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Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

Anna Maria Geretti, Ellen White, Chloe Orkin, Anna Tostevin, Peter Tilston, David Chadwick, Clifford Leen, Caroline Sabin, David T Dunn
Objectives: In subjects with transmitted thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs), boosted PIs (PI/b) are often chosen to overcome possible resistance to the NRTI backbone. However, data to guide treatment selection are limited. Our aim was to obtain firmer guidance for clinical practice using real-world cohort data. Methods: We analysed 1710 subjects who started a PI/b in combination with tenofovir or abacavir plus emtricitabine or lamivudine, and compared their virological outcomes with those of 4889 patients who started an NNRTI (predominantly efavirenz), according to the presence of ≥1 TAM as the sole form of transmitted drug resistance...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Steven Sarrazin, Philip Joosten, Liese Van Gompel, Roosmarijn E C Luiken, Dik J Mevius, Jaap A Wagenaar, Dick J J Heederik, Jeroen Dewulf
Objectives: Farm-level quantification of antimicrobial usage (AMU) in pig farms. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, AMU data on group treatments administered to a single batch of fattening pigs from birth to slaughter (group treatment data) and antimicrobials purchased during 1 year (purchase data) were collected at 180 pig farms in nine European countries. AMU was quantified using treatment incidence (TI) based on defined (DDDvet) and used (UDDvet) daily doses and defined (DCDvet) and used (UCDvet) course doses...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Lina M Cavaco, Frank Hansen, Shazad Mushtaq, Robert L R Hill, Neil Woodford, Simon Le Hello, Rene S Hendriksen, Anette M Hammerum, Henrik Hasman
Background: The expression of enzymes of the OXA-48 carbapenemase group is difficult to detect by phenotypic methods owing to frequent low levels of carbapenem resistance and negative results with some screening methods. Temocillin has been shown to be a good option for phenotypic screening as it is hydrolysed by the OXA-48-group enzymes, whereas ESBLs, AmpC and some other carbapenemases have a lower hydrolytic effect on this antimicrobial. However, no epidemiological cut-off for temocillin is available...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Elizabeth A Ashley, Nandini Shetty, Jean Patel, Rogier van Doorn, Direk Limmathurotsakul, Nicholas A Feasey, Iruka N Okeke, Sharon J Peacock
One of the most pressing challenges facing the global surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is the generation, sharing, systematic analysis and dissemination of data in low-resource settings. Numerous agencies and initiatives are working to support the development of globally distributed microbiology capacity, but the routine generation of a sustainable flow of reliable data will take time to establish before it can deliver a clinical and public health impact. By contrast, there are a large number of pharma- and academia-led initiatives that have generated a wealth of data on AMR and drug-resistant infections in low-resource settings, together with high-volume data generation by private laboratories...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Leonardo Calza, Vincenzo Colangeli, Marco Borderi, Simona Coladonato, Beatrice Tazza, Isabella Bon, Maria Carla Re, Pierluigi Viale
Objectives: An observational, prospective, cohort study was performed to assess changes in insulin sensitivity and serum leptin level after a switch from a ritonavir-boosted PI (PI/r) to raltegravir or dolutegravir in HIV-infected adults on stable combination ART (cART). Methods: Non-diabetic HIV-infected patients receiving suppressive cART including tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine plus one PI/r, who underwent a switch from the PI/r to raltegravir (group A) or dolutegravir (group B), were enrolled in the study...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Flávia Barrosa Soares, Carlos Henrique Camargo, Marcos Paulo Vieira Cunha, Elisabete Aparecida de Almeida, Amanda Maria de Jesus Bertani, Enéas de Carvalho, Jacqueline Boldrin de Paiva, Sueli Aparecida Fernandes, Monique Ribeiro Tiba-Casas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Hwa-Ping Feng, Zifang Guo, Lisa L Ross, Iain Fraser, Deborah Panebianco, Patricia Jumes, Christine Fandozzi, Luzelena Caro, Jennifer Talaty, Joanne Ma, Eric Mangin, Xiaobi Huang, William L Marshall, Joan R Butterton, Marian Iwamoto, Wendy W Yeh
Background: Elbasvir/grazoprevir is a once-daily fixed-dose combination therapy for the treatment of chronic HCV infection, including HCV/HIV coinfection. Objectives: To evaluate the pharmacokinetic interaction of elbasvir and grazoprevir with raltegravir or dolutegravir. Methods: Three open-label trials in healthy adult participants were conducted. In the raltegravir trials, participants received a single dose of raltegravir 400 mg, a single dose of elbasvir 50 mg or grazoprevir 200 mg, and raltegravir with either elbasvir or grazoprevir...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Cátia Marques, Juliana Menezes, Adriana Belas, Catarina Aboim, Patrícia Cavaco-Silva, Graça Trigueiro, Luís Telo Gama, Constança Pomba
Objectives: To characterize the population structure, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes of Klebsiella spp. isolated from dogs, cats and humans with urinary tract infections (UTIs). Methods: Klebsiella spp. from companion animals (n = 27) and humans (n = 77) with UTI were tested by the disc diffusion method against 29 antimicrobials. Resistant/intermediate isolates were tested by PCR for 16 resistance genes. Seven virulence genes were screened for by PCR...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Eric H Decloedt, Phumla Z Sinxadi, Gert U van Zyl, Lubbe Wiesner, Saye Khoo, John A Joska, David W Haas, Gary Maartens
Background: There are limited data on the pharmacogenetics and pharmacokinetics of the CNS penetration of efavirenz. Objectives: We investigated genetic polymorphisms associated with CSF concentrations of efavirenz and its metabolites and explored the relationships with neurocognitive performance. Methods: We included 47 HIV-infected South African black adults with and without HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder on efavirenz/tenofovir/emtricitabine and collected paired plasma-CSF samples...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
E Wenzler, M Lee, T J Wu, K A Meyer, R K Shields, M H Nguyen, C J Clancy, R M Humphries, A T Harrington
Objectives: To ensure the accuracy of susceptibility testing methods for ceftazidime/avibactam. Methods: The performances of the Etest (bioMérieux), 30/20 μg disc (Hardy diagnostics) and 10/4 μg disc (Mast Group) were evaluated against the reference broth microdilution (BMD) method for 102 clinically relevant Gram-negative organisms: 69 ceftazidime- and meropenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and 33 MDR non-K. pneumoniae. Essential and categorical agreement along with major and very major error rates were determined according to CLSI guidelines...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Feifan Xie, Konstantinos Mantzarlis, Polychronis Malliotakis, Vasileios Koulouras, Sophie Degroote, Despoina Koulenti, Stijn Blot, Koen Boussery, Jan Van Bocxlaer, Pieter Colin
Objectives: Altered linezolid pharmacokinetics (PK) in obese individuals has been hypothesized in previous studies. However, specific dosing recommendations for this population are still lacking. The main goal of this study was to evaluate PK/pharmacodynamic (PKPD) target attainment when using a 600 mg intravenous q12h linezolid dose against MRSA in obese patients with pneumonia. Methods: Fifteen obese pneumonia patients with a confirmed or suspected MRSA involvement treated with 600 mg of intravenous linezolid q12h were studied for 3 days...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Chloé Dimeglio, Stéphanie Raymond, Florence Nicot, Nicolas Jeanne, Romain Carcenac, Caroline Lefebvre, Jacques Izopet
Objectives: To determine how the load of rilpivirine-resistant variants (mutational load) influences the virological response (VR) of HIV-1-infected patients to a rilpivirine-based first-line regimen. Patients and methods: Four hundred and eighty-nine patients infected with HIV-1 whose reverse transcriptase gene had been successfully resistance genotyped using next-generation sequencing were given a first-line regimen containing rilpivirine. Variables associated with the VR at 12 months were identified using a logistic model...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Alexia Chauzy, Abdelouaid Nadji, Jean-Christophe Combes, Nadine Defrance, Belaid Bouhemad, William Couet, Pascal Chavanet
Background: Owing to its antibacterial properties, ceftaroline could be attractive for prevention or treatment of bacterial post-neurosurgical meningitis/ventriculitis. However, few data are available concerning its meningeal concentrations. Objectives: To investigate ceftaroline CSF pharmacokinetics in ICU patients with an external ventricular drain (EVD). Methods: Patients received a single 600 mg dose of ceftaroline as a 1 h intravenous infusion...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Matthew R Davis, Minh-Vu H Nguyen, Monica A Donnelley, George R Thompson Iii
Background: Fluconazole is a commonly prescribed first-generation triazole antifungal. Although the toxicity profile of fluconazole has been evaluated in clinical trials, there are scant data regarding its tolerability with long-term therapy. Treatment guidelines for coccidioidomycosis recommend fluconazole therapy and severe or disseminated infections can require lifelong treatment. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of long-term fluconazole adverse effects, their consequences for antifungal therapy, time to adverse effects and the association between dosing regimen or fluconazole serum level and adverse effect status...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Paula Bustamante, Jonathan R Iredell
Objectives: To identify toxin-antitoxin (TA)-like plasmid stability loci on IncX4 plasmids. Methods: TA-like loci were identified bioinformatically and their contribution to stability of the IncX4 plasmid pJIE143 was tested in optimal growth conditions in vitro. The conservation of the TA-like loci identified was analysed within an updated IncX plasmid database. Results: A novel TA-like locus, tsxAB, was identified on the IncX4 plasmid pJIE143, carrying the important plasmid-borne antibiotic resistance gene blaCTX-M-15...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Lise Cuzin, Pascal Pugliese, Christine Katlama, Firouzé Bani-Sadr, Tristan Ferry, David Rey, Jeremy Lourenco, Sylvie Bregigeon, Clotilde Allavena, Jacques Reynes, André Cabié
Objectives: To analyse the frequency and causes of treatment discontinuation in patients who were treated with an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI), with a focus on neuropsychiatric adverse events (NPAEs). Methods: Patients in 18 HIV reference centres in France were prospectively included in the Dat'AIDS cohort. Data were collected from all patients starting an INSTI-containing regimen between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2016. All causes of INSTI-containing regimen discontinuations were analysed, and patients' characteristics related to discontinuation due to NPAEs were sought...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Brandon Eilertson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Paula C Aulicino, Ines Zapiola, Silvia Kademian, María M Valle, Silvina Fernandez Giuliano, Rosana Toro, Gabriela Barbas, Ana M Cañizal, Paula Mayon, Marcelo D Golemba, Marcela Ortiz de Zarate, Marisa S Corazza, Analía Cudola, Débora Mecikovsky, Rosa Bologna, Andrea Mangano, Luisa Sen
Objectives: To assess the prevalence and patterns of pre-treatment HIV drug resistance (PDR) and HIV-1 subtype in infants from Argentina with exposure to different antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Patients and methods: HIV-1 genotyping was performed in 115 infants (median age = 2.3 months) born between 2007 and 2014 to screen for drug resistance mutations (DRMs) before starting first-line ART. HIV-1 subtype was characterized by phylogenetic and recombination analysis...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Andrea Brenciani, Simona Fioriti, Gianluca Morroni, Lucilla Cucco, Alessandra Morelli, Giovanni Pezzotti, Marta Paniccià, Alberto Antonelli, Chiara Francesca Magistrali, Gian Maria Rossolini, Eleonora Giovanetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 4, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Kelly L Wyres, Jane Hawkey, Marit A K Hetland, Aasmund Fostervold, Ryan R Wick, Louise M Judd, Mohammad Hamidian, Benjamin P Howden, Iren H Löhr, Kathryn E Holt
Objectives: Recent reports indicate the emergence of a new carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae clone, ST307. We sought to better understand the global epidemiology and evolution of this clone and evaluate its association with antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes. Methods: We collated information from the literature and public databases and performed a comparative analysis of 95 ST307 genomes (including 37 that were newly sequenced). Results: We show that ST307 emerged in the mid-1990s (nearly 20 years prior to its first report), is already globally distributed and is intimately associated with a conserved plasmid harbouring the blaCTX-M-15 ESBL gene and several other AMR determinants...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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