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Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS

Mariana V Meireles, Ana Roberta P Pascom, Elisabeth C Duarte
OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical, sociodemographic and treatment-related factors associated with early virological response in HIV-infected adults starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Brazil in 2014-2015. METHODS: Data from four information systems from the Brazilian AIDS Program were combined to create a historical cohort. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess the likelihood of not achieving virological suppression (VLS), defined as having either a viral load count (VL) >200 copies/mL or an aids-related death recorded within 180±90 days after treatment initiation...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Emily Shava, Lauren E Lipira, Geetha G Beauchamp, Deborah J Donnell, Shahin Lockman, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the role of opiate dependency treatment in risky sexual behavior could help optimize interventions for people who inject drugs (PWID). OBJECTIVES: We evaluated whether long-term medication-assisted treatment (LT-MAT) of opiate dependency with buprenorphine/naloxone influenced risky sexual behavior among HIV-uninfected PWID and identified predictors of risky sexual behavior. METHODS: We used data from HPTN058, a randomized controlled trial of LT-MAT vs...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Sergio Torres-Rueda, Mwita Wambura, Helen A Weiss, Marya Plotkin, Katharine Kripke, Joseph Chilongani, Hally Mahler, Evodius Kuringe, Maende Makokha, Augustino Hellar, Carl Schutte, Kokuhumbya J Kazaura, Daimon Simbeye, Gerry Mshana, Natasha Larke, Gissenge Lija, John Changalucha, Anna Vassall, Richard Hayes, Jonathan M Grund, Fern Terris-Prestholt
BACKGROUND: Although voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) reduces the risk of HIV acquisition, demand for services is lower among men in most at-risk age groups (ages 20-34 years). A randomised controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of locally-tailored demand creation activities (including mass media, community mobilisation and targeted service delivery) in increasing uptake of campaign-delivered VMMC among men aged 20-34 years. We conducted an economic evaluation to understand the intervention's cost and cost-effectiveness...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Münevver Demir, Sam Phiri, Eva Heger, Tom Heller, Rolf Kaiser, Thom Chaweza, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Hans-Michael Steffen, Florian Neuhann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Enrique Bernal, Jose Miguel Gómez, Inma Jarrín, Alfredo Cano, Angeles Muñoz, Antonia Alcaraz, Arkaitz Imaz, Jose Antonio Iribarren, María Rivero, Piedad Arazo, Félix Gutiérrez, CoRIS Study Group
BACKGROUND: The objetive was investigate the long-term impact of low level viremia (LLV) on all-cause mortality, AIDS and non-AIDS events (NAEs), and virological failure in patients receiving ART. METHODS: We analyzed ART-naïve adults from the cohort of the Spanish AIDS Research Network (CoRIS) who initiated ART from 2004 to 2015 and achieved plasma viral load (VL) below 50 copies/ml. LLV50-199 was defined as two consecutive VL between 50 and 199 copies/ml, and LLV200-499 as two consecutive VL between 50 and 499 copies/ml with at least one between 200 and 499 copies/ml...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Kate S Wilson, George Wanje, Linnet Masese, Jane Simoni, Juma Shafi, Lucy Adala, Julie Overbaugh, Walter Jaoko, Barbra A Richardson, R Scott McClelland
BACKGROUND: Little is known about fertility desire in HIV-positive female sex workers (FSW). Fertility desire could increase HIV transmission risk if it were associated with condomless sex or lower adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted among 255 HIV-positive FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya. Using generalized estimating equations, fertility desire was evaluated as a risk factor for semen detection in vaginal secretions by prostate specific antigen (PSA) test, a biomarker of condomless sex, detectable plasma viral load (VL), and HIV transmission potential, defined as visits with positive PSA and detectable VL...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Theodoros Kelesidis, Carlee B Moser, Elizabeth Johnston, James H Stein, Michael P Dube, Otto O Yang, Grace A McComsey, Judith S Currier, Todd T Brown
BACKGROUND: The contributions of the Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) axis to cardiovascular and bone disease in treated HIV-1 infection is not well-defined. SETTING: Prospective, observational, longitudinal study. METHODS: In a subset analysis of a prospective randomized clinical trial, 234 HIV-1-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve participants received tenofovir-emtricitabine plus either atazanavir/ritonavir, darunavir/ritonavir, or raltegravir and achieved plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/ml by week 24 and thereafter...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Aimalohi A Ahonkhai, Bolanle Banigbe, Juliet Adeola, Ingrid V Bassett, Ifeoma Idigbe, Prosper Okonkwo, Kenneth A Freedberg, Susan Regan, Elena Losina
BACKGROUND: Medication possession ratio (MPR) is widely used as a measure of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Many adolescents and young adults (AYA) experience ART adherence challenges. Our objective was to determine whether the relationship between MPR and virologic failure (VF) is consistent between AYA and older adults in Nigeria. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of AYA (15-25 years) and adults (>25 years) who initiated ART between January 2009 and December 2012 at 10 university-affiliated HIV clinics in Nigeria...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Ahizechukwu C Eke, Nahida Chakhtoura, Angela Kashuba, Brookie M Best, Craig Sykes, Jiajia Wang, Alice M Stek, Elizabeth Smith, Samantha Calabrese, Edmund V Capparelli, Mark Mirochnick
BACKGROUND: Concentrations of antiretrovirals (ARVs) in the genital tract play a key role in pre-exposure prophylaxis. This study aims to describe rilpivirine (Edurant) concentrations in the genital tract in pregnant and postpartum women. METHODS: International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Protocol P1026s is an ongoing, prospective study of antiretroviral pharmacokinetics (PK) in HIV infected pregnant women that include a cohort receiving rilpivirine combination regimen...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Masahiko Mori, Nuanjun Wichukchinda, Reiko Miyahara, Archawin Rojanawiwat, Panita Pathipvanich, Toshiyuki Miura, Michio Yasunami, Koya Ariyoshi, Pathom Sawanpanyalert
BACKGROUND: Class I HLA molecules contribute to HIV control through antigen presentation to both cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and NK cells. Contribution of CTLs to HIV clinical outcome by HLA alleles has been well studied. However, reports about the role of NK cells in HIV clinical outcome, particularly, about the effect of HLA-KIR pairs, remain incomplete. METHODS: The effects of HLA allele-KIR pairs on HIV clinical outcome were statistically analyzed in a Thai cohort of treatment-naïve chronically infected (n=209)...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Agnes-Laurence Chenine, Melanie Merbah, Lindsay Wieczorek, Sebastian Molnar, Brendan Mann, Jenica Lee, Anne Marie O'Sullivan, Meera Bose, Eric Sanders-Buell, Gustavo H Kijak, Carolina Herrera, Robert McLinden, Robert J O'Connell, Nelson L Michael, Merlin L Robb, Jerome H Kim, Victoria R Polonis, Sodsai Tovanabutra
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 CRF01_AE is dominant in Thailand where RV144 vaccine trial was conducted. To study immune correlates of protection in ongoing trials, CRF01_AE derived reagents are essential. Here we present a panel of 14 HIV-1 infectious molecular clones (IMC) identified from different stages of infection, and characterization of their neutralization sensitivity using two standard assays. METHODS: One full-length IMC was constructed using a transmitted-founder virus to express Renilla luciferase (LucR) reporter gene and full-length envelopes (envs) of exogenous HIV-1...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Deepa Rao, Christopher G Kemp, David Huh, Paul E Nevin, Janet Turan, Susan E Cohn, Jane M Simoni, Michele Andrasik, Yamile Molina, Michael J Mugavero, Audrey L French
INTRODUCTION: African American women encounter disproportionately high rates of HIVrelated morbidity and mortality which is partially mediated through stigma and its effect on HIV treatment adherence. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the UNITY peer support workshop on HIV-related stigma among African American women living with HIV, compared to a time and attention control group. METHODS: African American women living with HIV were randomized to the UNITY workshop or a breast cancer education control group...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Kara Wools-Kaloustian, Irene Marete, Samuel Ayaya, Annette H Sohn, Lam Van Nguyen, Shanshan Li, Valériane Leroy, Beverly S Musick, Jamie E Newman, Andrew Edmonds, Mary-Ann Davies, François Tanoh Eboua, Marie-Thérèse Obama, Marcel Yotebieng, Shobna Sawry, Lynne M Mofenson, Constantin T Yiannoutsos
BACKGROUND: Globally, 49% of the estimated 1.8 million children living with HIV are accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART). There are limited data concerning long-term durability of first-line ART regimens and time to transition to second-line. METHODS: Children initiating their first ART regimen between 2-14 years of age and enrolled in one of 208 sites in 30 Asia-Pacific and African countries participating in the Pediatric International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS consortium were included in this analysis...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Preeti Pathela, Kelly Jamison, Sarah L Braunstein, Julia A Schillinger, Olga Tymejczyk, Denis Nash
BACKGROUND: Linkage/re-linkage to HIV care for virally unsuppressed persons with new sexually transmitted infections is critical for ending the HIV epidemic. We quantified HIV care continuum gaps, and viral suppression, among HIV-positive patients attending New York City (NYC) sexual health clinics (SHC). METHODS: 1,649 HIV-positive patients and a 10% sample of 11,954 patients with unknown HIV status on clinic visit date (DOV) were matched against the NYC HIV registry...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Elizabeth Nalintya, David B Meya, Sarah Lofgren, Kathy Huppler Hullsiek, David R Boulware, Radha Rajasingham
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus is a leading cause of AIDS-related mortality. Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) is detectable in blood before meningitis onset, and predicts death. CrAg screening amongst those with advanced HIV, and treatment of those CrAg+ with fluconazole has demonstrated survival benefit. However, implementation and widespread uptake have been slow outside of clinical trials. METHODS: We designed a CrAg screening program for routine care that incorporated intensive education and training of clinic staff...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Patricia M Spittal, Samuel S Malamba, Martin D Ogwang, Seggane Musisi, J Paul Ekwaru, Nelson K Sewankambo, Margo E Pearce, Kate Jongbloed, Sheetal H Patel, Achilles Katamba, Alden H Blair, Herbert Muyinda, Martin T Schechter Obc
BACKGROUND: As previously encamped resettle, potential for rapid HIV transmission in post-conflict Northern Uganda is concerning. Women in particular may be experiencing heightened vulnerability resulting from war-related sexual violence. SETTING: Cango Lyec (Healing the Elephant) Project is a cohort involving conflict-affected people in three districts in Northern Uganda. METHODS: Eight randomly selected communities were mapped and a census was conducted...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Nancy E Mayo, Marie-Josée Brouillette, Lesley K Fellows
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 27, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Kamelia R Stanoeva, André König, Asami Fukuda, Yoko Kawanami, Takeo Kuwata, Yorifumi Satou, Shuzo Matsushita
BACKGROUND: Understanding HIV persistence in treated patients is an important milestone towards drug-free control. We aimed to analyze total HIV DNA dynamics and influencing factors in Japanese patients who received more than a decade of suppressive antiretroviral treatment. METHODS: A retrospective study including clinical records and 840 PBMC samples (mean 14 samples/patient) for 59 patients (92% male) was performed. Subjects were divided into two groups: with and without hematological co-morbidity (mainly hemophilia) plus HCV co-infection...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Romina Quercia, Carlo-Federico Perno, Justin Koteff, Katy Moore, Cynthia McCoig, Marty St Clair, Daniel Kuritzkes
Innovation in medicine is a dynamic, complex, and continuous process that cannot be isolated to a single moment in time. Anniversaries offer opportunities to commemorate crucial discoveries of modern medicine, such as penicillin (1928), polio vaccination (inactivated, 1955; oral, 1961), the surface antigen of the hepatitis B virus (1967), monoclonal antibodies (1975), and the first HIV antiretroviral drugs (zidovudine, 1987). The advent of antiretroviral drugs has had a profound effect on the progress of the epidemiology of HIV infection, transforming a terminal, irreversible disease that caused a global health crisis into a treatable but chronic disease...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Wilson Ly, Jennifer Cocohoba, Alexander Chyorny, Jodi Halpern, Colette Auerswald, Janet Myers
BACKGROUND: Providing HIV and HCV testing on an 'opt-out' basis is often considered the 'gold standard' because it contributes to higher testing rates when compared to 'opt-in' strategies. While rates are crucial, an individual's testing preferences are also important, especially in correctional settings where legal and social factors influence a person's capacity to freely decide whether or not to test. Our study explored factors influencing HIV and HCV testing decisions and individuals' preferences and concerns regarding opt-in versus opt-out testing at the time of jail entry...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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