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Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521041/studying-the-effect-of-administration-route-and-treatment-dose-on-the-selection-of-enrofloxacin-resistance-in-commensal-escherichia-coli-in-broilers
#1
Ilias Chantziaras, Annemieke Smet, Freddy Haesebrouck, Filip Boyen, Jeroen Dewulf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520983/genomic-epidemiology-of-global-vim-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#2
Yasufumi Matsumura, Gisele Peirano, Rebekah Devinney, Patricia A Bradford, Mary R Motyl, Mark D Adams, Liang Chen, Barry Kreiswirth, Johann D D Pitout
Background: : International data on the molecular epidemiology of Enterobacteriaceae with VIM carbapenemases are limited. Methods: We performed short read (Illumina) WGS on a global collection of 89 VIM-producing clinical Enterobacteriaceae (2008-14). Results: VIM-producing (11 varieties within 21 different integrons) isolates were mostly obtained from Europe. Certain integrons with bla VIM were specific to a country in different species and clonal complexes (CCs) (In 87 , In 624 , In 916 and In 1323 ), while others had spread globally among various Enterobacteriaceae species (In 110 and In 1209 )...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520930/improved-power-for-tb-phase-iia-trials-using-a-model-based-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-approach-compared-with-commonly-used-analysis-methods
#3
Robin J Svensson, Stephen H Gillespie, Ulrika S H Simonsson
Background: The demand for new anti-TB drugs is high, but development programmes are long and costly. Consequently there is a need for new strategies capable of accelerating this process. Objectives: To explore the power to find statistically significant drug effects using a model-based pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic approach in comparison with the methods commonly used for analysing TB Phase IIa trials. Methods: Phase IIa studies of four hypothetical anti-TB drugs (labelled A, B, C and D), each with a different mechanism of action, were simulated using the multistate TB pharmacometric (MTP) model...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520867/activity-of-ceftolozane-tazobactam-against-surveillance-and-problem-enterobacteriaceae-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-non-fermenters-from-the-british-isles
#4
David M Livermore, Shazad Mushtaq, Daniele Meunier, Katie L Hopkins, Robert Hill, Rachael Adkin, Aiysha Chaudhry, Rachel Pike, Peter Staves, Neil Woodford
Background: We assessed the activity of ceftolozane/tazobactam against consecutive isolates collected in the BSAC Bacteraemia Surveillance from 2011 to 2015 and against 'problem' isolates sent to the UK national reference laboratory from July 2015, when routine testing began. Methods: Susceptibility testing was by BSAC agar dilution with resistance mechanisms identified by PCR and interpretive reading. Results: Data were reviewed for 6080 BSAC surveillance isolates and 5473 referred organisms...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510730/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-versus-vancomycin-in-the-treatment-of-healthcare-ventilator-associated-mrsa-pneumonia-a-case-control-study
#5
Noa Eliakim-Raz, Moran Hellerman, Dafna Yahav, Jonathan Cohen, Ili Margalit, Sharon Fisher, Oren Zusman, Hila Shaked, Jihad Bishara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510695/effects-of-an-autoinducer-analogue-on-antibiotic-tolerance-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#6
Takashi Amoh, Keiji Murakami, Reiko Kariyama, Kenji Hori, Darija Viducic, Katsuhiko Hirota, Jun Igarashi, Hiroaki Suga, Matthew R Parsek, Hiromi Kumon, Yoichiro Miyake
Objectives: Antibiotic tolerance causes chronic, refractory and persistent infections. In order to advance the development of a new type of drug for the treatment of infectious diseases, we herein investigated the effects of a newly synthesized analogue of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing autoinducer named AIA-1 ( a uto i nducer a nalogue) on antibiotic tolerance in P. aeruginosa . Methods: A P. aeruginosa luminescent strain derived from PAO1 was injected into neutropenic ICR mice and bioluminescence images were acquired for a period of time after treatments with antibiotics and AIA-1...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505374/comment-on-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-versus-vancomycin-in-the-treatment-of-healthcare-ventilator-associated-mrsa-pneumonia-a-case-control-study
#7
Bryan P White, Ruben D Villanueva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505353/co-occurrence-of-mcr-1-and-blakpc-2-in-a-clinical-isolate-of-escherichia-coli-in-brazil
#8
Tanise Vendruscolo Dalmolin, Luiza Castro, Fabiana Q Mayer, Alexandre P Zavascki, Andreza Francisco Martins, Daiana de Lima-Morales, Afonso Luís Barth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505278/cost-effectiveness-of-outpatient-parenteral-antibiotic-therapy-a-simulation-modelling-approach
#9
A Vargas-Palacios, D M Meads, M Twiddy, C Czoski Murray, C Hulme, E D Mitchell, A Gregson, P Stanley, J Minton
Objectives: In the UK, patients who require intravenous antimicrobial (IVA) treatment may receive this in the community through outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) services. Services include: IVA administration at a hospital outpatient clinic (HO); IVA administration at home by a general nurse (GN) or a specialist nurse (SN); or patient self-administered (SA) IVA administration following training. There is uncertainty regarding which OPAT services represent value for money; this study aimed to estimate their cost-effectiveness...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505268/pharmacodynamics-of-dose-escalated-front-loading-polymyxin-b-regimens-against-polymyxin-resistant-mcr-1-harbouring-escherichia-coli
#10
Nicholas M Smith, Zackery P Bulman, Arthur O Sieron, Jürgen B Bulitta, Patricia N Holden, Roger L Nation, Jian Li, Gerard D Wright, Brian T Tsuji
Objectives: Gram-negative bacteria harbouring the mcr-1 plasmid are resistant to the 'last-line' polymyxins and have been reported worldwide. Our objective was to define the impact of increasing the initial polymyxin B dose intensity against an mcr-1 -harbouring strain to delineate the impact of plasmid-mediated polymyxin resistance on the dynamics of bacterial killing and resistance. Methods: A hollow fibre infection model (HFIM) was used to simulate polymyxin B regimens against an mcr-1 -harbouring Escherichia coli (MIC 8 mg/L) over 10 days...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505370/the-complete-nucleotide-sequence-of-an-incp-2-megaplasmid-unveils-a-mosaic-architecture-comprising-a-putative-novel-blavim-2-harbouring-transposon-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#11
João Botelho, Filipa Grosso, Sandra Quinteira, Aymen Mabrouk, Luísa Peixe
Objectives: In Pseudomonas aeruginosa , bla VIM-2 has been mostly associated with a chromosomal location and rarely with a plasmid backbone. Until now, only three complete bla VIM-2 -carrying plasmid sequences have been described in this species. Here we explore the modular structure of pJB37, the first bla VIM-2 -carrying megaplasmid described in P. aeruginosa . Methods: The complete nucleotide sequence of plasmid pJB37 was determined with an Illumina HiSeq, with de novo assembly by SPAdes, annotation by RAST and searching for antimicrobial resistance genes and virulence factors...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505331/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clinical-isolates-of-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-to-alternative-antimicrobials-with-therapeutic-potential
#12
P R S Lagacé-Wiens, H J Adam, N M Laing, M R Baxter, I Martin, M R Mulvey, J A Karlowsky, D J Hoban, G G Zhanel
Background: The prevalence of MDR Neisseria gonorrhoeae is increasing globally and represents a public health emergency. Development and approval of new anti-gonococcal agents may take years. As a concurrent approach to developing new antimicrobials, the laboratory and clinical evaluation of currently licensed antimicrobials not widely used for the treatment of gonorrhoea may provide new options for the treatment of gonococcal infections. Objectives: To determine the in vitro activity of nine alternative, currently licensed and late-development antimicrobials with the potential to treat gonococcal infections against 112 clinical isolates of N...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505330/acinetobacter-baumannii-transfers-the-blandm-1-gene-via-outer-membrane-vesicles
#13
Somdatta Chatterjee, Ayan Mondal, Shravani Mitra, Sulagna Basu
Objectives: To investigate the transmission of the gene encoding New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 ( bla NDM-1 ) through outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) released from an Acinetobacter baumannii strain (A_115). Methods: Isolation and purification of OMVs by density gradient from a carbapenem-resistant clinical strain of A. baumannii harbouring plasmid-mediated bla NDM-1 and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes was performed. DNA was purified from the OMVs and used for PCR and dot-blot analysis...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498924/major-role-of-pkpqil-like-plasmids-in-the-early-dissemination-of-kpc-type-carbapenemases-in-the-uk
#14
M Doumith, J Findlay, H Hirani, K L Hopkins, D M Livermore, A Dodgson, N Woodford
Objectives: Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae were first seen in the UK in 2003 and have been increasingly reported since 2010, largely owing to an ongoing outbreak in North-West England. We examined the role of clonal spread and plasmid transmission in their emergence. Methods: : Isolates comprised KPC-positive K. pneumoniae ( n  =   33), Escherichia coli ( n  =   7) and Enterobacter spp. ( n  =   4) referred to the national reference laboratory between 2008 and 2010 from 17 UK centres, including three in North-West England...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486697/evolution-and-dissemination-of-the-klebsiella-pneumoniae-clonal-group-258-throughout-israeli-post-acute-care-hospitals-2008-13
#15
Amos Adler, Ziv Lifshitz, Michal Gordon, Debbie Ben-David, Efrat Khabra, Samira Masarwa, Orit Zion, Mitchell J Schwaber, Yehuda Carmeli
Objectives: The KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-KP) clonal group (CG) 258 has disseminated throughout Israeli post-acute care hospitals (PACHs). The objectives of the study were (i) to describe the evolution and (ii) to understand the dissemination modes of CG 258 in the PACH system in Israel. Methods: KPC-KP surveillance cultures isolates were collected in Israeli PACHs in three national point-prevalence surveys: 2008, 2011 and 2013. CG 258 was identified by pilv-l PCR...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486671/elucidation-of-mycobacterium-abscessus-aminoglycoside-and-capreomycin-resistance-by-targeted-deletion-of-three-putative-resistance-genes
#16
Anna Rominski, Petra Selchow, Katja Becker, Juliane K Brülle, Michael Dal Molin, Peter Sander
Objectives: Mycobacterium abscessus is innately resistant to a variety of drugs thereby limiting therapeutic options. Bacterial resistance to aminoglycosides (AGs) is conferred mainly by AG-modifying enzymes, which often have overlapping activities. Several putative AG-modifying enzymes are encoded in the genome of M. abscessus . The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular basis underlying AG resistance in M. abscessus . Methods: M. abscessus deletion mutants deficient in one of three genes potentially involved in AG resistance, aac(2 ' ) , eis1 and eis2 , were generated by targeted gene inactivation, as were combinatorial double and triple deletion mutants...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486633/development-of-a-murine-vertical-transmission-model-for-toxoplasma-gondii-oocyst-infection-and-studies-on-the-efficacy-of-bumped-kinase-inhibitor-bki-1294-and-the-naphthoquinone-buparvaquone-against-congenital-toxoplasmosis
#17
Joachim Müller, Adriana Aguado-Martínez, Luis-Miguel Ortega-Mora, Javier Moreno-Gonzalo, Ignacio Ferre, Matthew A Hulverson, Ryan Choi, Molly C McCloskey, Lynn K Barrett, Dustin J Maly, Kayode K Ojo, Wes Van Voorhis, Andrew Hemphill
Objectives: Establishment of a mouse model for congenital toxoplasmosis based on oral infection with oocysts from Toxoplasma gondii ME49 and its application for investigating chemotherapeutic options against congenital toxoplasmosis. Methods: CD1 mice were mated, orally infected with 5, 25, 100, 500 or 2000 oocysts and monitored for clinical signs and survival of dams and pups until 4 weeks post partum . The parasite burden in infected mice was quantified by real-time PCR in lungs, brains and, in the case of surviving pups, also in eyes...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482097/once-daily-atazanavir-cobicistat-and-darunavir-cobicistat-exposure-over-72%C3%A2-h-post-dose-in-plasma-urine-and-saliva-contribution-to-drug-pharmacokinetic-knowledge
#18
Emilie R Elliot, Alieu Amara, Nicole Pagani, Laura Else, Graeme Moyle, Alex Schoolmeesters, Chris Higgs, Saye Khoo, Marta Boffito
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 6, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475803/multicentre-study-of-posaconazole-delayed-release-tablet-serum-level-and-association-with-hepatotoxicity-and-qtc-prolongation
#19
Natasha N Pettit, Marisa H Miceli, Christina G Rivera, Prasanna P Narayanan, Anthony J Perissinotti, Meier Hsu, Jennifer Delacruz, Zivile Gedrimaite, Zhe Han, Jennifer Steinbeck, Jennifer Pisano, Susan K Seo, Alla Paskovaty
Objectives: The association of posaconazole serum concentrations and toxicity is unclear. An assessment of whether levels obtained with the delayed-release tablet (DRT) formulation are correlated with abnormal liver function test (LFT) results and/or QTc prolongation was undertaken. Methods: This was a multicentre, retrospective, observational study of adult patients with cancer between 26 November 2013 and 14 November 2014. Patients were included if they received posaconazole DRT with a posaconazole level obtained between days 5 and 14...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475737/evolution-of-acute-infection-with-atypical-bacteria-in-a-prospective-cohort-of-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-receiving-amoxicillin
#20
Cristiana M Nascimento-Carvalho, Gabriel Xavier-Souza, Ana-Luisa Vilas-Boas, Maria-Socorro H Fontoura, Aldina Barral, Mirja Puolakkainen, Olli Ruuskanen
Background: Atypical bacteria are treatable causative agents of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, there is no conclusive evidence that a child with CAP should receive empirical treatment against such agents. Objectives: We assessed the possibility of association between clinical failure and acute infection by these bacteria among children with CAP treated with amoxicillin. Patients and methods: Patients aged 2-59 months with non-severe CAP received amoxicillin during prospective follow-up...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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