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Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912399/clinical-activity-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-against-mdr-enterobacteriaceae-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pooled-data-from-the-ceftazidime-avibactam-phase-iii-clinical-trial-programme
#1
Gregory G Stone, Paul Newell, Leanne B Gasink, Helen Broadhurst, Angela Wardman, Katrina Yates, Zhangjing Chen, Jie Song, Joseph W Chow
Objectives: This analysis evaluated the clinical activity of ceftazidime/avibactam against MDR Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates pooled from the adult Phase III clinical trials in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI), complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) or nosocomial pneumonia (NP) including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Methods: Baseline isolates from five Phase III randomized controlled trials of ceftazidime/avibactam versus predominantly carbapenem comparators in patients with cIAI (RECLAIM 1 and 2; NCT01499290 and RECLAIM 3; NCT01726023), cUTI (RECAPTURE 1 and 2; NCT01595438 and NCT01599806), NP including VAP (REPROVE; NCT01808092) and cIAI or cUTI caused by ceftazidime-non-susceptible Gram-negative pathogens (REPRISE; NCT01644643) were tested for MDR status and susceptibility to ceftazidime/avibactam and carbapenem-based comparators using CLSI broth microdilution methodology...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912337/blandm-21-a-new-variant-of-blandm-in-an-escherichia-coli-clinical-isolate-carrying-blactx-m-55-and-rmtb
#2
Lu Liu, Yu Feng, Alan McNally, Zhiyong Zong
Objectives: New Delhi MBL (NDM) is a type of carbapenemase; 20 variants of NDM have been identified to date. We have found a new variant of NDM, NDM-21, and describe it here. Methods: A carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli was subjected to WGS using an Illumina X10 sequencer to identify the antimicrobial resistance genes and its ST. The gene encoding the new variant of NDM was cloned into E. coli DH5α, with blaNDM-5 being cloned as the control. Transformants were tested for susceptibility to carbapenems...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905808/pharmacokinetic-modelling-of-darunavir-ritonavir-dose-reduction-800-100-to-400-100-mg-once-daily-in-a-darunavir-ritonavir-containing-regimen-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-infected-patients-anrs-165-darulight-sub-study
#3
Minh P Lê, Marie-Laure Chaix, Sylvie Chevret, Julie Bertrand, François Raffi, Sébastien Gallien, El Mountacer Billah El Abbassi, Christine Katlama, Pierre Delobel, Yazdan Yazdanpanah, Juliette Saillard, Jean-Michel Molina, Gilles Peytavin
Background: In the ANRS 165 DARULIGHT study (NCT02384967) carried out in HIV-infected patients, the use of a darunavir/ritonavir-containing regimen with a switch to a reduced dose of darunavir maintained virological efficacy (≤50 copies/mL) for 48 weeks with a good safety profile. Objectives: To assess the total and unbound blood plasma pharmacokinetics of darunavir and associated antiretrovirals, and their penetration into semen before and after dose reduction...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901811/decreased-susceptibility-of-streptococcus-anginosus-to-vancomycin-in-a-multispecies-biofilm-is-due-to-increased-thickness-of-the-cell-wall
#4
Sarah Tavernier, Andrea Sass, Michiel De Bruyne, Femke Baeke, Riet De Rycke, Aurélie Crabbé, Ilse Vandecandelaere, Filip Van Nieuwerburgh, Tom Coenye
Background: Streptococcus anginosus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are often co-isolated from the sputum of cystic fibrosis patients. It was recently shown that S. anginosus is protected from the activity of vancomycin when it grows in a multispecies biofilm with P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Objectives: Elucidating the underlying cause of the reduced susceptibility of S. anginosus to vancomycin when growing in a multispecies biofilm with P. aeruginosa and S...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901783/results-from-the-survey-of-antibiotic-resistance-soar-2014-16-in-bulgaria-romania-serbia-and-croatia
#5
D Torumkuney, M Nica, I Nistor, R Vatcheva-Dobrevska, V Petrovic, A Stoica, B Hanicar, Dj Antic, I Morrissey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901766/results-from-the-survey-of-antibiotic-resistance-soar-2014-16-in-ukraine-and-the-slovak-republic
#6
D Torumkuney, T Pertseva, E Bratus, A Dziublik, V Yachnyk, A Liskova, O Sopko, K Malynovska, I Morrissey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901764/live-intramacrophagic-staphylococcus-aureus-as-a-potential-cause-of-antibiotic-therapy-failure-observations-in-an-in-vivo-mouse-model-of-prosthetic-vascular-material-infections
#7
Rym Boudjemaa, Karine Steenkeste, Cédric Jacqueline, Romain Briandet, Jocelyne Caillon, David Boutoille, Virginie Le Mabecque, Pierre Tattevin, Marie-Pierre Fontaine-Aupart, Matthieu Revest
Objectives: To evaluate the significant role played by biofilms during prosthetic vascular material infections (PVMIs). Methods: We developed an in vivo mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus PVMI allowing its direct observation by confocal microscopy to describe: (i) the structure of biofilms developed on Dacron® vascular material; (ii) the localization and effect of antibiotics on these biostructures; and (iii) the interaction between bacteria and host tissues and cells during PVMI...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901750/murepavadin-activity-tested-against-contemporary-2016-17-clinical-isolates-of-xdr-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#8
Helio S Sader, Robert K Flamm, Glenn E Dale, Paul R Rhomberg, Mariana Castanheira
Background: Murepavadin (POL7080) represents the first member of a novel class of outer membrane protein-targeting antibiotics. Murepavadin acts by binding to LPS transport protein D and is being developed for the treatment of hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Objectives: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of murepavadin against XDR P. aeruginosa. Methods: A total of 785 clinical isolates of XDR P...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897573/neurocognitive-safety-after-96-weeks-on-dual-therapy-with-atazanavir-ritonavir-plus-lamivudine-results-of-the-neurocognitive-substudy-of-the-salt-randomized-clinical-trial
#9
Ignacio Pérez-Valero, Juan Pasquau, Rafael Rubio, Antonio Rivero, José Santos, Jesus Sanz, Ana Mariño, Manel Crespo, Jose Hernández-Quero, José Antonio Iribarren, Félix Gutiérrez, Alberto Terrón, Herminia Esteban, José Antonio Pérez-Molina
Background: Concerns have been voiced over the capacity of deintensification strategies to preserve neurocognitive function and prevent neurocognitive impairment. Methods: We present the 96 week results of a neurocognitive substudy nested within the SALT clinical trial: a randomized, open-label, non-inferiority trial that compares whether atazanavir/ritonavir + lamivudine is non-inferior to atazanavir/ritonavir + two NRTIs in HIV-suppressed patients on stable triple therapy...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897538/lmb-1-a-novel-family-of-class-b3-mbls-from-an-isolate-of-enterobacter-cloacae
#10
Felix Lange, Niels Pfennigwerth, Rainer Hartl, Heidrun Kerschner, Dagmar Achleitner, Sören G Gatermann, Martin Kaase
Objectives: To identify and characterize a novel MBL gene conferring carbapenem resistance to an isolate of Enterobacter cloacae from Austria. Methods: The novel MBL gene was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli TOP10 to conduct comparative MIC studies and biochemical assays. Furthermore, WGS was performed using Illumina MiSeq and Oxford Nanopore MinION instruments to analyse the genetic environment of the novel MBL gene. Results: The novel MBL showed highest sequence homology to a predicted MBL precursor from the marine bacterium Rheinheimera pacifica and hence belongs to Ambler subgroup B3...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897513/evaluation-of-adhesion-molecules-and-immune-parameters-in-hiv-infected-patients-treated-with-an-atazanavir-ritonavir-compared-with-a-lopinavir-ritonavir-based-regimen
#11
Nicola Squillace, Daria Trabattoni, Antonio Muscatello, Francesca Sabbatini, Alessandro Maloberti, Cristina Giannattasio, Michela Masetti, Claudio Fenizia, Alessandro Soria, Mario Clerici, Andrea Gori, Alessandra Bandera
Objectives: To evaluate changes in pro-atherosclerotic biomarkers and endothelial function in patients initiating two different PI-based regimens as part of ART. Design: Prospective randomized 24 week study. Treatment-naive HIV-infected patients with CD4+ T cell count >250 cells/mm3 started PI-based regimens including atazanavir/ritonavir (Group A) or lopinavir/ritonavir (Group B) and were followed up in an observational follow-up study until week 96. Methods: The expression of immune activation and adhesion molecules on CD4+ and CD8+ cells and plasma cytokine levels were assessed at weeks 0, 4, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897476/revitalizing-the-drug-pipeline-antibioticdb-an-open-access-database-to-aid-antibacterial-research-and-development
#12
L J Farrell, R Lo, J J Wanford, A Jenkins, A Maxwell, L J V Piddock
The current state of antibiotic discovery, research and development is insufficient to respond to the need for new treatments for drug-resistant bacterial infections. The process has changed over the last decade, with most new agents that are in Phases 1-3, or recently approved, having been discovered in small- and medium-sized enterprises or academia. These agents have then been licensed or sold to large companies for further development with the goal of taking them to market. However, early drug discovery and development, including the possibility of developing previously discontinued agents, would benefit from a database of antibacterial compounds for scrutiny by the developers...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897467/complete-genomic-characterization-of-two-escherichia-coli-lineages-responsible-for-a-cluster-of-carbapenem-resistant-infections-in-a-chinese-hospital
#13
Zhiyong Zong, Samuel Fenn, Christopher Connor, Yu Feng, Alan McNally
Objectives: The increase in infections as a result of MDR strains of Escherichia coli is a global health crisis. The emergence of globally disseminated lineages of E. coli carrying ESBL genes has been well characterized. An increase in strains producing carbapenemase enzymes and mobile colistin resistance is now being reported, but to date there is little genomic characterization of such strains. Methods: Routine screening of patients within an ICU of West China Hospital identified a number of E...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897465/outcomes-associated-with-the-use-of-a-revised-risk-assessment-strategy-to-predict-antibiotic-resistance-in-community-onset-pneumonia-a-stewardship-perspective
#14
Andras Farkas, Joseph Sassine, Joseph P Mathew, Christine Stavropoulos, Ron Stern, George Mckinley
Objectives: There is growing evidence that patients with community-onset pneumonia and recent healthcare exposure are not at equally high risk of infection with MDR organisms. An individualized approach is necessary with regard to risk assessment and choice of antibiotics. Methods: We reviewed the records of 102 patients admitted for community-onset pneumonia, before and after the implementation of a revised risk assessment programme for MDR organisms using the drug resistance in pneumonia (DRIP) score...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897463/maldi-tof-for-the-rapid-detection-of-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-comparison-of-the-commercialized-mbt-star%C3%A2-carba-ivd-kit-with-two-in-house-maldi-tof-techniques-and-the-rapidec%C3%A2-carba-np
#15
Laurent Dortet, Didier Tandé, Dominique de Briel, Sandrine Bernabeu, Camille Lasserre, Guillaume Gregorowicz, Agnès B Jousset, Thierry Naas
Objectives: There is an urgent need for accurate and fast diagnostic tests to identify carbapenemase-producing bacteria. Here, we have evaluated three MALDI-TOF-based techniques to detect carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) from cultured colonies. Methods: The performance of three MALDI-TOF-based techniques, including the commercialized MBT STAR®-Carba IVD Kit (Bruker Daltonics) and two in-house protocols performed on the Microflex LT Biotyper (Bruker Daltonics) and the VITEK® MS Plus (bioMérieux), were compared with those of the RAPIDEC® CARBA NP (bioMérieux)...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889249/2018-update-to-the-hiv-treps-system-the-development-of-new-computational-models-to-predict-hiv-treatment-outcomes-with-or-without-a-genotype-with-enhanced-usability-for-low-income-settings
#16
Andrew D Revell, Dechao Wang, Maria-Jesus Perez-Elias, Robin Wood, Dolphina Cogill, Hugo Tempelman, Raph L Hamers, Peter Reiss, Ard I van Sighem, Catherine A Rehm, Anton Pozniak, Julio S G Montaner, H Clifford Lane, Brendan A Larder
Objectives: Optimizing antiretroviral drug combination on an individual basis can be challenging, particularly in settings with limited access to drugs and genotypic resistance testing. Here we describe our latest computational models to predict treatment responses, with or without a genotype, and compare their predictive accuracy with that of genotyping. Methods: Random forest models were trained to predict the probability of virological response to a new therapy introduced following virological failure using up to 50 000 treatment change episodes (TCEs) without a genotype and 18 000 TCEs including genotypes...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878213/evolving-oxazolidinone-resistance-mechanisms-in-a-worldwide-collection-of-enterococcal-clinical-isolates-results-from-the-sentry-antimicrobial-surveillance-program
#17
L M Deshpande, M Castanheira, R K Flamm, R E Mendes
Objectives: This study evaluated the oxazolidinone resistance mechanisms among a global collection of enterococcal clinical isolates. The epidemiology of optrA-carrying isolates and the optrA genetic context were determined. Methods: Enterococcal isolates (26 648) from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (2008-16) were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and MICs were determined by broth microdilution. Isolates with linezolid MICs of ≥4 mg/L were screened for resistance mechanisms...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878193/aciclovir-csf-concentration-in-children-with-viral-encephalitis-is-it-adequate
#18
Su-Zhen Sun, Le Wang, Yue-E Wu, Gui-Lin Ma, Bu-Fan Yao, Lei Dong, Evelyne Jacqz-Aigrain, Zhong-Ren Shi, Wei Zhao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878121/rapid-detection-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-resistance-by-maldi-tof-ms
#19
Cecilia Godoy Carvalhaes, Ana Carolina Ramos, Lilian Caroline Gonçalves de Oliveira, Maria Aparecida Juliano, Ana Cristina Gales
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873746/life-long-antimicrobial-therapy-where-is-the-evidence
#20
Jillian S Y Lau, Tony M Korman, Ian Woolley
The decision to prescribe long-term or 'life-long' antibiotics in patients requires careful consideration by the treating clinician. While several guidelines exist to help assist in this decision, the long-term consequences are yet to be well studied. In this review, we aim to provide a summary of the available evidence for patient populations where long-term antibiotic therapy is currently recommended in clinical practice. We will also discuss the pitfalls of this approach, including medication adverse effects, economic cost and any possible contribution to the emerging epidemic of microbial resistance...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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