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Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

Kalyan K Dewan, Amanda L Skarlupka, Israel Rivera, Laura E Cuff, Monica C Gestal, Dawn L Taylor-Mulneix, Shannon Wagner, Valerie E Ryman, Coralis Rodriguez, Illiassou Hamidou Soumana, Bruce R Levin, Eric T Harvill
Background: Why resistance to specific antibiotics emerges and spreads rapidly in some bacteria confronting these drugs but not others remains a mystery. Resistance to erythromycin in the respiratory pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae emerged rapidly and increased problematically. However, resistance is uncommon amongst the classic Bordetella species despite infections being treated with this macrolide for decades. Objectives: We examined whether the apparent progenitor of the classic Bordetella spp...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Ya-Jun Zhai, Hui Huang, Jianhua Liu, Hua-Run Sun, Dandan He, Yu-Shan Pan, Gongzheng Hu
Background: Colistin has been used as the last therapeutic resort for treatment of MDR Gram-negative bacteria infections in humans. The two-component system CpxAR has been reported to contribute to the MDR of bacteria. There may be a more complex network mediated by CpxAR contributing to colistin susceptibility than previously understood. Methods: A series of AcrB or CpxR deletion mutants of a multidrug-susceptible standard strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) was constructed in our previous study...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Alejandro Iregui, Karen Ha, Katharine Meleney, David Landman, John Quale
Objectives: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae are important nosocomial pathogens in many medical centres. Surveillance is needed to track trends and detect emergence of new carbapenemases. Methods: Single-patient isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were gathered from seven medical centres in New York City over a 3 month period in 2017. Susceptibility testing was performed and isolates were screened for selected carbapenemases. Additional isolates referred to our laboratory in 2018 were also tested...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
P Lewis White, Rosemary A Barnes, Rebecca Gorton, Mario Cruciani, Juergen Loeffler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Jiachun Su, Qinglan Guo, Ying Li, Shi Wu, Fupin Hu, Su Xu, Minggui Wang
Objectives: Carbapenems are widely recommended for the treatment of infections caused by ESBL producers however, non-carbapenem β-lactams such as β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations (BLBLIs) deserve consideration for the treatment of ESBL infections. Cefoperazone/sulbactam is one of the most commonly used BLBLIs in China; however, few outcome studies have been reported. In this study, we evaluated and compared the clinical efficacy of cefoperazone/sulbactam with that of a carbapenem in the treatment of bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Yasufumi Matsumura, Gisele Peirano, Patricia A Bradford, Mary R Motyl, Rebekah DeVinney, Johann D D Pitout
Objectives: IMP and VIM carbapenemases, in association with class 1 integrons, have spread globally among multiple Enterobacteriaceae species. We characterized IMP- and VIM-encoding transferable plasmids of clinical Enterobacteriaceae collected from two global surveillance programmes. Methods: We performed conjugation and transformation experiments for 38 IMP and 89 VIM producers. Plasmids, obtained from transconjugants or transformants, were sequenced with Illumina next-generation sequencing and analysed for replicon types and antimicrobial resistance genes...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Adrian Sousa, María Teresa Pérez-Rodríguez, Adriana Soto, Lorena Rodríguez, Antonio Pérez-Landeiro, Lucia Martínez-Lamas, Andrés Nodar, Manuel Crespo
Background: Experience in real clinical practice with ceftazidime/avibactam is limited, and there are even fewer data on infections due to OXA-48-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Methods: We designed an observational study of a prospectively collected cohort of adult patients receiving ceftazidime/avibactam in our centre. Only the first treatment course of each patient was analysed. Efficacy and safety were evaluated as 14 and 30 day mortality, recurrence rate at 90 days, resistance development and occurrence of adverse effects...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Ariane Deplano, Magali Dodémont, Olivier Denis, Henrik Westh, Heidi Gumpert, Anders Rhod Larsen, Jesper Larsen, Angela Kearns, Bruno Pichon, Franziska Layer, Berit Schulte, Christiane Wolz, Iris Spiliopoulou, Gráinne Brennan, Joanna Empel, Waleria Hryniewicz, Herminia de Lencastre, Nuno Alexandre Faria, Irina Codita, Artur J Sabat, Alexander W Friedrich, Ruud H Deurenberg, Anne Tristan, Frédéric Laurent, François Vandenesch
Objectives: We present the results of two European external quality assessments (EQAs) conducted in 2014 and 2016 under the auspices of the Study Group on Staphylococci and Staphylococcal Infections of ESCMID. The objective was to assess the performance of participating centres in characterizing Staphylococcus aureus using their standard in-house phenotypic and genotypic protocols. Methods: A total of 11 well-characterized blindly coded S. aureus (n = 9), Staphylococcus argenteus (n = 1) and Staphylococcus capitis (n = 1) strains were distributed to participants for analysis...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Sean N Avedissian, Marc H Scheetz, Teresa R Zembower, Christina Silkaitis, Robert Maxwell, Charles Jenkins, Michael J Postelnick, Sarah H Sutton, Nathaniel J Rhodes
Objectives: To quantify the impact of varying the at-risk days definition on the overall report of at-risk days and on the calculated standardized consumption rates (SCRs) for piperacillin/tazobactam, amikacin, daptomycin and vancomycin. Methods: Data were evaluated for two system hospitals, an 894 bed academic centre and a 114 bed community hospital. Aggregate inpatient antibiotic administration and occupancy data were extracted from electronic databases at the facility-wide level...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Alicia H Russell, Carolyne Horner, David M Livermore, Alasdair P MacGowan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 3, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
J A Perez-Molina, F Pulido, S Di Giambenedetto, E Ribera, S Moreno, J Zamora, C Coscia, B Alejos, J Pitch, J M Gatell, A De Luca, J R Arribas
Background: Dual therapy (DT) with a ritonavir-boosted PI (PI/r) plus lamivudine has proven non-inferior (12% margin) to triple therapy (TT) with PI/r plus two nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors [N(t)RTIs] in four clinical trials. It remains unclear whether DT is non-inferior based on the US FDA endpoint (virological failure with a margin of 4%) or in specific subgroups. Methods: We performed a systematic search (January 1990 to March 2017) of randomized controlled trials that compared switching of maintenance ART from TT to DT...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
M Berleur, F Guérin, L Massias, F Chau, J Poujade, V Cattoir, B Fantin, V de Lastours
Background: Alternative therapeutic regimens are urgently needed against carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. Fosfomycin often remains active against KPC and OXA-48 producers, but emergence of resistance is a major limitation. Our aim was to determine whether the association of temocillin with fosfomycin might be useful to treat KPC- or OXA-48-producing Escherichia coli infections. Methods: Isogenic derivatives of E. coli CFT073 with blaKPC-3- or blaOXA-48-harbouring plasmids (named CFT073-KPC-3 and CFT073-OXA-48, respectively) were used...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Kalayanee Chairat, Podjanee Jittamala, Borimas Hanboonkunupakarn, Sasithon Pukrittayakamee, Warunee Hanpithakpong, Daniel Blessborn, Nicholas J White, Nicholas P J Day, Joel Tarning
Objectives: Characterization of the pharmacokinetic properties of the enantiomers of primaquine and carboxyprimaquine following administration of racemic primaquine given alone and in combination with commonly used antimalarial drugs. Methods: Enantiomeric pharmacokinetics were evaluated in 49 healthy adult volunteers enrolled in three randomized cross-over studies in which a single dose of primaquine was given alone and then, after a suitable washout period, in combination with chloroquine, dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine or pyronaridine/artesunate...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Monique R Bidell, Nimish Patel, J Nicholas O'Donnell
Background: Bacteraemias caused by MSSA are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Controversy exists over the optimal treatment of severe infections caused by MSSA. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to identify whether differences in clinical outcomes exist between cefazolin and antistaphylococcal penicillins (ASPs). Methods: PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase were systematically searched for publications reporting clinical outcomes of cefazolin and ASPs for adult patients with MSSA bacteraemias throughout November 2017...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Thomas Arn Hansen, Martin Schou Pedersen, Lone Gilmor Nielsen, Chih Man German Ma, Lillian Marie Søes, Peder Worning, Christian Østergaard, Henrik Westh, Mette Pinholt, Kristian Schønning
Background: Primary screening for VRE with PCR directed against vanA allowed identification of vanA+ samples from which VRE could not be isolated when selective culture methods were used. From such a sample a vancomycin-susceptible, vanA+ Enterococcus faecium, Efm-V1511, was isolated, when vancomycin selection was not used during culture. Similar isolates with variable susceptibility to vancomycin were obtained in the following months. Objectives: To characterize Efm-V1511 and investigate the causes of variable susceptibility to vancomycin...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Paolo Gaibani, Simone Ambretti, Erika Scaltriti, Miriam Cordovana, Andrea Berlingeri, Stefano Pongolini, Maria Paola Landini, Maria Carla Re
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Zoe Oesterreicher, Edith Lackner, Walter Jäger, Martina Höferl, Markus Zeitlinger
Background: Treatment of skin and superficial soft tissue infections with topically applied antibiotics is a controversial topic, because only few clinical studies exist and target site concentrations after topical treatment are widely unknown. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the target site concentration of topically applied gentamicin as a potential cause of therapeutic failure and to explore if microporation by laser might be used to improve penetration of gentamicin through the skin barrier...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Jacques M Azzi, Andreas Kyvernitakis, Dimpy P Shah, Lynn El Haddad, Sminil N Mahajan, Shashank S Ghantoji, Ella Heredia-Ariza, Roy F Chemaly
Objectives: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection causes morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. However, studies describing this infection in patients with haematological malignancies are scarce. We sought to evaluate the clinical impact of RSV infection on this patient population. Methods: We reviewed the records of patients with haematological malignancies and RSV infections cared for at our institution between January 2000 and March 2013. Results: Of the 181 patients, 71 (39%) had AML, ALL or myelodysplastic syndrome, 12 (7%) had CML or CLL, 4 (2%) had Hodgkin lymphoma, 35 (19%) had non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 59 (33%) had multiple myeloma...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Johan A Maertens, Corrado Girmenia, Roger J Brüggemann, Rafael F Duarte, Christopher C Kibbler, Per Ljungman, Zdenek Racil, Patricia Ribaud, Monica A Slavin, Oliver A Cornely, J Peter Donnelly, Catherine Cordonnier
The European Conference on Infections in Leukaemia (ECIL) updated its guidelines on antifungal prophylaxis for adults using the grading system of IDSA. The guidelines were extended to provide recommendations for other haematological diseases besides AML and recipients of an allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Posaconazole remains the drug of choice when the incidence of invasive mould diseases exceeds 8%. For patients undergoing remission-induction chemotherapy for AML and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), fluconazole can still offer an alternative provided it forms part of an integrated care strategy that includes screening with biomarkers and imaging...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Kay Seden, Daniel Kiiza, Eva Laker, Walter J Arinaitwe, Catriona Waitt, Mohammed Lamorde, Saye Khoo
Background: Efavirenz-related nervous system or psychiatric adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are conventionally reported to resolve soon after initiation, with incidence of dizziness at 8.5% in large clinical trials. Patients of black ethnicity are genetically at greater risk of elevated efavirenz exposure, which has been linked to nervous system toxicity. Patients and methods: The current data derive from a prospective longitudinal observational study of adult HIV-positive outpatients taking current antiretrovirals, at three diverse clinics in central Uganda...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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