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Investigative Radiology

Ali Yusuf Öner, Berrak Barutcu, Şükrü Aykol, Emin Turgut Tali
OBJECTIVES: There have been recent studies evaluating brain magnetic resonance imaging changes in patients with normal renal function, after intravenous administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). Their findings were supported by histological evidence as well and brought a new vision concerning what needs to be learned to provide better patient care. In this report, we aim to present brain magnetic resonance imaging changes after intrathecal administration of a linear ionic agent (gadopentetate dimeglumine)...
October 13, 2016: Investigative Radiology
Johannes T Kowallick, Miguel Silva Vieira, Shelby Kutty, Joachim Lotz, Gerd Hasenfu, Amedeo Chiribiri, Andreas Schuster
OBJECTIVES: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is associated with left atrial (LA) functional abnormalities. The determinants and the degree of LA dysfunction in the course of HCM are not fully understood. We aimed to characterize LA mechanics in HCM, according to the extent of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and fibrosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy-three HCM patients and 23 age- and sex-matched controls underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging including late gadolinium enhancement (LGE)...
October 12, 2016: Investigative Radiology
David Kenkel, Borna K Barth, Marco Piccirelli, Lukas Filli, Tim Finkenstädt, Cäcilia S Reiner, Andreas Boss
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to implement a protocol for simultaneous multislice (SMS) accelerated diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the kidneys and to perform a systematic analysis of image quality of the data sets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten healthy subjects and 5 patients with renal masses underwent DWI of the kidney in this prospective institutional review board-approved study on a 3 T magnetic resonance scanner. Simultaneous multislice DWI echo-planar sequences (acceleration factors [AFs] 2 and 3) were compared with conventional echo-planar DWI as reference standard for each acquisition scheme...
September 22, 2016: Investigative Radiology
Meike Weis, Thomas Henzler, John W Nance, Holger Haubenreisser, Mathias Meyer, Sonja Sudarski, Stefan O Schoenberg, K Wolfgang Neff, Claudia Hagelstein
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective randomized controlled study was to compare 2 techniques for radiation dose reduction in non-contrast-enhanced pediatric chest computed tomography (CT): low peak kilovoltage imaging at 70 kVp and spectral beam shaping at 100 kVp using a dedicated tin filter (100-kVp Sn). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All chest CT examinations were performed on a third-generation dual-source CT system (SOMATOM Force; Siemens Healthineers, Germany). Fifty children (mean age, 6...
September 22, 2016: Investigative Radiology
Lukas Ebner, Mu He, Rohan S Virgincar, Timothy Heacock, Suryanarayanan S Kaushik, Matthew S Freemann, H Page McAdams, Monica Kraft, Bastiaan Driehuys
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate ventilation in mild to moderate asthmatic patients and age-matched controls using hyperpolarized (HP) Xenon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and correlate findings with pulmonary function tests (PFTs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This single-center, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant prospective study was approved by our institutional review board. Thirty subjects (10 young asthmatic patients, 26 ± 6 years; 3 males, 7 females; 10 older asthmatic patients, 64 ± 6 years; 3 males, 7 females; 10 healthy controls) were enrolled...
September 22, 2016: Investigative Radiology
Shiying Wang, Elizabeth B Herbst, F William Mauldin, Galina B Diakova, Alexander L Klibanov, John A Hossack
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the minimum microbubble dose for ultrasound molecular imaging to achieve statistically significant detection of angiogenesis in a mouse model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The preburst minus postburst method was implemented on a Verasonics ultrasound research scanner using a multiframe compounding pulse inversion imaging sequence. Biotinylated lipid (distearoyl phosphatidylcholine-based) microbubbles that were conjugated with antivascular endothelial growth factor 2 (VEGFR2) antibody (MBVEGFR2) or isotype control antibody (MBControl) were injected into mice carrying adenocarcinoma xenografts...
September 20, 2016: Investigative Radiology
Michael Ingrisch, Steven Sourbron, Sina Herberich, Moritz Jörg Schneider, Tania Kümpfel, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Maximilian F Reiser, Birgit Ertl-Wagner
OBJECTIVES: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and has been associated with reduced perfusion in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). The magnitude of this hypoperfusion is unclear. The present study aims to quantify NAWM perfusion with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) MS and in a control group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The statistical power of a DCE-MRI acquisition to reveal hypoperfusion in MS was estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation: synthetic tissue curves with a contrast-to-noise ratio of 8 were generated for MS patients and control group using perfusion values reported in previous studies...
August 19, 2016: Investigative Radiology
Jakob Weiss, Mike Notohamiprodjo, Malte Bongers, Christoph Schabel, Stefanie Mangold, Konstantin Nikolaou, Fabian Bamberg, Ahmed E Othman
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of virtual monoenergetic images (MEI+) at low kiloelectronvolt levels for the detection of incidental pulmonary embolism (PE) in oncological follow-up portal-venous phase dual-energy (DE-CTpv) staging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with incidental PE in DE-CTpv staging, which was confirmed by computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA), were included in this study. In addition, 26 matched control patients who were negative for PE in both DE-CTpv and CTPA were included...
August 19, 2016: Investigative Radiology
Fabian Morsbach, Lotus Desbiolles, Rainer Raupach, Sebastian Leschka, Bernhard Schmidt, Hatem Alkadhi
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to introduce the measure noise texture deviation as quantitative parameter for evaluating iterative reconstruction (IR)-specific artifacts in computed tomography (CT) images and to test whether IR-specific artifacts, quantified through this measure, are reduced in advanced modeled IR (ADMIRE) as compared with sinogram-affirmed IR (SAFIRE) images of the liver ex vivo and in patients with hypodense liver lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the ex vivo study part, an abdominal phantom was used...
August 19, 2016: Investigative Radiology
Yvonne Yi-Na Bender, Gerd Diederichs, Thula Cannon Walter, Moritz Wagner, Thomas Liebig, Marcus Rickert, Kay-Geert Hermann, Bernd Hamm, Marcus Richard Makowski
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (SW-MRI) for the differentiation of osteophytes and disc herniations of the spine compared with that of conventional spine MR sequences and radiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was approved by the local ethics review board; written consent was obtained from all subjects. Eighty-one patients with suspected radiculopathy of the spine were included prospectively...
August 19, 2016: Investigative Radiology
Henrik J Michaely, Manuela Aschauer, Hannes Deutschmann, Georg Bongartz, Matthias Gutberlet, Ramona Woitek, Birgit Ertl-Wagner, Walter Kucharczyk, Renate Hammerstingl, Francesco De Cobelli, Martin Rosenberg, Thomas Balzer, Jan Endrikat
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the potential risk of gadobutrol-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment for the development of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective, international, multicenter, open-label study in 55 centers. Patients with moderate to severe renal impairment scheduled for any gadobutrol-enhanced MRI were included. All patients received a single intravenous bolus injection of gadobutrol at a dose of 0...
August 15, 2016: Investigative Radiology
Bernhard T Schmidt, Martin Hupfer, Natalia Saltybaeva, Daniel Kolditz, Willi A Kalender
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have shown a substantial reduction of radiation dose from computed tomography (CT) scans down to 0.1 mSv for lung cancer screening and cardiac examinations, when applying optimization techniques. Hence, CT localizer radiographs (LRs) might now be considered a significant contributor to the total dose of the CT examination. We investigated in our study the potential for reducing dose of the LRs by adapting the patient-specific acquisition parameters of the LR...
August 11, 2016: Investigative Radiology
Jill Rachel Mains, Frede Donskov, Erik Morre Pedersen, Hans Henrik Torp Madsen, Finn Rasmussen
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to explore the potential for using dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography as a noninvasive functional imaging biomarker before and during the early treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography scans were performed at baseline and after 5 and 10 weeks' treatment in 69 prospectively included mRCC patients receiving treatment with interferon alpha and interleukin 2 (n = 26); interferon alpha, interleukin 2, and bevacizumab (n = 24); sunitinib (n = 7); pazopanib (n = 5); or temsirolimus (n = 7)...
August 10, 2016: Investigative Radiology
Elizabeth B Herbst, Sunil Unnikrishnan, Shiying Wang, Alexander L Klibanov, John A Hossack, Frank William Mauldin
OBJECTIVES: The use of ultrasound imaging for cancer diagnosis and screening can be enhanced with the use of molecularly targeted microbubbles. Nonlinear imaging strategies such as pulse inversion (PI) and "contrast pulse sequences" (CPS) can be used to differentiate microbubble signal, but often fail to suppress highly echogenic tissue interfaces. This failure results in false-positive detection and potential misdiagnosis. In this study, a novel acoustic radiation force (ARF)-based approach was developed for superior microbubble signal detection...
August 4, 2016: Investigative Radiology
Stefan Hindel, Anika Söhner, Marc Maa, Wolfgang Sauerwein, Hideo Andreas Baba, Martin Kramer, Lutz Lüdemann
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to assess the accuracy of fractional interstitial volume determination in low perfused and low vascularized tissue by using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The fractional interstitial volume (ve) was determined in the medial thigh muscle of 12 female pigs by using a 3-dimensional gradient echo sequence with k-space sharing and administering gadolinium-based contrast agent (gadoterate meglumine)...
August 2, 2016: Investigative Radiology
Tilman Schubert, Yijing Wu, Kevin M Johnson, Oliver Wieben, Jane Maksimovic, Charles Mistretta, Patrick Turski
OBJECTIVES: Time-of-arrival (TOA) maps can be derived from high-resolution 4-dimensional (4D) contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) data sets to provide a quantitative description of contrast material arrival time in each voxel. This information can further be processed to create a compressed time evolution curve that virtually shortens the contrast bolus (virtual bolus [VB]). The purpose of this project was to determine whether TOA-enhanced 4D MRA and/or VB imaging improve the display of contrast kinetics in patients with vascular disease...
November 2016: Investigative Radiology
Alexander Radbruch, Lukas D Weberling, Pascal J Kieslich, Johanna Hepp, Philipp Kickingereder, Wolfgang Wick, Heinz-Peter Schlemmer, Martin Bendszus
PURPOSE: Recent studies reported an increase in the dentate nucleus (DN)-to-pons signal intensity (SI) ratio (DN-pons SI ratio) on unenhanced T1-weighted images in patients who received consecutive serial injections of linear gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). In contrast, most studies found no increase in the DN-pons SI ratio when patients were treated with consecutive serial injections of macrocyclic GBCAs. However, the potential difference between macrocyclic and linear GBCAs has never been assessed in individuals who received subsequent applications of both contrast agents...
November 2016: Investigative Radiology
Philipp Maximilian Kazmierczak, Moritz Schneider, Thomas Habereder, Heidrun Hirner-Eppeneder, Ralf S Eschbach, Matthias Moser, Maximilian F Reiser, Kirsten Lauber, Konstantin Nikolaou, Clemens C Cyran
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with αvß3-integrin-targeted ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (RGD-USPIO) for the in vivo monitoring of early antiangiogenic therapy effects in experimental breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Orthotopic human breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) xenograft-bearing severe combined immunodeficiency mice were imaged before and after a 1-week therapy with the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-antibody bevacizumab or placebo (n = 10 per group, daily intraperitoneal injections of bevacizumab or a volume-equivalent placebo solution, respectively) on a clinical 3 T scanner (Magnetom Skyra; Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) before and 60 minutes after the intravenous injection of RGD-USPIO (P04000; Guerbet, Villepinte, France)...
November 2016: Investigative Radiology
Katharina Hellbach, Andre Yaroshenko, Konstantin Willer, Tina Pritzke, Alena Baumann, Nina Hesse, Sigrid Auweter, Maximilian F Reiser, Oliver Eickelberg, Franz Pfeiffer, Anne Hilgendorff, Felix G Meinel
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of x-ray dark-field imaging in projection radiography-based depiction of pneumothoraces in the neonatal murine lung, a potentially life-threatening medical condition that requires a timely and correct diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: By the use of a unique preclinical model, 7-day-old C57Bl/6N mice received mechanical ventilation for 2 or 8 hours with oxygen-rich gas (FIO2 = 0.4; n = 24). Unventilated mice either spontaneously breathed oxygen-rich gas (FIO2 = 0...
October 2016: Investigative Radiology
Richard C Semelka, Clayton W Commander, Michael Jay, Lauren M B Burke, Miguel Ramalho
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine and report 4 patients who developed symptomatology shortly after gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) administration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: History taking and targeted physical examination were performed on 4 subjects who reported development of new disease features within hours to 4 weeks of having received an intravenous administration of GBCA. RESULTS: Two subjects were assessed at 2 months (patient P2mo) and at 3 months (patient P3mo) after GBCA administration (early stage), and 2 subjects were assessed at 7 years (patient P7yr) and 8 years (patient P8yr) after having received GBCA administration (late stage)...
October 2016: Investigative Radiology
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