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Human Reproduction Update

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29992283/epigenetic-regulation-in-development-is-the-mouse-a-good-model-for-the-human
#1
Courtney W Hanna, Hannah Demond, Gavin Kelsey
BACKGROUND: Over the past few years, advances in molecular technologies have allowed unprecedented mapping of epigenetic modifications in gametes and during early embryonic development. This work is allowing a detailed genomic analysis, which for the first time can answer long-standing questions about epigenetic regulation and reprogramming, and highlights differences between mouse and human, the implications of which are only beginning to be explored. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: In this review, we summarise new low-cell molecular methods enabling the interrogation of epigenetic information in gametes and early embryos, the mechanistic insights these have provided, and contrast the findings in mouse and human...
July 10, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924306/clinical-relevance-of-genetic-variants-of-gonadotrophins-and-their-receptors-in-controlled-ovarian-stimulation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Carlo Alviggi, Alessandro Conforti, Daniele Santi, Sandro C Esteves, Claus Yding Andersen, Peter Humaidan, Paolo Chiodini, Giuseppe De Placido, Manuela Simoni
BACKGROUND: Genotype has been implicated in the outcome of ovarian stimulation. The analysis of patient-specific genotypes might lead to an individualized pharmacogenomic approach to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS). However, the validity of such an approach remains to be established. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: To define the impact of specific genotype profiles of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and their receptors (FSHR, LHR and LHCGR) on ovarian stimulation outcome...
June 18, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893860/is-it-time-for-a-paradigm-shift-in-drug-research-and-development-in-endometriosis-adenomyosis
#3
Sun-Wei Guo, Patrick G Groothuis
BACKGROUND: The drug research and development (R&D) for endometriosis/adenomyosis has been painfully slow. Most completed clinical trials on endometriosis did not publish their results, and presumably failed. While few published trials did report how they foundered, the reasons why they failed are often completely unclear. Surprisingly, there has been no open discussion on why these trials failed. If the causes for these failed trials remain unelucidated, mistakes made in these failed trials may be repeated in the future...
June 11, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29800303/the-contribution-of-human-sperm-proteins-to-the-development-and-epigenome-of-the-preimplantation-embryo
#4
Judit Castillo, Meritxell Jodar, Rafael Oliva
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the proteomic composition of the gametes is essential to understand reproductive functions. Most of the sperm proteins are related to spermatogenesis and sperm function, but less abundant protein groups with potential post-fertilization roles have also been detected. The current data are challenging our understanding of sperm biology and functionality, demanding an integrated analysis of the proteomic and RNA-seq datasets available for spermatozoa, oocytes and early embryos, in order to unravel the impact of the male gamete on the generation of the new individual...
May 23, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762669/ethics-of-oocyte-banking-for-third-party-assisted-reproduction-a-systematic-review
#5
E M Kool, A M E Bos, R van der Graaf, B C J M Fauser, A L Bredenoord
BACKGROUND: The demand for donor oocytes has increased dramatically over the years. Today people in need of ART with the use of donor oocytes can appeal to commercial or public donor oocyte banks. The introduction of oocyte banks has shed a new light on the practice of ART using donor oocytes. The establishment and maintenance of oocyte banks should be sensitive to the ethical considerations. However, it is currently unclear which ethical aspects have to be taken into account. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this article is to identify the ethical aspects of establishing and maintaining oocyte banks for third-party ART...
May 14, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757366/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-reveals-pervasive-effects-of-germline-mitochondrial-replacement-on-components-of-health
#6
Ralph Dobler, Damian K Dowling, Edward H Morrow, Klaus Reinhardt
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial replacement, a form of nuclear transfer, has been proposed as a germline therapy to prevent the transmission of mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondrial replacement therapy has been licensed for clinical application in the UK, and already carried out in other countries, but little is known about negative or unintended effects on the health of offspring born using this technique. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Studies in invertebrate models have used techniques that achieve mitochondrial replacement to create offspring with novel combinations of mitochondrial and nuclear genotype...
May 11, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726895/the-risk-of-tese-induced-hypogonadism-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Jitske Eliveld, Madelon van Wely, Andreas Meißner, Sjoerd Repping, Fulco van der Veen, Ans M M van Pelt
BACKGROUND: Testicular sperm extraction (TESE) is a surgical procedure to retrieve spermatozoa from the testes of men with azoospermia to help them achieve biological parenthood. Although effective, the surgical procedure is not without complications and haematoma, devascularization, inflammation and a decrease in testosterone levels have been described as such. The prevalence and duration of hypogonadism and associated symptoms after TESE have not been studied systematically. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: In this systematic review we addressed the following research questions: Are serum testosterone levels decreased after TESE and, if so, do these levels recover over time? What is the prevalence of symptoms and signs related to hypogonadism after TESE and are they related to testosterone levels? SEARCH METHODS: We searched the databases Pubmed and Embase from 1 January 1993 to 26 June 2017...
May 3, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697794/non-coding-rnas-in-endometriosis-a-narrative-review
#8
Kavita Panir, John E Schjenken, Sarah A Robertson, M Louise Hull
BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is a benign gynaecological disorder, which affects 10% of reproductive-aged women and is characterized by endometrial cells from the lining of the uterus being found outside the uterine cavity. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms causing the development of this heterogeneous disease remain enigmatic, and a lack of effective biomarkers necessitates surgical intervention for diagnosis. There is international recognition that accurate non-invasive diagnostic tests and more effective therapies are urgently needed...
April 25, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590375/ethnicity-obesity-and-the-prevalence-of-impaired-glucose-tolerance-and-type-2-diabetes-in-pcos-a-systematic-review-and-meta-regression
#9
N S Kakoly, M B Khomami, A E Joham, S D Cooray, M L Misso, R J Norman, C L Harrison, S Ranasinha, H J Teede, L J Moran
BACKGROUND: Our prior meta-analyses demonstrated an increased prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but with substantial clinical heterogeneity. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: We aimed to update our previous review to quantify the prevalence of IGT and T2DM in PCOS with only quality studies (good and fair quality). We also aimed to examine the contribution of parameters including ethnicity, obesity and method of diagnosing T2DM in explaining the observed heterogeneity in IGT and T2DM prevalence in PCOS...
July 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471493/the-effect-of-pregnancy-on-endometriosis-facts-or-fiction
#10
Brigitte Leeners, Fabia Damaso, Nicole Ochsenbein-Kölble, Cindy Farquhar
BACKGROUND: It is not uncommon for women with endometriosis to be advised that becoming pregnant might be a useful strategy to manage their symptoms and reduce disease progression. Consequently, many women diagnosed with endometriosis and motivated to become pregnant, may also have expectations regarding improvement of symptoms and the disease. However, study results on the effect of pregnancy on endometriosis are controversial and pregnancy in women with endometriosis is not always associated with improved symptoms...
May 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471389/the-effect-of-paternal-factors-on-perinatal-and-paediatric-outcomes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Nan B Oldereid, Ulla-Britt Wennerholm, Anja Pinborg, Anne Loft, Hannele Laivuori, Max Petzold, Liv Bente Romundstad, Viveca Söderström-Anttila, Christina Bergh
BACKGROUND: Maternal factors, including increasing childbearing age and various life-style factors, are associated with poorer short- and long-term outcomes for children, whereas knowledge of paternal parameters is limited. Recently, increasing paternal age has been associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, birth defects, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia in children. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this systematic review is to describe the influence of paternal factors on adverse short- and long-term child outcomes...
May 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452361/iui-review-and-systematic-assessment-of-the-evidence-that-supports-global-recommendations
#12
Ben Cohlen, Aartjan Bijkerk, Sheryl Van der Poel, Willem Ombelet
BACKGROUND: IUI with or without ovarian stimulation (OS) has become a first-line treatment option for many infertile couples, worldwide. The appropriate treatment modality for couples and their clinical management through IUI or IUI/OS cycles must consider maternal and perinatal outcomes, most notably the clinical complication of higher-order multiple pregnancies associated with IUI-OS. With a current global emphasis to continue to decrease maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity, the World Health Organization (WHO) had established a multi-year project to review the evidence for the establishment of normative guidance for the implementation of IUI as a treatment to address fertility problems, and to consider its cost-effectiveness for lower resource settings...
May 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447380/sirtuins-in-gamete-biology-and-reproductive-physiology-emerging-roles-and-therapeutic-potential-in-female-and-male-infertility
#13
Carla Tatone, Giovanna Di Emidio, Arcangelo Barbonetti, Gaspare Carta, Alberto M Luciano, Stefano Falone, Fernanda Amicarelli
BACKGROUND: Sirtuins (SIRT1-7) are a family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases that catalyze post-translational modifications of proteins. Together, they respond to metabolic challenges, inflammatory signals or hypoxic/oxidative stress, and are associated with aging and longevity. The role of Sirtuins in the regulation of fertility emerged in 2003 when a defective reproductive phenotype was observed in SIRT1-null mice. Although studies on Sirtuins in reproductive biology have been increasing in the last years, a recent comprehensive update on this issue is still lacking...
May 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432538/acquisition-of-oocyte-competence-to-develop-as-an-embryo-integrated-nuclear-and-cytoplasmic-events
#14
Marco Conti, Federica Franciosi
Infertility affects ~7% of couples of reproductive age with little change in incidence in the last two decades. ART, as well as other interventions, have made major strides in correcting this condition. However, and in spite of advancements in the field, the age of the female partner remains a main factor for a successful outcome. A better understanding of the final stages of gamete maturation yielding an egg that can sustain embryo development and a pregnancy to term remains a major area for improvement in the field...
May 1, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912342/reply-excessive-fetal-growth-in-frozen-embryo-transfer-false-alarm-or-clinical-concern
#15
Abha Maheshwari, Mark Hamilton, Asha Shetty, Edwin Amalraj Raja, Siladitya Bhattacharya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912325/excessive-fetal-growth-in-frozen-embryo-transfer-false-alarm-or-clinical-concern
#16
Edgardo Somigliana, Valeria Stella Vanni, Andrea Busnelli, Marco Reschini, Enrico Papaleo, Paola Viganò
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668899/how-uterine-microbiota-might-be-responsible-for-a-receptive-fertile-endometrium
#17
Marilen Benner, Gerben Ferwerda, Irma Joosten, Renate G van der Molen
BACKGROUND: Fertility depends on a receptive state of the endometrium, influenced by hormonal and anatomical adaptations, as well as the immune system. Local and systemic immunity is greatly influenced by microbiota. Recent discoveries of 16S rRNA in the endometrium and the ability to detect low-biomass microbiota fueled the notion that the uterus may be indeed a non-sterile compartment. To date, the concept of the 'sterile womb' focuses on in utero effects of microbiota on offspring and neonatal immunity...
April 16, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648649/infectious-inflammatory-and-autoimmune-male-factor-infertility-how-do-rodent-models-inform-clinical-practice
#18
Monika Fijak, Adrian Pilatz, Mark P Hedger, Nour Nicolas, Sudhanshu Bhushan, Vera Michel, Kenneth S K Tung, Hans-Christian Schuppe, Andreas Meinhardt
BACKGROUND: Infection and inflammation of the reproductive tract are significant causes of male factor infertility. Ascending infections caused by sexually transmitted bacteria or urinary tract pathogens represent the most frequent aetiology of epididymo-orchitis, but viral, haematogenous dissemination is also a contributory factor. Limitations in adequate diagnosis and therapy reflect an obvious need for further understanding of human epididymal and testicular immunopathologies and their contribution to infertility...
April 10, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608700/trophoblast-retrieval-and-isolation-from-the-cervix-origins-of-cervical-trophoblasts-and-their-potential-value-for-risk-assessment-of-ongoing-pregnancies
#19
Gerit Moser, Sascha Drewlo, Berthold Huppertz, D Randall Armant
BACKGROUND: Early during human development, the trophoblast lineage differentiates to commence placentation. Where the placenta contacts the uterine decidua, extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells differentiate and invade maternal tissues. EVT cells, identified by expression of HLA-G, invade into uterine blood vessels (endovascular EVT), as well as glands (endoglandular EVT), and open such luminal structures towards the intervillous space of the placenta. Endoglandular invasion diverts the contents of uterine glands to the intervillous space, while glands near the margin of the placenta that also contain endoglandular EVT cells open into the reproductive tract...
March 28, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538675/determinants-of-monozygotic-twinning-in-art-a-systematic-review-and-a-meta-analysis
#20
Kathrine Vauvert R Hviid, Sara Sofia Malchau, Anja Pinborg, Henriette Svarre Nielsen
BACKGROUND: The incidence of monozygotic twins (MZT) after ART appears to be higher than the incidence after spontaneous conceptions contradicting the aim of ART to avoid multiple pregnancies because of the associated risks. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim was to study the frequency of MZT after IVF and ICSI and how it is influenced by the day of embryo transfer, maternal age, zona pellucida manipulation, controlled ovarian stimulation, stimulation protocol, culture media and embryo quality...
March 12, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
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