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Human Reproduction Update

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136166/diabetes-induced-hyperglycemia-impairs-male-reproductive-function-a-systematic-review
#1
Constanze C Maresch, Dina C Stute, Marco G Alves, Pedro F Oliveira, David M de Kretser, Thomas Linn
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemia can result from a loss of pancreatic beta-cells or a decline in their function leading to decreased insulin secretion or may arise from insulin resistance and variable degrees of inadequate insulin secretion resulting in diabetes and related comorbidities. To date several reviews have addressed the issue of diabetes-related male infertility but most have focused on how metabolic syndrome causes the decline in male fertility. However, a comprehensive overview as to how diabetes-induced hyperglycemia impairs male fertility is missing...
November 10, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077897/in-vivo-oxygen-temperature-and-ph-dynamics-in-the-female-reproductive-tract-and-their-importance-in-human-conception-a-systematic-review
#2
Ka Ying Bonnie Ng, Roel Mingels, Hywel Morgan, Nick Macklon, Ying Cheong
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in ART, implantation and pregnancy rates per embryo transfer still remain low. IVF laboratories strive to ensure that the process of handling gametes in vitro closely mimics the in vivo environment. However, there remains a lack of knowledge regarding the in vivo regulation and dynamic variation in biophysical parameters such as oxygen concentration, pH and temperature within the reproductive tract. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: To undertake a systematic review of the current understanding of the physico-chemical parameters of oxygen tension (pO2), pH and temperature within the female reproductive tract, and their potential implications in clinical and pathological processes related to fertility and those pertaining to limited reproductive capacity...
October 25, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040571/patient-centered-early-pregnancy-care-a-systematic-review-of-quantitative-and-qualitative-studies-on-the-perspectives-of-women-and-their-partners
#3
M M J van den Berg, E A F Dancet, T Erlikh, F van der Veen, M Goddijn, P J Hajenius
BACKGROUND: Early pregnancy complications, defined as miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy, affect the physical and psychological well-being of intended parents. Research in this field so far has focused mainly on improving accuracy of diagnostic tests and safety and effectiveness of therapeutic management. An overview of aspects of care valued by women and/or their partners is missing. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: This systematic review aims to provide an overview of aspects of care valued by women and/or their partners faced with early pregnancy complications and to identify potential targets for improvement in early pregnancy healthcare...
October 11, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029246/the-epidermal-growth-factor-network-role-in-oocyte-growth-maturation-and-developmental-competence
#4
Dulama Richani, Robert B Gilchrist
BACKGROUND: The LH surge induces great physiological changes within the preovulatory follicle, which culminate in the ovulation of a mature oocyte that is capable of supporting embryo and foetal development. However, unlike mural granulosa cells, the oocyte and its surrounding cumulus cells are not directly responsive to LH, indicating that the LH signal is mediated by secondary factors produced by the granulosa cells. The mechanisms by which the oocyte senses the ovulatory LH signal and hence prepares for ovulation has been a subject of considerable controversy for the past four decades...
September 20, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069503/metabolomics-as-a-tool-to-identify-biomarkers-to-predict-and-improve-outcomes-in-reproductive-medicine-a-systematic-review
#5
Timothy Bracewell-Milnes, Srdjan Saso, Hossam Abdalla, Dimitrios Nikolau, Julian Norman-Taylor, Mark Johnson, Elaine Holmes, Meen-Yau Thum
BACKGROUND: Infertility is a complex disorder with significant medical, psychological and financial consequences for patients. With live-birth rates per cycle below 30% and a drive from the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) to encourage single embryo transfer, there is significant research in different areas aiming to improve success rates of fertility treatments. One such area is investigating the causes of infertility at a molecular level, and metabolomics techniques provide a platform for studying relevant biofluids in the reproductive tract...
November 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981654/temporal-trends-in-sperm-count-a-systematic-review-and-meta-regression-analysis
#6
Hagai Levine, Niels Jørgensen, Anderson Martino-Andrade, Jaime Mendiola, Dan Weksler-Derri, Irina Mindlis, Rachel Pinotti, Shanna H Swan
BACKGROUND: Reported declines in sperm counts remain controversial today and recent trends are unknown. A definitive meta-analysis is critical given the predictive value of sperm count for fertility, morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: To provide a systematic review and meta-regression analysis of recent trends in sperm counts as measured by sperm concentration (SC) and total sperm count (TSC), and their modification by fertility and geographic group...
November 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981651/the-diagnosis-of-male-infertility-an-analysis-of-the-evidence-to-support-the-development-of-global-who-guidance-challenges-and-future-research-opportunities
#7
Christopher L R Barratt, Lars Björndahl, Christopher J De Jonge, Dolores J Lamb, Francisco Osorio Martini, Robert McLachlan, Robert D Oates, Sheryl van der Poel, Bianca St John, Mark Sigman, Rebecca Sokol, Herman Tournaye
BACKGROUND: Herein, we describe the consensus guideline methodology, summarize the evidence-based recommendations we provided to the World Health Organization (WHO) for their consideration in the development of global guidance and present a narrative review of the diagnosis of male infertility as related to the eight prioritized (problem or population (P), intervention (I), comparison (C) and outcome(s) (O) (PICO)) questions. Additionally, we discuss the challenges and research gaps identified during the synthesis of this evidence...
November 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961976/disentangling-puberty-novel-neuroendocrine-pathways-and-mechanisms-for-the-control-of-mammalian-puberty
#8
M S Avendaño, M J Vazquez, M Tena-Sempere
BACKGROUND: Puberty is a complex developmental event, controlled by sophisticated regulatory networks that integrate peripheral and internal cues and impinge at the brain centers driving the reproductive axis. The tempo of puberty is genetically determined but is also sensitive to numerous modifiers, from metabolic and sex steroid signals to environmental factors. Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that the onset of puberty is advancing in humans, through as yet unknown mechanisms...
November 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961822/human-female-meiosis-revised-new-insights-into-the-mechanisms-of-chromosome-segregation-and-aneuploidies-from-advanced-genomics-and-time-lapse-imaging
#9
Antonio Capalbo, Eva R Hoffmann, Danilo Cimadomo, Filippo Maria Ubaldi, Laura Rienzi
BACKGROUND: The unbalanced transmission of chromosomes in human gametes and early preimplantation embryos causes aneuploidy, which is a major cause of infertility and pregnancy failure. A baseline of 20% of human oocytes are estimated to be aneuploid and this increases exponentially from 30 to 35 years, reaching on average 80% by 42 years. As a result, reproductive senescence in human females is predominantly determined by the accelerated decline in genetic quality of oocytes from 30 years of age...
November 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961800/zika-virus-and-reproduction-facts-questions-and-current-management
#10
Sylvie Epelboin, Emmanuel Dulioust, Loïc Epelboin, Alexandra Benachi, Françoise Merlet, Catherine Patrat
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. ZIKV is currently the focus of an ongoing pandemic and worldwide public health emergency. Although originally isolated in 1947, its pathogenesis was poorly known and very few documented infections were published until recently. Its route of transmission and its impact on reproduction and pregnancy have only recently begun to be disclosed. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: This review summarizes the most recent knowledge about ZIKV infection and pathogenesis and focuses on its impacts on male and female genital tracts, including the risks of sexual transmission and to pregnancy...
November 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961722/how-effective-are-weight-loss-interventions-for-improving-fertility-in-women-and-men-who-are-overweight-or-obese-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-evidence
#11
Damian Best, Alison Avenell, Siladitya Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide, with a corresponding increase in overweight and obese patients referred with infertility. This systematic review aimed to determine whether non-surgical weight reduction strategies result in an improvement in reproductive parameters affected by obesity, e.g. delayed time to pregnancy, oligozoospermia and azoospermia. No prior reviews have examined this within the general fertility population, or in both sexes. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Our objective was to answer the question: 'In overweight and obese women, men and couples seeking fertility treatment, what non-surgical weight-loss interventions have been used, and how effective are they at weight loss and improving reproductive outcomes?' SEARCH METHODS: An electronic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library was performed for studies between January 1966 and March 2016...
November 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903474/nitric-oxide-heat-shock-protein-axis-in-menopausal-hot-flushes-neglected-metabolic-issues-of-chronic-inflammatory-diseases-associated-with-deranged-heat-shock-response
#12
Antônio Azambuja Miragem, Paulo Ivo Homem de Bittencourt
BACKGROUND: Although some unequivocal underlying mechanisms of menopausal hot flushes have been demonstrated in animal models, the paucity of similar approaches in humans impedes further mechanistic outcomes. Human studies might show some as yet unexpected physiological mechanisms of metabolic adaptation that permeate the phase of decreased oestrogen levels in both symptomatic and asymptomatic women. This is particularly relevant because both the severity and time span of hot flushes are associated with increased risk of chronic inflammatory disease...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903473/baseline-anatomical-assessment-of-the-uterus-and-ovaries-in-infertile-women-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence-on-which-assessment-methods-are-the-safest-and-most-effective-in-terms-of-improving-fertility-outcomes
#13
Sarah C Armstrong, Marian Showell, Elizabeth A Stewart, Robert W Rebar, Sheryl Vanderpoel, Cynthia M Farquhar
BACKGROUND: This review focuses on the initial presentation of women who suspect that they are infertile, and how best to assess the anatomy of their uterus and ovaries in order to investigate the cause of their infertility, and potentially improve desired fertility outcomes. This review was undertaken as part of a World Health Organization initiative to assess the evidence available to address guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of infertility within a global context. Providing access to care for infertile women will help to ease the psycho-social burdens, such as ostracization, intimate partner violence and other negative consequences of being involuntarily childless or unable to become pregnant despite desiring a biological child or children...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903472/gnrh-antagonist-versus-long-agonist-protocols-in-ivf-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-accounting-for-patient-type
#14
C B Lambalk, F R Banga, J A Huirne, M Toftager, A Pinborg, R Homburg, F van der Veen, M van Wely
BACKGROUND: Most reviews of IVF ovarian stimulation protocols have insufficiently accounted for various patient populations, such as ovulatory women, women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or women with poor ovarian response, and have included studies in which the agonist or antagonist was not the only variable between the compared study arms. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of the current study was to compare GnRH antagonist protocols versus standard long agonist protocols in couples undergoing IVF or ICSI, while accounting for various patient populations and treatment schedules...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903471/the-role-of-tgf-%C3%AE-in-the-pathophysiology-of-peritoneal-endometriosis
#15
Vicky J Young, S F Ahmad, W Colin Duncan, Andrew W Horne
BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is estimated to affect 6-10% of women of reproductive age and it is associated with chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhoea and subfertility. It is currently managed surgically or medically but symptoms recur in up to 75% of cases and available medical treatments have undesirable side effects. Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus with lesions typically found on the peritoneum. The aetiology of endometriosis is uncertain but there is increasing evidence that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β plays a major role...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651360/novel-reproductive-technologies-to-prevent-mitochondrial-disease
#16
Lyndsey Craven, Mao-Xing Tang, Gráinne S Gorman, Petra De Sutter, Björn Heindryckx
BACKGROUND: The use of nuclear transfer (NT) has been proposed as a novel reproductive treatment to overcome the transmission of maternally-inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. Pathogenic mutations in mtDNA can cause a wide-spectrum of life-limiting disorders, collectively known as mtDNA disease, for which there are currently few effective treatments and no known cures. The many unique features of mtDNA make genetic counselling challenging for women harbouring pathogenic mtDNA mutations but reproductive options that involve medical intervention are available that will minimize the risk of mtDNA disease in their offspring...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582566/non-classic-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-due-to-21-hydroxylase-deficiency-revisited-an-update-with-a-special-focus-on-adolescent-and-adult-women
#17
Enrico Carmina, Didier Dewailly, Héctor F Escobar-Morreale, Fahrettin Kelestimur, Carlos Moran, Sharon Oberfield, Selma F Witchel, Ricardo Azziz
BACKGROUND: Non-classic congenital hyperplasia (NCAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is a common autosomal recessive disorder characterized by androgen excess. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: We conducted a systematic review and critical assessment of the available evidence pertaining to the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of NCAH. A meta-analysis of epidemiological data was also performed. SEARCH METHODS: Peer-reviewed studies evaluating NCAH published up to October 2016 were reviewed...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582519/x-chromosome-inactivation-in-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-as-a-model-for-human-development-back-to-the-drawing-board
#18
Mieke Geens, Susana M Chuva De Sousa Lopes
BACKGROUND: Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC), both embryonic and induced (hESC and hiPSC), are regarded as a valuable in vitro model for early human development. In order to fulfil this promise, it is important that these cells mimic as closely as possible the in vivo molecular events, both at the genetic and epigenetic level. One of the most important epigenetic events during early human development is X chromosome inactivation (XCI), the transcriptional silencing of one of the two X chromosomes in female cells...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531286/is-foetal-hyperexposure-to-androgens-a-cause-of-pcos
#19
REVIEW
Panagiota Filippou, Roy Homburg
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting reproductive-aged women. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is still not completely understood but recent evidence suggests that the intra-uterine environment may be a key factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS, in particular, hyperexposure of the foetus to androgens. High concentrations of maternal serum testosterone during pregnancy have been shown to influence behaviour during childhood, the prevalence of autism disorders and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) concentrations in adolescence...
July 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510760/what-factors-hinder-the-decision-making-process-for-women-with-cancer-and-contemplating-fertility-preservation-treatment
#20
REVIEW
Georgina Jones, Jane Hughes, Neda Mahmoodi, Emily Smith, Jonathan Skull, William Ledger
BACKGROUND: Although fertility preservation (FP) treatment options have increased, the existing evidence suggests that many women with cancer do not feel well supported in making these decisions, but find them stressful and complex and fail to take up fertility care at this crucial time. Whilst existing reviews have all made important contributions to our understanding of the FP decision-making process, none of them examine solely and specifically these processes for women of reproductive age with a diagnosis of any cancer, leaving a gap in the knowledge base...
July 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
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