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Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS

Thomas A O'Bryan, Brian K Agan, Russell P Tracy, Matthew S Freiberg, Jason F Okulicz, Kaku So-Armah, Anuradha Ganesan, David Rimland, Tahaniyat Lalani, Robert G Deiss, Edmund C Tramont
BACKGROUND: D-dimer blood levels in persons with HIV infection are associated with risk of serious non-AIDS conditions and death. Black race has been correlated with higher D-dimer levels in several studies. We examined the effects of race and HIV on D-dimer over time and the impact of viral load suppression by longitudinally comparing changes in levels among healthy young adult male African Americans and Caucasians before HIV seroconversion, and before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Ilaria De Benedetto, Michela Masetti, Massimiliano Fabbiani, Mara Biasin, Antonio Muscatello, Nicola Squillace, Mario Clerici, Daria Trabattoni, Andrea Gori, Alessandra Bandera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Pujari Sanjay, Gaikwad S, Joshi K, Dabhade D, Sane S, Rao N, Bele V
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Judith A Hahn, Debbie M Cheng, Nneka I Emenyonu, Christine Lloyd-Travaglini, Robin Fatch, Starley B Shade, Christine Ngabirano, Julian Adong, Kendall Bryant, Winnie R Muyindike, Jeffrey H Samet
BACKGROUND: Alcohol use has been shown to accelerate disease progression in experimental studies of simian immunodeficiency virus in macaques, but the results in observational studies of HIV have been conflicting. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of the impact of unhealthy alcohol use on CD4 cell count among HIV-infected persons in southwestern Uganda not yet eligible for antiretroviral treatment (ART). Unhealthy alcohol consumption was 3-month Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - Consumption (AUDIT-C) positive (≥3 for women, ≥4 for men) and/or phosphatidylethanol (PEth - an alcohol biomarker) ≥50 ng/ml, modeled as a time-dependent variable in a linear mixed effects model of CD4 count...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Robert Paul, Tanakorn Apornpong, Wasana Prasitsuebsai, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Vonthanak Saphonn, Linda Aurpibul, Pope Kosalaraksa, Suparat Kanjanavanit, Wicharn Luesomboon, Chaiwat Ngampiyaskul, Tulathip Suwanlerk, Kea Chettra, William T Shearer, Victor Valcour, Jintanat Ananworanich, Stephen Kerr
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected children with long-term nonprogressive disease (LTNPs) eventually convert to a progressive disease type, yet the extent to which these children experience the cognitive and emotional symptoms observed in typical progressive HIV (Progressors) is unknown. METHODS: Eighty-eight LTNPs, 53 Progressors, and 323 healthy controls completed annual assessments of cognitive and emotional health as part of a prospective study. The two HIV-infected groups and the healthy controls were matched on age and sex distribution at enrollment...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Mari Armstrong-Hough, Joseph Ggita, Irene Ayakaka, David Dowdy, Adithya Cattamanchi, Jessica E Haberer, Achilles Katamba, J Lucian Davis
BACKGROUND: Integrating home-based HIV counseling and testing (HCT) with tuberculosis (TB) evaluation could improve uptake of HIV testing among household contacts of patients with active TB. We sought to identify the facilitators of and barriers to HCT during household contact investigation for TB in Kampala, Uganda. METHODS: We nested semi-structured interviews with 28 household contacts who were offered home-based HCT in a household-randomized trial of home-based strategies for TB contact investigation...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Melanie Wittner, Gábor A Dunay, Silke Kummer, Maximillian Bockhorn, Anja Hüfner, Stefan Schmiedel, Olaf Degen, Jan van Lunzen, Johanna M Eberhard, Julian Schulze Zur Wiesch
BACKGROUND: Recently, CD32 has been described to be a specific surface marker of latently HIV infected CD4+ T cells, but little is known about the frequency and distribution of CD32 expression on naïve and memory CD8+ and CD4+ T cell populations in HIV patients and healthy individuals. METHODS: We studied peripheral blood samples of 36 HIV-1 infected patients (23 viremic patients/13 ART-treated) and healthy individuals (n=14) as well as cells from lymph nodes (8 HIV infected, 5 controls) using a multi-parametric flow cytometry panel determining surface expression of CD3, CD8, CD4, CD45RA, CCR7, CD27, CD25, CD127, CCR5, CCR6, CXCR4, CD38, HLA-DR, TIGIT, PD-1...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Philip J Palumbo, Jessica M Fogel, Sarah E Hudelson, Ethan A Wilson, Stephen Hart, Laura Hovind, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Carole Wallis, Maria A Papathanasopoulos, Mariza G Morgado, Shanmugam Saravanan, Srikanth Tripathy, Joseph J Eron, Joel E Gallant, Mph, Marybeth McCauley, Theresa Gamble, Mina C Hosseinipour, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, James G Hakim, Jose H Pilotto, Johnstone Kumwenda, Victor Akelo, Sheela V Godbole, Breno R Santos, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Ravindre Panchia, Suwat Chariyalertsak, Joseph Makhema, Sharlaa Badal-Faesen, Ying Q Chen, Myron S Cohen, Susan H Eshleman
INTRODUCTION: We evaluated HIV drug resistance in adults who received early versus delayed antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a multi-national trial (HPTN 052, enrollment 2005-2010). In HPTN 052, 1,763 index participants were randomized to start ART at a CD4 cell count of 350-550 cells/mm3 (early ART arm) or <250 cells/mm3 (delayed ART arm). In May 2011, interim study results showed benefit of early ART, and all participants were offered ART regardless of CD4 cell count; the study ended in 2015...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Brandon A Knettel, Cody Cichowitz, James Samwel Ngocho, Elizabeth T Knippler, Lilian N Chumba, Blandina T Mmbaga, Melissa H Watt
BACKGROUND: Under Option B+ guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), pregnant and breastfeeding women initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) for lifelong use. The objectives of this study were: 1) to synthesize data on retention in care over time in Option B+ programs in Africa, and 2) to identify factors associated with retention in care. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and African Index Medicus were systematically searched from January 2012 to June 2017...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Valérie Benhammou, Roland Tubiana, Sophie Matheron, Pierre Sellier, Laurent Mandelbrot, Jérôme LE Chenadec, Emmanuelle Marel, Babak Khoshnood, Josiane Warszawski
BACKGROUND: Chronic HBV or HCV infection is frequent in HIV- infected persons but their impact on pregnant HIV-infected women is understudied. We explored whether these coinfections are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes and lower response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Pregnancies in HIV-1-infected women included in the ANRS French Perinatal Cohort between 2005 and 2013 were analyzed if HBV and HCV infection statuses were available. RESULTS: Among 4236 women, the prevalence of HBV (HBs Ag+) and HCV (RNA+) were 6...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Joanne D Stekler, Vanessa Mcmahan, Lark Ballinger, Luis Viquez, Fred Swanson, Jon Stockton, Beth Crutsinger-Perry, David Kern, John D Scott
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Patrick Janulis, Gregory Phillips, Michelle Birkett, Brian Mustanski
BACKGROUND: Substantial racial disparities exist in HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM). However, evidence suggests Black YMSM do not engage in greater levels of risk behavior. Sexual networks may help explain this paradox. This study utilized egocentric exponential random graph models (ERGMs) to examine variation in concurrency (i.e., 2 or more simultaneous partners) and homophily (i.e., same race/ethnicity partners) across race/ethnicity groups in a diverse sample of YMSM...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Anjuli D Wagner, Gabrielle O'malley, Olivia Firdawsi, Cyrus Mugo, Irene N Njuguna, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Irene W Inwani, Dalton C Wamalwa, Grace C John-Stewart, Jennifer A Slyker
(250/250 words) BACKGROUND:: Prompt child HIV testing and treatment is critical; however, children are often not diagnosed until symptomatic. Understanding factors that influence pediatric HIV testing can inform strategies to increase testing. METHODS: A mixed-methods study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Three focus group discussions with health care workers (HCW) and 18 in-depth interviews with HIV-infected adults with children of unknown status were analyzed using thematic analysis...
December 22, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Jienchi Dorward, Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma, Natasha Samsunder, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Paul K Drain, Nigel Garrett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Monita R Patel, Carrie Foote, Joan Duwve, Erika Chapman, Brittany Combs, Alexandra Fry, Patti Hall, Jeremy Roseberry, John T Brooks, Dita Broz
OBJECTIVE: To describe injection-related HIV risk behaviors pre- and post-implementation of an emergency syringe services program (SSP) in Scott County, Indiana, following an HIV outbreak among persons who inject drugs (PWID). DESIGN: Mixed methods retrospective pre-post intervention analysis. METHODS: We analyzed routine SSP program data collected at first and most recent visit among clients with ≥2 visits, ≥7 days apart from April 4 to August 30, 2015 to quantify changes in injection-related risk behaviors...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Patricia M Flynn, Taha E Taha, Mae Cababasay, Mary Glenn Fowler, Lynne M Mofenson, Maxensia Owor, Susan Fiscus, Lynda Stranix-Chibanda, Anna Coutsoudis, Devasena Gnanashanmugam, Nahida Chakhtoura, Katie McCarthy, Cornelius Mukuzunga, Bonus Makanani, Dhayendre Moodley, Teacler Nematadzira, Bangini Kusakara, Sandesh Patil, Tichaona Vhembo, Raziya Bobat, Blandina T Mmbaga, Maysseb Masenya, Mandisa Nyati, Gerhard Theron, Helen Mulenga, Kevin Butler, David E Shapiro
BACKGROUND: No randomized trial has directly compared the efficacy of prolonged infant antiretroviral prophylaxis versus maternal antiretroviral therapy (mART) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission throughout the breastfeeding period. SETTING: Fourteen sites in sub-Saharan Africa and India. METHODS: A randomized, open label strategy trial was conducted in HIV-1-infected women with CD4 counts >350 cells/mm (or >country-specific ART threshold if higher) and their breastfeeding HIV-1-uninfected newborns...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
J Morgan Freiman, Karen R Jacobson, Winnie R Muyindike, C Robert Horsburgh, Jerrold J Ellner, Judith A Hahn, Benjamin P Linas
BACKGROUND: Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) reduces mortality among people living with HIV (PLHIV), and is recommended for those without active tuberculosis (TB) symptoms. Heavy alcohol use, however, is contraindicated for liver toxicity concerns. We evaluated the risks and benefits of IPT at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation to ART alone for PLHIV who are heavy drinkers in three high TB/HIV burden countries. METHODS: We developed a Markov simulation model to compare ART alone to ART with either 6 or 36 months of IPT for heavy drinking PLHIV enrolling in care in Brazil, India, and Uganda...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Julia K Rohr, Prudence Ive, C Robert Horsburgh, Rebecca Berhanu, Christopher J Hoffmann, Robin Wood, Andrew Boulle, Janet Giddy, Hans Prozesky, Michael Vinikoor, Mwanza Wa Mwanza, Gilles Wandeler, Mary-Ann Davies, Matthew P Fox
BACKGROUND: After first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure, the importance of change in nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) in second-line is uncertain due to the high potency of protease inhibitors used in second-line. SETTING: We used clinical data from 6,290 adult patients in South Africa and Zambia from the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS-Southern Africa cohort. METHODS: We included patients who initiated on standard first-line ART and had evidence of first-line failure...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Brittany Urick, Youyi Fong, Christopher Okiira, Nicolette Nabukeera-Barungi, Denis Nansera, Emmanuel Ochola, Julius Nteziyaremye, Victor Bigira, Isaac Ssewanyana, Peter Olupot-Olupot, Trevor Peter, Anisa Ghadrshenas, Lara Vojnov, Charles Kiyaga
BACKGROUND: Data on the performance and utility of rapid serological tests in infants to determine HIV exposure are unclear and in some instances contradictory. This study sought to understand the performance of rapid serological tests in high HIV burden, high Option B+ coverage settings to be used as an HIV exposure screening tool. METHODS: A total of 3,600 infants up to 24 months of age at four regional hospitals in Uganda were systematically enrolled and tested simultaneously using both HIV rapid serological and nucleic acid-based tests...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Max Lataillade, Nannan Zhou, Samit R Joshi, Sangil Lee, David A Stock, George J Hanna, Mark Krystal
[Journal limit: 250 words, currently 250]BACKGROUND:: Fostemsavir is a prodrug of temsavir, an attachment inhibitor that binds to HIV-1 gp120, blocking viral attachment to host CD4+ T-cells. The Phase 2b trial AI438011 investigated the safety, efficacy and dose-response of fostemsavir vs ATV/r in treatment-experienced, HIV-1-infected subjects. METHODS: 251 treatment-experienced subjects with baseline susceptibility to study drugs (temsavir IC50 <100 nM, Phenosense Entry assay) received fostemsavir or ATV/r, each with TDF+RAL...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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