-in-childhood-and-c-reactive-protein-in-adulthood-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Richard S Liu, Allison E Aiello, Fiona K Mensah, Constantine E Gasser, Kuna Rueb, Billie Cordell, Markus Juonala, Melissa Wake, David P Burgner
BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a central role in cardiometabolic disease and may represent a mechanism linking low socioeconomic status (SES) in early life and adverse cardiometabolic health outcomes in later life. Accumulating evidence suggests an association between childhood SES and adult inflammation, but findings have been inconsistent. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies to quantify the association between childhood (age <18 years) SES and the inflammatory marker C reactive protein (CRP) in adulthood...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468831/how-to-work-with-local-communities-to-improve-population-health-big-data-and-small-data
#6
Rafael Cofiño, Sonia Lopez-Villar, Oscar Suárez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 3, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416573/changes-in-directly-alcohol-attributable-mortality-during-the-great-recession-by-employment-status-in-spain-a-population-cohort-of-22-million-people
#7
Ignacio Alonso, Fernando Vallejo, Enrique Regidor, M José Belza, Luis Sordo, Laura Otero-García, Gregorio Barrio
BACKGROUND: Macroeconomic fluctuations can impact differentially on alcohol-related problems across sociodemographic groups. We assess trend changes in directly alcohol-attributable (DAA) mortality in the population aged 25-64 during the post-2008 recession in Spain according to employment status and other sociodemographic factors. METHODS: Nationwide cohort study covering 21.9 million people living in Spain in 2001. People were classified by employment status and other factors...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416572/alternatives-assessment-new-ideas-frameworks-and-policies
#8
EDITORIAL
Joel Tickner, Christopher P Weis, Molly Jacobs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416571/negative-wealth-shock-and-short-term-changes-in-depressive-symptoms-and-medication-adherence-among-late-middle-aged-adults
#9
Lindsay R Pool, Belinda L Needham, Sarah A Burgard, Michael R Elliott, Carlos F Mendes de Leon
BACKGROUND: Experiencing a negative wealth shock in late middle age may cause high levels of stress and induce reductions in health-related consumption. METHODS: We used data on late middle age individuals (51-64 years) from the longitudinal US-based Health and Retirement Study (N=19 281) to examine the relationship between negative wealth shock and short-term outcomes that serve as markers of the pathways from wealth shock to health: elevated depressive symptoms, as a marker of the stress pathway and cost-related medication non-adherence (CRN), as a marker of the consumption pathway...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416570/taking-health-into-account-in-all-policies-raising-and-keeping-health-equity-high-on-the-political-agenda
#10
EDITORIAL
Lauri Kokkinen, Ketan Shankardass, Patricia O'Campo, Carles Muntaner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416569/association-between-smoking-and-health-outcomes-in-an-economically-deprived-population-the-liverpool-lung-project
#11
F C Sherratt, J K Field, M W Marcus
BACKGROUND: The association between smoking and several health outcomes among those from the most deprived communities in the UK has not previously been detailed. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of smoking on health outcomes specifically among a particularly deprived population in a developed country (Liverpool; one of the most deprived local authorities in England). METHODS: The Liverpool Lung Project recruited a prospective cohort of 8753 participants from across Liverpool, aged 45-79 years between 1998 and 2008...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408613/air-pollution-and-the-incidence-of-ischaemic-and-haemorrhagic-stroke-in-the-south-london-stroke-register-a-case-cross-over-analysis
#12
B K Butland, R W Atkinson, S Crichton, B Barratt, S Beevers, A Spiridou, U Hoang, F J Kelly, C D Wolfe
BACKGROUND: Few European studies investigating associations between short-term exposure to air pollution and incident stroke have considered stroke subtypes. Using information from the South London Stroke Register for 2005-2012, we investigated associations between daily concentrations of gaseous and particulate air pollutants and incident stroke subtypes in an ethnically diverse area of London, UK. METHODS: Modelled daily pollutant concentrations based on a combination of measurements and dispersion modelling were linked at postcode level to incident stroke events stratified by haemorrhagic and ischaemic subtypes...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385691/energy-density-of-foods-and-diets-in-mexico-and-their-monetary-cost-by-socioeconomic-strata-analyses-of-ensanut-data-2012
#13
Alfonso Mendoza, Ana E Pérez, Anju Aggarwal, Adam Drewnowski
BACKGROUND: In January 2014, Mexico implemented an 8% tax on non-essential foods with energy density ≥275 kcal/100 g, with a view to prevent obesity. This study explored energy density of foods and diets in Mexico and their monetary cost across population subgroups. METHODS: Dietary intakes for 3057 adults (ages ≥19 years) were obtained from the nationally representative Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (ENSANUT 2012). Energy density (kcal/g) was calculated for foods, food groups and total diets...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360117/are-babies-conceived-during-ramadan-born-smaller-and-sooner-than-babies-conceived-at-other-times-of-the-year-a-born-in-bradford-cohort-study
#14
Amanda Daley, Miranda Pallan, Sue Clifford, Kate Jolly, Maria Bryant, Peymane Adab, K K Cheng, Andrea Roalfe
BACKGROUND: It is not known whether infants exposed to intermittent maternal fasting at conception are born smaller or have a higher risk of premature birth than those who are not. Doctors are therefore unsure about what advice to give women about the safety of Ramadan fasting. This cohort study aimed to investigate these questions in Muslim mother-infant pairs to inform prenatal care. METHODS: Routinely collected data accessed from maternity records were the source for information...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356325/return-on-investment-of-public-health-interventions-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Rebecca Masters, Elspeth Anwar, Brendan Collins, Richard Cookson, Simon Capewell
BACKGROUND: Public sector austerity measures in many high-income countries mean that public health budgets are reducing year on year. To help inform the potential impact of these proposed disinvestments in public health, we set out to determine the return on investment (ROI) from a range of existing public health interventions. METHODS: We conducted systematic searches on all relevant databases (including MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; AMED; PubMed, Cochrane and Scopus) to identify studies that calculated a ROI or cost-benefit ratio (CBR) for public health interventions in high-income countries...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348205/association-between-socioeconomic-position-and-the-prevalence-of-type-2-diabetes-in-ghanaians-in-different-geographic-locations-the-rodam-study
#16
Juliet Addo, Charles Agyemang, Ama de-Graft Aikins, Erik Beune, Matthias B Schulze, Ina Danquah, Cecilia Galbete, Mary Nicolaou, Karlijn Meeks, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch, Silver Bahendaka, Frank P Mockenhaupt, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Anton Kunst, Karien Stronks, Liam Smeeth
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes has been shown to be socially patterned but the direction of the association in low-income countries and among migrant populations in Europe has varied in the literature. This study examined the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and diabetes in Ghanaians in Europe and in Ghana. METHODS: Data were derived from the multicentre Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants (RODAM) study of Ghanaian adults aged 25-70 years residing in Europe (Amsterdam, Berlin and London) and in urban and rural Ghana...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320775/is-it-time-to-reassess-current-safety-standards-for-glyphosate-based-herbicides
#17
REVIEW
Laura N Vandenberg, Bruce Blumberg, Michael N Antoniou, Charles M Benbrook, Lynn Carroll, Theo Colborn, Lorne G Everett, Michael Hansen, Philip J Landrigan, Bruce P Lanphear, Robin Mesnage, Frederick S Vom Saal, Wade V Welshons, John Peterson Myers
Use of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) increased ∼100-fold from 1974 to 2014. Additional increases are expected due to widespread emergence of glyphosate-resistant weeds, increased application of GBHs, and preharvest uses of GBHs as desiccants. Current safety assessments rely heavily on studies conducted over 30 years ago. We have considered information on GBH use, exposures, mechanisms of action, toxicity and epidemiology. Human exposures to glyphosate are rising, and a number of in vitro and in vivo studies challenge the basis for the current safety assessment of glyphosate and GBHs...
June 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396571/effectiveness-of-mass-distribution-of-nicotine-patches-to-promote-tobacco-control-in-rural-versus-urban-settings
#18
LETTER
John A Cunningham, Vladyslav Kushnir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249990/inequalities-in-tobacco-outlet-density-by-race-ethnicity-and-socioeconomic-status-2012-usa-results-from-the-aspire-study
#19
Joseph G L Lee, Dennis L Sun, Nina M Schleicher, Kurt M Ribisl, Douglas A Luke, Lisa Henriksen
BACKGROUND: Evidence of racial/ethnic inequalities in tobacco outlet density is limited by: (1) reliance on studies from single counties or states, (2) limited attention to spatial dependence, and (3) an unclear theory-based relationship between neighbourhood composition and tobacco outlet density. METHODS: In 97 counties from the contiguous USA, we calculated the 2012 density of likely tobacco outlets (N=90 407), defined as tobacco outlets per 1000 population in census tracts (n=17 667)...
May 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159758/longitudinal-study-of-weight-energy-intake-and-physical-activity-change-across-two-decades-in-older-scottish-women
#20
Tiffany C Yang, Anna A Gryka, Lorna S Aucott, Garry G Duthie, Helen M Macdonald
BACKGROUND: The perimenopausal and postmenopausal periods are times of pronounced physiological change in body mass index (BMI), physical activity and energy intake. Understanding these changes in middle age could contribute to formation of potential public health targets. METHOD: A longitudinal cohort of 5119 perimenopausal women from the Aberdeen Prospective Osteoporosis Screening Study (APOSS) recruited between 1990 and 1994, with follow-up visits at 1997-1999 and 2009-2011...
May 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
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