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Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

Claire de Curraize, Catherine Neuwirth, Julien Bador, Angélique Chapuis, Lucie Amoureux, Eliane Siebor
Objectives: To characterize the structure of Salmonella genomic islands 1 (SGI1s) from two clinical Proteus mirabilis isolates: one producing an ESBL and the other a penicillinase. Methods: WGS completed by PCR and Sanger sequencing was performed to determine sequences of SGI1s from Pm2CHAMA and Pm37THOMI strains. Results: Two new variants of SGI1 named SGI1-Pm2CHAMA (53.6 kb) and SGI1-K7 (55.1 kb) were identified. The backbone of SGI1-Pm2CHAMA shared 99...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Sylvain Goutelle, Charlotte Genestet, Florence Ader, Gérard Lina, Oana Dumitrescu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
James A Karlowsky, Sibylle H Lob, Krystyna M Kazmierczak, Stephen P Hawser, Sophie Magnet, Katherine Young, Mary R Motyl, Daniel F Sahm
Objectives: Relebactam is an inhibitor of class A β-lactamases, including KPC β-lactamases, and class C β-lactamases, and is currently under clinical development in combination with imipenem. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of imipenem/relebactam against Gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp.) submitted by clinical laboratories in 17 European countries to the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) global surveillance programme in 2015...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Shizhen Ma, Chengtao Sun, Anette Hulth, Jiyun Li, Lennart E Nilsson, Yuqing Zhou, Stefan Börjesson, Zhenwang Bi, Zhenqiang Bi, Qiang Sun, Yang Wang
Objectives: To characterize the mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-5 in Aeromonas hydrophila from backyard pigs in rural areas of China. Methods: Pig faecal samples from 194 households were directly tested for the presence of mcr-5 by PCR assay and the phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of the mcr-5-positive isolates were determined using the broth dilution method. The genomic location and transferability of mcr-5 were analysed by S1-PFGE with Southern blotting and DNA hybridization, and natural transformation, respectively...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Patricia J Simner, Annukka A R Antar, Stephanie Hao, James Gurtowski, Pranita D Tamma, Clare Rock, Belita N A Opene, Tsigereda Tekle, Karen C Carroll, Michael C Schatz, Winston Timp
Objectives: In this study, we characterize a concurrent disseminated infection with a virulent hypermucoviscous (HMV) Klebsiella pneumoniae and an OXA-181-producing XDR K. pneumoniae from a patient with recent hospitalization in India. During exposure to meropenem therapy, the highly susceptible HMV K. pneumoniae became resistant to carbapenems, consistent with the acquisition of blaOXA-181. Methods: Twelve K. pneumoniae isolates were recovered from the patient and the hospital room environment over a 3 month hospitalization...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Rabaab Zahra, Saba Javeed, Bibi Malala, Dmitriy Babenko, Mark A Toleman
Objectives: To discover the Escherichia coli STs and associated resistance mechanisms in the community in Islamabad, Pakistan by analysis of E. coli isolates in sewage. Methods: One hundred and ten E. coli were isolated from sewage across the city of Islamabad without antibiotic bias and confirmed as E. coli by MALDI-TOF MS. Isolates were characterized by fumC/fimH (CH) typing and core-genome MLST. Resistance mechanisms, virulence genes, phylotypes and plasmid incompatibility types were determined in a subset of isolates by in silico analysis...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Cosmeri Rizzato, Noemi Poma, Marina Zoppo, Brunella Posteraro, Enrica Mello, Daria Bottai, Antonella Lupetti, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Arianna Tavanti
Background: Candida orthopsilosis is a human fungal pathogen responsible for a wide spectrum of symptomatic infections. Evidence suggests that C. orthopsilosis is mainly susceptible to azoles, the most extensively used antifungals for treatment of these infections. However, fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates are reported. Objectives: This study evaluated the contribution of a single amino acid substitution in the azole target CoErg11 to the development of azole resistance in C...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Herbert A Mbunkah, Alex Marzel, Stefan Schmutz, Yik Lim Kok, Osvaldo Zagordi, Mohaned Shilaih, Ndi N Nsanwe, Eyongetah T Mbu, Lydia M Besong, Bella A Sama, Emmanuel Orock, Roger D Kouyos, Huldrych F Günthard, Karin J Metzner
Objectives: To determine the most recent prevalence, transmission patterns and risk factors of transmitted drug-resistance mutations (TDRMs) in Cameroon, we initiated a multicentre study monitoring HIV-1 drug resistance in newly HIV-1-diagnosed individuals using a novel next-generation sequencing (NGS) assay applicable to fingerprick dried blood spot (DBS) samples. Methods: Fingerprick DBS samples and questionnaires were collected from 360 newly HIV-1-diagnosed individuals in four hospitals in urban areas in Cameroon in the years 2015-16...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Rodrigo E Mendes, Lalitagauri Deshpande, Jennifer M Streit, Helio S Sader, Mariana Castanheira, Patricia A Hogan, Robert K Flamm
Objectives: To report the linezolid activity, resistance mechanisms and epidemiological typing of selected isolates observed during the 2016 Zyvox® Annual Appraisal of Potency and Spectrum (ZAAPS) programme. Methods: A total of 8325 organisms were consecutively collected from 76 centres in 42 countries (excluding the USA). Broth microdilution susceptibility testing was performed and isolates displaying linezolid MICs of ≥4 mg/L were molecularly characterized...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Neta Sternbach, Yaara Leibovici Weissman, Tomer Avni, Dafna Yahav
Background: Ceftazidime/avibactam is approved for complicated intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections (UTIs) based on results from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Data regarding its effectiveness in treating hospital-acquired infections or resistant pathogens have not been systematically compiled. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis including RCTs evaluating ceftazidime/avibactam versus comparator for the treatment of any infection. Primary outcome was 30 day all-cause mortality...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
K Alexandre, M Réveillon-Istin, R Fabre, V Delbos, M Etienne, M Pestel-Caron, S Dahyot, F Caron
Background: Temocillin is an old 'revived' antibiotic that may play an important role in the treatment of febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Data regarding its activity against current Enterobacteriaceae isolates as well as the performance of routine susceptibility testing methods are, however, scarce. Objectives: To determine the MICs of temocillin for Enterobacteriaceae strains reflecting the current epidemiology and to analyse the accuracy of three commercial methods...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
M Angeles Argudín, M Dodémont, M Taguemount, S Roisin, R de Mendonça, A Deplano, C Nonhoff, O Denis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 5, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Maria C Puertas, Elisabet Gómez-Mora, José R Santos, José Moltó, Víctor Urrea, Sara Morón-López, Agueda Hernández-Rodríguez, Silvia Marfil, Marta Martínez-Bonet, Lurdes Matas, Mª Angeles Muñoz-Fernández, Bonaventura Clotet, Julià Blanco, Javier Martinez-Picado
Background: Monotherapy with ritonavir-boosted PIs (PI/r) has been used to simplify treatment of HIV-1-infected patients. In previous studies raltegravir intensification evidenced ongoing viral replication and reduced T cell activation, preferentially in subjects receiving PI-based triple ART. However, data about low-level viral replication and its consequences in patients receiving PI/r monotherapy are scarce. Methods: We evaluated the impact of 24 weeks of intensification with raltegravir on markers of viral persistence, cellular immune activation and inflammation biomarkers in 33 patients receiving maintenance PI/r monotherapy with darunavir or lopinavir boosted with ritonavir...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Tumaini J Nagu, Said Aboud, Mecky I Matee, Markus J Maeurer, Wafaie W Fawzi, Ferdinand Mugusi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 4, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Gianpiero Tebano, Oliver J Dyar, Bojana Beovic, Guillaume Béraud, Nathalie Thilly, Céline Pulcini
Objectives: To investigate fear of legal claims and defensive behaviours among specialists in infectious diseases (ID) and clinical microbiology (CM) and to identify associated demographic and professional characteristics. Methods: AntibioLegalMap was an international cross-sectional internet-based survey targeting specialists in ID and CM. Three variables were explored: fear of legal liability in antibiotic prescribing/advising on antibiotic prescription; defensive behaviours in antibiotic prescribing; and defensive behaviours in advising...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Sheryl A Zelenitsky, Nathan P Beahm, Harris Iacovides, Robert E Ariano, George Zhanel
Objectives: Despite the convenience of once-daily dosing, the use of ceftriaxone for Staphylococcus aureus infections has significant limitations, including scarce clinical evidence and increasingly questionable pharmacodynamic activity. Our goal was to conduct an integrated pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis of the appropriateness of ceftriaxone compared with cefazolin for treating serious MSSA infections. Methods: Ceftriaxone and cefazolin activity against five clinical MSSA isolates was characterized in an in vitro pharmacodynamic model...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Alberto Antonelli, Marco Maria D'Andrea, Andrea Brenciani, Cesira L Galeotti, Gianluca Morroni, Simona Pollini, Pietro Emanuele Varaldo, Gian Maria Rossolini
Objectives: To characterize a novel phenicol-oxazolidinone-tetracycline resistance gene, named poxtA, identified in a previously described MRSA strain that was highly resistant to linezolid and also carried the cfr gene. Methods: The poxtA gene was identified by bioinformatic analysis of the whole genome sequence of Staphylococcus aureus AOUC-0915. The poxtA gene was cloned in a shuttle plasmid vector and expressed in Escherichia coli, S. aureus and Enterococcus faecalis to investigate the protein function...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
M L Bazzo, L Golfetto, P C Gaspar, A F Pires, M C Ramos, M Franchini, W A Ferreira, M Unemo, A S Benzaken
Objectives: Gonorrhoea and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Neisseria gonorrhoeae are major public health concerns globally. Enhanced AMR surveillance for gonococci is essential worldwide; however, recent quality-assured gonococcal AMR surveillance in Latin America, including Brazil, has been limited. Our aims were to (i) establish the first nationwide gonococcal AMR surveillance, quality assured according to WHO standards, in Brazil, and (ii) describe the antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical gonococcal isolates collected from 2015 to 2016 in all five main regions (seven sentinel sites) of Brazil...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Marjan M Hashemi, John Rovig, Brett S Holden, Maddison F Taylor, Scott Weber, John Wilson, Brian Hilton, Aaron L Zaugg, Samuel W Ellis, Connor D Yost, Patrick M Finnegan, Charles K Kistler, Elizabeth L Berkow, Shenglou Deng, Shawn R Lockhart, Marnie Peterson, Paul B Savage
Background: Candida auris has emerged as a serious threat to human health. Of particular concern are the resistance profiles of many clinical isolates, with some being resistant to multiple classes of antifungals. Objectives: Measure susceptibilities of C. auris isolates, in planktonic and biofilm forms, to ceragenins (CSAs). Determine the effectiveness of selected ceragenins in gel and cream formulations in eradicating fungal infections in tissue explants. Materials and methods: A collection of 100 C...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
S Nicolè, M Lanzafame, G Cucchetto, F Rigo, E Lattuada, E Concia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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