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Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207429/hiv-prevalence-and-the-prevalence-of-unsuppressed-hiv-in-new-york-city-2010-2014
#1
Qiang Xia, Xuming Sun, Ellen W Wiewel, Lucia V Torian
BACKGROUND: The widespread use of antiretroviral treatment made HIV prevalence no longer a good measure of population-level transmission risk. The objective of this analysis was to use the prevalence of unsuppressed HIV to describe population-level HIV transmission risk. METHODS: Using New York City (NYC) HIV surveillance data, we reported HIV prevalence and the prevalence of unsuppressed HIV, defined as the number of persons living with HIV with an unsuppressed viral load divided by population size...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198713/cd1d-restricted-natural-killer-t-cells-are-preserved-in-indian-long-term-non-progressors-ltnps
#2
Dharmendra Singh, Manisha Ghate, Sheela Godbole, Smita Kulkarni, Madhuri Thakar
BACKGROUND: Natural killer T (NKT) cells act as a bridge between innate and adaptive immune responses. Limited information is available regarding the role of NKT cells in the HIV disease progression especially HIV-1 C infection. METHODOLOGY: NKT cells were characterized for their frequency and the activation, aging, exhaustion status and their proliferation ability in 32 long term non progressors (LTNPs), 40 progressors, 18 patients before and after suppressive cART along with 35 HIV-1 negative subjects using multicolor flowcytometry...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198712/changes-in-levels-of-inflammation-following-antiretroviral-treatment-during-early-hiv-infection-in-actg-a5217
#3
Bernard J Macatangay, Ming Yang, Xin Sun, Jessica Morton, Victor DE Gruttola, Susan Little, Christine Hogan, Charles R Rinaldo
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the changes in the levels of soluble biomarkers of inflammation and coagulation and T cell activation among participants of ACTG A5217 who were started on antiretroviral therapy (ART) within the first 6 months of HIV infection. METHODS: Cryopreserved specimens were obtained pre-ART (Week 0), at time of virologic suppression (Week 36), and at 36 weeks after treatment interruption (Week 72). Levels of D-dimer, C-reactive protein (CRP), and soluble CD14 (sCD14) were measured in plasma, while T cell activation levels defined as the frequencies of CD4 and CD8 T cells co-expressing HLA-DR and CD38, were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198711/longitudinal-opioid-use-among-hiv-infected-patients-2000-to-2014
#4
Laurence Brunet, Sonia Napravnik, Amy D Heine, Peter A Leone, Joseph J Eron
Longitudinal opioid prescription use is unknown among HIV-infected patients. Group-based trajectory modeling followed by multinomial logistic regression was used to identify distinct trajectories and their association with baseline characteristics among 1239 HIV-infected UNC CFAR HIV Clinical Cohort participants, 2000-2014. Three trajectories were identified: 1) 72% never/sporadic opioid use (referent group), 2) 11% episodic use (associated with female sex, depression, drug-related diagnoses, antiretroviral therapy use and undetectable HIV RNA), and 3) 16% chronic use (associated with older age, female sex and mental health diagnoses)...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196003/antiviral-activity-safety-and-pharmacokinetics-of-bictegravir-as-10-day-monotherapy-in-hiv-1-infected-adults
#5
Joel E Gallant, Melanie Thompson, Edwin DeJesus, Gene W Voskuhl, Xuelian Wei, Heather Zhang, Kirsten White, Andrew Cheng, Erin Quirk, Hal Martin
OBJECTIVE: to evaluate antiviral activity, safety, and pharmacokinetics of short-term monotherapy with bictegravir (bic), a novel, potent hiv integrase strand-transfer inhibitor (insti) DESIGN:: Phase 1b, randomized, double-blinded, adaptive, sequential cohort, placebo-controlled study METHODS:: HIV-infected adults not taking antiretroviral therapy were randomized to receive BIC (5, 25, 50, or 100 mg) or placebo once daily for 10 days. Primary endpoint was time-weighted average change from baseline to Day 11 (DAVG11) for plasma HIV-1 RNA...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177967/the-neutralizing-and-targeting-properties-of-a-new-set-of-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-7-specific-antibodies-are-influenced-by-their-isotype
#6
Alexandre Girard, Katija Jelicic, Don Van Ryk, Nicolas Rochereau, Claudia Cicala, James Arthos, Christian Genin, Bernard Verrier, Stephanie Laurant, Diane Razanajaoana-Doll, Pin Jean-Jacques, Stéphane Paul
The homing of lymphocytes to mucosa is mainly controlled by α4β7 integrin, and it is amplified during gut chronic inflammation, as occurs with HIV and/or Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. We designed and applied an improved immunization strategy based on an innovative selection process to isolate new α4β7 lymphocyte-specific mAbs that are able to prevent their migration into inflamed gut tissues and/or to counteract HIV infection in vitro. Firstly, five mAbs (one IgA, one IgM, and four IgGs) were selected based on their capacity to recognize α4 or β7 homodimers and α4β7 heterodimers in transfected human cells...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177966/high-number-of-activated-cd8-t-cells-targeting-hiv-antigens-are-present-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-acute-hiv-infection
#7
Cari F Kessing, Serena Spudich, Victor Valcour, Pearline Cartwright, Thep Chalermchai, James L K Fletcher, Carmen Nichols, Benjamin J Josey, Bonnie Slike, Shelly J Krebs, Napapon Sailsuta, Sukalaya Lerdlum, Linda Jagodzinski, Somporn Tipsuk, Duanghathai Suttichom, Somprartthana Rattanamanee, Henrik Zetterberg, Joanna Hellmuth, Nittaya Phanuphak, Merlin L Robb, Nelson L Michael, Jintanat Ananworanich, Lydie Trautmann
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) infiltration by CD8+ T cells is associated with neuroinflammation in many neurodegenerative diseases, including HIV-associated dementia. However, the role of CD8+ T cells in the CNS during acute HIV infection is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed the phenotype, gene expression, TCR repertoire and HIV-specificity of CD8+ T cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a unique cohort captured during the earliest stages of acute HIV infection (AHI) (n=26), chronic (n=23), and uninfected (n=8)...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177965/gastrointestinal-symptom-distress-is-associated-with-worse-mental-and-physical-health-related-quality-of-life
#8
Tyler J O'neill, Janet M Raboud, Jill Tinmouth, Sean B Rourke, Sergio Rueda, Trevor A Hart, Curtis Cooper, Anita Rachlis, Ann N Burchell
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of self-reported GI symptoms and distress is high, but few studies have quantified their impact on HRQOL. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of HIV patients in care in Ontario, Canada (2007-2014). General linear mixed models were used to assess the impact of GI symptoms (diarrhea/soft stool, nausea/vomiting, bloating/painful abdomen, loss of appetite, weight loss/wasting) and distress (range: 0 to 4) on physical and mental HRQOL summary scores (range: 0 to 100) measured by the Medical Outcomes Survey SF-36...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169875/vitamin-a-and-d-deficiencies-associated-with-incident-tuberculosis-in-hiv-infected-patients-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy-in-multinational-case-cohort-study
#9
Mark W Tenforde, Ashish Yadav, David W Dowdy, Nikhil Gupte, Rupak Shivakoti, Wei-Teng Yang, Noluthando Mwelase, Cecilia Kanyama, Sandy Pillay, Wadzanai Samaneka, Breno Santos, Selvamuthu Poongulali, Srikanth Tripathy, Cynthia Riviere, Sima Berendes, Javier R Lama, Sandra W Cardoso, Patcharaphan Sugandhavesa, Parul Christian, Richard D Semba, Thomas B Campbell, Amita Gupta
INTRODUCTION: Numerous micronutrients have immunomodulatory roles that may influence risk of tuberculosis (TB), but the association between baseline micronutrient deficiencies and incident TB after antiretroviral (ART) initiation in HIV-infected individuals is not well characterized. METHODS: We conducted a case-cohort study (n=332) within a randomized trial comparing three ART regimens in 1571 HIV treatment-naïve adults from nine countries. A subcohort of 30 patients was randomly selected from each country (n=270)...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169874/impact-of-hiv-and-atiretroviral-therapy-on-neurocognitive-outcomes-among-school-aged-children
#10
Heena Brahmbhatt, Michael Boivin, Victor Ssempijja, Joseph Kagaayi, Godfrey Kigozi, David Serwadda, Avy Violari, Ronald H Gray
INTRODUCTION: The impact of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on neurocognitive outcomes among children aged 7 to 14 years was assessed. We hypothesized that ART would ameliorate neurocognitive sequelae of HIV infection. METHODS: HIV-positive and negative mother-child pairs from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS) and ART clinics in Rakai, Uganda were followed prospectively over 4 years. Exposures were stratified as: Perinatally HIV Infected (PHIV), Perinatally HIV Exposed but Uninfected (PHEU), and HIV Unexposed and Uninfected (HUU)...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169873/physical-and-sexual-violence-affecting-female-sex-workers-in-abidjan-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-prevalence-and-the-relationship-between-violence-the-work-environment-hiv-and-access-to-health-services
#11
Carrie Lyons, Sosthenes Ketende, Fatou Drame, Ashley Grosso, Daouda Diouf, Ibrahima Ba, Kate Shannon, Rebecca Ezouatchi, Amara Bamba, Abo Kouame, Stefan Baral
BACKGROUND: Violence is a human rights violation, and an important measure in understanding HIV among female sex workers (FSW). However, limited data exist regarding correlates of violence among FSW in Côte d'Ivoire. Characterizing prevalence and determinants of violence and the relationship with structural risks for HIV can inform development and implementation of comprehensive HIV prevention and treatment programs. METHODS: FSW > 18 years were recruited through respondent driven sampling (RDS) in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169872/project-engage-snowball-sampling-and-direct-recruitment-to-identify-and-link-hard-to-reach-hiv-infected-persons-who-are-out-of-care
#12
Amy Rock Wohl, Natasha Ludwig-Barron, Rhodri Dierst-Davies, Sonali Kulkarni, Jesse Bendetson, Wilbert Jordan, Robert Bolan, Terry Smith, William Cunningham, Mario J Pérez
INTRODUCTION: Innovative strategies are needed to identify and link hard-to-find persons living with HIV (PLWH) who are out of care(OOC). Project Engage, a health department-based project in Los Angeles County(LAC), used a mixed methods approach to locate and provide linkage for PLWH who have limited contact with HIV medical and non-medical services. METHODS: Incentivized social network referrals(SNR) and direct recruitment(DR) was used to identify eligible OOC alters for a linkage intervention that included HIV clinic selection, appointment and transportation support, reminder calls/texts and clinic navigation...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151777/longitudinal-assessment-of-proximal-tubular-dysfunction-in-hiv-seropositive-and-seronegative-persons-correlates-and-implications
#13
Kerry M Schnell, Mohamed G Atta, Derek M Fine, Katie Zook, Allison M Mcfall, Michelle M Estrella, George J Schwartz, Gregory M Lucas
BACKGROUND: Proximal tubule dysfunction (PTD) is common in HIV-positive persons and has been associated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). However, few studies have assessed the natural history PTD in HIV-positive and -negative individuals, or the association of PTD with the subsequent trajectory of directly measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR). METHODS: We followed 192 HIV-positive and 100 HIV-negative, non-diabetic participants for three years. We measured 3 PTD markers (normoglycemic glycosuria, fractional excretion of phosphorus, and tubular proteinuria) and mGFR (by iohexol disappearance from serum) annually...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141783/prevalence-of-anal-hpv-and-anal-dysplasia-in-hiv-infected-women-from-johannesburg-south-africa
#14
Bridgette J Goeieman, Cynthia S Firnhaber, Eefje Jong, Pam Michelow, Avril Swarts, Anna-Lise Williamson, Bruce Allan, Jennifer S Smith, Patricia Kegorilwe, Timothy J Wilkin
BACKGROUND: Anal cancer is a relatively common cancer among HIV-infected populations. There are limited data on the prevalence of anal high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and anal dysplasia in HIV-infected women from resource-constrained settings. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of HIV-infected women age 25-65 recruited from an HIV clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. Cervical and anal swabs were taken for conventional cytology and HR-HPV testing...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141782/effect-of-pregnancy-on-interferon-gamma-release-assay-and-tuberculin-skin-test-detection-of-latent-tb-infection-among-hiv-infected-women-in-a-high-burden-setting
#15
Sylvia M LaCourse, Lisa M Cranmer, Daniel Matemo, John Kinuthia, Barbra A Richardson, David J Horne, Grace John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Peripartum immunologic changes may affect latent TB infection (LTBI) diagnostic performance among HIV-infected women. METHODS: HIV-infected women were serially-tested with tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) (QuantiFERON® TB Gold In-tube [QFT]) in pregnancy and weeks postpartum in Kenya. Prevalence, sensitivity and agreement, and correlates of QFT/TST positivity were assessed. Quantitative QFT mitogen and M. tuberculosis antigen (Mtb-Ag) responses were compared by peripartum stage...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141781/low-dose-hydrocortisone-has-acute-enhancing-effects-on-verbal-learning-in-hiv-infected-men
#16
Leah H Rubin, K Luan Phan, Sheila M Keating, Kathleen M Weber, Pauline M Maki
OBJECTIVE: Glucocorticoids are released in response to stress and alter cognition and brain function through both rapid, nongenomic and slow, genomic mechanisms. Administration of glucocorticoids in the form of hydrocortisone enhances aspects of learning and memory in individuals with PTSD, but impairs these abilities in healthy individuals. We examine the time-dependent effects of glucocorticoids on cognition in HIV-infected men. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, we examined the time-dependent effects of a single low dose of hydrocortisone (10mg; LDH) on cognition in 45 HIV-infected men...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141780/an-expanded-hiv-testing-strategy-leveraging-the-electronic-medical-record-uncovers-undiagnosed-infection-among-hospitalized-patients
#17
Uriel R Felsen, Chinazo O Cunningham, Moonseong Heo, Donna C Futterman, Jeffrey M Weiss, Barry S Zingman
BACKGROUND: Routine HIV testing of hospitalized patients is recommended, but few strategies to expand testing in the hospital setting have been described. We assessed the impact of an electronic medical record (EMR) prompt on HIV testing for hospitalized patients. METHODS: We performed a pre-post study at three hospitals in the Bronx, NY. We compared the proportion of admissions of patients 21-64 years old with an HIV test performed, characteristics of patients tested, and rate of new HIV diagnoses made by screening while an EMR prompt recommending HIV testing was inactive vs...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141779/direct-targeting-of-macrophages-with-methylglyoxal-bis-guanylhydrazone-decreases-siv-associated-cardiovascular-inflammation-and-pathology
#18
Joshua A Walker, Andrew D Miller, Tricia H Burdo, Michael S McGrath, Kenneth C Williams
BACKGROUND: Despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) HIV infected individuals develop co-morbidities including cardiovascular disease (CVD), where activated macrophages play a key role. To date, few therapies target activated monocytes and macrophages. METHODS: We evaluated a novel oral form of the polyamine biosynthesis inhibitor methylglyoxal-bisguanylhydrazone (MGBG) on cardiovascular inflammation, carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT), and fibrosis in a SIV infection model of AIDS...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129255/cluster-of-hiv-infections-associated-with-unsafe-injection-practices-in-a-rural-village-in-cambodia
#19
Vonthanak Saphonn, Masami Fujita, Sovannarith Samreth, Sodara Chan, Francois Rouet, Vohith Khol, Sovatha Mam, Chandara Mom, Sovannary Tuot, Linh-Vi Le, Penh Sun Ly, Laurent Ferradini, Chhi Vun Mean
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 27, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129254/regionally-specific-brain-volumetric-and-cortical-thickness-changes-in-hiv-infected-patients-in-the-haart-era
#20
Ryan Sanford, Ana Lucia Fernandez Cruz, Susan C Scott, Nancy E Mayo, Lesley K Fellows, BeauM Ances, D Louis Collins
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment still occurs in a substantial subset of HIV-infected patients, despite effective viral suppression with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Structural brain changes may provide clues about the underlying pathophysiology. This study provides a detailed spatial characterization of the pattern and extent of brain volume changes associated with HIV, and relates these brain measures to cognitive ability and clinical variables. METHODS: Multiple novel neuroimaging techniques (deformation-based morphometry, voxel-based morphometry and cortical modeling) were used to assess regional brain volumes in 125 HIV-infected patients and 62 HIV-uninfected individuals...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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