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Human Reproduction Update

Andrea Busnelli, Alessio Paffoni, Luigi Fedele, Edgardo Somigliana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Julien Bouckenheimer, Said Assou, Sébastien Riquier, Cyrielle Hou, Nicolas Philippe, Caroline Sansac, Thierry Lavabre-Bertrand, Thérèse Commes, Jean-Marc Lemaître, Anthony Boureux, John De Vos
BACKGROUND: Human long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are an emerging category of transcripts with increasingly documented functional roles during development. LncRNAs and roles during human early embryo development have recently begun to be unravelled. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: This review summarizes the most recent knowledge on lncRNAs and focuses on their expression patterns and role during early human embryo development and in pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). Public mRNA sequencing (mRNA-seq) data were used to illustrate these expression signatures...
September 21, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Guo-Chao Zhong, Yan Liu, Nan Chen, Fa-Bao Hao, Kang Wang, Jia-Hao Cheng, Jian-Ping Gong, Xiong Ding
BACKGROUND: A striking gender disparity in the incidence and outcome of primary liver cancer (PLC) has been well recognized. Mounting evidence from basic research suggests that hormonal factors may be involved in the gender disparity of PLC. Whether hormonal exposures in human subjects are associated with PLC risk is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Whether reproductive factors and use of menopausal hormone therapies (MHTs) in women are associated with PLC risk remains controversial...
September 21, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Jens Peter Bonde, Esben Meulengracht Flachs, Susie Rimborg, Clara Helene Glazer, Aleksander Giwercman, Cecilia Høst Ramlau-Hansen, Karin Sørig Hougaard, Birgit Bjerre Høyer, Katia Keglberg Hærvig, Sesilje Bondo Petersen, Lars Rylander, Ina Olmer Specht, Gunnar Toft, Elvira Vaclavik Bräuner
BACKGROUND: More than 20 years ago, it was hypothesized that exposure to prenatal and early postnatal environmental xenobiotics with the potential to disrupt endogenous hormone signaling might be on the causal path to cryptorchidism, hypospadias, low sperm count and testicular cancer. Several consensus statements and narrative reviews in recent years have divided the scientific community and have elicited a call for systematic transparent reviews. We aimed to fill this gap in knowledge in the field of male reproductive disorders...
September 21, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Deepa Bhartiya, Ambreen Shaikh, Sandhya Anand, Hiren Patel, Sona Kapoor, Kalpana Sriraman, Seema Parte, Sreepoorna Unni
BACKGROUND: Both pluripotent very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells were reported in 2006. In 2012, a Nobel Prize was awarded for iPS technology whereas even today the very existence of VSELs is not well accepted. The underlying reason is that VSELs exist in low numbers, remain dormant under homeostatic conditions, are very small in size and do not pellet down at 250-280g. The VSELs maintain life-long tissue homeostasis, serve as a backup pool for adult stem cells and are mobilized under stress conditions...
September 10, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Andrea Busnelli, Alessio Paffoni, Luigi Fedele, Edgardo Somigliana
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 10, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Nicola Pluchino, Jean-Marie Wenger, Patrick Petignat, Reshef Tal, Mylene Bolmont, Hugh S Taylor, Francesco Bianchi-Demicheli
BACKGROUND: Sexual function is an important aspect of health and quality of life and is influenced by both medical conditions and health-care interventions, especially when gynecologic disorders are involved. Coital pain is among the main factors that affect sexual functioning, and this symptom is reported by almost half of women suffering from endometriosis. However, sexuality is a complex phenomenon driven by social, psychological and biological/hormonal factors and the presence of endometriosis might further affect domains of sexual function and the quality of a sexual relationship...
September 2, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Teena Kjb Gamage, Lawrence W Chamley, Joanna L James
BACKGROUND: The human placenta is vital for fetal development, yet little is understood about how it forms successfully to ensure a healthy pregnancy or why this process is inadequate in 1 in 10 pregnancies, leading to miscarriage, intrauterine growth restriction or preeclampsia. Trophoblasts are placenta-specific epithelial cells that maximize nutrient exchange. All trophoblast lineages are thought to arise from a population of trophoblast stem cells (TSCs). However, whilst the isolation of murine TSC has led to an explosion in understanding murine placentation, the isolation of an analogous human TSC has proved more difficult...
September 2, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Gesthimani Mintziori, Basil C Tarlatzis, Dimitrios G Goulis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Didier Dewailly, Geoffroy Robin, Maëliss Peigne, Christine Decanter, Pascal Pigny, Sophie Catteau-Jonard
BACKGROUND: Androgens, FSH, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and estradiol (E2) are essential in human ovarian folliculogenesis. However, the interactions between these four players is not fully understood. OBJECTIVES AND RATIONALE: The purpose of this review is to highlight the chronological sequence of the appearance and function of androgens, FSH, AMH and E2 and to discuss controversies in the relationship between FSH and AMH. A better understanding of this interaction could supplement our current knowledge about the pathophysiology of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)...
August 27, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
J Onofre, Y Baert, K Faes, E Goossens
BACKGROUND: Germ cell depletion caused by chemical or physical toxicity, disease or genetic predisposition can occur at any age. Although semen cryopreservation is the first reflex for preserving male fertility, this cannot help out prepubertal boys. Yet, these boys do have spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) that able to produce sperm at the start of puberty, which allows them to safeguard their fertility through testicular tissue (TT) cryopreservation. SSC transplantation (SSCT), TT grafting and recent advances in in vitro spermatogenesis have opened new possibilities to restore fertility in humans...
August 27, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Pascale May-Panloup, Lisa Boucret, Juan-Manuel Chao de la Barca, Valérie Desquiret-Dumas, Véronique Ferré-L'Hotellier, Catherine Morinière, Philippe Descamps, Vincent Procaccio, Pascal Reynier
BACKGROUND: There is a great inter-individual variability of ovarian ageing, and almost 20% of patients consulting for infertility show signs of premature ovarian ageing. This feature, taken together with delayed childbearing in modern society, leads to the emergence of age-related ovarian dysfunction concomitantly with the desire for pregnancy. Assisted reproductive technology is frequently inefficacious in cases of ovarian ageing, thus raising the economic, medical and societal costs of the procedures...
August 25, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Adam H Balen, Lara C Morley, Marie Misso, Stephen Franks, Richard S Legro, Chandrika N Wijeyaratne, Elisabet Stener-Victorin, Bart C J M Fauser, Robert J Norman, Helena Teede
BACKGROUND: Here we describe the consensus guideline methodology, summarise the evidence-based recommendations we provided to the World Health Organisation (WHO) for their consideration in the development of global guidance and present a narrative review on the management of anovulatory infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this paper was to present an evidence base for the management of anovulatory PCOS...
August 10, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Jacques Donnez, Marie-Madeleine Dolmans
Uterine fibroids (also known as leiomyomas or myomas) are the most common form of benign uterine tumors. Clinical presentations include abnormal bleeding, pelvic masses, pelvic pain, infertility, bulk symptoms and obstetric complications.Almost a third of women with leiomyomas will request treatment due to symptoms. Current management strategies mainly involve surgical interventions, but the choice of treatment is guided by patient's age and desire to preserve fertility or avoid 'radical' surgery such as hysterectomy...
July 27, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Kirk P Conrad
BACKGROUND: Important roles for G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been identified in the maternal physiological adaptations to pregnancy and in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. On this basis, GPCRs are potential therapeutic targets for preeclampsia. OBJECTIVES AND RATIONALE: In this review, vasopressin and apelin are initially considered in this context before the focus on the hormone relaxin and its cognate receptor, the relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1)...
September 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Joydeep Das, Yun-Jung Choi, Hyuk Song, Jin-Hoi Kim
BACKGROUND: Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) offer technological advantages for a variety of industrial and consumer products as well as show promise for biomedical applications. Recent progress in the field of nanotechnology has led to increased exposure to nanoparticles by humans. To date, little is known about the adverse effects of these ENPs on reproductive health, although interest in nanotechnology area is growing. A few biocompatible ENPs have a high loading capacity for exogenous substances, including drugs, DNA or proteins, and can selectively deliver molecular cargo into cells; however, they represent a potential tool for gene delivery into gametes and embryos...
September 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Ramkumar Menon, Elizabeth A Bonney, Jennifer Condon, Sam Mesiano, Robert N Taylor
The signals and mechanisms that synchronize the timing of human parturition remain a mystery and a better understanding of these processes is essential to avert adverse pregnancy outcomes. Although our insights into human labor initiation have been informed by studies in animal models, the timing of parturition relative to fetal maturation varies among viviparous species, indicative of phylogenetically different clocks and alarms; but what is clear is that important common pathways must converge to control the birth process...
September 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Robert Sullivan, Roger Mieusset
BACKGROUND: Spermatozoa acquire their fertilizing ability and forward motility properties during epididymal transit. Our knowledge of gamete physiology is based on studies conducted in laboratory and domestic species; our knowledge of these processes in humans is limited. Medical indications for assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have progressed to include male infertility. Surgical procedures allow collection of spermatozoa from all along the human excurrent ducts, and the former have been used with some success in reproductive medicine...
September 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Vincenzo De Leo, Maria Concetta Musacchio, Valentina Cappelli, Paola Piomboni, Giuseppe Morgante
BACKGROUND: In recent years, several new oral contraceptives have become available. In some ways, they represent an evolution in terms of individualization and compliance on the part of women. The new formulations make it increasingly possible to prescribe a specific hormonal contraceptive on an individual basis. METHODS: A systematic literature search of PubMed was performed using the following combination of terms: 'oral contraceptives', 'estroprogestins' and 'combined oral contraceptive'...
September 2016: Human Reproduction Update
Valeria Maria Savasi, Luca Mandia, Arianna Laoreti, Irene Cetin
BACKGROUND: Since the first successful use of donated oocytes in 1984, the number of oocyte donation cycles in Europe and the USA has dramatically increased. Consequently, there has been increasing interest in the impact of oocyte donation on maternal and fetal outcomes. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this review was to summarize the literature regarding maternal and fetal outcomes from pregnancies conceived through oocyte donation. SEARCH METHODS: Identification of relevant publications was through research within the Embase Medline and PubMed databases, the Google-indexed scientific literature and periodic specialized magazines from the on-line Library Service of the University of Milan...
September 2016: Human Reproduction Update
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