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Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS

Claudia Rafful, Sonia Jain, Xiaoying Sun, Steffanie A Strathdee, Richard S Garfein, Jazmine Cuevas-Mota, Carlos Magis-Rodríguez, Laramie R Smith, Dan Werb
BACKGROUND: Efforts to prevent injection drug use (IDU) are increasingly focused on the role that people who inject drugs (PWID) play in the assistance with injection initiation. We studied the association between recent (i.e., past 6 months) injection-related HIV risk behaviors and injection initiation assistance into IDU among PWID in the U.S.-Mexico border region. SETTING: Preventing Injecting by Modifying Existing Responses (PRIMER) is a multi-cohort study assessing social and structural factors related to injection initiation assistance...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
William Worodria, Chang Emily, Alfred Andama, Ingvar Sanyu, Patrick Byanyima, Emmanuel Musisi Bblt, Sylvia Kaswabuli, Josephine Zawedde, Irene Ayakaka, Abdul Sessolo, Rejani Lalitha, John Lucian Davis, Laurence Huang
IntroductionLower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are a leading cause of mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Triaging identifies patients at high-risk of death but laboratory tests proposed for use in severity-of-illness scores are not readily available, limiting their clinical use. Our objective was to determine whether baseline characteristics in hospitalized participants with LRTI predicted increased risk of death.MethodsThis was a secondary analysis from the MIND-IHOP cohort of adults hospitalized with LRTI who underwent standardized investigations and treatment...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Andrea Thurman, Jill L Schwartz, Vivian Brache, Beatrice A Chen, Neelima Chandra, Angela D M Kashuba, Debra H Weiner, Christine Mauck, Gustavo F Doncel
OBJECTIVE: Endogenous and exogenous contraceptive hormones may affect mucosal pharmacokinetics of topical anti-retrovirals such as tenofovir. We present pharmacokinetic data from healthy women using tenofovir vaginal gel, at baseline (follicular and luteal phases) and after oral contraceptive pill (OCP) or depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) use. METHODS: CONRAD A10-114 was a prospective, interventional, open-label, parallel study. We enrolled 74 women and 60 completed the study (32 and 28 who selected OCPs or DMPA, respectively)...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Katharine A Yuengling, Nesri Padayatchi, Allison Wolf, Barun Mathema, Tyler Brown, C Robert Horsburgh, Max R O'Donnell
BACKGROUND: Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB)/HIV co-infection has been associated with high mortality and poor TB outcomes. We performed a prospective study to comprehensively characterize a cohort of XDR-TB patients. METHODS: Adult XDR-TB patients were enrolled at treatment initiation at a TB referral hospital in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa and followed through the end of treatment. Clinical data, questionnaires, adherence data, and sputum were collected monthly...
September 11, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Alexandra M Oster, Anne Marie France, Nivedha Panneer, M Cheryl Bañez Ocfemia, Ellsworth Campbell, Sharoda Dasgupta, William M Switzer, Joel O Wertheim, Angela L Hernandez
BACKGROUND: Detecting recent and rapid spread of HIV can help prioritize prevention and early treatment for those at highest risk of transmission. HIV genetic sequence data can identify transmission clusters, but previous approaches have not distinguished clusters of recent, rapid transmission. We assessed an analytic approach to identify such clusters in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed 156,553 partial HIV-1 polymerase sequences reported to the National HIV Surveillance System and inferred transmission clusters using two genetic distance thresholds (0...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Surbhi Grover, Fidel Desir, Yuezhou Jing, Rohini K Bhatia, Daniel M Trifiletti, Samuel Swisher-McClure, Julie Kobie, Richard D Moore, Charles S Rabkin, Michael J Silverberg, Kate Salters, W Christopher Mathews, M John Gill, Jennifer E Thorne, Jessica Castilho, Mari M Kitahata, Amy Justice, Michael A Horberg, Chad J Achenbach, Angel Mayor, Keri N Althoff
It is not known if immune dysfunction is associated with increased risk of death after cancer diagnosis in persons with HIV (PWH). AIDS-defining illness (ADI) can signal significant immunosuppression. Our objective was to determine differences in cancer stage and mortality rates in PWH with and without history of ADI METHODS:: PWH with anal, oropharynx, cervical, lung cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma diagnoses from January 2000 to December 2009 in the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design were included RESULTS:: Among 81,865 PWH, 814 had diagnoses included in the study; 341 (39%) had a history of ADI at time of cancer diagnosis...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Bill G Kapogiannis, Robert M Nelson, George K Siberry, Sonia Lee, Rohan Hazra
Despite significant additions to the HIV prevention toolbox, infection rates across the US continue to rise among vulnerable adolescents and young adults. Access to these interventions by youth at risk for HIV is limited by the lack of data about their safety and use, compounding the myriad contextual barriers to effectively preventing HIV in this group. The NIH-funded Adolescent Trials Network implemented an innovative approach to the inclusion of adolescents at-risk for HIV infection who consented for their own participation in the first adolescent study of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Blaithin A McMahon, Mohamad Hanouneh, Alice Chedid, Derek M Fine, Teresa K Chen, Matthew Foy, Gregory M Lucas, Michelle M Estrella, Mohamed G Atta
BACKGROUND: In the era of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), classic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is the most common histopathological finding in African American HIV-positive patients with kidney disease. We sought to determine whether HIV suppression is associated with lower risk of progression to end-stage-renal disease (ESRD) among HIV-positive African Americans with biopsy-confirmed classic FSGS. METHODS: HIV-positive African Americans who underwent kidney biopsies at a single tertiary hospital between January 1996 to June 2011 were confirmed as having classic FSGS by the presence of segmental glomerulosclerosis without features of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN)...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Jillian Pintye, John Kinuthia, D Allen Roberts, Anjuli D Wagner, Kenneth Mugwanya, Felix Abuna, Harison Lagat, George Owiti, Carol Levin, Ruanne V Barnabas, Jared M Baeten, Grace John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Programmatic approaches for delivering PrEP to pregnant and postpartum women in settings with high HIV burden are undefined. The PrEP Implementation for Young Women and Adolescents (PrIYA) Program developed approaches for delivering PrEP in maternal child health (MCH) clinics. METHODS: Under the PrIYA Program, nurse-led teams worked with MCH staff at 16 public, faith-based, and private facilities in Kisumu, Kenya to determine optimal clinic flow for PrEP integration into antenatal (ANC) and postnatal (PNC) care...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Stephanie Parent, Rolando Barrios, Bohdan Nosyk, Monica Ye, Nicanor Bacani, Dimitra Panagiotoglou, Julio Montaner, Lianping Ti
BACKGROUND: Hospital readmission 30 days after discharge is associated with adverse health outcomes, and people living with HIV(PLWH) experience elevated rates of hospital readmission. While continuity of care with a healthcare provider is associated with lower rates of 30-day readmission among the general population, little is known about this relationship among PLWH. The objective of this study is to examine whether engaging with the same provider, defined as patient-provider attachment, is associated with 30-day readmission for this population...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Camilla Muccini, Laura Galli, Andrea Poli, Alessia Carbone, Myriam Maillard, Maria Cristina Giusti, Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Alba Bigoloni, Monica Guffanti, Nicola Gianotti, Adriano Lazzarin, Antonella Castagna
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between total, direct and indirect bilirubin and the presence of carotid lesions in a large sample of HIV-1 infected patients on virological suppression. DESIGN: Retrospective study on adult HIV-1 infected patients, with a carotid ultrasound (CUS) examination performed between January 2008 to August 2016, with HIV-RNA <50 copies/mL at CUS and without prior cardiovascular events. METHODS: Intima media thickness (IMT) was measured in 4 segments: carotid common artery and bifurcation on left and right sides...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Venkata Narla, Nirav Bhakta, Jane E Freedman, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Kristinalisa Maka, Steven G Deeks, Peter Ganz, Priscilla Hsue
OBJECTIVE: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. We aimed to determine the association between extracellular miRNAs and HIV infection. DESIGN: Single-center, cross-sectional study METHODS:: We analyzed the expression of 192 plasma-derived miRNAs in 69 HIV-infected individuals and 24 uninfected controls using TaqMan miRNA Assays and a high throughput Real-Time PCR instrument (Fluidigm). False discovery rate (FDR) was applied. RESULTS: HIV-infected individuals and controls were similar in age, gender, and traditional risk factors...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Kellie L Hawkins, Kirsha S Gordon, Myron J Levin, Adriana Weinberg, Catherine Battaglia, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas, Sheldon T Brown, David Rimland, Amy Justice, Janet Tate, Kristine M Erlandson
BACKGROUND: Despite historically high rates of herpes zoster among people living with HIV (PLWH), comparative studies of herpes zoster by HIV serostatus are lacking since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy and availability of zoster vaccine. METHODS: Annual rates (2002-2015) of first-episode herpes zoster and zoster vaccination were calculated for PLWH and uninfected adults in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study and stratified by HIV serostatus and age...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
J Burgos, M Martin-Castillo, S Landolfi, Mªc Dinares, J Villar, J Navarro, E Ribera, V Falcó, A Curran
Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and Electrocautery (ECA) are two of the main treatment options for anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). Our aim was to compare the efficacy and tolerance of TCA vs. ECA for HSIL METHODS:: Retrospective un-controlled study of HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) who had an anal HSIL treated with TCA or ECA. On-treatment effectiveness was evaluated at 6-8 weeks after treatment. A complete response was defined as resolution of HSIL, a partial response as regression to low-grade lesion and recurrence as biopsy-proven HSIL during follow-up...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Virginie Supervie, Romulus Breban
Before the completion of HPTN 052, PARTNER and Opposites Attract studies, data were lacking to directly estimate HIV transmission risk under effective cART. Rather, estimates were obtained by extrapolating a dose-response relationship between viral load and risk of HIV transmission, observed among untreated individuals, to treated individuals. Presently, data has accumulated from nine clinical studies for a direct validation of this extrapolation METHODS.: Using estimates of per sex-act risk of HIV transmission on effective cART obtained by extrapolation, sexual behavior data and a simple mathematical model, we estimated the number of seroconversions that should have been observed in HIV-serodiscordant couples where the HIV-positive partner was on cART across the nine studies...
August 28, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Adriana Ammassari, Wolfgang Stöhr, Andrea Antinori, Jean-Michel Molina, Christine Schwimmer, Pere Domingo, Anders Thalme, Massimo Di Pietro, Cedrick Wallet, Anton Pozniak, Laura Richert, François Raffi
BACKGROUND: The NEAT 001/ANRS 143 trial demonstrated non-inferiority of darunavir-ritonavir combined with either raltegravir (RAL+DRV/r) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC+DRV/r) in HIV-positive, antiretroviral-naive adults. In post-hoc analyses however, RAL+DRV/r showed inferiority in patients with baseline CD4+ <200/mm and HIV-1 RNA ≥100,000 copies/mL. This pre-planned ancillary study was conducted to assess whether differences in adherence might explain efficacy results SETTING:: Phase III, open-label, randomized, multicentre study in 15 European countries (ClinicalTrials...
August 27, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Anthony Gichangi, Jonesmus Wambua, Stephen Mutwiwa, Rosemary Njogu, Eva Bazant, Joyce Wamicwe, Rose Wafula, Caroline J Vrana, Danielle R Stevens, Mildred Mudany, Jeffrey E Korte
BACKGROUND: In Kenya, HIV testing during first ANC visit is standard practice for pregnant women. Despite a policy promoting male partner testing in ANC, few male partners accompany their partners for HIV testing. We evaluated the impact of using oral HIV self-testing on HIV testing among male partners of ANC clients in Kenya. METHODS: In a three-arm randomized control study in Eastern and Central Kenya, consenting women attending first ANC visit were randomized to receive: 1) standard-of-care and a standard information card; 2) an improved card stating the importance of male HIV testing; 3) two oral HIV self-test kits and HIV testing information...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Thibaut Davy-Mendez, Sonia Napravnik, Oksana Zakharova, JoAnn Kuruc, Cynthia Gay, Charles B Hicks, Kara S Mcgee, Joseph J Eron
We estimated the effect of initiating virologically suppressive ART during acute versus chronic HIV infection (AHI, CHI) on CD4/CD8 ratio normalization SETTING:: A prospective clinical cohort study METHODS:: We included patients initiating ART with AHI and CHI between 2000 and 2015 and compared time from ART initiation to the first normal CD4/CD8 ratio (defined as CD4/CD8 ≥1) using Kaplan Meier curves and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Patient time was censored at virologic failure, lost to follow-up or death...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Yijia Li, Seyed Mehdi Nouraie, Cathy Kessinger, Renee Weinman, Laurence Huang, Ruth M Greenblatt, Eric Kleerup, Lawrence Kingsley, Deborah McMahon, Meghan Fitzpatrick, Alison Morris
BACKGROUND: HIV is an independent risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, baseline risk factors for lung function decline remain largely unknown in this population. METHODS: HIV-infected participants in the Pittsburgh Lung HIV Cohort with at least three pulmonary function measurements between 2007-2016 were included. Pulmonary function testing (PFT) including post-bronchodilator (BD) spirometry and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco) was performed every 18 months...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Catherine E Oldenburg, Katrina F Ortblad, Michael M Chanda, Magdalene Mwale, Steven Chongo, Catherine Kanchele, Nyambe Kamungoma, Andrew Fullem, Till Bärnighausen
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is common among female sex workers (FSW) globally. Here, we prospectively assessed the relationship between IPV and engagement in HIV care in a cohort of FSW who had been newly diagnosed with HIV. METHODS: Data arose from the Zambian Peer Educators for HIV Self-Testing study, a randomized controlled trial of HIV self-test distribution among FSW in three transit towns in Zambia. Participants were self-reported to be HIV-uninfected or unaware of their status at baseline...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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