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Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637205/evolution-and-comparative-genomics-of-paqu-like-conjugative-plasmids-in-vibrio-species
#1
Ruichao Li, Lianwei Ye, Marcus Ho Yin Wong, Zhiwei Zheng, Edward Wai Chi Chan, Sheng Chen
Objectives: To investigate a set of MDR conjugative plasmids found in Vibrio species and characterize the underlying evolution process. Methods: pAQU-type plasmids from Vibrio species were sequenced using both Illumina and PacBio platforms. Bioinformatics tools were utilized to analyse the typical MDR regions and core genes in the plasmids. Results: The nine pAQU-type plasmids ranged from ∼160 to 206 kb in size and were found to harbour as many as 111 core genes encoding conjugative, replication and maintenance functions...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633496/clinical-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-the-check-points-check-direct-esbl-screen-for-bd-max-a-real-time-pcr-for-direct-esbl-detection-from-rectal-swabs
#2
Dennis Souverein, Sjoerd M Euser, Wil A van der Reijden, Bjorn L Herpers, Jan Kluytmans, John W A Rossen, Jeroen W Den Boer
Objectives: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the Check-Direct ESBL Screen for BD MAX (ESBL qPCR) and an ESBL culture method to identify ESBLs directly from rectal swabs. Methods: Rectal swabs were obtained from clinical patients by performing cross-sectional (point)prevalence measurements in three regional hospitals. Rectal swabs were analysed by direct culture (ChromID ESBL agar) and with the ESBL qPCR. Suspected ESBL-producing isolates were confirmed with the combination disc method and analysed by WGS...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637339/emergence-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-non-susceptibility-in-an-mdr-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolate
#3
Anna Both, Henning Büttner, Jiabin Huang, Markus Perbandt, Cristina Belmar Campos, Martin Christner, Florian P Maurer, Stefan Kluge, Christina König, Martin Aepfelbacher, Dominic Wichmann, Holger Rohde
Background: Avibactam is a novel broad-range β-lactamase inhibitor active against Ambler class A (including ESBL and KPC) and some Ambler class C and D (e.g. OXA-48) enzymes. We here report on the emergence of ceftazidime/avibactam resistance in clinical, multiresistant, OXA-48 and CTX-M-14-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate DT12 during ceftazidime/avibactam treatment. Methods and results: Comparative whole-genome sequence analysis identified two SNPs in the CTX-M-14-encoding gene leading to two amino acid changes (P170S and T264I)...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637307/sparing-carbapenem-usage
#4
A Peter R Wilson
Background: Carbapenem resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is increasing in many countries and use of carbapenems and antibiotics to which resistance is linked should be reduced to slow its emergence. There are no directly equivalent antibiotics and the alternatives are less well supported by clinical trials. The few new agents are expensive. Objectives: To provide guidance on strategies to reduce carbapenem usage. Methods: A literature review was performed as described in the BSAC/HIS/BIA/IPS Joint Working Party on Multiresistant Gram-negative Infection Report...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637235/monotherapy-with-either-dolutegravir-or-raltegravir-fails-to-durably-suppress-hiv-viraemia-in-humanized-mice
#5
Alonso Heredia, Said Hassounah, Sandra Medina-Moreno, Juan C Zapata, Nhut M Le, Yingshan Han, James S Foulke, Charles Davis, Joseph Bryant, Robert R Redfield, Mark A Wainberg
Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of HIV integrase inhibitor monotherapy between raltegravir and dolutegravir as an approach to simplify therapy. Methods: We evaluated and compared the efficacy of 20 week monotherapy with dolutegravir or raltegravir in humanized mice (HSC-NSG) infected with HIV BaL . Plasma HIV RNA was measured by quantitative RT-PCR (limit of detection of 150 copies/45 μL of plasma) and drug levels by LC-MS/MS. Escape viruses were genotyped and analysed for replication capacity and drug susceptibility in tissue culture...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633405/addressing-the-key-communication-barriers-between-microbiology-laboratories-and-clinical-units-a-qualitative-study
#6
Brita Skodvin, Karina Aase, Anita Løvås Brekken, Esmita Charani, Paul Christoffer Lindemann, Ingrid Smith
Background: Many countries are on the brink of establishing antibiotic stewardship programmes in hospitals nationwide. In a previous study we found that communication between microbiology laboratories and clinical units is a barrier to implementing efficient antibiotic stewardship programmes in Norway. We have now addressed the key communication barriers between microbiology laboratories and clinical units from a laboratory point of view. Methods: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 employees (managers, doctors and technicians) from six diverse Norwegian microbiological laboratories, representing all four regional health authorities...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633368/impact-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-hospitalization-and-patient-quality-of-life
#7
Mark H Wilcox, Harblas Ahir, John E Coia, Andrew Dodgson, Susan Hopkins, Martin J Llewelyn, Chris Settle, Susan Mclain-Smith, Stephen W Marcella
Objectives: Data quantifying outcomes of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) are lacking. We sought to determine the UK hospital resource use and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) associated with rCDI hospitalizations. Patients and methods: A non-interventional study in six UK acute hospitals collected retrospective clinical and resource use data from medical records of 64 adults hospitalized for rCDI and 64 matched inpatient controls with a first episode only (f)CDI...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605490/adequate-plasma-drug-concentrations-suggest-that-amoxicillin-can-be-administered-by-continuous-infusion-using-elastomeric-pumps
#8
Lyne Arensdorff, Noémie Boillat-Blanco, Laurent Decosterd, Thierry Buclin, Serge de Vallière
Background: Elastomeric pumps can be useful for the administration of antibiotics in the outpatient setting. Objectives: To determine amoxicillin degradation in elastomeric pumps, as well as the effectiveness of amoxicillin treatment administered by elastomeric pumps. Methods: Antibiotic degradation was measured in elastomeric pumps filled with 6 g of amoxicillin in 240 mL of NaCl 0.9% by drawing samples at 12 h intervals when stored in the fridge for 48 h and when worn around the waist for 24 h...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605445/evaluation-of-two-automated-systems-for-colistin-susceptibility-testing-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-clinical-isolates
#9
Sophia Vourli, Konstantina Dafopoulou, Georgia Vrioni, Athanassios Tsakris, Spyros Pournaras
Background: Colistin is commonly needed for the treatment of infections due to carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) and the determination of its in vitro activity is obviously important. However, the accurate routine antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of colistin is still challenging. The only acceptable method for colistin AST is broth microdilution (BMD); disc and gradient diffusion assays are inappropriate and the performance of semi-automated systems has not been validated...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605439/antibiotic-susceptibility-in-vitro-of-francisella-tularensis-subsp-holarctica-isolates-from-germany
#10
Herbert Tomaso, Helmut Hotzel, Peter Otto, Kerstin Myrtennäs, Mats Forsman
Background: Tularaemia is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. In Germany, the disease is still rare (e.g. 34 human cases reported in 2015). There is a lack of data about the susceptibility of F. tularensis strains to antibiotics, because many cases are diagnosed using serological assays only. Objectives: The antibiotic susceptibility in vitro of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strains isolated in Germany was assessed to determine whether the currently recommended empirical therapy is still adequate...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605515/fri-2-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacter-cloacae-complex-in-the-uk
#11
Danièle Meunier, Jacqueline Findlay, Michel Doumith, Daniel Godoy, Claire Perry, Rachel Pike, Firza Gronthoud, Theresa Shryane, Laurent Poirel, William Welfare, Neil Woodford, Katie L Hopkins
Objectives: Detection of rarer carbapenemases is challenging, as it requires molecular assays with comprehensive coverage or the use of phenotypic methods for the detection of carbapenemase activity. We describe a new class A carbapenemase, FRI-2, in an Enterobacter cloacae complex isolate following implementation of an in-house multiplex PCR for the detection of 'rare' class A carbapenemases. Methods: MICs were determined by agar dilution. A carbapenem-resistant E...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605493/antiretroviral-therapy-in-geriatric-hiv-patients-the-geppo-cohort-study
#12
Silvia Nozza, Andrea Malagoli, Lilian Maia, Andrea Calcagno, Emanuele Focà, Giuseppe De Socio, Stefania Piconi, Giancarlo Orofino, Anna Maria Cattelan, Benedetto Maurizio Celesia, Elena Gervasi, Giovanni Guaraldi
Background: GEPPO is a prospective observational multi-centric cohort including HIV-infected geriatric patients. We hypothesized that the GEPPO cohort may help characterize antiretroviral (ARV) prescribing criteria used in real life by Italian infectious disease (ID) physicians. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study describing the current ARV regimen in a geriatric HIV population (≥65 years). Antiretroviral strategies were categorized as follows: (i) multidrug regimens (MDRs), which comprised triple or mega ART combinations; (ii) less drug regimens (LDRs), which comprised fewer than three ART compounds...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605488/in-vitro-activity-of-the-novel-antifungal-compound-f901318-against-difficult-to-treat-aspergillus-isolates
#13
J B Buil, A J M M Rijs, J F Meis, M Birch, D Law, W J G Melchers, P E Verweij
Background: F901318 is a new antifungal agent with a novel mechanism of action with activity against Aspergillus species. We investigated the in vitro activity of F901318 against a collection of Aspergillus isolates. Methods: A total of 213 Aspergillus isolates were used in this study. A total of 143 Aspergillus fumigatus sensu stricto isolates were used, of which 133 were azole resistant [25 TR 34 /L98H; 25 TR 46 /Y121F/T289A; 33 A. fumigatus with cyp51A -associated point mutations (25 G54, 1 G432 and 7 M220); and 50 azole-resistant A...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605452/optimizing-preoperative-prophylaxis-in-patients-with-reported-%C3%AE-lactam-allergy-a-novel-extension-of-antimicrobial-stewardship
#14
Alon Vaisman, Janine McCready, Sandy Hicks, Jeff Powis
Background: Use of alternative second-line antibiotics is associated with adverse events in patients reporting β-lactam allergy. In the perioperative setting, we hypothesized that structured allergy histories, without the use of skin testing, can reduce alternative prophylactic antibiotic use. Objectives: Assess the impact of structured allergy histories on patients with self-reported β-lactam allergy (SRBA) undergoing elective surgical procedures. Methods: Structured allergy histories were performed by a pharmacist and reviewed with an infectious diseases physician...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595364/antiretroviral-unbound-concentration-during-pregnancy-piece-of-interest-in-the-puzzle
#15
D Metsu, P L Toutain, E Chatelut, P Delobel, P Gandia
Atazanavir and darunavir total concentrations (drug bound to plasma proteins plus unbound drug) progressively decrease during pregnancy. This pharmacokinetic variation leads physicians to recommend increasing doses. Conversely, the unbound concentration (Cu), i.e. the pharmacologically active form of the drug, remains unchanged. The explanation of this desynchronization lies in the fact that the clearance of the unbound form, corresponding to the intrinsic metabolic capacity of the hepatocytes, is the only factor driving Cu, and is constant during pregnancy...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595316/developing-a-local-antimicrobial-resistance-action-plan-the-cornwall-one-health-antimicrobial-resistance-group
#16
Neil Powell, Iain Davidson, Phillip Yelling, Andrew Collinson, Adam Pollard, Lisa Johnson, Nick Gibson, Jennifer Taylor, Kathryn Wisner, William Gaze, Janice South, Diane Ashiru-Oredope
Objectives: The UK Five Year Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Strategy was published in September 2013 and recommended a One Health approach emphasizing the importance of collaboration to tackle AMR. We describe the inauguration of what we believe to be the first regional One Health group established in the UK. The purpose of the group was to ensure the implementation of a coordinated Cornwall-wide response to the UK AMR Strategy and we describe the outputs of the group to date. Methods: The Cornwall Antimicrobial Resistance Group was set up as a sub-group of the Health & Wellbeing Board's Health Protection Committee...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595277/genetic-alterations-responsible-for-reduced-susceptibility-to-vancomycin-in-community-associated-mrsa-strains-of-st72
#17
Jin Yang Baek, Doo Ryeon Chung, Kwan Soo Ko, So Hyun Kim, Soo-Jin Yang, Cheol-In Kang, Kyong Ran Peck, Jae-Hoon Song
Objectives: We previously reported the first case of vancomycin treatment failure due to development of vancomycin-intermediate resistance in a patient with an MRSA of ST72, a community genotype in Korea. We investigated two isogenic MRSA strains from this patient, who experienced treatment failure with vancomycin and rifampicin. Methods: We tracked the genetic alterations that confer reduced susceptibility to vancomycin on those two isogenic MRSA strains by WGS...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591819/comparison-of-phenotypic-and-wgs-derived-antimicrobial-resistance-profiles-of-shigella-sonnei-isolated-from-cases-of-diarrhoeal-disease-in-england-and-wales-2015
#18
Zahra Sadouki, Martin R Day, Michel Doumith, Marie A Chattaway, Timothy J Dallman, Katie L Hopkins, Richard Elson, Neil Woodford, Gauri Godbole, Claire Jenkins
Objectives: Phenotypic and genotypic methods for the detection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Shigella sonnei in England and Wales were compared and evaluated. Methods: WGS data from 341 isolates of S. sonnei isolated between June 2015 and January 2016 were mapped to genes known to be associated with phenotypic AMR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on all viable isolates (n = 335). Results: Fifteen of 335 isolates had a discrepancy between phenotypic and genotypic testing for 1 of the 10 antimicrobial classes tested, equating to 15 (0...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586429/hafnia-an-enterobacterial-genus-naturally-resistant-to-colistin-revealed-by-three-susceptibility-testing-methods
#19
Aurélie Jayol, Marion Saly, Patrice Nordmann, Armelle Ménard, Laurent Poirel, Véronique Dubois
Objectives: To determine the susceptibility to colistin of Hafnia alvei and Hafnia paralvei , and to compare methods for colistin resistance detection in the Hafnia genus. Methods: A collection of 25 Hafnia isolates was studied. Species were identified by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing with subsequent phylogeny analysis. Susceptibility to colistin was determined using the broth microdilution (BMD) reference method, the Phoenix automated system, the Rapid Polymyxin NP test, the Etest system and the disc diffusion method...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582518/substitutions-in-pbp3-confer-resistance-to-both-ampicillin-and-extended-spectrum-cephalosporins-in-haemophilus-parainfluenzae-as-revealed-by-site-directed-mutagenesis-and-gene-recombinants
#20
Nanna H Wienholtz, Aynur Barut, Niels Nørskov-Lauritsen
Objectives: To determine the association of amino acid substitutions in PBP3 with β-lactam susceptibility in Haemophilus parainfluenzae . Methods: Single and multiple amino acid mutations at positions 385, 511 and 526 were introduced into PBP3 of a β-lactam-susceptible H. parainfluenzae strain using site-directed mutagenesis. Recombinants were also generated using PCR-amplified ftsI from clinical strains encoding multiple amino acid substitutions. MICs of ampicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime and ceftriaxone were determined using Etest ® ...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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