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Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

Emma Cunningham, Yuen-Ting Chan, Adamma Aghaizu, David F Bibby, Gary Murphy, Jennifer Tosswill, Ross J Harris, Richard Myers, Nigel Field, Valerie Delpech, Patricia A Cane, O Noel Gill, Jean L Mbisa
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of inferred low-frequency HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in MSM in the UK and its predicted effect on first-line therapy. METHODS: The HIV-1 pol gene was amplified from 442 newly diagnosed MSM identified as likely recently infected by serological avidity testing in 2011-13. The PCR products were sequenced by next-generation sequencing with a mutation frequency threshold of >2% and TDR mutations defined according to the 2009 WHO surveillance drug resistance mutations list...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Takuya Sadahira, Koichiro Wada, Motoo Araki, Ayano Ishii, Atsushi Takamoto, Yasuyuki Kobayashi, Masami Watanabe, Toyohiko Watanabe, Yasutomo Nasu, Hiromi Kumon
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolone-non-susceptible Escherichia coli isolated from patients with acute uncomplicated cystitis are a matter of increasing concern. Cefditoren pivoxil is an oral, β-lactamase-stable, extended-spectrum cephalosporin that is effective against fluoroquinolone-non-susceptible bacteria. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical and microbiological efficacies of cefditoren pivoxil against acute uncomplicated cystitis and to determine the optimal duration of cefditoren pivoxil treatment...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Felipe C Cabello, Henry P Godfrey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Ala-Eddine Deghmane, Eva Hong, Muhamed-Kheir Taha
OBJECTIVES: Reduced susceptibility to penicillin G in Neisseria meningitidis is mainly due to alterations in PBP2 encoded by the penA gene. However, this phenotype was not associated with reduced susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins (C3Gs). We aimed to study the emergence of meningococci with reduced susceptibility to C3Gs (MIC >0.06 mg/L) in France since 2012. METHODS: Invasive meningococcal isolates were typed by MLST and penA sequencing and their antibiotic susceptibility was tested...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Jann-Tay Wang, I-Wen Huang, Shan-Chwen Chang, Mei-Chen Tan, Jui-Fen Lai, Pao-Yu Chen, Tsai-Ling Lauderdale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Sandrine Isaac, Jose U Scher, Ana Djukovic, Nuria Jiménez, Dan R Littman, Steven B Abramson, Eric G Pamer, Carles Ubeda
BACKGROUND: Oral vancomycin remains the mainstay of therapy for severe infections produced by Clostridium difficile, the most prevalent cause of healthcare-associated infectious diarrhoea in developed countries. However, its short- and long-term effects on the human intestinal microbiota remain largely unknown. METHODS: We utilized high-throughput sequencing to analyse the effects of vancomycin on the faecal human microbiota up to 22 weeks post-antibiotic cessation...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
L Maes, J Beyers, A Mondelaers, M Van den Kerkhof, E Eberhardt, G Caljon, S Hendrickx
OBJECTIVES: Despite a continued search for novel antileishmanial drugs, treatment options remain restricted to a few standard drugs, e.g. antimonials, miltefosine, amphotericin B and paromomycin. Although these drugs have now been used for several decades, their mechanism of action still remains partly hypothetical and their dynamics of cidal action and time-to-kill are still poorly documented. METHODS: An in vitro time-to-kill assay on intracellular amastigotes of the laboratory reference strains Leishmania donovani (MHOM/ET/67/L82) and Leishmania infantum [MHOM/MA(BE)/67/ITMAP263] evaluated the cidal action dynamics of the listed reference drugs at three different concentrations: at IC50, 2 × IC50 and the near cytotoxic dose level (CC90: determined on MRC-5 cells)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Andrzej Bienczak, Adrian Cook, Lubbe Wiesner, Veronica Mulenga, Cissy Kityo, Addy Kekitiinwa, A Sarah Walker, Andrew Owen, Diana M Gibb, David Burger, Helen McIlleron, Paolo Denti
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the effects of CYP2B6 polymorphisms, diurnal variation and demographic factors on nevirapine pharmacokinetics in African children. METHODS: Non-linear mixed-effects modelling conducted in NONMEM 7.3 described nevirapine plasma concentration-time data from 414 children aged 0.3-15 years. RESULTS: Nevirapine pharmacokinetics was best described using a one-compartment disposition model with elimination through a well-stirred liver model accounting for a first-pass effect and transit-compartment absorption...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Myra W Popejoy, David L Paterson, Daniel Cloutier, Jennifer A Huntington, Benjamin Miller, Caleb A Bliss, Judith N Steenbergen, Ellie Hershberger, Obiamiwe Umeh, Keith S Kaye
OBJECTIVES: The increase in infections caused by drug-resistant ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-ENT) is a global concern. The characteristics and outcomes of patients infected with ESBL-ENT were examined in a pooled analysis of Phase 3 clinical trials of ceftolozane/tazobactam in patients with complicated urinary tract infections (ASPECT-cUTI) and complicated intra-abdominal infections (ASPECT-cIAI). METHODS: Trials were randomized and double blind. The ASPECT-cUTI regimen was 7 days of either intravenous ceftolozane/tazobactam (1...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Namraj Goire, Ratan Kundu, Ella Trembizki, Cameron Buckley, Tiffany R Hogan, David A Lewis, James M Branley, David M Whiley, Monica M Lahra
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have shown that mixed-strain gonococcal infections can occur. However, it remains unclear whether such infections impact upon the reliability of Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance. In this study, we aimed to resolve this question by intensively sampling isolates from gonorrhoea-positive specimens in a high-risk population in Sydney, Australia. METHODS: A total of 615 N. gonorrhoeae isolates, originating from 63 clinical samples (31 rectal swabs and 32 throat swabs), were characterized...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Shio-Shin Jean, Po-Ren Hsueh
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the antimicrobial resistance and assess the molecular characteristics of β-lactamases (ESBLs, AmpC β-lactamases and carbapenemases) among Enterobacteriaceae isolates that caused intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) in patients hospitalized in the Asia-Pacific region during 2008-14. METHODS: Multiplex PCR was used to detect the specific types of β-lactamase in 2893 isolates with MICs of ertapenem >0.5 mg/L. In-hospital acquisition times for most isolates were also delineated...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Pascale Trepanier, Kim Mallard, Danièle Meunier, Rachel Pike, Derek Brown, Janet P Ashby, Hugo Donaldson, F Mustafa Awad-El-Kariem, Indran Balakrishnan, Marc Cubbon, Paul R Chadwick, Michael Doughton, Rachael Doughton, Fiona Hardiman, Graham Harvey, Carolyne Horner, John Lee, Jonathan Lewis, Anne Loughrey, Rohini Manuel, Helena Parsons, John D Perry, Gemma Vanstone, Graham White, Nandini Shetty, John Coia, Camilla Wiuff, Katie L Hopkins, Neil Woodford
OBJECTIVES: To estimate UK prevalence and incidence of clinically significant carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), and to determine epidemiological characteristics, laboratory methods and infection prevention and control (IPC) measures in acute care facilities. METHODS: A 6 month survey was undertaken in November 2013-April 2014 in 21 sentinel UK laboratories as part of the European Survey on Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae (EuSCAPE) project...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Lars Falk, Jørgen Skov Jensen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Estelle Menu, Frédérique Gouriet, Jean-Paul Casalta, Hervé Tissot-Dupont, Maude Vecten, Ludivine Saby, Sandrine Hubert, Erwan Salaun, Alexis Theron, Dominique Grisoli, Cécile Lavoute, Frédéric Collart, Gilbert Habib, Didier Raoult
OBJECTIVES: Much progress has been made in understanding the main causes of blood culture-negative endocarditis (BCNE). Few studies concerning BCNE treatment (due to previous antibiotics used or fastidious pathogens) are available. We performed this study to evaluate the effectiveness of our therapeutic protocol in BCNE, based on compliance with the protocol, outcome and 1 year mortality. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We collected prospectively and analysed retrospectively cases of BCNE between 2002 and 2014, using a simplified and standardized protocol developed by our multidisciplinary team...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Martin Day, Michel Doumith, Claire Jenkins, Timothy J Dallman, Katie L Hopkins, Richard Elson, Gauri Godbole, Neil Woodford
OBJECTIVES: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are zoonotic and transmission to humans occurs via contaminated food or contact with infected animals. In this study, WGS data were used to predict antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in STEC from symptomatic human cases to assess the extent of transmission of antibiotic-resistant E. coli from animals to humans. METHODS: WGS data from 430 isolates of STEC were mapped to genes known to be associated with phenotypic AMR...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
K Schmidt, S Mwaigwisya, L C Crossman, M Doumith, D Munroe, C Pires, A M Khan, N Woodford, N J Saunders, J Wain, J O'Grady, D M Livermore
OBJECTIVES: The introduction of metagenomic sequencing to diagnostic microbiology has been hampered by slowness, cost and complexity. We explored whether MinION nanopore sequencing could accelerate diagnosis and resistance profiling, using complicated urinary tract infections as an exemplar. METHODS: Bacterial DNA was enriched from clinical urines (n = 10) and from healthy urines 'spiked' with multiresistant Escherichia coli (n = 5), then sequenced by MinION...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Mark H Wilcox, James D Chalmers, Carl E Nord, Jane Freeman, Emilio Bouza
The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in Europe has increased markedly since 2000. Previous meta-analyses have suggested a strong association between cephalosporin use and CDI, and many national programmes on CDI control have focused on reducing cephalosporin usage. Despite reductions in cephalosporin use, however, rates of CDI have continued to rise. This review examines the potential association of CDI with cephalosporins, and considers other factors that influence CDI risk. EUCLID (the EUropean, multicentre, prospective biannual point prevalence study of CLostridium difficile Infection in hospitalized patients with Diarrhoea) reported an increase in the annual incidence of CDI from 6...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Aziza Messaoudi, Marisa Haenni, Wejdene Mansour, Estelle Saras, Anis Bel Haj Khalifa, Cherifa Chaouch, Walid Naija, Noureddine Boujâafar, Olfa Bouallègue, Jean-Yves Madec
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
K Steegen, M Bronze, M A Papathanasopoulos, G van Zyl, D Goedhals, E Variava, W MacLeod, I Sanne, W S Stevens, S Carmona
BACKGROUND: Routine HIV-1 antiretroviral drug resistance testing for patients failing NNRTI-based regimens is not recommended in resource-limited settings. Therefore, surveys are required to monitor resistance profiles in patients failing ART. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst patients failing NNRTI-based regimens in the public sector throughout South Africa. Virological failure was defined as two consecutive HIV-1 viral load results >1000 RNA copies/mL...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Sergio Serrano-Villar, Yan Zhou, Anthony J Rodgers, Santiago Moreno
OBJECTIVES: A low CD4/CD8 ratio during treated HIV identifies individuals with heightened immunoactivation and excess mortality. Whether ART regimens elicit distinct CD4/CD8 ratio recovery remains unknown. We aimed to compare the efficacy of an integrase inhibitor versus a non-nucleoside to normalize the CD4/CD8 ratio. METHODS: We conducted a post hoc analysis of the STARTMRK study, a randomized, blinded, double-dummy Phase III trial of raltegravir versus efavirenz, and each in combination with tenofovir/emtricitabine, in treatment-naive HIV-infected adults...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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