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Investigative Radiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323657/histology-and-gadolinium-distribution-in-the-rodent-brain-after-the-administration-of-cumulative-high-doses-of-linear-and-macrocyclic-gadolinium-based-contrast-agents
#1
Jessica Lohrke, Anna-Lena Frisk, Thomas Frenzel, Laura Schöckel, Martin Rosenbruch, Gregor Jost, Diana Constanze Lenhard, Martin A Sieber, Volker Nischwitz, Astrid Küppers, Hubertus Pietsch
OBJECTIVES: Retrospective studies in patients with primary brain tumors or other central nervous system pathologies as well as postmortem studies have suggested that gadolinium (Gd) deposition occurs in the dentate nucleus (DN) and globus pallidus (GP) after multiple administrations of primarily linear Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs). However, this deposition has not been associated with any adverse effects or histopathological alterations. The aim of this preclinical study was to systematically examine differences between linear and macrocyclic GBCAs in their potential to induce changes in brain and skin histology including Gd distribution in high spatial resolution...
March 20, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306699/dynamic-measurement-of-arterial-liver-perfusion-with-an-interventional-c-arm-system
#2
Sanjit Datta, Kerstin Müller, Terilyn Moore, Lior Molvin, Sonja Gehrisch, Jarrett Rosenberg, Yamil Saenz, Michael Manhart, Yu Deuerling-Zheng, Nishita Kothary, Rebecca Fahrig
PURPOSE: Objective intraprocedural measurement of hepatic blood flow could provide a quantitative treatment end point for locoregional liver procedures. This study aims to validate the accuracy and reproducibility of cone-beam computed tomography perfusion (CBCTp) measurements of arterial liver perfusion (ALP) against clinically available computed tomography perfusion (CTp) measurements in a swine embolization model. METHODS: Triplicate CBCTp measurements using a selective arterial contrast injection were performed before and after complete embolization of the left lobe of the liver in 5 swine...
March 17, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291025/evaluation-of-reproducibility-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-the-brachial-plexus-at-3-0-t
#3
Michael J Ho, Andrei Manoliu, Felix Pierre Kuhn, Bram Stieltjes, Markus Klarhöfer, Thorsten Feiweier, Magda Marcon, Gustav Andreisek
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of 3 T magnetic resonance imaging diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the brachial plexus in healthy subjects. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers were included, and morphological and DTI sequences of the nerve roots of the brachial plexus from C5 to T1 of both sides were repeatedly acquired on a 3 T magnetic resonance system (MAGNETOM Skyra; Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). A prototype diffusion-weighted single-shot echo-planar imaging sequence-enabling slice-specific shim adjustments was performed with b-values of 0 and 800 s/mm in 30 gradient directions, resulting in an acquisition time of about 6 minutes each in axial orientation...
March 13, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257339/symri-of-the-brain-rapid-quantification-of-relaxation-rates-and-proton-density-with-synthetic-mri-automatic-brain-segmentation-and-myelin-measurement
#4
Akifumi Hagiwara, Marcel Warntjes, Masaaki Hori, Christina Andica, Misaki Nakazawa, Kanako Kunishima Kumamaru, Osamu Abe, Shigeki Aoki
Conventional magnetic resonance images are usually evaluated using the image signal contrast between tissues and not based on their absolute signal intensities. Quantification of tissue parameters, such as relaxation rates and proton density, would provide an absolute scale; however, these methods have mainly been performed in a research setting. The development of rapid quantification, with scan times in the order of 6 minutes for full head coverage, has provided the prerequisites for clinical use. The aim of this review article was to introduce a specific quantification method and synthesis of contrast-weighted images based on the acquired absolute values, and to present automatic segmentation of brain tissues and measurement of myelin based on the quantitative values, along with application of these techniques to various brain diseases...
March 3, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257340/first-in-human-ultrasound-molecular-imaging-with-a-vegfr2-specific-ultrasound-molecular-contrast-agent-br55-in-prostate-cancer-a-safety-and-feasibility-pilot-study
#5
Martijn Smeenge, François Tranquart, Christophe K Mannaerts, Theo M de Reijke, Marc J van de Vijver, M Pilar Laguna, Sibylle Pochon, Jean J M C H de la Rosette, Hessel Wijkstra
OBJECTIVE: BR55, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2)-specific ultrasound molecular contrast agent (MCA), has shown promising results in multiple preclinical models regarding cancer imaging. In this first-in-human, phase 0, exploratory study, we investigated the feasibility and safety of the MCA for the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in men using clinical standard technology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Imaging with the MCA was performed in 24 patients with biopsy-proven PCa scheduled for radical prostatectomy using a clinical ultrasound scanner at low acoustic power...
March 2, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240621/weighted-mean-of-signal-intensity-for-unbiased-fiber-tracking-of-skeletal-muscles-development-of-a-new-method-and-comparison-with-other-correction-techniques
#6
Chiara Giraudo, Stanislav Motyka, Michael Weber, Christoph Resinger, Feiweier Thorsten, Hannes Traxler, Siegfried Trattnig, Wolfgang Bogner
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the origin of random image artifacts in stimulated echo acquisition mode diffusion tensor imaging (STEAM-DTI), assess the role of averaging, develop an automated artifact postprocessing correction method using weighted mean of signal intensities (WMSIs), and compare it with other correction techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained. The right calf and thigh of 10 volunteers were scanned on a 3 T magnetic resonance imaging scanner using a STEAM-DTI sequence...
February 25, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230717/imaging-performance-of-a-handheld-ultrasound-system-with-real-time-computer-aided-detection-of-lumbar-spine-anatomy-a-feasibility-study
#7
Mohamed Tiouririne, Adam J Dixon, F William Mauldin, David Scalzo, Arun Krishnaraj
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging performance of a handheld ultrasound system and the accuracy of an automated lumbar spine computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithm in the spines of human subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was approved by the institutional review board of the University of Virginia. The authors designed a handheld ultrasound system with enhanced bone image quality and fully automated CAD of lumbar spine anatomy...
February 22, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230716/experimental-texture-analysis-in-glioblastoma-a-methodological-study
#8
Nicolin Hainc, Christoph Stippich, Bram Stieltjes, Severina Leu, Andrea Bink
OBJECTIVES: Analysis of a single slice of a tumor to extract biomarkers for texture analysis may result in loss of information. We investigated correlation of fractional volumes to entire tumor volumes and introduced expanded regions of interest (ROIs) outside the visual tumor borders in glioblastoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective slice-by-slice volumetric texture analysis on 46 brain magnetic resonance imaging subjects with histologically confirmed glioblastoma was performed...
February 22, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212138/deep-learning-in-mammography-diagnostic-accuracy-of-a-multipurpose-image-analysis-software-in-the-detection-of-breast-cancer
#9
Anton S Becker, Magda Marcon, Soleen Ghafoor, Moritz C Wurnig, Thomas Frauenfelder, Andreas Boss
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a multipurpose image analysis software based on deep learning with artificial neural networks for the detection of breast cancer in an independent, dual-center mammography data set. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study, all patients undergoing mammography in 2012 at our institution were reviewed (n = 3228). All of their prior and follow-up mammographies from a time span of 7 years (2008-2015) were considered as a reference for clinical diagnosis...
February 16, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195932/contrast-agent-induced-high-signal-intensity-in-dentate-nucleus-on-unenhanced-t1-weighted-images-comparison-of-gadodiamide-and-gadoxetic-acid
#10
Shintaro Ichikawa, Utaroh Motosugi, Yoshie Omiya, Hiroshi Onishi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether an association exists between T1-signal increase in the dentate nucleus (DN) on unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging and previous administration of gadoxetic acid and gadodiamide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board; the requirement for informed patient consent was waived. A total of 132 patients (male-female ratio, 86:46; mean age, 68.8 ± 11.6 years) who underwent imaging between December 2000 and April 2016 were divided into 4 groups: patients with 5 or more administrations of gadoxetic acid ("gadoxetic acid ≥5 administrations" group), only 1 administration of gadoxetic acid ("gadoxetic acid 1 administration" group), no gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) administration or chronic liver disease (CLD; "no GBCA administration and no CLD" group), and 5 or more administrations of gadodiamide ("gadodiamide ≥5 administrations" group)...
February 11, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195849/detection-and-alterations-of-acetylcarnitine-in-human-skeletal-muscles-by-1h-mrs-at-7-t
#11
Radka Klepochová, Ladislav Valkovič, Martin Gajdošík, Thomas Hochwartner, Harald Tschan, Michael Krebs, Siegfried Trattnig, Martin Krššák
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to detect the acetylcarnitine resonance line at 2.13 ppm in the human vastus lateralis and soleus muscles, assess T1 and T2 relaxation times, and investigate the diurnal and exercise-related changes in absolute concentration noninvasively, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 7 T. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All measurements were performed on a 7 T whole-body Magnetom MR system with a 28-channel knee coil. Five healthy, moderately trained volunteers participated in the assessment of the detectability, repeatability, and relaxation times of acetylcarnitine...
February 10, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195848/influence-of-indocyanine-green-on-hepatic-gd-eob-dtpa-uptake-a-proof-of-concept-study-in-mice
#12
Hiroyuki Akai, Koichiro Yasaka, Masanori Nojima, Yusuke Inoue, Kuni Ohtomo, Shigeru Kiryu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the influence of indocyanine green (ICG) on hepatic uptake of gadolinium ethoxybenzyldiethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Groups of 6 female C57BL6 mice were injected with 5 mg/kg ICG, 20 mg/kg ICG, or phosphate-buffered saline (control group) 10 minutes before the injection of Gd-EOB-DTPA; identical 3-dimensional gradient echo T1-weighted images were subsequently obtained to create time-intensity curves and to measure the peak contrast ratios (CRs) of liver parenchyma...
February 10, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187006/time-dependent-diffusion-in-prostate-cancer
#13
Gregory Lemberskiy, Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Jelle Veraart, Samir S Taneja, Dmitry S Novikov, Els Fieremans
OBJECTIVE: Prior studies in prostate diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have largely explored the impact of b-value and diffusion directions on estimated diffusion coefficient D. Here we suggest varying diffusion time, t, to study time-dependent D(t) in prostate cancer, thereby adding an extra dimension in the development of prostate cancer biomarkers. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with peripheral zone prostate cancer underwent 3-T MRI using an external-array coil and a diffusion-weighted image sequence acquired for b = 0, as well as along 12 noncollinear gradient directions for b = 500 s/mm using stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
February 9, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151734/rapid-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-brain-without-susceptibility-artifacts-single-shot-steam-with-radial-undersampling-and-iterative-reconstruction
#14
Andreas Merrem, Sabine Hofer, Dirk Voit, K-Dietmar Merboldt, Jakob Klosowski, Markus Untenberger, Julius Fleischhammer, Jens Frahm
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a rapid diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for whole-brain studies without susceptibility artifacts and measuring times below 3 minutes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The proposed method combines a DW spin-echo module with a single-shot stimulated echo acquisition mode MRI sequence. Previous deficiencies in image quality due to limited signal-to-noise ratio are compensated for (1) by radial undersampling to enhance the flip angle and thus the signal strength of stimulated echoes; (2) by defining the image reconstruction as a nonlinear inverse problem, which is solved by the iteratively regularized Gauss-Newton method; and (3) by denoising with use of a modified nonlocal means filter...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141614/computed-tomography-assisted-thoracoscopic-surgery-a-novel-innovative-approach-in-patients-with-deep-intrapulmonary-lesions-of-unknown-malignant-status
#15
Michael Kostrzewa, Kerim Kara, Nils Rathmann, Charalambos Tsagogiorgas, Thomas Henzler, Stefan O Schoenberg, Peter Hohenberger, Steffen J Diehl, Eric D Roessner
OBJECTIVES: Minimally invasive resection of small, deep intrapulmonary lesions can be challenging due to the difficulty of localizing them during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). We report our preliminary results evaluating the feasibility of an image-guided, minimally invasive, 1-stop-shop approach for the resection of small, deep intrapulmonary lesions in a hybrid operating room (OR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients (5 men, 10 women; mean age, 63 years) with a total of 16 solitary, deep intrapulmonary nodules of unknown malignant status were identified for intraoperative wire marking...
January 30, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125438/quantification-and-assessment-of-the-chemical-form-of-residual-gadolinium-in-the-brain-after-repeated-administration-of-gadolinium-based-contrast-agents-comparative-study-in-rats
#16
Thomas Frenzel, Chirag Apte, Gregor Jost, Laura Schöckel, Jessica Lohrke, Hubertus Pietsch
OBJECTIVE: Multiple clinical and preclinical studies have reported a signal intensity increase and the presence of gadolinium (Gd) in the brain after repeated administration of Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs). This bioanalytical study in rat brain tissue was initiated to investigate whether the residual Gd is present as intact GBCA or in other chemical forms by using tissue fractionation and chromatography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided randomly in 6 groups of 10 animals each...
January 25, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121639/ultrasound-tomography-evaluation-of-breast-density-a-comparison-with-noncontrast-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#17
Elizabeth A M OʼFlynn, Jeremie Fromageau, Araminta E Ledger, Alessandro Messa, Ashley DʼAquino, Minouk J Schoemaker, Maria Schmidt, Neb Duric, Anthony J Swerdlow, Jeffrey C Bamber
OBJECTIVES: Ultrasound tomography (UST) is an emerging whole-breast 3-dimensional imaging technique that obtains quantitative tomograms of speed of sound of the entire breast. The imaged parameter is the speed of sound which is used as a surrogate measure of density at each voxel and holds promise as a method to evaluate breast density without ionizing radiation. This study evaluated the technique of UST and compared whole-breast volume averaged speed of sound (VASS) with MR percent water content from noncontrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
January 24, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106615/metal-artifact-reduction-in-x-ray-computed-tomography-using-computer-aided-design-data-of-implants-as-prior-information
#18
Veikko Ruth, Daniel Kolditz, Christian Steiding, Willi A Kalender
OBJECTIVES: The performance of metal artifact reduction (MAR) methods in x-ray computed tomography (CT) suffers from incorrect identification of metallic implants in the artifact-affected volumetric images. The aim of this study was to investigate potential improvements of state-of-the-art MAR methods by using prior information on geometry and material of the implant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The influence of a novel prior knowledge-based segmentation (PS) compared with threshold-based segmentation (TS) on 2 MAR methods (linear interpolation [LI] and normalized-MAR [NORMAR]) was investigated...
January 18, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092272/material-dependent-implant-artifact-reduction-using-semac-vat-and-mavric-a-prospective-mri-phantom-study
#19
Lukas Filli, Lukas Jud, Roger Luechinger, Daniel Nanz, Gustav Andreisek, Val M Runge, Sebastian Kozerke, Nadja A Farshad-Amacker
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the degree of artifact reduction in magnetic resonance imaging achieved with slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC) in combination with view angle tilting (VAT) and multiacquisition variable resonance image combination (MAVRIC) for standard contrast weightings and different metallic materials. METHODS: Four identically shaped rods made of the most commonly used prosthetic materials (stainless steel, SS; titanium, Ti; cobalt-chromium-molybdenum, CoCr; and oxidized zirconium, oxZi) were scanned at 3 T...
January 13, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079701/ex-vivo-assessment-of-coronary-atherosclerotic-plaque-by-grating-based-phase-contrast-computed-tomography-correlation-with-optical-coherence-tomography
#20
Christopher Habbel, Holger Hetterich, Marian Willner, Julia Herzen, Kristin Steigerwald, Sigrid Auweter, Ulrich Schüller, Jörg Hausleiter, Steffen Massberg, Maximilian Reiser, Franz Pfeiffer, Tobias Saam, Fabian Bamberg
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of grating-based phase-contrast computed tomography (gb-PCCT) to classify and quantify coronary vessel characteristics in comparison with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and histopathology in an ex vivo setting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After excision from 5 heart specimens, 15 human coronary arteries underwent gb-PCCT examination using an experimental imaging setup consisting of a rotating molybdenum anode x-ray tube, a Talbot-Lau grating interferometer, and a single photon counting detector...
January 10, 2017: Investigative Radiology
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