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Human Reproduction Update

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762669/ethics-of-oocyte-banking-for-third-party-assisted-reproduction-a-systematic-review
#1
E M Kool, A M E Bos, R van der Graaf, B C J M Fauser, A L Bredenoord
BACKGROUND: The demand for donor oocytes has increased dramatically over the years. Today people in need of ART with the use of donor oocytes can appeal to commercial or public donor oocyte banks. The introduction of oocyte banks has shed a new light on the practice of ART using donor oocytes. The establishment and maintenance of oocyte banks should be sensitive to the ethical considerations. However, it is currently unclear which ethical aspects have to be taken into account. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this article is to identify the ethical aspects of establishing and maintaining oocyte banks for third-party ART...
May 14, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757366/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-reveals-pervasive-effects-of-germline-mitochondrial-replacement-on-components-of-health
#2
Ralph Dobler, Damian K Dowling, Edward H Morrow, Klaus Reinhardt
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial replacement, a form of nuclear transfer, has been proposed as a germline therapy to prevent the transmission of mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial replacement therapy has been licensed for clinical application in the UK, and already carried out in other countries, but little is known about negative or unintended effects on the health of offspring born using this technique. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Studies in invertebrate models have used techniques that achieve mitochondrial replacement to create offspring with novel combinations of mitochondrial and nuclear genotype...
May 11, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726895/the-risk-of-tese-induced-hypogonadism-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Jitske Eliveld, Madelon van Wely, Andreas Meißner, Sjoerd Repping, Fulco van der Veen, Ans M M van Pelt
BACKGROUND: Testicular sperm extraction (TESE) is a surgical procedure to retrieve spermatozoa from the testes of men with azoospermia to help them achieve biological parenthood. Although effective, the surgical procedure is not without complications and haematoma, devascularization, inflammation and a decrease in testosterone levels have been described as such. The prevalence and duration of hypogonadism and associated symptoms after TESE have not been studied systematically. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: In this systematic review we addressed the following research questions: Are serum testosterone levels decreased after TESE and, if so, do these levels recover over time? What is the prevalence of symptoms and signs related to hypogonadism after TESE and are they related to testosterone levels? SEARCH METHODS: We searched the databases Pubmed and Embase from 1 January 1993 to 26 June 2017...
May 3, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697794/non-coding-rnas-in-endometriosis-a-narrative-review
#4
Kavita Panir, John E Schjenken, Sarah A Robertson, M Louise Hull
BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is a benign gynaecological disorder, which affects 10% of reproductive-aged women and is characterized by endometrial cells from the lining of the uterus being found outside the uterine cavity. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms causing the development of this heterogeneous disease remain enigmatic, and a lack of effective biomarkers necessitates surgical intervention for diagnosis. There is international recognition that accurate non-invasive diagnostic tests and more effective therapies are urgently needed...
April 25, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668899/how-uterine-microbiota-might-be-responsible-for-a-receptive-fertile-endometrium
#5
Marilen Benner, Gerben Ferwerda, Irma Joosten, Renate G van der Molen
BACKGROUND: Fertility depends on a receptive state of the endometrium, influenced by hormonal and anatomical adaptations, as well as the immune system. Local and systemic immunity is greatly influenced by microbiota. Recent discoveries of 16S rRNA in the endometrium and the ability to detect low-biomass microbiota fueled the notion that the uterus may be indeed a non-sterile compartment. To date, the concept of the 'sterile womb' focuses on in utero effects of microbiota on offspring and neonatal immunity...
April 16, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648649/infectious-inflammatory-and-autoimmune-male-factor-infertility-how-do-rodent-models-inform-clinical-practice
#6
Monika Fijak, Adrian Pilatz, Mark P Hedger, Nour Nicolas, Sudhanshu Bhushan, Vera Michel, Kenneth S K Tung, Hans-Christian Schuppe, Andreas Meinhardt
BACKGROUND: Infection and inflammation of the reproductive tract are significant causes of male factor infertility. Ascending infections caused by sexually transmitted bacteria or urinary tract pathogens represent the most frequent aetiology of epididymo-orchitis, but viral, haematogenous dissemination is also a contributory factor. Limitations in adequate diagnosis and therapy reflect an obvious need for further understanding of human epididymal and testicular immunopathologies and their contribution to infertility...
April 10, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608700/trophoblast-retrieval-and-isolation-from-the-cervix-origins-of-cervical-trophoblasts-and-their-potential-value-for-risk-assessment-of-ongoing-pregnancies
#7
Gerit Moser, Sascha Drewlo, Berthold Huppertz, D Randall Armant
BACKGROUND: Early during human development, the trophoblast lineage differentiates to commence placentation. Where the placenta contacts the uterine decidua, extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells differentiate and invade maternal tissues. EVT cells, identified by expression of HLA-G, invade into uterine blood vessels (endovascular EVT), as well as glands (endoglandular EVT), and open such luminal structures towards the intervillous space of the placenta. Endoglandular invasion diverts the contents of uterine glands to the intervillous space, while glands near the margin of the placenta that also contain endoglandular EVT cells open into the reproductive tract...
March 28, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590375/ethnicity-obesity-and-the-prevalence-of-impaired-glucose-tolerance-and-type-2-diabetes-in-pcos-a-systematic-review-and-meta-regression
#8
N S Kakoly, M B Khomami, A E Joham, S D Cooray, M L Misso, R J Norman, C L Harrison, S Ranasinha, H J Teede, L J Moran
BACKGROUND: Our prior meta-analyses demonstrated an increased prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but with substantial clinical heterogeneity. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: We aimed to update our previous review to quantify the prevalence of IGT and T2DM in PCOS with only quality studies (good and fair quality). We also aimed to examine the contribution of parameters including ethnicity, obesity and method of diagnosing T2DM in explaining the observed heterogeneity in IGT and T2DM prevalence in PCOS...
March 26, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538675/determinants-of-monozygotic-twinning-in-art-a-systematic-review-and-a-meta-analysis
#9
Kathrine Vauvert R Hviid, Sara Sofia Malchau, Anja Pinborg, Henriette Svarre Nielsen
BACKGROUND: The incidence of monozygotic twins (MZT) after ART appears to be higher than the incidence after spontaneous conceptions contradicting the aim of ART to avoid multiple pregnancies because of the associated risks. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim was to study the frequency of MZT after IVF and ICSI and how it is influenced by the day of embryo transfer, maternal age, zona pellucida manipulation, controlled ovarian stimulation, stimulation protocol, culture media and embryo quality...
March 12, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471493/the-effect-of-pregnancy-on-endometriosis-facts-or-fiction
#10
Brigitte Leeners, Fabia Damaso, Nicole Ochsenbein-Kölble, Cindy Farquhar
BACKGROUND: It is not uncommon for women with endometriosis to be advised that becoming pregnant might be a useful strategy to manage their symptoms and reduce disease progression. Consequently, many women diagnosed with endometriosis and motivated to become pregnant, may also have expectations regarding improvement of symptoms and the disease. However, study results on the effect of pregnancy on endometriosis are controversial and pregnancy in women with endometriosis is not always associated with improved symptoms...
May 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471389/the-effect-of-paternal-factors-on-perinatal-and-paediatric-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Nan B Oldereid, Ulla-Britt Wennerholm, Anja Pinborg, Anne Loft, Hannele Laivuori, Max Petzold, Liv Bente Romundstad, Viveca Söderström-Anttila, Christina Bergh
BACKGROUND: Maternal factors, including increasing childbearing age and various life-style factors, are associated with poorer short- and long-term outcomes for children, whereas knowledge of paternal parameters is limited. Recently, increasing paternal age has been associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, birth defects, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia in children. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this systematic review is to describe the influence of paternal factors on adverse short- and long-term child outcomes...
May 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452361/iui-review-and-systematic-assessment-of-the-evidence-that-supports-global-recommendations
#12
Ben Cohlen, Aartjan Bijkerk, Sheryl Van der Poel, Willem Ombelet
BACKGROUND: IUI with or without ovarian stimulation (OS) has become a first-line treatment option for many infertile couples, worldwide. The appropriate treatment modality for couples and their clinical management through IUI or IUI/OS cycles must consider maternal and perinatal outcomes, most notably the clinical complication of higher-order multiple pregnancies associated with IUI-OS. With a current global emphasis to continue to decrease maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity, the World Health Organization (WHO) had established a multi-year project to review the evidence for the establishment of normative guidance for the implementation of IUI as a treatment to address fertility problems, and to consider its cost-effectiveness for lower resource settings...
May 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447380/sirtuins-in-gamete-biology-and-reproductive-physiology-emerging-roles-and-therapeutic-potential-in-female-and-male-infertility
#13
Carla Tatone, Giovanna Di Emidio, Arcangelo Barbonetti, Gaspare Carta, Alberto M Luciano, Stefano Falone, Fernanda Amicarelli
BACKGROUND: Sirtuins (SIRT1-7) are a family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases that catalyze post-translational modifications of proteins. Together, they respond to metabolic challenges, inflammatory signals or hypoxic/oxidative stress, and are associated with aging and longevity. The role of Sirtuins in the regulation of fertility emerged in 2003 when a defective reproductive phenotype was observed in SIRT1-null mice. Although studies on Sirtuins in reproductive biology have been increasing in the last years, a recent comprehensive update on this issue is still lacking...
May 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432538/acquisition-of-oocyte-competence-to-develop-as-an-embryo-integrated-nuclear-and-cytoplasmic-events
#14
Marco Conti, Federica Franciosi
Infertility affects ~7% of couples of reproductive age with little change in incidence in the last two decades. ART, as well as other interventions, have made major strides in correcting this condition. However, and in spite of advancements in the field, the age of the female partner remains a main factor for a successful outcome. A better understanding of the final stages of gamete maturation yielding an egg that can sustain embryo development and a pregnancy to term remains a major area for improvement in the field...
May 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377997/the-importance-of-dna-repair-for-maintaining-oocyte-quality-in-response-to-anti-cancer-treatments-environmental-toxins-and-maternal-ageing
#15
Amy L Winship, Jessica M Stringer, Seng H Liew, Karla J Hutt
BACKGROUND: Within the ovary, oocytes are stored in long-lived structures called primordial follicles, each comprising a meiotically arrested oocyte, surrounded by somatic granulosa cells. It is essential that their genetic integrity is maintained throughout life to ensure that high quality oocytes are available for ovulation. Of all the possible types of DNA damage, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are considered to be the most severe. Recent studies have shown that DNA DSBs can accumulate in oocytes in primordial follicles during reproductive ageing, and are readily induced by exogenous factors such as γ-irradiation, chemotherapy and environmental toxicants...
January 25, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377994/basic-mechanisms-of-vascularization-in-endometriosis-and-their-clinical-implications
#16
Matthias W Laschke, Michael D Menger
BACKGROUND: Vascularization is a major hallmark in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. An increasing number of studies suggests that multiple mechanisms contribute to the vascularization of endometriotic lesions, including angiogenesis, vasculogenesis and inosculation. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: In this review, we provide an overview of the basic mechanisms of vascularization in endometriosis and give special emphasis on their future clinical implications in the diagnosis and therapy of the disease...
January 25, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377992/genetic-and-epigenetic-factors-which-modulate-differentiation-propensity-in-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#17
Alexander Keller, Dominika Dziedzicka, Filippo Zambelli, Christina Markouli, Karen Sermon, Claudia Spits, Mieke Geens
BACKGROUND: Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines are known to have a bias in their differentiation. This gives individual cell lines a propensity to preferentially differentiate towards one germ layer or cell type over others. Chromosomal aberrations, mitochondrial mutations, genetic diversity and epigenetic variance are the main drivers of this phenomenon, and can lead to a wide range of phenotypes. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Our aim is to provide a comprehensive overview of the different factors which influence differentiation propensity...
January 25, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186429/extracellular-matrix-in-uterine-leiomyoma-pathogenesis-a-potential-target-for-future-therapeutics
#18
REVIEW
Md Soriful Islam, Andrea Ciavattini, Felice Petraglia, Mario Castellucci, Pasquapina Ciarmela
BACKGROUND: Uterine leiomyoma (also known as fibroid or myoma) is the most common benign tumor of the uterus found in women of reproductive age. It is not usually fatal but can produce serious clinical symptoms, including excessive uterine bleeding, pelvic pain or pressure, infertility and pregnancy complications. Due to lack of effective medical treatments surgery has been a definitive choice for the management of this tumor. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation and remodeling are thought to be crucial for fibrotic diseases such as uterine leiomyoma...
January 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155965/is-frozen-embryo-transfer-better-for-mothers-and-babies-can-cumulative-meta-analysis-provide-a-definitive-answer
#19
REVIEW
Abha Maheshwari, Shilpi Pandey, Edwin Amalraj Raja, Ashalatha Shetty, Mark Hamilton, Siladitya Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: Initial observational studies and a systematic review published 5 years ago have suggested that obstetric and perinatal outcomes are better in offspring conceived following frozen rather than fresh embryo transfers, with reduced risks of preterm birth, small for gestational age, low birth weight and pre-eclampsia. More recent primary studies are beginning to challenge some of these findings. We therefore conducted an updated systematic review and cumulative meta-analysis to examine if these results have remained consistent over time...
January 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136166/diabetes-induced-hyperglycemia-impairs-male-reproductive-function-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Constanze C Maresch, Dina C Stute, Marco G Alves, Pedro F Oliveira, David M de Kretser, Thomas Linn
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia can result from a loss of pancreatic beta-cells or a decline in their function leading to decreased insulin secretion or may arise from insulin resistance and variable degrees of inadequate insulin secretion resulting in diabetes and related comorbidities. To date several reviews have addressed the issue of diabetes-related male infertility but most have focused on how metabolic syndrome causes the decline in male fertility. However, a comprehensive overview as to how diabetes-induced hyperglycemia impairs male fertility is missing...
January 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
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