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Journal of Clinical Psychiatry

Rachel Pascal de Raykeer, Nicolas Hoertel, Carlos Blanco, Mark Olfson, Melanie Wall, Anne-Sophie Seigneurie, Jean-Pierre Schuster, Cédric Lemogne, Armin von Gunten, Frédéric Limosin
OBJECTIVE: Several common psychiatric disorders are associated with increased risk of suicide attempts, and the strength of these associations may vary between younger and older adults, which may explain age differences in suicide risk. Because psychiatric disorders often co-occur, it remains unclear whether (1) the risk of suicide attempt in older and younger adults is due to specific psychiatric disorders or underlying psychopathology dimensions (ie, internalizing and externalizing dimensions) and (2) the extent to which individual psychiatric disorders make distinct contributions to suicide attempt risk varies by age...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Paraskevi Mavrogiorgou, Björn Enzi, Saskia Steinmann, Christoph Mulert, Georg Juckel
OBJECTIVE: The so-called neuroanatomical hypothesis (with an increased activity of orbitofrontal cortex [OFC]) and the serotonergic hypothesis (with low activity in this system) have been discussed regarding the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) for decades. This study aimed to look for a relationship between the 2 pathogenetic concepts. METHODS: Nineteen OCD patients (8 female, 11 male, mean ± SD age = 33.37 ± 11.73 years, Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale: 21...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Chittaranjan Andrade
In different parts of the world, pregabalin is an approved treatment for neuropathic pain syndromes, fibromyalgia, partial-onset seizures, and generalized anxiety disorder. Few studies have examined the safety of pregabalin exposure during pregnancy. Among 4 studies identified through a PubMed search conducted in September 2018, one small study (exposed n = 30) recorded a major malformation rate of 3.3%, which was similar to that in unexposed controls. Another small study (exposed n = 30) recorded increased rates of spontaneous abortion (23...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Jasmina Mallet, Nicolas Mazer, Caroline Dubertret, Yann Le Strat
OBJECTIVE: Recent findings suggest an association between tobacco and psychosis, but whether this association is mediated by confounding factors is unknown. Psychosis-like experiences (PLEs) are a subclinical expression of psychosis. To disentangle the association of tobacco with PLEs, we examined data from a large US population-based, nationally representative sample. METHODS: Analysis was conducted on Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 34,653 adults, conducted from 2004 to 2005)...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Florian Walter, Matthew J Carr, Pearl L H Mok, Sussie Antonsen, Carsten B Pedersen, Jenny Shaw, Roger T Webb
OBJECTIVE: Persons discharged from inpatient psychiatric units are at greatly elevated risk of dying unnaturally. We conducted a comprehensive examination of specific causes of unnatural death post-discharge in a national register-based cohort. METHOD: A cohort of 1,683,645 Danish residents born 1967-1996 was followed from their 15th birthday until death, emigration, or December 31, 2011, whichever came first. Survival analysis techniques were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) comparing risk for persons with and without psychiatric admission history in relation to (a) suicide method, (b) accidental death type, (c) fatal poisoning type, and (d) homicide...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Chittaranjan Andrade
A very large number of psychopharmacologic agents have been trialed as antipsychotic augmentation strategies for the improvement of positive, negative, mood, cognitive, and other symptoms of schizophrenia; statins are one among these. Two very recent meta-analyses examined data on statin augmentation from 5 to 6 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the field. One meta-analysis found that statins were superior to placebo for the improvement of total scale and general psychopathology subscale scores on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; statins were no better than placebo for positive and negative subscale outcomes...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Guillaume Vaiva, Sofian Berrouiguet, Michel Walter, Philippe Courtet, François Ducrocq, Vincent Jardon, Mark E Larsen, Lionel Cailhol, Carole Godesense, Christophe Couturier, Anjali Mathur, Virginie Lagree, Catherine Pichene, David Travers, Cedric Lemogne, Jean Marc Henry, Frederic Jover, Francoise Chastang, Olivier Prudhomme, Philippe Lestavel, Catherine Thevenon Gignac, Stéphane Duhem, Anne Laure Demarty, Catherine Mesmeur, Frank Bellivier, Julien Labreuche, Alain Duhamel, Patrick Goldstein
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence in the literature that brief contact interventions (BCIs) might be reliable suicide prevention strategies. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a decision-making algorithm for suicide prevention (ALGOS) combining existing BCIs in reducing suicide reattempts in patients discharged after a suicide attempt. METHODS: A randomized, multicenter, controlled, parallel trial was conducted in 23 hospitals. The study was conducted from January 26, 2010, to February 28, 2013...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Martha Sajatovic, Curtis Tatsuoka, Kristin A Cassidy, Peter J Klein, Edna Fuentes-Casiano, Jamie Cage, Michelle E Aebi, Luis F Ramirez, Carol Blixen, Adam T Perzynski, Mark S Bauer, Steven A Safren, Jennifer B Levin
OBJECTIVE: Nonadherence in bipolar disorder (BD) ranges from 20% to 60%. Customized adherence enhancement (CAE) is a brief, BD-specific approach that targets individual adherence barriers. This prospective, 6-month, randomized controlled trial conducted from October 2012 to July 2017 compared CAE versus a rigorous BD-specific educational program (EDU) on adherence, symptoms, and functional outcomes in poorly adherent individuals. METHODS: One hundred eighty-four participants with DSM-IV BD were randomized to CAE (n = 92) or EDU (n = 92)...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Chih-Ming Cheng, Wen-Han Chang, Yu-Chuan Chiu, Yu Sun, Huey-Jane Lee, Li-Yu Tang, Pei-Ning Wang, Ming-Jang Chiu, Cheng-Hung Yang, Shih-Jen Tsai, Chia-Fen Tsai
BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy, defined as the concomitant use of 5 or more medications, has a documented negative association with cognitive impairment such as delirium and is associated, potentially, with a higher risk of dementia. However, whether polypharmacy contributes to increased risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or decreased cognitive capacity requires further investigation. This nationwide population survey investigated the association among polypharmacy, MCI, and dementia. METHODS: Through random sampling based on the proportion of all Taiwan counties, subjects were recruited and received in-person interviews between December 2011 and March 2013...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Brian Shiner, Christine Leonard Westgate, Jiang Gui, Shira Maguen, Yinong Young-Xu, Paula P Schnurr, Bradley V Watts
OBJECTIVE: Fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, topiramate, and venlafaxine have consistently shown efficacy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials. However, no study has compared the effectiveness of these agents in routine clinical practice. We conducted a retrospective comparative effectiveness study of these 5 medications using electronic medical record data. METHODS: We identified 2,931 Department of Veterans Affairs outpatients initiating treatment for PTSD between fiscal years 2004 and 2013 who received 1 of the 5 medications at an adequate dose and duration, combined with baseline and endpoint PTSD Checklist (PCL) measurements...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Thierry Q Mentzel, René van der Snoek, Ritsaert Lieverse, Margreet Oorschot, Wolfgang Viechtbauer, Oswald Bloemen, Peter N van Harten
OBJECTIVE: Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is an antipsychotic-induced movement disorder that typically occurs after long-term exposure to antipsychotic drugs. There is evidence that switching to clozapine reduces TD. This meta-analysis reviews the effect of switching to clozapine on the severity of TD. DATA SOURCES: The PubMed, PsycINFO, and Embase databases were searched for clozapine, tardive dyskinesia, and related keywords. The search was restricted to articles written in English and Dutch, and it was last updated on October 13, 2015...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Ophélia Godin, Marion Leboyer, Frank Schürhoff, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Laurent Boyer, Myrtille Andre, Meja Andrianarisoa, Bruno Aouizerate, Fabrice Berna, Delphine Capdevielle, Isabelle Chereau, Jean-Michel Dorey, Caroline Dubertret, Julien Dubreucq, Catherine Faget, Christophe Lancon, Sylvain Leignier, Jasmina Mallet, David Misdrahi, Christine Passerieux, Romain Rey, Paul Roux, Pierre Vidailhet, Dominique Costagliola, Guillaume Fond
OBJECTIVE: Predicting relapse is a major challenge in schizophrenia from a clinical and medico-economic point of view. During recent decades, major psychiatric disorders have been found to be extensively associated with metabolic disorders, even before the illness onset, with a prevalence estimated to be 35% in this population. However, no study to date has, to our knowledge, explored the potential impact of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on relapse. METHODS: From 2010 to 2016, 185 patients (mean age = 32 years) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia were included in the FondaMental Academic Centers of Expertise for Schizophrenia (FACE-SZ) cohort and followed up for 1 year...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Julian D Ford, Joseph Spinazzola, Bessel van der Kolk, Damion J Grasso
OBJECTIVE: Developmental trauma disorder (DTD) is an integrative syndrome for assessing the biopsychosocial sequelae of early life traumatization and attachment disruption. The psychometrics of a DTD Semi-Structured Interview (DTD-SI) and the validity and structure of the DTD construct were tested. METHODS: The DTD-SI was administered by research clinicians at 5 sites between September 2011 and August 2013 to a convenience sample of 236 children ages 7-17 years (50% female, 47% black or Latino/Hispanic, 91% with trauma histories) and/or a parent, recruited in pediatric or mental health services...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Kevin S McCarthy, Dianne L Chambless, Nili Solomonov, Barbara Milrod, Jacques P Barber
OBJECTIVE: Given the chronic, episodic nature of panic disorder, it is important to examine long-term outcomes of patients who respond well to various psychotherapies. METHOD: Out of 116 patients with DSM-IV panic disorder who evidenced a ≥ 40% reduction in panic and avoidance symptoms on the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) after 12-14 weeks of panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, or applied relaxation training as part of a 2-site randomized controlled trial conducted between January 2007 and July 2012, 91 patients provided at least 1 PDSS datapoint during follow-up...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Mark Olfson, Melanie Wall, Shang-Min Liu, Charles M Morin, Carlos Blanco
OBJECTIVE: This analysis characterizes the individual-level and population-level burden of insomnia in relation to other medical conditions and describes the comorbidity of insomnia with other medical conditions, including the dependence of these comorbidities on pain, life events, and mental disorders. METHODS: Information from 34,712 adults in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (2012-2013) was analyzed. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were measured with the SF-6D, a 6-dimensional health state classification derived from the Short-Form-12, version 2...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Derek D Satre, Brian Borsari, D Andrew Tompkins, Danielle Ramo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Marc Augustin, Georgios Schoretsanitis, Christoph Hiemke, Gerhard Gründer, Ekkehard Haen, Michael Paulzen
BACKGROUND: For certain psychotropic drugs, such as clozapine or olanzapine, the influence of smoking on drug metabolism is well studied. Tobacco smoke increases the metabolism of drugs that are substrates for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 due to CYP induction. The antidepressant duloxetine, acting as a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is mainly metabolized via CYP1A2. To date, little is known about the influence of smoking on serum duloxetine concentrations. METHODS: A therapeutic drug monitoring database consisting of plasma concentrations of duloxetine collected from January 2013 to June 2017 was analyzed...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Sophie Grigoriadis, Lisa Graves, Miki Peer, Lana Mamisashvili, George Tomlinson, Simone N Vigod, Cindy-Lee Dennis, Meir Steiner, Cara Brown, Amy Cheung, Hiltrud Dawson, Neil A Rector, Melanie Guenette, Margaret Richter
OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the association between maternal antenatal anxiety (AA) and a range of perinatal outcomes. DATA SOURCES: Ovid MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched to May 31, 2016, using controlled vocabulary and keywords (eg, prenatal, anxiety, preterm). STUDY SELECTION: Perinatal outcomes of women with and without AA (diagnosed or self-reported using validated scale) derived from English language, prospectively collected data were included...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Joon Hyuk Park, Seok Bum Lee, Jung Jae Lee, Jong Chul Yoon, Ji Won Han, Tae Hui Kim, Hyun-Ghang Jeong, Paul A Newhouse, Warren D Taylor, Jae Hyoung Kim, Jong Inn Woo, Ki Woong Kim
OBJECTIVE: In the elderly, depression and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are common and associated with cognitive impairment. This study investigated the possible interactions between depression and WMH in their influences on cognition of the elderly. METHODS: Using multiple neuropsychological tests, we evaluated the cognitive function of 122 community-dwelling elders with depression at baseline between November 2008 and February 2009. Major depressive disorder, dysthymic disorder, and minor depressive disorder were diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Wei-Shan Chin, Yue Leon Guo, Shih-Cheng Liao, Kuan-Han Lin, Chun-Ya Kuo, Chih-Chieh Chen, Judith S C Shiao
OBJECTIVE: Suicide attempts can result from traumatic events, including those caused by occupational injury. However, literature on the long-term prevalence rates of suicidality after occupational injury is relatively lacking. This study investigated the long-term prevalence of suicidality after occupational injury. METHODS: Between February 1 and August 31, 2009, 4,403 workers in Taiwan sustained occupational injuries and were hospitalized for 3 days or longer...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
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