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Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474660/performance-of-the-accelerate-pheno%C3%A2-system-for-identification-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-of-a-panel-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-bacilli-directly-from-positive-blood-cultures
#1
Alix Pantel, Julien Monier, Jean-Philippe Lavigne
Objectives: To evaluate the performance of the Accelerate Pheno™ system for the identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of a panel of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) with different resistance profiles (e.g. penicillinases, ESBLs, cephalosporinase overproduction, carbapenemases, impermeability) directly from positive blood cultures in <7 h. Methods: A panel of 105 clinical strains previously characterized for the presence of β-lactamase-encoding genes was tested...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471486/selection-of-hyperproduction-of-ampc-and-sme-1-in-a-carbapenem-resistant-serratia-marcescens-isolate-during-antibiotic-therapy
#2
Peera Hemarajata, Thomas Amick, Shangxin Yang, Aric Gregson, Cameron Holzmeyer, Karen Bush, Romney M Humphries
Objectives: Antibiotic selective pressure may result in changes to antimicrobial susceptibility throughout the course of infection, especially for organisms that harbour chromosomally encoded AmpC β-lactamases, notably Enterobacter spp., in which hyperexpression of ampC may be induced following treatment with cephalosporins. In this study, we document a case of bacteraemia caused by a blaSME-1-harbouring Serratia marcescens that subsequently developed resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, piperacillin/tazobactam and fluoroquinolones, over the course of several months of treatment with piperacillin/tazobactam and ciprofloxacin...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462314/occurrence-of-the-mobile-colistin-resistance-gene-mcr-3-in-escherichia-coli-from-household-pigs-in-rural-areas
#3
Jiyun Li, Anette Hulth, Lennart E Nilsson, Stefan Börjesson, Baoli Chen, Zhenwang Bi, Yang Wang, Stefan Schwarz, Congming Wu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462308/comment-on-influence-of-empirical-double-active-combination-antimicrobial-therapy-compared-with-active-monotherapy-on-mortality-in-patients-with-septic-shock-a-propensity-score-adjusted-and-matched-analysis
#4
Ludwig Serge Aho Glélé, Adrien Guilloteau, Mathieu Blot, Lionel Piroth, Karine Astruc, Pascal Chavanet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462306/a-multicentre-stewardship-initiative-to-decrease-excessive-duration-of-antibiotic-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-community-acquired-pneumonia
#5
Farnaz Foolad, Angela M Huang, Cynthia T Nguyen, Lindsay Colyer, Megan Lim, Jessica Grieger, Julius Li, Sara Revolinski, Megan Mack, Tejal Gandhi, J Njeri Wainaina, Gregory Eschenauer, Twisha S Patel, Vincent D Marshall, Jerod Nagel
Background: The increased emphasis on pneumonia-related performance measures and patient outcomes has led hospitals to implement multifaceted approaches to quickly identify patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), start timely therapy and reduce readmission. However, there has been minimal focus on duration of therapy (DOT) and patients often receive prolonged antibiotic courses. The IDSA and American Thoracic Society (IDSA/ATS) CAP guidelines recommend 5 days of therapy for clinically stable patients that quickly defervesce and stewardship teams are well positioned to influence prescribing practices...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462430/education-and-management-of-antimicrobials-amongst-nurses-in-africa-a-situation-analysis-an-infection-control-africa-network-ican-bsac-online-survey
#6
Andre N H Bulabula, Abi Jenkins, Shaheen Mehtar, Dilip Nathwani
Objectives: To assess the current involvement of nurses in the use and management of antimicrobials and their training in antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) across Africa. Methods: After a pilot study, an online questionnaire (SurveyMonkey) in both French and English was circulated via the Infection Control Africa Network (ICAN) mailing list to both members and non-members in Africa. The study was conducted from 26 May to 19 August 2016. Data were summarized in proportions and bar charts; proportions were compared using the χ2 test...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462403/transferable-vancomycin-resistance-in-clade-b-commensal-type-enterococcus-faecium
#7
François Lebreton, Michael D Valentino, Katharina Schaufler, Ashlee M Earl, Vincent Cattoir, Michael S Gilmore
Objectives: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium is a leading cause of MDR hospital infection. Two genetically definable populations of E. faecium have been identified: hospital-adapted MDR isolates (clade A) and vancomycin-susceptible commensal strains (clade B). VanN-type vancomycin resistance was identified in two isolates of E. faecium recovered from blood and faeces of an immunocompromised patient. To understand the genomic context in which VanN occurred in the hospitalized patient, the risk it posed for transmission in the hospital and its origins, it was of interest to determine where these strains placed within the E...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462322/primary-resistance-to-integrase-strand-transfer-inhibitors-in-patients-infected-with-diverse-hiv-1-subtypes-in-sub-saharan-africa
#8
Seth C Inzaule, Raph L Hamers, Marc Noguera-Julian, Maria Casadellà, Mariona Parera, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Roger Paredes
Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and patterns of major and accessory resistance mutations associated with integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), across diverse HIV-1 subtypes in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: pol gene sequences were obtained using Illumina next-generation sequencing from 425 INSTI-naive HIV-infected adults from Kenya (21.2%), Nigeria (7.3%), South Africa (22.8%), Uganda (25.2%) and Zambia (23.5%). Drug resistance interpretation was based on the IAS 2017 mutation list and accessory mutations from Stanford HIVdb with resistance penalty scores of ≥10 to at least 1 INSTI...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462315/overexpression-of-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-major-facilitator-superfamily-protein-mfsa-increases-resistance-to-fluoroquinolone-antibiotics
#9
Paiboon Vattanaviboon, Punyawee Dulyayangkul, Skorn Mongkolsuk, Nisanart Charoenlap
Background: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic human pathogen causing nosocomial infections worldwide. S. maltophilia infection is of particular concern due to its inherent resistance to currently used antibiotics. Proton motive force-driven transporters of the major facilitator superfamily frequently contribute to the efflux of substances, including antibiotics, across cell membranes. Methods: An mfsA expression plasmid (pMfsA) was constructed and transferred into bacterial strains by electroporation...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444305/poor-palatability-of-the-new-ritonavir-formulation-is-a-major-obstacle-to-adherence-to-treatment-in-young-children
#10
Pierre Frange, Véronique Avettand-Fenoël, Stéphane Blanche
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444284/gentamicin-intercalated-smectite-as-a-new-therapeutic-option-for-helicobacter-pylori-eradication
#11
Su Jin Jeong, Jie-Hyun Kim, Da Hyun Jung, Kyoung Hwa Lee, Soon Young Park, Yungoo Song, Il-Mo Kang, Young Goo Song
Objectives: Novel antibacterial strategies against Helicobacter pylori are needed because H. pylori strains are acquiring resistance to antibiotics. We evaluated the efficacy of gentamicin-intercalated smectite hybrid (S-GEN)-based treatment regimens in a murine model of H. pylori infection. Methods: Two groups of 10 rats were administered either smectite or S-GEN to measure coverage of the gastric mucosa. To evaluate anti-H. pylori efficacy, mice were divided into eight groups of 10 mice each given different treatments, and H...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444253/hiv-1-genotypic-resistance-testing-using-the-vela-automated-next-generation-sequencing-platform
#12
Stéphanie Raymond, Florence Nicot, Romain Carcenac, Caroline Lefebvre, Nicolas Jeanne, Karine Saune, Pierre Delobel, Jacques Izopet
Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the Vela next-generation sequencing (NGS) system in conjunction with the Sentosa SQ HIV Genotyping Assay for genotyping HIV-1. Methods: Plasma RNA was extracted and templates prepared with the Sentosa SX instrument before sequencing the HIV-1 polymerase on the Sentosa SQ301 Sequencer (PGM IonTorrent). The Vela NGS System was compared with direct sequencing and the 454 GS-FLX (Roche) and MiSeq (Illumina) systems for genotypic resistance testing on clinical samples...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444245/mcr-5-and-a-novel-mcr-5-2-variant-in-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-food-and-food-producing-animals-germany-2010-to-2017
#13
Jens A Hammerl, Maria Borowiak, Silvia Schmoger, Dina Shamoun, Mirjam Grobbel, Burkhard Malorny, Bernd-Alois Tenhagen, Annemarie Käsbohrer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444242/in-vitro-activity-of-zoliflodacin-etx0914-against-macrolide-resistant-fluoroquinolone-resistant-and-antimicrobial-susceptible-mycoplasma-genitalium-strains
#14
A C Damião Gouveia, M Unemo, J S Jensen
Background: Mycoplasma genitalium is estimated to be the second most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection in Europe. It is of increasing public health concern due to the rapid development of resistance to different antimicrobial classes, including the preferred first- and second-line treatments azithromycin and moxifloxacin. Thus, new antimicrobial agents are urgently needed, especially for the treatment of MDR strains. Methods: The in vitro activity of the new spiropyrimidinetrione zoliflodacin against 47 M...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438547/effectiveness-of-general-practitioner-online-training-and-an-information-booklet-for-parents-on-antibiotic-prescribing-for-children-with-respiratory-tract-infection-in-primary-care-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Anne R J Dekker, Theo J M Verheij, Berna D L Broekhuizen, Christopher C Butler, Jochen W L Cals, Nick A Francis, Paul Little, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Lucy Yardley, Nicolaas P A Zuithoff, Alike W van der Velden
Objectives: Antibiotics are too often prescribed in childhood respiratory tract infection (RTI), despite limited effectiveness, potential side effects and bacterial resistance. We aimed to reduce antibiotic prescribing for children with RTI by online training for general practitioners (GPs) and information for parents. Methods: A pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial in primary care. The intervention consisted of online training for GPs and an information booklet for parents...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438544/emergence-and-control-of-linezolid-resistant-staphylococcus-epidermidis-in-an-icu-of-a-german-hospital
#16
Christina Weßels, Birgit Strommenger, Ingo Klare, Jennifer Bender, Sabine Messler, Frauke Mattner, Michael Krakau, Guido Werner, Franziska Layer
Objectives: To investigate an outbreak of linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (LRSE) in an interdisciplinary ICU, linezolid consumption and infection control measures taken. Methods: Routine surveillance of nosocomial infections revealed colonization and infection with LRSE affecting 14 patients during a 15 month period. LRSE isolates were analysed with respect to their clonal relatedness, antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of cfr and/or mutations in the 23S rRNA, rplC, rplD and rplV genes...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438542/discovery-and-development-of-new-antibacterial-drugs-learning-from-experience
#17
Nicole Jackson, Lloyd Czaplewski, Laura J V Piddock
Antibiotic (antibacterial) resistance is a serious global problem and the need for new treatments is urgent. The current antibiotic discovery model is not delivering new agents at a rate that is sufficient to combat present levels of antibiotic resistance. This has led to fears of the arrival of a 'post-antibiotic era'. Scientific difficulties, an unfavourable regulatory climate, multiple company mergers and the low financial returns associated with antibiotic drug development have led to the withdrawal of many pharmaceutical companies from the field...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438535/discrepancies-in-national-time-trends-of-outpatient-antibiotic-utilization-using-different-measures-a-population-based-study-in-france
#18
Nhung T H Trinh, Pierre Chahwakilian, Tim A Bruckner, Stéphane Sclison, Corinne Levy, Martin Chalumeau, Dejan Milic, Robert Cohen, Jérémie F Cohen
Objectives: To assess time trends of outpatient antibiotic utilization using different measures and explore their discrepancies. Methods: Based on French sales data from the IQVIA SDM database, 2009-16, we assessed time trends in outpatient antibiotic utilization using PrID, DID, PID and SID (defined as the number of prescriptions, DDDs, packages and standard units per 1000 inhabitants per day, respectively). We explored discrepancies between trends in PrID and DID by modelling the number of DDDs per prescription...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438479/novel-tn916-like-elements-confer-aminoglycoside-macrolide-co-resistance-in-clinical-isolates-of-streptococcus-gallolyticus-ssp-gallolyticus
#19
Stanimir Kambarev, Frédéric Pecorari, Stéphane Corvec
Background: Streptococcus gallolyticus ssp. gallolyticus (Sgg) is a commensal bacterium and an opportunistic pathogen. In humans it has been clinically associated with the incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and epidemiologically recognized as an emerging cause of infective endocarditis (IE). The standard therapy of Sgg includes the administration of a penicillin in combination with an aminoglycoside. Even though penicillin-resistant isolates have still not been reported, epidemiological studies have shown that this microbe is a reservoir of multiple acquired genes, conferring resistance to tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, macrolides and glycopeptides...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425340/clinical-review-of-delafloxacin-a-novel-anionic-fluoroquinolone
#20
Bryan T Mogle, Jeffrey M Steele, Stephen J Thomas, KarenBeth H Bohan, Wesley D Kufel
Delafloxacin is a novel anionic fluoroquinolone (FQ) approved for treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) caused by a number of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms including MRSA and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The unique chemical structure of delafloxacin renders it a weak acid and results in increased potency in acidic environments. In Phase III studies, delafloxacin had similar outcomes to comparator regimens for treatment of ABSSSIs, and was well tolerated overall. Similar to other FQs, delafloxacin is available in both intravenous and oral formulations, but differs in that delafloxacin exerts a minimal effect on cytochrome P450 enzymes and on the corrected QT interval...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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