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Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071986/shout-out
#1
LETTER
Julie A Chilton
Each year the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) holds its annual Pediatric Psychopharmacology Update Institute in January-14 hours of intensive teaching by national experts split over 2 days. I try to go every year and have found it, hands down, the best use of time and money in child psychiatry education. This year's course, titled "Cutting-Edge Psychopharmacology: Fads vs. Facts," featured a discussion of "promising but not yet proven" treatments and an outing of as yet "totally unsupported" interventions, along with the usual evidence-based overview...
August 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071985/helping-children-with-traumatic-reactions-to-parental-suicide
#2
LETTER
Judith A Cohen, Anthony P Mannarino
We would like to thank Dr. Romanowicz et al.1 for highlighting that children whose parents commit suicide could be at increased risk for developing depressive, posttraumatic stress, or traumatic grief reactions.2 Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) shows promise for improving these outcomes for children with traumatic grief including those who experience parental suicide.3,4 TF-CBT helps children develop individualized coping and safety skills, guides children to describe the details and make new meaning about their parents' deaths, grieve the parental loss, and enhance attachment to current caregivers...
August 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071984/symptom-insight-in-pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-outcomes-of-an-international-aggregated-cross-sectional-sample
#3
LETTER
Robert R Selles, Davið R M A Højgaard, Tord Ivarsson, Per Hove Thomsen, Nicole McBride, Eric A Storch, Daniel Geller, Sabine Wilhelm, Lara J Farrell, Allison M Waters, Sharna Mathieu, Eli Lebowitz, Melissa Elgie, Noam Soreni, S Evelyn Stewart
Insight in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) refers to patients' recognition that their obsessions and compulsions are symptoms rather than necessary or natural thoughts and behaviors.1 It has been estimated that 20% to 45% of youth with OCD exhibit poor or absent insight.2-4 Identified correlates of poor insight include younger age,2,3,5,6 increased OCD severity,2,4,7 impairment,4,7,8 and family accommodation2,4 ; lower intellectual and adaptive functioning3 ; and greater depressive symptoms.2,3 Poorer insight has also been associated with reduced response across treatment groups (ie, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor [SSRI], cognitive behavioral therapy [CBT], combined SSRI plus CBT, or pill placebo)...
August 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071983/marijuana-and-psychosis-policy-implications-for-treatment-providers
#4
LETTER
Kara S Bagot, Alexander Chang
In 2017, the annual prevalence of marijuana use rose to 24% among 8th to 12th graders, despite decreases in rates of other illicit substance use.1 This is of concern, as increasing use is coupled with declining perception of harm among adolescents,1 increasing potency of cannabis,2 ease of adolescents' access to marijuana,1 and progressive medicalization and legalization of marijuana. Exposure to high levels of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol through cannabis use triggers repeated activation of the endogenous mesolimbic dopaminergic system, desensitization, and progressive enhancement of acquired susceptibility to psychosis...
August 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071982/revisiting-the-werther-effect-in-the-21st-century-bullying-and-suicidality-among-adolescents-who-watched-13-reasons-why
#5
LETTER
Aline Zimerman, Arthur Caye, André Zimerman, Giovanni A Salum, Ives C Passos, Christian Kieling
Unlike most leading causes of death in the United States, suicide rates have not declined during the past 50 years.1 Among young people the situation is even more dramatic, because suicide rates are rising,2 and suicide is now the second cause of death in 15- to 29-year-olds globally.3 It has been suggested that descriptions of suicide in the media might affect behavior and that the young might be more vulnerable to this effect.4 .
August 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071981/sequential-screening-to-improve-behavioral-health-needs-detection-in-primary-care
#6
Nicholas D Young, Christopher R Takala
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates sequential screening to improve behavioral health needs detection, reduce unnecessary referrals, and discern adverse impacts (false negatives) for pediatric primary care populations. METHOD: Monte Carlo simulation methodology was used to generate performance data for six sequential screening programs based on known technical properties of three broadband behavioral health measures and general psychopathology base rate estimates in pediatric primary care...
August 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071980/parent-training-for-preschool-adhd-in-routine-specialist-care-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Anne-Mette Lange, David Daley, Morten Frydenberg, Tine Houmann, Lene Juel Kristensen, Charlotte Rask, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Signe Søndergaard-Baden, Aparna Udupi, Per Hove Thomsen
OBJECTIVE: Parent training is recommended for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschool children. Evidence-based interventions are important, but only if they produce better outcomes than usual care. METHOD: The authors conducted a multicenter, 2-arm, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial in routine specialist ADHD clinics in the Danish Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services. Children (N = 164, 3-7 years old) with ADHD received a well-established parent training program (New Forest Parenting Programme; n = 88) or treatment as usual (n = 76)...
August 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071979/unique-dispositional-precursors-to-early-onset-conduct-problems-and-criminal-offending-in-adulthood
#8
Dustin A Pardini, Amy L Byrd, Samuel W Hawes, Meagan Docherty
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to examine whether dispositional interpersonal callousness, negative emotionality, and hyperactivity/impulsivity uniquely influence the development of childhood-onset conduct problems and persistent criminal behavior in males, and to determine whether specific facets of negative emotionality (dysregulated anger versus anxiety) in childhood are differentially associated with the development of chronic antisocial behavior. METHOD: Childhood dispositional features and conduct problems were assessed semiannually using parent- and teacher-report measures across 9 consecutive assessments in a school-based sample of 503 boys (∼7-11 years of age)...
August 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071978/predicting-the-adult-functional-outcomes-of-boys-with-adhd-33-years-later
#9
María A Ramos-Olazagasti, Francisco Xavier Castellanos, Salvatore Mannuzza, Rachel G Klein
OBJECTIVE: Little is known of the factors that influence the course of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objectives were to identify early features predictive of the adult outcome of children with ADHD. In the longest prospective follow-up to date of children with ADHD, predictors of multiple functional domains were examined: social, occupational, and overall adjustment and educational and occupational attainment. METHOD: White boys (6-12 years, mean age 8 years) with ADHD (N = 135), selected to be free of conduct disorder, were assessed longitudinally through adulthood (mean age 41) by clinicians blinded to all previous characteristics...
August 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071977/facial-emotion-recognition-and-eye-gaze-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-with-and-without-comorbid-conduct-disorder
#10
Jac N Airdrie, Kate Langley, Anita Thapar, Stephanie H M van Goozen
OBJECTIVE: Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with impairments in facial emotion recognition. However, CD commonly co-occurs with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); thus, it is unclear whether these impairments are explained by ADHD or by one of its core features-inattention. We explored whether emotion recognition impairments are specific to individuals with ADHD and comorbid CD while also examining the mechanisms that might explain such deficits. METHOD: A total of 63 male and female adolescents with ADHD (mean age = 14...
August 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071976/trajectories-of-alcohol-initiation-and-use-during-adolescence-the-role-of-stress-and-amygdala-reactivity
#11
Nourhan M Elsayed, M Justin Kim, Kristina M Fields, Rene L Olvera, Ahmad R Hariri, Douglas E Williamson
OBJECTIVE: Early alcohol use initiation predicts onset of alcohol use disorders in adulthood. However, little is known about developmental trajectories of alcohol use initiation and their putative biological and environmental correlates. METHOD: Adolescents (N = 330) with high or low familial loading for depression were assessed annually for up to 6 years. Data were collected assessing affective symptoms, alcohol use, and stress at each assessment. Adolescents also participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging protocol that included measurement of threat-related amygdala and reward-related ventral striatum activity...
August 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071975/exploring-the-impact-of-13-reasons-why-looking-for-light-amidst-the-heat
#12
EDITORIAL
John V Campo, Jeffrey A Bridge
A Letter to the Editor by Kieling and collegues1 in this month's Journal attempts to explore the impact of the Netflix series 13 Reasons Why (13RW) on the thinking and behavior of adolescent viewers. The series is an adaptation of a 2007 novel by Jay Asher, and tells the story of an adolescent girl who dies by suicide following a series of traumas and disappointments that she catalogues before her death on 13 audiotapes. The tapes are left behind with the expectation that each of the individuals presumably responsible for her suicide will listen and better understand their individual and collective failures...
August 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071974/building-the-evidence-to-treat-preschoolers-with-adhd-in-real-life-settings
#13
EDITORIAL
Guilherme V Polanczyk
Abundant evidence indicates that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has its roots in the early stages of development. Genetic risk plays a major influence and interacts with a variety of environmental exposures in complex dynamic ways, leading to heterogeneous neurobiological processes that eventually emerge clinically.1 The heterogeneity of etiological mechanisms is reflected by a heterogeneous clinical constellation and trajectories of symptoms and associated disorders. One common developmental trajectory of ADHD is the onset during the preschool age, with stability of approximately 90% to school age in clinical samples...
August 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071973/links-between-childhood-traits-and-adult-criminal-behaviors
#14
EDITORIAL
Christian Jean Hopfer
The article by Pardini and Byrd1 in this issue of the Journal addresses the question of which childhood dispositional features predict chronic adult criminal behavior. The article focuses on three traits (interpersonal callousness, negative emotionality, and hyperactivity/impulsivity) that have been previously identified as factors associated with criminal offending. Because all three are comorbid with conduct disorder (CD), questions have arisen as to whether they independently predict criminal offending. Interpersonal callousness, which reflects deceitfulness, a manipulative tendency, and lack of empathy or guilt, has been found to be a predictor of criminal offending and the "with limited prosocial emotions" specifier was added to the DSM-5 CD diagnosis because of evidence that it predicts more severe criminal and delinquent outcomes even when the severity of CD is taken into account...
August 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071972/hyperactive-boys-grown-up
#15
EDITORIAL
Alice Charach
What happens when hyperactive little boys grow up? Drs. Klein, Mannuzza, and their research team have been examining this important question for more than three decades. Ramos-Olazagasti et al., published in this issue of JAACAP, provide details regarding early predictors of adult functioning for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).1 Starting with publications in the 1980s, the research team reported on a cohort of boys of white ethnicity, 6 to 12 years of age with what we now call ADHD, of average intelligence, but without conduct disorder, and compared them as older adolescents to boys with no childhood behavior problems...
August 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071971/-whom-do-you-serve-school-mental-health-clinics-and-the-child-and-adolescent-psychiatrist
#16
EDITORIAL
Shirley Alleyne
One of my roles as a child and adolescent psychiatrist is the provision of onsite consultation and treatment services to a population of children with severe behavioral challenges in an alternative school system. The school mental health service agreement among the parents, school, and provider allows for dialogue between the provider and school staff (typically the school clinician) concerning evaluation findings and recommendations. I have twice faced scenarios in which parents have become upset and disengaged from treatment because of anonymous reports to child protective services made by school staff and attributed to the child psychiatrist by the parent...
August 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29960700/a-peace-of-advice
#17
LETTER
Craigan Usher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29960699/catatonia-in-children-and-adolescents-a-high-rate-of-genetic-conditions
#18
LETTER
Marie Raffin, Angele Consoli, Marianna Giannitelli, Anne Philippe, Boris Keren, Nicolas Bodeau, Douglas F Levinson, David Cohen, Claudine Laurent-Levinson
Pediatric catatonia is a rare and severe neuropsychiatric syndrome. We previously reported, in 58 children and adolescents with catatonia, a high prevalence (up to 20%) of medical conditions, some of which have specific treatments.1 Here we extend the cohort inclusion and report the first systematic molecular genetic data for this syndrome. Among the 89 patients consecutively admitted for catatonia (according to the pediatric catatonia rating scale)2 between 1993 and 2014, we identify 51 patients (57.3%) who had genetic laboratory testing, of whom 37 had single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray tests for CNVs and 14 had routine genetic explorations (karyotyping and searches for specific chromosomal abnormalities by fluorescence in situ hybridization [FISH]) or a specific diagnosis test based on clinical history...
July 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29960698/is-the-right-research-being-done-to-guide-the-development-of-the-american-academy-of-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry-s-practice-parameters
#19
LETTER
Kia Golmoradi, Jake X Checketts, Gretchan Moore, Matt Vassar, Tara R Buck
The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) developed Practice Parameters (PPs) to provide recommendations regarding the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with mental health disorders. Each recommendation comes with a rating, based on the level of evidence. In descending order, recommendations are rated as a clinical standard (CS), clinical guideline, or clinical option (CO), as well as recommendations that are "not endorsed" due to ineffectiveness or contraindication...
July 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29960697/trends-in-children-s-mental-health-services-research-funding-response-to-hoagwood-and-colleagues-commentary
#20
LETTER
Joshua A Gordon, Joel T Sherrill, Shelli Avenevoli, Robert K Heinssen
In their recent JAACAP Commentary, Hoagwood et al.1 examined data extracted from the National Institutes of Health Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools (RePORT) and concluded there has been a decrease in National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) funding for child and adolescent services and intervention research during the 10-year period from 2005 to 2015. They eloquently argued for the importance of research that can guide practice and inform the organization and delivery of children's mental health services in the current context of unmet need and the state of mental health service delivery...
July 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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