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Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS

Willem Daniel Francois Venter, Andrew Kambugu, Matthew F Chersich, Stephen Becker, Andrew Hill, Natasha Arulappan, Michelle Moorhouse, Mohammed Majam, Godspower Akpomiemie, Simiso Sokhela, Selvamuthu Poongulali, Charles Feldman, Chris Duncombe, David H Brown Ripin, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy
BACKGROUND: Reducing doses of antiretroviral drugs, including stavudine (d4T), may lower toxicity, while preserving efficacy. There are substantial concerns about renal and bone toxicities of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). SETTING: HIV-1-infected treatment-naive adults in India, South Africa and Uganda METHODS: A phase-4, 96-week, randomized, double-blind, non-inferiority trial compared d4T 20mg BD and TDF, taken in combination with lamivudine (3TC) and efavirenz (EFV)...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Stephen Arpadi, Matthew Lamb, N Isaie Nzeyimana, Greet Vandebriel, Gloria Anyalechi, Marcia Wong, Rebecca Smith, Emilia D Rivadeneira, Eugenie Kayirangwa, Samuel S Malamba, Canisious Musoni, Emilia H Koumans, Mollie Braaten, Sabin Nsanzimana
BACKGROUND: In 2012, Rwanda introduced a Treat All approach for HIV-infected children under age 5. We compared antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, outcomes, and retention, before and after this change. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of children enrolled into care between June 2009-December 2011 (Before Treat All cohort [BTA]) and between July 2012-April 2015 (Treat All cohort [TA]). SETTING: Medical records of a nationally representative sample were abstracted for all eligible aged 18-60 months from 100 Rwandan public health facilities...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Ethel D Weld, Md Sohel Rana, Ronald H Dallas, Andres F Camacho-Gonzalez, Patrick Ryscavage, Aditya H Gaur, Rana Chakraborty, Susan Swindells, Charles Flexner, Allison L Agwu
OBJECTIVES: This study's primary objective was to characterize attitudes to long-acting antiretrovirals (LAARV), among youth aged 13 to 24 years living with perinatally- and non-perinatally-acquired HIV (PHIV and NPHIV, respectively). Secondary objectives included: assessing whether those with detectable HIV RNA PCR viral load had higher enthusiasm for LAARV compared to those with suppressed viral load, and examining characteristics associated with LAARV enthusiasm. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 303 Youth Living with HIV (YHIV) followed at four pediatric/adolescent HIV clinics in the USA was performed to determine interest in LAARV, using a modified survey instrument previously used in adults...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Rachael M Billock, Kimberly A Powers, Dana K Pasquale, Erika Samoff, Victoria L Mobley, William C Miller, Joseph J Eron, Ann M Dennis
BACKGROUND: Prediction of HIV transmission cluster growth may help guide public health action. We developed a predictive model for cluster growth in North Carolina (NC) using routine HIV surveillance data. METHODS: We identified putative transmission clusters with ≥2 members via pairwise genetic distances ≤1.5% from HIV-1 pol sequences sampled 11/2010-12/2017 in NC. Clusters established by a baseline of 01/2015 with any sequences sampled within two years before baseline were assessed for growth (new diagnoses) over 18 months...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Tamsin K Phillips, Ira B Wilson, Kirsty Brittain, Allison Zerbe, Claude A Mellins, Robert H Remien, Catherine Orrell, Elaine J Abrams, Landon Myer
INTRODUCTION: Routine HIV viral load (VL) monitoring is recommended for patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) but frequent VL testing, required in pregnant and postpartum women, is often not feasible. Self-reported adherence can be valuable, but little is known about its longitudinal characteristics. METHODS: We followed women living with HIV from ART initiation in pregnancy through 18 months postpartum in Cape Town, South Africa, with repeated measurement of VL and self-reported adherence using a three-item scale...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Jibreel Jumare, Samer S El-Kamary, Laurence Magder, Laura Hungerford, Anya Umlauf, Donald Franklin, Manisha Ghate, Alash'le Abimiku, Man Charurat, Scott Letendre, Ronald J Ellis, Sanjay Mehendale, William A Blattner, Walter Royal, Thomas D Marcotte, Robert K Heaton, Igor Grant, J Allen McCutchan
BACKGROUND: Risk of cognitive impairment is increased among persons with high or low body mass index (BMI) in HIV- and HIV+ populations in resource-rich settings. We examined this association among HIV+ patients in three resource-limited settings. METHODS: This secondary analysis included data of 761 HIV+ volunteers pooled from 3 prospective cohort studies conducted in China (n=404; 53%), India (n=200; 26%) and Nigeria (n=157; 21%). World Health Organization (WHO) weight classifications were based on BMI...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Diana Faini, Aneth Vedastus Kalinjuma, Andrew Katende, Gladys Mbwaji, Dorcas Mnzava, Amina Nyuri, Tracy R Glass, Hansjakob Furrer, Christoph Hatz, David R Boulware, Emilio Letang
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening in persons with advanced HIV/AIDS is recommended to prevent death. Implementing CrAg screening only in outpatients may underestimate the true CrAg prevalence and decrease its potential impact. Our previous 12-month survival/retention in CrAg-positive persons not treated with fluconazole was 0%. METHODS: HIV testing was offered to all ART-naive outpatients and hospitalized patients in Ifakara, Tanzania, followed by laboratory-reflex CrAg screening for CD4<150 cells/μL...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Vanessa El Kamari, Abdus Sattar, Grace A McComsey
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the longitudinal changes of gut structural damage in chronically untreated HIV infection. DESIGN: This is a 96-week prospective, single site, cohort study of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve HIV-infected participants. METHODS: Intestinal fatty acid-binding proteins (I-FABP) was used as a surrogate marker of gut structural damage. We assessed changes in I-FABP over 96 weeks and examined the associations between I-FABP, HIV variables, and inflammation...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Krystal Colón, David W Speicher, Peter Smith, Mack Taylor, David S Metzger, Luis J Montaner, Costin Tomescu
BACKGROUND: HIV-exposed sero-negative people who inject drugs (HESN-PWID) have been shown to have increased NK cell and myeloid activation when compared to control donors. METHODS: We investigated potential mechanisms maintaining NK activation by conducting quantitative proteome comparisons of NK cells from HESN-PWID subjects and control donors. Proteins upregulated in NK cells were measured in the plasma of HESN-PWID subjects by ELISA and further investigated for their ability to induce innate immune activation in vitro...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Brett A Tortelli, Douglas M Char, John S Crane, William G Powderly, Amber Salter, Philip A Chan, Rupa R Patel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Ruby N Fayorsey, Chunhui Wang, Duncan Chege, William Reidy, Masila Syengo, Samuel O Owino, Emily Koech, Martin Sirengo, Mark P Hawken, Elaine J Abrams
BACKGROUND: Retention of mothers and infants across the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission continuum remains challenging. We assessed the effectiveness of a lay worker administered combination intervention compared with the standard of care (SOC) on mother-infant attrition. METHODS: HIV-positive pregnant women starting antenatal care at 10 facilities in western Kenya were randomized using simple randomization to receive individualized health education, retention/adherence support, appointment reminders and missed visit tracking versus routine care per guidelines...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
David B Meya, Agnes N Kiragga, Elizabeth Nalintya, Bozena M Morawski, Radha Rajasingham, Benjamin J Park, Anthony Mubiru, Jonathan E Kaplan, Yukari C Manabe, David R Boulware
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected persons with cryptococcal antigenemia (CrAg) are at high risk for meningitis or death. We evaluated the effect of CrAg screening and pre-emptive fluconazole therapy, as an adjunct to antiretroviral therapy (ART), on six-month survival among persons with advanced HIV disease. METHODS: We enrolled HIV-infected, ART-naïve eligible participants with <100 CD4 cells/µL, in a stepped-wedge, cluster-randomized trial from July 2012 - December 2014 at 17 Ugandan clinics...
November 5, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Lara Lewis, Brendan Maughan-Brown, Anneke Grobler, Cherie Cawood, David Khanyile, Mary Glenshaw, Ayesha Bm Kharsany
BACKGROUND: In several sub-groups of South Africa, the percentage of HIV-positive individuals aware of their status falls well below the UNAIDS 90% target. This study examined the impact that home-based HIV testing services (HBHTS) had on knowledge of status in a hyperendemic area of South Africa. METHODS: We analysed data from the second cross-sectional HIV Incidence Provincial Surveillance System survey (2015/2016), a representative sample (n=10236) of individuals aged 15-49 years...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Christina Psomas, Edouard Tuaillon, Grégory Marin, Jacques Reynes, Pierre Corbeau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Yanina Ghiglione, César Trifone, Jimena Salido, Ajantha Rhodes, María Julia Ruiz, María Laura Polo, Horacio Salomón, Natalia Laufer, Omar Sued, Sharon R Lewin, Gabriela Turk
BACKGROUND: The persistence of latently infected T-cells remains the principal barrier to HIV cure. Understanding how the early immune responses shape persistence of HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) will be fundamental for potential eradication. Here, we aimed to determine the relationship between CD8 T-cell function and phenotype prior to therapy and HIV persistence on-ART. METHODS: Blood samples from 29 individuals enrolled during primary HIV infection (at baseline and every 3 months up to 2 years post-ART initiation) were obtained...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Robert A Schnoll, Morgan Thompson, Katrina Serrano, Frank Leone, David Metzger, Ian Frank, Robert Gross, Karam Mounzer, Rachel F Tyndale, Jessica Weisbrot, Miles Meline, Ronald G Collman, Rebecca L Ashare
BACKGROUND: The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) is a biomarker that represents individual variation in the speed that nicotine is metabolized. The rate of nicotine metabolism alters smoking behavior (e.g., amount) and has been validated for personalizing tobacco dependence medication selection to increase treatment efficacy and reduce treatment side effects in the general population of smokers. While smoking rates are extremely high among those with HIV, the NMR has not been evaluated in this underserved population...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Renata Arrington-Sanders, Craig M Wilson, Suzanne E Perumean-Chaney, Amit Patki, Sybil Hosek
BACKGROUND: Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) experience disparities in HIV acquisition more than any other group. Daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir/embricitabine (TDF/FTC) has been shown to effectively prevent HIV transmission in YMSM; however, recent studies suggest that young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) experience sub-protective levels of tenofovir diphosphate (TFV-DP) more frequently than other groups. SETTING: Combined data from Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN) 110/113, two open label PrEP studies that provided PrEP and evidence-based behavioral interventions to young MSM (YMSM) age 15 to 22 years old...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Austin Lam, Nancy E Mayo, Susan Scott, Marie-Josée Brouillette, Lesley K Fellows
BACKGROUND: Stigma remains a reality for many people living with HIV. Stigma bears on mental health, but we hypothesized that it might also affect cognition, in turn affecting function. METHODS: We estimated the impact of HIV-related stigma on brain health and everyday functioning among 512 older Caucasian men living with HIV in Canada, using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health as a comprehensive framework to integrate biopsychosocial perspectives...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Rewa K Choudhary, Kristin M Wall, Irene Njuguna, Patricia B Pavlinac, Sylvia M Lacourse, Vincent Otieno, John Gatimu, Joshua Stern, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Dalton Wamalwa, Grace John-Stewart, Lisa M Cranmer
BACKGROUND: The blood monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR) is associated with active tuberculosis (TB) in adults, but has not been evaluated as a TB diagnostic biomarker in HIV-infected children in whom respiratory sampling is difficult. SETTING: In a cohort of HIV-infected hospitalized Kenyan children initiating antiretroviral therapy, absolute monocyte and lymphocyte counts were determined at enrollment and 4, 12, and 24 weeks thereafter. METHODS: Children were classified as confirmed, unconfirmed, or unlikely pulmonary TB...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Brian Mustanski, Ethan Morgan, Richard D'Aquila, Michelle Birkett, Patrick Janulis, Michael E Newcomb
BACKGROUND: Individual sexual risk behaviors have failed to explain the observed racial disparity in HIV acquisition. To increase understanding of potential drivers in disparities, we assessed differences across individual, network, and social determinants. METHODS: Data come from RADAR (N=1015), a longitudinal cohort study of multilevel HIV-risk factors among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) aged 16-29 in Chicago. Data collection includes biological specimens; network data, including detailed information about social, sexual, and drug-use networks; and psychosocial characteristics of YMSM...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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