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Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673041/using-metagenomics-to-investigate-human-and-environmental-resistomes
#1
Johan Bengtsson-Palme, D G Joakim Larsson, Erik Kristiansson
Antibiotic resistance is a global health concern declared by the WHO as one of the largest threats to modern healthcare. In recent years, metagenomic DNA sequencing has started to be applied as a tool to study antibiotic resistance in different environments, including the human microbiota. However, a multitude of methods exist for metagenomic data analysis, and not all methods are suitable for the investigation of resistance genes, particularly if the desired outcome is an assessment of risks to human health...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673027/pretreatment-hiv-drug-resistance-results-in-virological-failure-and-accumulation-of-additional-resistance-mutations-in-ugandan-children
#2
Cissy Kityo, Ragna S Boerma, Kim C E Sigaloff, Elizabeth Kaudha, Job C J Calis, Victor Musiime, Sheila Balinda, Rita Nakanjako, T Sonia Boender, Peter N Mugyenyi, Tobias F Rinke de Wit
Background: Pretreatment HIV drug resistance (PDR) can impair virological response to ART, jeopardizing effective treatment for children. Methods: Children aged ≤12 years initiated first-line ART in Uganda during 2010-11. Baseline and 6 monthly viral load (VL) and genotypic resistance testing if VL >1000 copies/mL was done. The 2015 IAS-USA mutation list and Stanford algorithm were used to score drug resistance mutations (DRMs) and susceptibility. Virological failure (VF) was defined as two consecutive VLs >1000 copies/mL or death after 6 months of ART...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666372/origin-of-the-abgri1-antibiotic-resistance-island-found-in-the-comm-gene-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-gc2-isolates
#3
Mohammad Hamidian, Ruth M Hall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 28, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666323/exploring-the-in-vitro-potential-of-celecoxib-derivative-ar-12-as-an-effective-antiviral-compound-against-four-dengue-virus-serotypes
#4
Pouya Hassandarvish, Adrian Oo, Amin Jokar, Alexander Zukiwski, Stefan Proniuk, Sazaly Abu Bakar, Keivan Zandi
Objectives: With no clinically effective antiviral options available, infections and fatalities associated with dengue virus (DENV) have reached an alarming level worldwide. We have designed this study to evaluate the efficacy of the celecoxib derivative AR-12 against the in vitro replication of all four DENV serotypes. Methods: Each 24-well plate of Vero cells infected with all four DENV serotypes, singly, was subjected to treatments with various doses of AR-12...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651341/plasma-concentrations-of-atovaquone-given-to-immunocompromised-patients-to-prevent-pneumocystis-jirovecii
#5
Christine Robin, Minh Patrick Lê, Giovanna Melica, Laurent Massias, Rabah Redjoul, Nihel Khoudour, Mathieu Leclerc, Florence Beckerich, Sébastien Maury, Anne Hulin, Catherine Cordonnier
Objectives: Atovaquone is one of the alternatives to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for prophylaxis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised patients. In volunteers, there was wide inter-individual variability in atovaquone bioavailability. The aim of this study was to assess the plasma concentrations of atovaquone in immunocompromised patients under PCP prophylaxis. Methods: Adult haematology or HIV-positive patients receiving atovaquone (750 mg oral suspension twice a day) for PCP prophylaxis were included...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645201/benznidazole-treatment-safety-the-m%C3%A3-decins-sans-fronti%C3%A3-res-experience-in-a-large-cohort-of-bolivian-patients-with-chagas-disease
#6
Gilberto Marcelo Sperandio da Silva, Mauro Felippe Felix Mediano, Alejandro Marcel Hasslocher-Moreno, Marcelo Teixeira de Holanda, Andrea Silvestre de Sousa, Luiz Henrique Conde Sangenis, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano do Brasil, Roger Arteaga Mejía, Carina Perotti Fux, Juan-Carlos Cubides, Roberto Magalhães Saraiva, Lucia Maria Brum-Soares
Background: Up to half of patients with Chagas' disease under benznidazole treatment present adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and up to one-third do not complete standard treatment. Objectives: To verify the incidence and possible factors associated with the suspension of benznidazole treatment in a large cohort of patients. Methods: We included 2075 patients treated with benznidazole during the projects managed by the medical humanitarian organization Doctors Without Borders (Médecins Sans Frontières) in Bolivia from 2009 to 2013...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645197/pht%C3%AE-promoted-mobilization-of-non-conjugative-resistance-plasmids-from-enterococcus-faecium-to-enterococcus-faecalis
#7
Laura Di Sante, Gianluca Morroni, Andrea Brenciani, Carla Vignaroli, Alberto Antonelli, Marco Maria D'Andrea, Andrea Di Cesare, Eleonora Giovanetti, Pietro E Varaldo, Gian Maria Rossolini, Francesca Biavasco
Objectives: : To analyse the recombination events associated with conjugal mobilization of two multiresistance plasmids, pRUM 17i48 and pLAG (formerly named pDO1-like), from Enterococcus faecium 17i48 to Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2. Methods: : The plasmids from two E. faecalis transconjugants (JH-4T, tetracycline resistant, and JH-8E, erythromycin resistant) and from the E. faecium donor (also carrying a pHTβ-like conjugative plasmid, named pHTβ 17i48 ) were investigated by several methods, including PCR mapping and sequencing, S1-PFGE followed by Southern blotting and hybridization, and WGS...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637205/evolution-and-comparative-genomics-of-paqu-like-conjugative-plasmids-in-vibrio-species
#8
Ruichao Li, Lianwei Ye, Marcus Ho Yin Wong, Zhiwei Zheng, Edward Wai Chi Chan, Sheng Chen
Objectives: To investigate a set of MDR conjugative plasmids found in Vibrio species and characterize the underlying evolution process. Methods: pAQU-type plasmids from Vibrio species were sequenced using both Illumina and PacBio platforms. Bioinformatics tools were utilized to analyse the typical MDR regions and core genes in the plasmids. Results: The nine pAQU-type plasmids ranged from ∼160 to 206 kb in size and were found to harbour as many as 111 core genes encoding conjugative, replication and maintenance functions...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633496/clinical-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-the-check-points-check-direct-esbl-screen-for-bd-max-a-real-time-pcr-for-direct-esbl-detection-from-rectal-swabs
#9
Dennis Souverein, Sjoerd M Euser, Wil A van der Reijden, Bjorn L Herpers, Jan Kluytmans, John W A Rossen, Jeroen W Den Boer
Objectives: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the Check-Direct ESBL Screen for BD MAX (ESBL qPCR) and an ESBL culture method to identify ESBLs directly from rectal swabs. Methods: Rectal swabs were obtained from clinical patients by performing cross-sectional (point)prevalence measurements in three regional hospitals. Rectal swabs were analysed by direct culture (ChromID ESBL agar) and with the ESBL qPCR. Suspected ESBL-producing isolates were confirmed with the combination disc method and analysed by WGS...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637339/emergence-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-non-susceptibility-in-an-mdr-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolate
#10
Anna Both, Henning Büttner, Jiabin Huang, Markus Perbandt, Cristina Belmar Campos, Martin Christner, Florian P Maurer, Stefan Kluge, Christina König, Martin Aepfelbacher, Dominic Wichmann, Holger Rohde
Background: Avibactam is a novel broad-range β-lactamase inhibitor active against Ambler class A (including ESBL and KPC) and some Ambler class C and D (e.g. OXA-48) enzymes. We here report on the emergence of ceftazidime/avibactam resistance in clinical, multiresistant, OXA-48 and CTX-M-14-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate DT12 during ceftazidime/avibactam treatment. Methods and results: Comparative whole-genome sequence analysis identified two SNPs in the CTX-M-14-encoding gene leading to two amino acid changes (P170S and T264I)...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637307/sparing-carbapenem-usage
#11
A Peter R Wilson
Background: Carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is increasing in many countries and use of carbapenems and antibiotics to which resistance is linked should be reduced to slow its emergence. There are no directly equivalent antibiotics and the alternatives are less well supported by clinical trials. The few new agents are expensive. Objectives: To provide guidance on strategies to reduce carbapenem usage. Methods: A literature review was performed as described in the BSAC/HIS/BIA/IPS Joint Working Party on Multiresistant Gram-negative Infection Report...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637235/monotherapy-with-either-dolutegravir-or-raltegravir-fails-to-durably-suppress-hiv-viraemia-in-humanized-mice
#12
Alonso Heredia, Said Hassounah, Sandra Medina-Moreno, Juan C Zapata, Nhut M Le, Yingshan Han, James S Foulke, Charles Davis, Joseph Bryant, Robert R Redfield, Mark A Wainberg
Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of HIV integrase inhibitor monotherapy between raltegravir and dolutegravir as an approach to simplify therapy. Methods: We evaluated and compared the efficacy of 20 week monotherapy with dolutegravir or raltegravir in humanized mice (HSC-NSG) infected with HIV BaL . Plasma HIV RNA was measured by quantitative RT-PCR (limit of detection of 150 copies/45 μL of plasma) and drug levels by LC-MS/MS. Escape viruses were genotyped and analysed for replication capacity and drug susceptibility in tissue culture...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633405/addressing-the-key-communication-barriers-between-microbiology-laboratories-and-clinical-units-a-qualitative-study
#13
Brita Skodvin, Karina Aase, Anita Løvås Brekken, Esmita Charani, Paul Christoffer Lindemann, Ingrid Smith
Background: Many countries are on the brink of establishing antibiotic stewardship programmes in hospitals nationwide. In a previous study we found that communication between microbiology laboratories and clinical units is a barrier to implementing efficient antibiotic stewardship programmes in Norway. We have now addressed the key communication barriers between microbiology laboratories and clinical units from a laboratory point of view. Methods: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 employees (managers, doctors and technicians) from six diverse Norwegian microbiological laboratories, representing all four regional health authorities...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633368/impact-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-hospitalization-and-patient-quality-of-life
#14
Mark H Wilcox, Harblas Ahir, John E Coia, Andrew Dodgson, Susan Hopkins, Martin J Llewelyn, Chris Settle, Susan Mclain-Smith, Stephen W Marcella
Objectives: Data quantifying outcomes of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) are lacking. We sought to determine the UK hospital resource use and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) associated with rCDI hospitalizations. Patients and methods: A non-interventional study in six UK acute hospitals collected retrospective clinical and resource use data from medical records of 64 adults hospitalized for rCDI and 64 matched inpatient controls with a first episode only (f)CDI...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605490/adequate-plasma-drug-concentrations-suggest-that-amoxicillin-can-be-administered-by-continuous-infusion-using-elastomeric-pumps
#15
Lyne Arensdorff, Noémie Boillat-Blanco, Laurent Decosterd, Thierry Buclin, Serge de Vallière
Background: Elastomeric pumps can be useful for the administration of antibiotics in the outpatient setting. Objectives: To determine amoxicillin degradation in elastomeric pumps, as well as the effectiveness of amoxicillin treatment administered by elastomeric pumps. Methods: Antibiotic degradation was measured in elastomeric pumps filled with 6 g of amoxicillin in 240 mL of NaCl 0.9% by drawing samples at 12 h intervals when stored in the fridge for 48 h and when worn around the waist for 24 h...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605445/evaluation-of-two-automated-systems-for-colistin-susceptibility-testing-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-clinical-isolates
#16
Sophia Vourli, Konstantina Dafopoulou, Georgia Vrioni, Athanassios Tsakris, Spyros Pournaras
Background: Colistin is commonly needed for the treatment of infections due to carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) and the determination of its in vitro activity is obviously important. However, the accurate routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of colistin is still challenging. The only acceptable method for colistin AST is broth microdilution (BMD); disc and gradient diffusion assays are inappropriate and the performance of semi-automated systems has not been validated...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605439/antibiotic-susceptibility-in-vitro-of-francisella-tularensis-subsp-holarctica-isolates-from-germany
#17
Herbert Tomaso, Helmut Hotzel, Peter Otto, Kerstin Myrtennäs, Mats Forsman
Background: Tularaemia is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. In Germany, the disease is still rare (e.g. 34 human cases reported in 2015). There is a lack of data about the susceptibility of F. tularensis strains to antibiotics, because many cases are diagnosed using serological assays only. Objectives: The antibiotic susceptibility in vitro of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strains isolated in Germany was assessed to determine whether the currently recommended empirical therapy is still adequate...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605515/fri-2-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacter-cloacae-complex-in-the-uk
#18
Danièle Meunier, Jacqueline Findlay, Michel Doumith, Daniel Godoy, Claire Perry, Rachel Pike, Firza Gronthoud, Theresa Shryane, Laurent Poirel, William Welfare, Neil Woodford, Katie L Hopkins
Objectives: Detection of rarer carbapenemases is challenging, as it requires molecular assays with comprehensive coverage or the use of phenotypic methods for the detection of carbapenemase activity. We describe a new class A carbapenemase, FRI-2, in an Enterobacter cloacae complex isolate following implementation of an in-house multiplex PCR for the detection of 'rare' class A carbapenemases. Methods: MICs were determined by agar dilution. A carbapenem-resistant E...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605493/antiretroviral-therapy-in-geriatric-hiv-patients-the-geppo-cohort-study
#19
Silvia Nozza, Andrea Malagoli, Lilian Maia, Andrea Calcagno, Emanuele Focà, Giuseppe De Socio, Stefania Piconi, Giancarlo Orofino, Anna Maria Cattelan, Benedetto Maurizio Celesia, Elena Gervasi, Giovanni Guaraldi
Background: GEPPO is a prospective observational multi-centric cohort including HIV-infected geriatric patients. We hypothesized that the GEPPO cohort may help characterize antiretroviral (ARV) prescribing criteria used in real life by Italian infectious disease (ID) physicians. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study describing the current ARV regimen in a geriatric HIV population (≥65 years). Antiretroviral strategies were categorized as follows: (i) multidrug regimens (MDRs), which comprised triple or mega ART combinations; (ii) less drug regimens (LDRs), which comprised fewer than three ART compounds...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605488/in-vitro-activity-of-the-novel-antifungal-compound-f901318-against-difficult-to-treat-aspergillus-isolates
#20
J B Buil, A J M M Rijs, J F Meis, M Birch, D Law, W J G Melchers, P E Verweij
Background: F901318 is a new antifungal agent with a novel mechanism of action with activity against Aspergillus species. We investigated the in vitro activity of F901318 against a collection of Aspergillus isolates. Methods: A total of 213 Aspergillus isolates were used in this study. A total of 143 Aspergillus fumigatus sensu stricto isolates were used, of which 133 were azole resistant [25 TR 34 /L98H; 25 TR 46 /Y121F/T289A; 33 A. fumigatus with cyp51A -associated point mutations (25 G54, 1 G432 and 7 M220); and 50 azole-resistant A...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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