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Human Reproduction Update

Amma Owusu-Akyaw, Kavitha Krishnamoorthy, Laura T Goldsmith, Sara S Morelli
BACKGROUND: The human uterine endometrium undergoes significant remodeling and regeneration on a rapid and repeated basis, after parturition, menstruation, and in some cases, injury. The ability of the adult endometrium to undergo cyclic regeneration and differentiation/decidualization is essential for successful human reproduction. Multiple key physiologic functions of the endometrium require the cells of this tissue to transition between mesenchymal and epithelial phenotypes, processes known as mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
November 8, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Ignatia F Reijnders, Annemarie G M G J Mulders, Melissa van der Windt, Eric A P Steegers, Régine P M Steegers-Theunissen
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, placenta-related complications contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as pre-eclampsia, fetal growth restriction and preterm birth, with implications for the future health of mothers and offspring. The placenta develops in the periconception period and forms the interface between mother and embryo/fetus. An unhealthy periconceptional maternal lifestyle, such as smoking, alcohol and under- and over-nutrition, can detrimentally influence placental development and function...
November 8, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Elpida Fragouli, Santiago Munne, Dagan Wells
BACKGROUND: Embryos that are able to form blastocysts have succeeded in activating their genome and differentiating into two cell types-an external layer of trophectoderm cells, which will go on to form extra-embryonic tissues such as the placenta, and the inner cell mass, which will give rise to the embryo proper. Culturing embryos to the blastocyst stage has become an increasingly popular IVF practice over the past decade. Additionally, it has been proposed that the identification and transfer of euploid blastocysts could significantly improve IVF outcomes...
November 5, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Chen Sar-Shalom Nahshon, Lena Sagi-Dain, Zofnat Wiener-Megnazi, Martha Dirnfeld
Background: Endometrial injury is an intentional damage made to the endometrium, usually produced by a Pipelle catheter. Over the last two decades, endometrial injury has been studied to improve implantation rates and decrease the incidence of implantation failure in invitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Recently, additional studies of endometrial injury, performed not only in patients with implantation failure but also in intrauterine insemination cycles, have been conducted, and the endometrial injury made by hysteroscopy has been researched...
November 2, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Matheus Roque, Thor Haahr, Selmo Geber, Sandro C Esteves, Peter Humaidan
BACKGROUND: Elective freezing of all good quality embryos and transfer in subsequent cycles, i.e. elective frozen embryo transfer (eFET), has recently increased significantly with the introduction of the GnRH agonist trigger protocol and improvements in cryo-techniques. The ongoing discussion focuses on whether eFET should be offered to the overall IVF population or only to specific subsets of patients. Until recently, the clinical usage of eFET was supported by only a few randomized controlled trials (RCT) and meta-analyses, suggesting that the eFET not only reduced ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), but also improved reproductive outcomes...
November 2, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Triin Laisk, Olga Tšuiko, Tatjana Jatsenko, Peeter Hõrak, Marjut Otala, Mirkka Lahdenperä, Virpi Lummaa, Timo Tuuri, Andres Salumets, Juha S Tapanainen
BACKGROUND: The human female reproductive lifespan is regulated by the dynamics of ovarian function, which in turn is influenced by several factors: from the basic molecular biological mechanisms governing folliculogenesis, to environmental and lifestyle factors affecting the ovarian reserve between conception and menopause. From a broader point of view, global and regional demographic trends play an additional important role in shaping the female reproductive lifespan, and finally, influences on an evolutionary scale have led to the reproductive senescence that precedes somatic senescence in humans...
October 20, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Alison E Hipwell, Linda G Kahn, Pam Factor-Litvak, Christina A Porucznik, Eva L Siegel, Raina N Fichorova, Richard F Hamman, Michele Klein-Fedyshin, Kim G Harley
BACKGROUND: Exposure to non-persistent chemicals in consumer products is ubiquitous and associated with endocrine-disrupting effects. These effects have been linked to infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes in some studies and could affect couple fecundability, i.e. the capacity to conceive a pregnancy, quantified as time to pregnancy (TTP). OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Few epidemiologic studies have examined the impact of non-persistent chemicals specifically on TTP, and the results of these studies have not been synthesized...
October 11, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Anna L Boss, Lawrence W Chamley, Joanna L James
BACKGROUND: Correct development of the placenta is critical to establishing pregnancy and inadequate placentation leads to implantation failure and miscarriage, as well as later gestation pregnancy disorders. Much attention has been focused on the placental trophoblasts and it is clear that the trophoblast lineages arise from the trophectoderm of the blastocyst. In contrast, the cells of the placental mesenchyme are thought to arise from the inner cell mass, but the details of this process are limited...
September 19, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Giovanna Pepe, Massimo Locati, Sara Della Torre, Federica Mornata, Andrea Cignarella, Adriana Maggi, Elisabetta Vegeto
BACKGROUND: Estrogens are known to orchestrate reproductive events and to regulate the immune system during infections and following tissue damage. Recent findings suggest that, in the absence of any danger signal, estrogens trigger the physiological expansion and functional specialization of macrophages, which are immune cells that populate the female reproductive tract (FRT) and are increasingly being recognized to participate in tissue homeostasis beyond their immune activity against infections...
September 19, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Jessica Farren, Nicola Mitchell-Jones, Jan Y Verbakel, Dirk Timmerman, Maria Jalmbrant, Tom Bourne
BACKGROUND: Early pregnancy loss (EPL) is a common event, with scope for long-term personal and societal impact. There are three decades worth of published evidence of profound psychological sequelae in a significant proportion of women. However, the wide variety of outcomes, screening instruments, assessment timings and geographical locations makes it challenging to form a coherent picture of the morbidity within the whole group and its subgroups. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: This review aims to investigate three questions...
September 11, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Richard Ivell, Ravinder Anand-Ivell
BACKGROUND: Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) is a member of the relaxin family of neohormones which has evolved to address specifically mammalian aspects of reproduction related to viviparity and internal fertilization. It was originally identified as a major product of testicular Leydig cells and has proved to be an important biomarker of Leydig cell functional capacity. However, INSL3 is also produced by theca interna cells of growing antral follicles and is secreted into the bloodstream in phases corresponding to the number and health of the follicles...
September 11, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Xavier Santamaria, Aymara Mas, Irene Cervelló, Hugh Taylor, Carlos Simon
BACKGROUND: Stem cell research in the endometrium and myometrium from animal models and humans has led to the identification of endometrial/myometrial stem cells and their niches. This basic knowledge is beginning to be translated to clinical use for incurable uterine pathologies. Additionally, the implication of bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMDSCs) in uterine physiology has opened the field for the exploration of an exogenous and autologous source of stem cells. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: In this review, we outline the progress of endometrial and myometrial stem/progenitor cells in both human and mouse models from their characterization to their clinical application, indicating roles in Asherman syndrome, atrophic endometrium and tissue engineering, among others...
November 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Fabio Barra, Carolina Scala, Ennio Biscaldi, Valerio Gaetano Vellone, Marcello Ceccaroni, Carlo Terrone, Simone Ferrero
BACKGROUND: The ureter is the second most common site affected by urinary tract endometriosis, after the bladder. Optimal strategies in the diagnosis and treatment of ureteral endometriosis (UE) are not yet well defined. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this study was to systematically review evidence regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, medical and surgical treatment, impact on fertility and risk of malignant transformation of UE. SEARCH METHODS: A systematic literature review, by searching the MEDLINE and PUBMED database until April 2018, was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement and was registered in the PROSPERO registry (www...
November 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Marina A Skiba, Rakibul M Islam, Robin J Bell, Susan R Davis
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) prevalence estimates vary when different diagnostic criteria are applied. Lack of standardization of individual elements within these criteria may contribute to prevalence differences. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: A systematic review of studies reporting prevalence of PCOS, using at least one of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Rotterdam or Androgen Excess Society (AE-PCOS) criteria, was conducted. The aim was to investigate the impact on prevalence reporting of different definitions of the clinical elements for PCOS diagnosis...
November 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Matthias W Laschke, Michael D Menger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
N Galazis, A Raza
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Courtney W Hanna, Hannah Demond, Gavin Kelsey
BACKGROUND: Over the past few years, advances in molecular technologies have allowed unprecedented mapping of epigenetic modifications in gametes and during early embryonic development. This work is allowing a detailed genomic analysis, which for the first time can answer long-standing questions about epigenetic regulation and reprogramming, and highlights differences between mouse and human, the implications of which are only beginning to be explored. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: In this review, we summarise new low-cell molecular methods enabling the interrogation of epigenetic information in gametes and early embryos, the mechanistic insights these have provided, and contrast the findings in mouse and human...
September 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Carlo Alviggi, Alessandro Conforti, Daniele Santi, Sandro C Esteves, Claus Yding Andersen, Peter Humaidan, Paolo Chiodini, Giuseppe De Placido, Manuela Simoni
BACKGROUND: Genotype has been implicated in the outcome of ovarian stimulation. The analysis of patient-specific genotypes might lead to an individualized pharmacogenomic approach to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS). However, the validity of such an approach remains to be established. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: To define the impact of specific genotype profiles of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and their receptors (FSHR, LHR and LHCGR) on ovarian stimulation outcome...
September 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Sun-Wei Guo, Patrick G Groothuis
BACKGROUND: The drug research and development (R&D) for endometriosis/adenomyosis has been painfully slow. Most completed clinical trials on endometriosis did not publish their results, and presumably failed. While few published trials did report how they foundered, the reasons why they failed are often completely unclear. Surprisingly, there has been no open discussion on why these trials failed. If the causes for these failed trials remain unelucidated, mistakes made in these failed trials may be repeated in the future...
September 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Judit Castillo, Meritxell Jodar, Rafael Oliva
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the proteomic composition of the gametes is essential to understand reproductive functions. Most of the sperm proteins are related to spermatogenesis and sperm function, but less abundant protein groups with potential post-fertilization roles have also been detected. The current data are challenging our understanding of sperm biology and functionality, demanding an integrated analysis of the proteomic and RNA-seq datasets available for spermatozoa, oocytes and early embryos, in order to unravel the impact of the male gamete on the generation of the new individual...
September 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
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