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Investigative Radiology

Keitaro Sofue, Toshihide Itoh, Satoru Takahashi, Bernhard Schmidt, Ryuji Shimada, Noriyuki Negi, Kazuro Sugimura, Takamichi Murakami
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the ability of third-generation dual-source dual-energy computed tomography to quantify cisplatin concentration using a 3-material decomposition algorithm in an experimental phantom. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen agarose-based phantoms containing various concentrations of iodine (0, 1.0, 2.0 mg I/mL) and cisplatin (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 mg Pt/mL) were scanned using third-generation dual-source dual-energy computed tomography at 80 kV and 150 kV with tin prefiltration...
June 14, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Jana Taron, Jakob Weiss, Mike Notohamiprodjo, Thomas Kuestner, Fabian Bamberg, Elisabeth Weiland, Bernd Kuehn, Petros Martirosian
OBJECTIVES: Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is an established technique in routine magnetic resonance examination. By applying the compressed sensing (CS) acceleration technique to conventional MRCP sequences, scan time can be markedly reduced. With promising results at 3 T, there is a necessity to evaluate the performance at 1.5 T due to wide scanner availabilities. Aim of this study is to test the feasibility of accelerated 3-dimensional (3D) MRCP with extended sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts using different flip angle evolution (SPACE) using CS in navigator triggering and in a single breath-hold in a clinical setting at 1...
June 8, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Nadia Karina Paschke, Wiebke Neumann, Tanja Uhrig, Manuel Winkler, Eva Neumaier-Probst, Marc Fatar, Lothar Rudi Schad, Frank Gerrit Zöllner
OBJECTIVES: Sodium magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provides noninvasive insights to cellular processes by measuring tissue sodium concentration (TSC). Many clinical studies combine sodium MR imaging with clinical standard MR procedures, in which contrast media is frequently administered. This work investigates the influence of gadolinium-based contrast agents on quantification of TSC. Thus, either scan pauses between early and late contrast-enhanced acquisitions can be used efficiently or sodium imaging can be performed as the final scan after dynamic contrast-enhanced acquisition...
May 31, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Benjamin Fritz, Daniel A Müller, Reto Sutter, Moritz C Wurnig, Matthias W Wagner, Christian W A Pfirrmann, Michael A Fischer
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the interreader agreement and diagnostic accuracy of morphologic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis and quantitative MRI-based texture analysis (TA) for grading of cartilaginous bone tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was approved by our local ethics committee. Magnetic resonance imaging scans of 116 cartilaginous bone neoplasms were included (53 chondromas, 26 low-grade chondrosarcomas, 37 high-grade chondrosarcomas)...
May 31, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Michael Perkuhn, Pantelis Stavrinou, Frank Thiele, Georgy Shakirin, Manoj Mohan, Dionysios Garmpis, Christoph Kabbasch, Jan Borggrefe
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were, first, to evaluate a deep learning-based, automatic glioblastoma (GB) tumor segmentation algorithm on clinical routine data from multiple centers and compare the results to a ground truth, manual expert segmentation, and second, to evaluate the quality of the segmentation results across heterogeneous acquisition protocols of routinely acquired clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations from multiple centers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data consisted of preoperative MRI scans (T1, T2, FLAIR, and contrast-enhanced [CE] T1) of 64 patients with an initial diagnosis of primary GB, which were acquired in 15 institutions with varying protocols...
May 31, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Shuai Leng, Kishore Rajendran, Hao Gong, Wei Zhou, Ahmed F Halaweish, Andre Henning, Steffen Kappler, Matthias Baer, Joel G Fletcher, Cynthia H McCollough
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to quantitatively assess two new scan modes on a photon-counting detector computed tomography system, each designed to maximize spatial resolution, and to qualitatively demonstrate potential clinical impact using patient data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This Health Insurance Portability Act-compliant study was approved by our institutional review board. Two high-spatial-resolution scan modes (Sharp and UHR) were evaluated using phantoms to quantify spatial resolution and image noise, and results were compared with the standard mode (Macro)...
May 28, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Jochen von Spiczak, Manoj Mannil, Benjamin Peters, Tilman Hickethier, Matthias Baer, André Henning, Bernhard Schmidt, Thomas Flohr, Robert Manka, David Maintz, Hatem Alkadhi
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to assess the value of a dedicated sharp convolution kernel for photon counting detector (PCD) computed tomography (CT) for coronary stent imaging and to evaluate to which extent iterative reconstructions can compensate for potential increases in image noise. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this in vitro study, a phantom simulating coronary artery stenting was prepared. Eighteen different coronary stents were expanded in plastic tubes of 3 mm diameter...
May 23, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Salim Si-Mohamed, Arnaud Thivolet, Pierre-Emmanuel Bonnot, Daniel Bar-Ness, Vahan Képénékian, David P Cormode, Philippe Douek, Pascal Rousset
OBJECTIVES: To validate in vitro the capability of a high-spatial-resolution prototype spectral photon-counting computed tomography (SPCCT) scanner to differentiate between 2 contrast agents and to assess in vivo the image quality and the feasibility to image the peritoneal cavity in rats using the 2 contrast agents simultaneously within the vascular and peritoneal compartments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors performed SPCCT imaging (100 mAs, 120 kVp) with energy bin thresholds set to 30, 51, 64, 72, and 85 keV in vitro on a custom-made polyoxymethylene cylindrical phantom consisting of tubes with dilutions of both contrast agents and in vivo on 2 groups of adult rats using 2 injection protocols...
May 23, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Leonidas Georgiou, Jeffrey Penny, Glynis Nicholls, Neil Woodhouse, François-Xavier Blé, Josephine H Naish, Penny L Hubbard Cristinacce
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to model the in vivo transporter-mediated uptake and efflux of the hepatobiliary contrast agent gadoxetate in the liver. The efficacy of the proposed technique was assessed for its ability to provide quantitative insights into drug-drug interactions (DDIs), using rifampicin as inhibitor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three groups of C57 mice were scanned twice with a dynamic gadoxetate-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging protocol, using a 3-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo sequence for approximately 72 minutes...
May 15, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Natalia Saltybaeva, Bernhard Schmidt, Andreas Wimmer, Thomas Flohr, Hatem Alkadhi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a 3-dimensional (3D) camera algorithm for automatic and individualized patient positioning based on body surface detection and to compare the results of the 3D camera with manual positioning performed by technologists in routinely obtained chest and abdomen computed tomography (CT) examinations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included data of 120 patients undergoing clinically indicated chest (n = 68) and abdomen (n = 52) CT...
May 14, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Jakob Weiss, Petros Martirosian, Steffen Wolf, Wilhelm Horger, Jana Taron, Konstantin Nikolaou, Mike Notohamiprodjo, Ahmed E Othman
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess a novel 60-channel receiver body coil (B60) setup for accelerated contrast-enhanced abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MR) imaging with respect to signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and image quality using high parallel-imaging technique (PAT) factors in comparison to a standard 30-channel coil setup. METHODS: All imaging data were acquired on a 3 T MR scanner using a novel B60 receiver coil setup in comparison to a standard 30-channel setup serving as reference standard...
May 14, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Estelle C Nijssen, Patty J Nelemans, Roger J Rennenberg, Vincent van Ommen, Joachim E Wildberger
OBJECTIVES: Recently, safety guidelines for the use of intravascular iodinated contrast material have been updated, and the recommended threshold for giving prophylaxis to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) has been reduced to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m. Data on this population in the context of CIN, especially evidence for efficacy of the recommendation of prophylactic intravenous hydration, are lacking. The aim of the current study was to test implicit assumptions underlying the guideline update: (1) patients with eGFR <30 mL/min/1...
May 14, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Dominik Deniffel, Timothé Boutelier, Aissam Labani, Mickael Ohana, Daniela Pfeiffer, Catherine Roy
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the agreement of computed tomography (CT)-perfusion parameter values of the normal renal cortex and various renal tumors, which were obtained by different mathematical models, and to evaluate their diagnostic accuracy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Perfusion imaging was performed prospectively in 35 patients to analyze 144 regions of interest of the normal renal cortex and 144 regions of interest of renal tumors, including 21 clear-cell renal cell carcinomas (RCC), 6 papillary RCCs, 5 oncocytomas, 1 chromophobe RCC, 1 angiomyolipoma with minimal fat, and 1 tubulocystic RCC...
May 14, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Christoph A Agten, Cyrill Dennler, Andrea B Rosskopf, Laurenz Jaberg, Christian W A Pfirrmann, Mazda Farshad
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess feasibility and accuracy of augmented reality-guided lumbar facet joint injections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A spine phantom completely embedded in hardened opaque agar with 3 ring markers was built. A 3-dimensional model of the phantom was uploaded to an augmented reality headset (Microsoft HoloLens). Two radiologists independently performed 20 augmented reality-guided and 20 computed tomography (CT)-guided facet joint injections each: for each augmented reality-guided injection, the hologram was manually aligned with the phantom container using the ring markers...
May 8, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Kerem Ozturk, Omer Fatih Nas, Esra Soylu, Bahattin Hakyemez
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate signal changes in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus (GP) on unenhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images (T1 WI) in a cohort of patients who have received intrathecal macrocyclic ionic gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) gadoterate meglumine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A group of 20 patients (male/female ratio, 8:12; mean age, 39.5 ± 15.5 years) who had not received intravenous GBCA but had received an intrathecal macrocyclic ionic GBCA (plus baseline and an additional final magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] for reference) from 2012 to 2017 were retrospectively included in this institutional review board-approved study...
April 30, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Xiang-Yang Zhu, Xiangyu Zou, Rahul Mukherjee, Zhicong Yu, Christopher M Ferguson, Wei Zhou, Cynthia H McCollough, Lilach O Lerman
OBJECTIVES: The ability to determine the severity of renal fibrosis, which is involved in most chronic kidney diseases, may be beneficial for monitoring disease progression and management. The aim of this study was to assess a new method involving gold nanoparticles conjugated to an anti-collagen-I antibody (Co-I-AuNPs) as a computed tomography (CT) imaging contrast for the evaluation of renal fibrosis in situ. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Gold nanoparticles conjugated to an anti-collagen-I antibody were prepared using gold chloride reduction with sodium citrate and coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG), and their size was determined by electron microscopy and nanoparticle tracking analysis...
April 28, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Dianning He, Aritrick Chatterjee, Xiaobing Fan, Shiyang Wang, Scott Eggener, Ambereen Yousuf, Tatjana Antic, Aytekin Oto, Gregory S Karczmar
OBJECTIVES: This study investigates whether administration of low doses of gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) for dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be as effective as a standard dose in distinguishing prostate cancer (PCa) from benign tissue. In addition, we evaluated the combination of kinetic parameters from the low- and high-dose injection as a new diagnostic marker. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients (n = 17) with histologically confirmed PCa underwent preoperative 3 T MRI...
April 27, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Daniel Stocker, Tim Finkenstaedt, Bernd Kuehn, Daniel Nanz, Markus Klarhoefer, Roman Guggenberger, Gustav Andreisek, Berthold Kiefer, Caecilia S Reiner
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of an automated workflow for whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI), which reduces user interaction compared with the manual WB-MRI workflow. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was approved by the local ethics committee. Twenty patients underwent WB-MRI for myopathy evaluation on a 3 T MRI scanner. Ten patients (7 women; age, 52 ± 13 years; body weight, 69.9 ± 13.3 kg; height, 173 ± 9...
April 24, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Gabriel Broocks, Tobias Djamsched Faizy, Fabian Flottmann, Gerhard Schön, Sönke Langner, Jens Fiehler, Andre Kemmling, Susanne Gellissen
OBJECTIVES: Final infarct volume is regularly used as an end point of tissue outcome in stroke trials; however, the reported volumes are most commonly derived from early follow-up imaging. Those volumes are significantly impaired by ischemic edema, which causes an overestimation of the true final lesion volume. As net water uptake within ischemic brain can be quantified densitometrically in computed tomography (CT) as recently described, we hypothesized that the final lesion volume can be better estimated by correcting the lesion volume in early follow-up for the corresponding proportion of edema...
April 17, 2018: Investigative Radiology
Philippe Robert, Thomas Frenzel, Cécile Factor, Gregor Jost, Marlène Rasschaert, Gunnar Schuetz, Nathalie Fretellier, Janina Boyken, Jean-Marc Idée, Hubertus Pietsch
Gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are pharmaceuticals that have been approved for 30 years and used daily in millions of patients worldwide. Their clinical benefits are indisputable. Recently, unexpected long-term presence of Gd in the brain has been reported by numerous retrospective clinical studies and confirmed in preclinical models particularly after linear GBCA (L-GBCA) compared with macrocyclic GBCA (M-GBCA). Even if no clinical consequences of Gd presence in brain tissue has been demonstrated so far, in-depth investigations on potential toxicological consequences and the fate of Gd in the body remain crucial to potentially adapt the clinical use of GBCAs, as done during the nephrogenic systemic fibrosis crisis...
April 13, 2018: Investigative Radiology
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