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Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

E J Growcott, T A Cariaga, L Morris, X Zang, S Lopez, D A Ansaldi, J Gold, L Gamboa, T Roth, R L Simmons, C S Osborne
Objectives: The neutropenic murine thigh infection model and a dose-fractionation approach were used to determine the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationship of LYS228, a novel monobactam antibiotic with activity against Enterobacteriaceae including carbapenem-resistant strains. Methods: Mice (n = 4 per group) were inoculated with Enterobacteriaceae strains via intramuscular injection. Two hours post-bacterial inoculation, treatment with LYS228 was initiated...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Estelle Dumont, Julia Vergalli, Laurence Conraux, Carine Taillier, Aurélie Vassort, Jelena Pajovic, Matthieu Réfrégiers, Michael Mourez, Jean-Marie Pagès
Background: In Gram-negative bacteria, passing through the double membrane barrier to reach the inhibitory concentration inside the bacterium is a pivotal step for antibiotic activity. Spectrofluorimetry has been developed to follow fluoroquinolone accumulation inside bacteria using intrinsic bacterial fluorescence as an internal standard. However, adaptation for non-fluorescent antibiotics is needed; quantitative methods based on MS offer the possibility of expanding the detection range obtained by spectrofluorimetry...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Clémence Massip, Chloé Mathieu, Cécile Gaudru, Véronique Miaut, Pauline Floch, Eric Oswald, Christine Segonds, Hélène Guet-Revillet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
David A Boyd, Laura F Mataseje, Linda Pelude, Robyn Mitchell, Elizabeth Bryce, Diane Roscoe, Joanne Embree, Kevin Katz, Pamela Kibsey, Christian Lavallee, Andrew E Simor, Geoffrey Taylor, Nathalie Turgeon, Joanne M Langley, Kanchana Amaratunga, Michael R Mulvey
Objectives: Globally there is an increased prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. (CRAs) and carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter spp. (CPAs) in the hospital setting. This increase prompted the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP) to conduct surveillance of CRA colonizations and infections identified from patients in CNISP-participating hospitals between 2010 and 2016. Methods: Participating acute care facilities across Canada submitted CRAs from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2016...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Sharmila Khumra, Andrew A Mahony, Misha Devchand, Steven T Walker, Kent Garrett, M Lindsay Grayson, Jason A Trubiano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
A J Campbell, R Dotel, C C Blyth, J S Davis, S Y C Tong, A C Bowen
Protein synthesis inhibitor antibiotics inhibit synthesis of new proteins, including exotoxins and other important virulence determinants in Staphylococcus aureus. A summary of the literature regarding the use of adjunctive protein synthesis inhibitors for toxin suppression in the setting of S. aureus infections is presented.
October 10, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Raphaël Burger, Monia Guidi, Valérie Calpini, Frédéric Lamoth, Laurent Decosterd, Corinne Robatel, Thierry Buclin, Chantal Csajka, Oscar Marchetti
Background: Meropenem plasma concentration above a pathogen's MIC over the whole dosing interval (100% ƒT>MIC) is a determinant of outcome in severe infections. Significant variability of meropenem pharmacokinetics is reported in ICU patients. Objectives: To characterize meropenem pharmacokinetics in variable CLCR or renal replacement therapy and assess the appropriateness of recommended regimens for MIC coverage. Methods: A pharmacokinetic analysis (NONMEM) was conducted with external model validation...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
N Chantal Peltenburg, Jörgen Bierau, Jolanda A Schippers, Selwyn H Lowe, Aimée D C Paulussen, Bianca J C van den Bosch, Mathie P G Leers, Eleni-Rosalina Andrinopoulou, Jaap A Bakker, Annelies Verbon
Objectives: Abacavir use has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic events in HIV-infected patients, although this finding was not consistently found. It is unclear whether abacavir only increases this risk in subpopulations of HIV-infected patients. It may be hypothesized that inosine 5'-triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (ITPase), an enzyme involved in the metabolism of purine analogues used in HIV treatment, plays a role in the risk of CVD and metabolic events in HIV-infected patients...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Wonhee So, James Shurko, Ralph Galega, Rod Quilitz, John N Greene, Grace C Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 8, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Ahmad Mourad, Jonathan A Stiber, John R Perfect, Melissa D Johnson
Objectives: Voriconazole, a triazole antifungal, is frequently prescribed in a complex patient population with comorbidities that require concomitant administration of QT interval-prolonging medications. We sought to evaluate QT interval prolongation in patients receiving concomitant therapy with voriconazole and amiodarone and to assess the development of any potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias as a result. Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients who had received amiodarone and voriconazole concomitantly between 2005 and 2015, with a prior period of monotherapy, who had ECG data during monotherapy (baseline) and concomitant therapy (follow-up)...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Mary Claire O'Grady, Louise Barry, Gerard D Corcoran, Carmel Hooton, Roy D Sleator, Brigid Lucey
Objectives: This study considers susceptibility test results obtained over a 6 month period for Enterobacteriaceae that caused urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the Cork region of Ireland and uses these results to examine the suitability of Irish empirical treatment guidelines. Patients and methods: UTI-causing Enterobacteriaceae isolates were analysed using EUCAST guidelines to determine resistance to a set of commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents, i.e. ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefalexin, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Jos L M L le Noble, Sjoerd D Meenks, Norbert Foudraine, Paddy K C Janssen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 8, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Raymond S W Tsang, Tauqeer Ahmad, Frances B Jamieson, Gregory J Tyrrell
Objectives: Neisseria meningitidis is rarely penicillin resistant. We describe WGS analysis of a penicillin-resistant N. meningitidis collected from a case of invasive meningococcal disease. Methods: Serogrouping, serotyping and serosubtyping were performed with specific antibodies. β-Lactamase was detected by nitrocefin. MICs were determined by Etest and agar dilution. Sequencing of N. meningitidis genomes was done on the Illumina MiSeq platform and genome data were analysed using the Bacterial Isolate Genome Sequence Database (BIGSdb) on the PubMLST Neisseria website (https://pubmlst...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Elaine Chan, Alan K L Wu, Cindy W S Tse, Susanna K P Lau, Patrick C Y Woo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 8, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Nicolas Grégoire, Sandrine Marchand, Martine Ferrandière, Sigismond Lasocki, Philippe Seguin, Mickaël Vourc'h, Mathilde Barbaz, Thomas Gaillard, Yoann Launey, Karim Asehnoune, William Couet, Olivier Mimoz
Objectives: The objective of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of unbound and total concentrations of daptomycin in infected ICU patients with various degrees of renal impairment. From these results, the probability of attaining antimicrobial efficacy and the risks of toxicity were assessed. Methods: Twenty-four ICU patients with various renal functions and requiring treatment of complicated skin and soft-tissue infections, bacteraemia, or endocarditis with daptomycin were recruited...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Weerawat Phuklia, Phonepasith Panyanivong, Davanh Sengdetka, Piengchan Sonthayanon, Paul N Newton, Daniel H Paris, Nicholas P J Day, Sabine Dittrich
Objectives: To develop a method to enable the large-scale antimicrobial susceptibility screening of Orientia tsutsugamushi clinical isolates, using one timepoint and one concentration of antibiotics to considerably speed up the time to result. Methods: Growth, harvesting, multiplicity of infection (moi) and the day to determine the MICs were optimized using five O. tsutsugamushi reference strains [susceptible (Karp, Kato and Gilliam) and putatively resistant (AFC-3 and AFSC-4)], one clinical isolate (UT76) and one rodent isolate (TA763)...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Jane W Marsh, Marissa P Pacey, Chinelo Ezeonwuka, Sara L Ohm, Dan Snyder, Vaughn S Cooper, Lee H Harrison, Yohei Doi, Mustapha M Mustapha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Maryza Graham, Debra A Walker, Elizabeth Haremza, Arthur J Morris
Objectives: A 2017 laboratory survey conducted by the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Programs (RCPAQAP) asked participants which antimicrobials they would report for given organisms in either blood or urine cultures in order to identify opportunities for improvement of antimicrobial reporting. Methods: Over-reporting was defined as reporting of broad-spectrum antimicrobials on isolates susceptible to narrow-spectrum antimicrobials...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Tim Cutfield, Hannah Walter, Mark Hobbs, Ariel Chuang, Mark G Thomas, Stephen R Ritchie
Background: The Dundee classification is a simple severity assessment tool that could optimize treatment decisions and clinical outcomes in adult patients with cellulitis; however, it has not been validated in a large cohort. Objectives: To determine whether the Dundee classification reliably identified those patients with cellulitis who had a higher mortality, a longer length of hospital stay or an increased risk of readmission. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of all adults with a primary discharge diagnosis of cellulitis admitted to Auckland City Hospital from August 2013 to June 2015...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Dokyun Kim, Byeol Yi Park, Min Hyuk Choi, Eun-Jeong Yoon, Hyukmin Lee, Kwang Jun Lee, Yoon Soo Park, Jong Hee Shin, Young Uh, Kyeong Seob Shin, Jeong Hwan Shin, Young Ah Kim, Seok Hoon Jeong
Objectives: To investigate the risk factors of patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) bloodstream infection (BSI) with a focus on antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors. Methods: All KP BSI patients (n = 579) from six general hospitals during a 1 year period were included in this study. The risk factors of hosts and causative KP isolates were assessed to determine associations with the 30 day mortality of KP BSI patients by multivariate Cox hazards modelling...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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