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Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856724/variability-in-antibiotic-use-across-ontario-acute-care-hospitals
#1
Charlie Tan, Marian Vermeulen, Xuesong Wang, Rosemary Zvonar, Gary Garber, Nick Daneman
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic stewardship is a required organizational practice for Canadian acute care hospitals, yet data are scarce regarding the quantity and composition of antibiotic use across facilities. We sought to examine the variability, and risk-adjusted variability, in antibiotic use across acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada's most populous province. METHODS: Antibiotic purchasing data from IMS Health, previously demonstrated to correlate strongly with internal antibiotic dispensing data, were acquired for 129 Ontario hospitals from January to December 2014 and linked to patient day (PD) denominator data from administrative datasets...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856723/acute-reversible-pancreatitis-induced-by-posaconazole
#2
Benoit Pilmis, Helene Coignard-Biehler, Claire Rouzaud, Vincent Jullien, Fanny Lanternier, Olivier Lortholary
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856722/comment-on-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-still-a-concern-in-patients-with-haematological-malignancies-and-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#3
LETTER
Spinello Antinori, Francesca Binda, Lorena van den Boogart, Roberto Rech, Antonio Castelli, Massimo Galli, Laura Milazzo, Mario Corbellino, Anna Lisa Ridolfo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856721/comparative-in-vitro-activity-of-oritavancin-and-other-agents-against-vancomycin-susceptible-and-resistant-enterococci
#4
Debora Sweeney, Audrey Stoneburner, Dean L Shinabarger, Francis F Arhin, Adam Belley, Greg Moeck, Chris M Pillar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834193/impact-of-polypharmacy-on-antiretroviral-prescription-in-people-living-with-hiv
#5
Giovanni Guaraldi, Marianna Menozzi, Stefano Zona, Andrea Calcagno, Ana R Silva, Antonella Santoro, Andrea Malagoli, Giovanni Dolci, Chiara Mussi, Cristina Mussini, Matteo Cesari, Saye H Khoo
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between polypharmacy and ART, delivered as conventional multi-tablet three-drug regimens, single-tablet regimens or less-drug regimens (simplified mono or dual regimens). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of electronic data from the prospective Modena HIV Metabolic Clinic Cohort Study. We included the last clinical observation for each patient from January 2006 to December 2015. Polypharmacy was defined as the use of five or more medications (excluding ART)...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793962/incfiik-plasmid-harbouring-an-amplification-of-16s-rrna-methyltransferase-encoding-gene-rmth-associated-with-mobile-element-iscr2
#6
Racha Beyrouthy, Frederic Robin, Monzer Hamze, Richard Bonnet
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the resistance mechanisms and genetic support underlying the high resistance level of the Klebsiella pneumoniae strain CMUL78 to aminoglycoside and β-lactam antibiotics. METHODS: Antibiotic susceptibility was assessed by the disc diffusion method and MICs were determined by the microdilution method. Antibiotic resistance genes and their genetic environment were characterized by PCR and Sanger sequencing. Plasmid contents were analysed in the clinical strain and transconjugants obtained by mating-out assays...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798210/solithromycin-a-novel-macrolide-does-not-prolong-cardiac-repolarization-a-randomized-three-way-crossover-study-in-healthy-subjects
#7
Borje Darpo, Philip T Sager, Prabhavathi Fernandes, Brian D Jamieson, Kara Keedy, Meijian Zhou, David Oldach
BACKGROUND: Macrolide antibiotics may cause QT prolongation. OBJECTIVES: To study the QT effect of a novel macrolide, solithromycin. METHODS: This was a thorough QT study with a three-way crossover design performed in healthy male and female subjects to evaluate the ECG effects of a novel macrolide, solithromycin. Forty-eight subjects were randomized to receive 800 mg of intravenous (iv) solithromycin, 400 mg of oral moxifloxacin and placebo in three separate treatment periods...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789684/pretreatment-hiv-1-drug-resistance-in-argentina-results-from-a-surveillance-study-performed-according-to-who-proposed-new-methodology-in-2014-15
#8
E Bissio, M G Barbás, M B Bouzas, A Cudolá, H Salomón, L Espínola, S Fernández Giuliano, S Kademián, L Mammana, M L Suárez Ornani, G Ravasi, M Vila, I Zapiola, C Falistocco
BACKGROUND: In Argentina, current national guidelines recommend starting with NNRTI-based regimens. Recently, there have been some local reports regarding concerning levels of NNRTI-transmitted resistance, but surveillance has never been carried out at a national level. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of HIV drug resistance in people starting ART in Argentina using a WHO-proposed methodology. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, nationally representative study...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789683/esbl-ampc-producing-enterobacteriaceae-in-households-with-children-of-preschool-age-prevalence-risk-factors-and-co-carriage
#9
G van den Bunt, A Liakopoulos, D J Mevius, Y Geurts, A C Fluit, M J M Bonten, L Mughini-Gras, W van Pelt
OBJECTIVES: ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriaceae are an emerging public health concern. As households with preschool children may substantially contribute to the community burden of antimicrobial resistance, we determined the prevalence, risk factors and co-carriage of ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria in preschool children and their parents. METHODS: From April 2013 to January 2015, each month 2000 preschool children were randomly selected from Dutch population registries...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798214/rasch-analysis-of-the-antimicrobial-self-assessment-toolkit-for-national-health-service-nhs-trusts-asat-v17
#10
Chantelle Bailey, Mary P Tully, Maria Pampaka, Jonathan Cooke
OBJECTIVES: The Antimicrobial Self-Assessment Toolkit for National Health Service (NHS) Trusts (ASAT) was developed to evaluate hospital-based antimicrobial stewardship programmes. Iterative validity investigations of the ASAT were used to produce a 91-item ASAT v17 utilizing qualitative methodology. Rasch analysis was used to generate question (item) behaviour estimates and to investigate the validity of ASAT v17. METHODS: In 2012, the partial credit model (PCM) was used to analyse ASAT responses from 33 NHS Trusts within England...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798204/clofazimine-has-delayed-antimicrobial-activity-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-both-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#11
Nicole C Ammerman, Rosemary V Swanson, Asa Tapley, Chivonne Moodley, Bongani Ngcobo, John Adamson, Afton Dorasamy, Sashen Moodley, Zinhle Mgaga, Linda A Bester, Sanil D Singh, Deepak V Almeida, Jacques H Grosset
OBJECTIVES: The anti-leprosy drug clofazimine has been shown to have antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and has been associated with treatment-shortening activity in both clinical and preclinical studies of TB chemotherapy. However, a reported lack of early bactericidal activity (EBA) in TB patients has raised questions regarding the usefulness of clofazimine as an anti-TB drug. Our objective was to systematically evaluate the EBA of clofazimine in vitro and in vivo to provide insight into how and when this drug exerts its antimicrobial activity against M...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798221/optimization-of-the-strength-of-the-efavirenz-lamivudine-abacavir-fixed-dose-combination-for-paediatric-patients
#12
Naïm Bouazza, Tim R Cressey, Frantz Foissac, Andrzej Bienczak, Paolo Denti, Helen McIlleron, David Burger, Martina Penazzato, Marc Lallemant, Edmund V Capparelli, Jean-Marc Treluyer, Saïk Urien
BACKGROUND: Child-friendly, low-cost, solid, oral fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of efavirenz with lamivudine and abacavir are urgently needed to improve clinical management and drug adherence for children. METHODS: Data were pooled from several clinical trials and therapeutic drug monitoring datasets from different countries. The number of children/observations was 505/3667 for efavirenz. Population pharmacokinetic analyses were performed using a non-linear mixed-effects approach...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798218/resistance-gene-naming-and-numbering-is-it-a-new-gene-or-not-authors-response
#13
LETTER
Ruth M Hall, Stefan Schwarz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 24, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798213/monotherapy-or-combination-therapy-of-isavuconazole-and-micafungin-for-treating-murine-mucormycosis
#14
Teclegiorgis Gebremariam, Nathan P Wiederhold, Abdullah Alqarihi, Priya Uppuluri, Nkechi Azie, John E Edwards, Ashraf S Ibrahim
OBJECTIVES: Previously we demonstrated the benefit of isavuconazole in treating murine mucormycosis due to Rhizopus. We wanted to determine the efficacy of isavuconazole in treating murine mucormycosis caused by Mucor, the second most common cause of the disease. Furthermore, because we previously determined that Rhizopus possesses the target enzyme for echinocandins and micafungin has activity against murine mucormycosis, we compared the activity of combination therapy (isavuconazole + micafungin) with placebo, either drug alone or standard therapy of liposomal amphotericin B (LAmB) in treating pulmonary murine mucormycosis caused by Rhizopus delemar...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798206/screening-of-anti-mycobacterial-compounds-in-a-naturally-infected-zebrafish-larvae-model
#15
J P Dalton, B Uy, K S Okuda, C J Hall, W A Denny, P S Crosier, S Swift, S Wiles
OBJECTIVES: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a deadly human pathogen that causes the lung disease TB. M. tuberculosis latently infects a third of the world's population, resulting in ∼1.5 million deaths per year. Due to the difficulties and expense of carrying out animal drug trials using M. tuberculosis and rodents, infections of the zebrafish Danio rerio with Mycobacterium marinum have become a useful surrogate. However, the infection methods described to date require specialized equipment and a high level of operator expertise...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798205/community-carriage-of-esbl-producing-escherichia-coli-is-associated-with-strains-of-low-pathogenicity-a-swedish-nationwide-study
#16
Sofia Ny, Sonja Löfmark, Stefan Börjesson, Stina Englund, Maj Ringman, Jakob Bergström, Pontus Nauclér, Christian G Giske, Sara Byfors
OBJECTIVES: Community carriage of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (EPE) is common worldwide and there is a need to understand the connection between carriage and infection. We compared the molecular characteristics of EPE among Swedish community carriers with those of EPE causing invasive infections. METHODS: We collected 2134 faecal samples from randomly selected Swedish inhabitants and examined them for the presence of EPE. All participating volunteers answered a questionnaire about putative risk factors for EPE carriage...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798203/analysis-of-linezolid-and-tigecycline-as-candidates-for-local-prophylaxis-via-antibiotic-loaded-bone-cement
#17
T Nichol, T J Smith, R Townsend, I Stockley, R Akid
OBJECTIVES: To assess the Gram-positive-specific antibiotic linezolid and the broad-spectrum antibiotic tigecycline for use in local antibiotic delivery via antibiotic-loaded bone cement. METHODS: Linezolid and tigecycline were added to Biomet bone cement at varying concentrations. Antibiotic elution over 1 week was quantified by HPLC-MS. The effect of wear on elution over 51 h was determined using a modified TE-66 wear tester. Eluted antibiotics were used to determine the MICs for a panel of clinically relevant bacteria...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798220/etest%C3%A2-versus-broth-microdilution-for-ceftaroline-mic-determination-with-staphylococcus-aureus-results-from-premium-a-european-multicentre-study
#18
Rafael Cantón, David M Livermore, María Isabel Morosini, Jazmín Díaz-Regañón, Gian Maria Rossolini
OBJECTIVES: To compare the concordance of ceftaroline MIC values by reference broth microdilution (BMD) and Etest (bioMérieux, France) for MSSA and MRSA isolates obtained from PREMIUM (D372SL00001), a European multicentre study. METHODS: Ceftaroline MICs were determined by reference BMD and by Etest for 1242 MSSA and MRSA isolates collected between February and May 2012 from adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia or complicated skin and soft tissue infections; tests were performed across six European laboratories...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798219/impact-of-antibiotic-de-escalation-on-clinical-outcomes-in-community-acquired-pneumococcal-pneumonia
#19
Diego Viasus, Antonella F Simonetti, Carolina Garcia-Vidal, Jordi Niubó, Jordi Dorca, Jordi Carratalà
BACKGROUND: Although antibiotic de-escalation is regarded as a measure that reduces selection pressure, adverse drug effects and costs, evidence supporting this practice in community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia (CAPP) is lacking. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of a cohort of hospitalized adults with CAPP. Pneumococcal aetiology was established in patients with one or more positive cultures for Streptococcus pneumoniae obtained from blood, sterile fluids or sputum, and/or a positive urinary antigen test...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798215/phenotypic-detection-of-the-cfia-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-in-bacteroides-fragilis-with-the-meropenem-edta-double-ended-etest-and-the-rosco-kpc-mbl-confirm-kit
#20
Simon A Schwensen, Ziyap Acar, Thomas V Sydenham, Åsa C Johansson, Ulrik S Justesen
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the performance of the meropenem and imipenem double-ended Etest ± EDTA and the tablet-based (meropenem and meropenem + dipicolinic acid) KPC/MBL Confirm Kit to detect cfiA metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) in Bacteroides fragilis. METHODS: Well-characterized B. fragilis isolates, most from previously published studies, harbouring the cfiA gene and covering a wide range of meropenem MICs were included (n = 21). RESULTS: The imipenem double-ended Etest showed an indeterminate result in 95% of the included isolates with the cfiA gene (20 of 21), whereas the meropenem double-ended Etest gave an MIC ratio ≥8 (positive test) with all the isolates...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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