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Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS

Sanjiv M Baxi, Rebecca Scherzer, Vasantha Jotwani, Michelle M Estrella, Alison G Abraham, Chirag R Parikh, Michael R Bennett, Mardge H Cohen, Marek J Nowicki, Deborah R Gustafson, Anjali Sharma, Mary A Young, Michael G Shlipak
BACKGROUND: Urine biomarkers have helped identify persons at risk for progressing to kidney disease in the setting of HIV infection. We explored factors associated with changes in three urine biomarkers over 10 years among women living with HIV. METHODS: Prospective cohort of 294 HIV-infected women from the multicenter Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Predictors included HIV viral and immunological parameters, co-morbid conditions and health-related behaviors...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Gregory D Huhn, Pablo Tebas, Joel Gallant, Timothy Wilkin, Andrew Cheng, Mingjin Yan, Lijie Zhong, Christian Callebaut, Joseph M Custodio, Marshall W Fordyce, Moupali Das, Scott McCallister
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected, treatment-experienced adults with a history of prior resistance and regimen failure can be virologically suppressed but may require multi-tablet regimens associated with lower adherence and potential resistance development. METHODS: We enrolled HIV-infected, virologically suppressed adults with 2- to 3-class drug resistance and at least 2 prior regimen failures into this phase 3, open-label, randomized study. The primary endpoint was the percentage of participants with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL at week 24 (FDA snapshot algorithm)...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Ivan Manhiça, Nilesh Bhatt, Nália Ismael, Egidio Nhavene, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Valdileia Veloso, Cremildo Maueia, Orvalho Augusto, Ilesh Jani, Eduardo Samo Gudo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Alan Winston, Wolfgang Stöhr, Andrea Antinori, Helene Amieva, Philippe Perré, Stephane De Wit, Jacques Reynes, Mark Gompels, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Jose-Maria Gatell, Jesper Grarup, Anton Pozniak, Abdel Babiker, François Raffi, Laura Richert
BACKGROUND: Improvements in cognitive function are described after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), with sparse data on differences between cART strategies. METHODS: We assessed changes in cognition, over 96 weeks, in therapy naïve HIV-positive adults randomised to darunavir/ritonavir (800/100mg once daily) with either raltegravir (400mg twice daily, Arm1) or tenofovir/emtricitabine (245/200mg once daily, Arm2). Seven cognitive tests were administered at baseline and week 96...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Derek D Satre, Andrea Altschuler, Sujaya Parthasarathy, Michael J Silverberg, Paul Volberding, Cynthia I Campbell
OBJECTIVES: This study examined implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in relation to HIV-positive patient enrollment in an integrated health care system; as well as changes in new enrollee characteristics, benefit structure and health care utilization after key ACA provisions went into effect in 2014. METHODS: This mixed-methods study was set in Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). Qualitative interviews with 29 KPNC leaders explored planning for ACA implementation...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Vibe Ballegaard, Ulrik Ralfkiaer, Karin K Pedersen, Malene Hove, Simon Koplev, Peter Brændstrup, Lars P Ryder, Hans O Madsen, Jan Gerstoft, Kirsten Grønbæk, Susanne D Nielsen
OBJECTIVE: Inflammation may contribute to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV-1 infection. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of inflammation. In treated HIV-1-infected individuals, we aimed to identify differentially expressed miRNAs with known roles in inflammation and CVD risk, and to investigate associations between these and systemic inflammation. METHODS: In a screening cohort including 14 HIV-1-infected individuals and nine uninfected controls microarray profiling was performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Bingjie Shi, Juan Li, Xuanling Shi, Wenxu Jia, Yi Wen, Xiongbing Hu, Fengfeng Zhuang, Jianzhong Xi, Linqi Zhang
Transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) represents a valuable tool for genomic engineering due to its single-nucleotide precision, high nuclease activity and low cytotoxicity. We report here systematic design and characterization of twenty eight novel TALENs targeting multiple regions of CCR5 gene (CCR5-TALEN) which encodes the co-receptor critical for entry of human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1). By systemic characterization of these CCR5-TALENs, we have identified one (CCR5-TALEN-515) with higher nuclease activity, specificity and lower cytotoxicity compared to zinc-finger nuclease (CCR5-ZFN) currently undergoing clinical trials...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Sook-Kyung Lee, Shuntai Zhou, Pedro L Baldoni, Ean Spielvogel, Nancie M Archin, Michael G Hudgens, David M Margolis, Ronald Swanstrom
BACKGROUND: In this study, we measured the latent HIV-1 reservoir harboring replication-competent HIV-1 in resting CD4+ T cells in participants on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), quantitating the frequency of latent infection through the use of a Primer ID-based Ultra Deep Sequencing Assay (UDSA), in comparison to the readout of the quantitative viral outgrowth assay (QVOA). METHODS: Viral RNA derived from culture wells of QVOA that scored as HIV-1 p24 capsid (CA) antigen-positive were tagged with a specific barcode during cDNA synthesis, and the sequences within the V1-V3 region of the HIV-1 env gene were analyzed for diversity using the Primer ID-based paired-end MiSeq platform...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Frank A Post, Pablo Tebas, Amanda Clarke, Laurent Cotte, William Short, Michael E Abram, Shuping Jiang, Andrew Cheng, Moupali Das, Marshall W Fordyce
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is associated with renal and bone toxicity. In a single-arm, open-label study of 242 virologically suppressed, HIV-infected participants with creatinine clearance 30-69 mL/min who switched to elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (E/C/F/TAF), participants had stable creatinine clearance, significant and durable improvements in proteinuria, albuminuria, and tubular proteinuria (P < .001), and significant increases in hip and spine bone mineral density through 96 weeks (P < ...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Tom H Boyles, Elizabeth Gately, Sean Wasserman, Graeme Meintjes
BACKGROUND: Patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM) commonly present with raised intra-cranial pressure (ICP). Aggressive management of raised ICP reduces mortality but requires manometers which are unavailable in most resource-limited settings. The law of Poiseuille states that the rate of flow of liquid through a tube is directly proportional to the difference in pressure between each end and it may be possible to indirectly determine ICP by measuring flow of CSF through a spinal needle rather than using a manometer...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Oliver Bacon, Rafael Gonzalez, Erin Andrew, Michael B Potter, James Rouse Iñiguez, Stephanie E Cohen, Albert Y Liu, Jonathan D Fuchs
A large pool of clinicians is needed to meet growing demand for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We surveyed a mixed group of HIV specialists and non-specialists in the San Francisco Bay Area to determine their attitudes toward and training needs regarding prescribing PrEP to persons at increased risk of HIV infection. Willingness to prescribe was associated with experience in caring for HIV-infected patients (AOR 4.76, 95% CI 1.43-15.76, p=0.01). Desire for further training was associated with concerns about drug resistance (p=0...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Christina Thobakgale, Kewreshini Naidoo, Lyle R McKinnon, Lise Werner, Natasha Samsunder, Salim Abdool Karim, Thumbi Ndung'u, Marcus Altfeld, Kogieleum Naidoo
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of global morbidity and mortality, especially in the context of HIV co-infection, since immunity is not completely restored following antiretroviral therapy (ART). The identification of immune correlates of risk for TB disease could help in the design of host-directed therapies and clinical management. This study aimed to identify innate immune correlates of TB recurrence in HIV+ ART-treated individuals with a history of previous successful TB treatment...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Qiang Xia, Armando Teixeira-Pinto, Lisa A Forgione, Ellen W Wiewel, Sarah L Braunstein, Lucia V Torian
OBJECTIVE: To estimate HIV incidence in the United States using a newly developed method. METHODS: The analysis period (2002-2011) was broken down into 3-year periods with overlaps, and HIV incidence was estimated based on the relationship between number of new diagnoses and HIV incidence in each of these 3-year periods, by assuming that all HIV infections would eventually be diagnosed and within each 3-year period HIV incidence and case finding were stable. RESULTS: The estimated HIV incidence in the United States decreased from 52,721 (range: 47,449 to 57,993) in 2003 to 39,651 (range: 35,686 to 43,617) in 2010, among males from 38,164 (range: 35,051 to 42,840) to 33,035 (range: 29,088 to 35,553) and among females from 13,557 (range: 12,133 to 14,830) to 6,616 (range: 5,825 to 7,120)...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Anjuli D Wagner, Cyrus M Wachira, Irene N Njuguna, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Kenneth Sherr, Irene W Inwani, James P Hughes, Dalton C Wamalwa, Grace C John-Stewart, Jennifer A Slyker
OBJECTIVES: Few routine systems exist to test older, asymptomatic children for HIV. Testing all children in the population has high uptake but is inefficient, while testing only symptomatic children increases efficiency but misses opportunities to optimize outcomes. Testing children of HIV-infected adults in care may efficiently identify previously undiagnosed HIV-infected children before symptomatic disease. METHODS: HIV-infected parents in HIV care in Nairobi, Kenya were systematically asked about their children's HIV status and testing history...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Sybil Hosek, Bret Rudy, Raphael Landovitz, Bill Kapogiannis, George Siberry, Brandy Rutledge, Nancy Liu, Jennifer Brothers, Kathleen Mulligan, Gregory Zimet, Michelle Lally, Ken Mayer, Peter Anderson, Jennifer Kiser, Jim Rooney, Craig M Wilson
BACKGROUND: Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are a key population for implementation of PrEP interventions. This open-label study examined adherence to PrEP and assessed sexual behavior among a diverse sample of YMSM in 12 U.S. cities. METHODS: Eligible participants were 18-22 year old HIV-uninfected MSM who reported HIV transmission risk behavior in the past 6 months. Participants were provided daily TDF/FTC (Truvada®). Study visits occurred at baseline, monthly through week 12, then quarterly through week 48...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Matthew Westercamp, Walter Jaoko, Supriya Mehta, Pauline Abuor, Perez Siambe, Robert C Bailey
BACKGROUND: Three randomized controlled trials (RCT) showed that voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) reduces the risk of female to male HIV transmission by approximately 60%. However, data from communities where VMMC programs have been implemented are needed to assess changes in circumcision prevalence and whether men and women compensate for perceived reductions in risk by increasing their HIV risk behaviors. METHODS: Scale-up of free VMMC began in Kisumu, Kenya in 2008...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Fengting Yu, Yu Hao, Hongxin Zhao, Jiang Xiao, Ning Han, Yu Zhang, Guorui Dai, Xuejing Chong, Hui Zeng, Fujie Zhang
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction has frequently been found in HIV-infected patients regardless of whether they received antiretroviral therapy (ART). Accumulating evidence suggests that HIV-infected patients exhibit marked changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, ATP generation, mitochondrial mass (MM) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) etc. However, mitochondrial toxicity in CD4T and CD8T cells caused by different levels of HIV progression and ART is poorly understood...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Nirk E Quispe Calla, Rodolfo D Vicetti Miguel, Wayne Trout, Thomas L Cherpes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Keshet Ronen, Christine J McGrath, Agnes C Langat, John Kinuthia, Danvers Omolo, Benson Singa, Abraham K Katana, Lucy W NgʼAngʼA, Grace John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Rates of pregnancy and HIV infection are high among adolescents. However, their engagement in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services is poorly characterized. We compared engagement in the PMTCT cascade between adult and adolescent mothers in Kenya. METHODS: We conducted a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of mother-infant pairs attending 120 maternal child health clinics selected by probability-proportionate-to-size-sampling, with a secondary survey oversampling HIV-positive mothers in 30 clinics...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Anna Gamell, Tracy R Glass, Lameck B Luwanda, Herry Mapesi, Leila Samson, Tom Mtoi, Angelo Nyamtema, Lukas Muri, Alex Ntamatungiro, Marcel Tanner, Christoph Hatz, Manuel Battegay, Emilio Letang
BACKGROUND: Strategies to improve HIV diagnosis and linkage into care, antiretroviral treatment coverage and treatment outcomes of mothers and children are urgently needed in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: From 12/2012, we implemented an intervention package to improve Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission (PMTCT) and pediatric HIV care in our rural Tanzanian clinic, consisting of: a) creation of a PMTCT and pediatric unit integrated within the reproductive and child health clinic; b) implementation of electronic medical records; c) provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling in the hospital wards; and d) early infant diagnosis test performed locally...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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