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Human Reproduction Update

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531286/is-foetal-hyperexposure-to-androgens-a-cause-of-pcos
#1
Panagiota Filippou, Roy Homburg
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting reproductive-aged women. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is still not completely understood but recent evidence suggests that the intra-uterine environment may be a key factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS, in particular, hyperexposure of the foetus to androgens. High concentrations of maternal serum testosterone during pregnancy have been shown to influence behaviour during childhood, the prevalence of autism disorders and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) concentrations in adolescence...
May 20, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510760/what-factors-hinder-the-decision-making-process-for-women-with-cancer-and-contemplating-fertility-preservation-treatment
#2
Georgina Jones, Jane Hughes, Neda Mahmoodi, Emily Smith, Jonathan Skull, William Ledger
BACKGROUND: Although fertility preservation (FP) treatment options have increased, the existing evidence suggests that many women with cancer do not feel well supported in making these decisions, but find them stressful and complex and fail to take up fertility care at this crucial time. Whilst existing reviews have all made important contributions to our understanding of the FP decision-making process, none of them examine solely and specifically these processes for women of reproductive age with a diagnosis of any cancer, leaving a gap in the knowledge base...
May 16, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498913/the-management-of-menopause-in-women-with-a-history-of-endometriosis-a-systematic-review
#3
L C Gemmell, K E Webster, S Kirtley, K Vincent, K T Zondervan, C M Becker
BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is typically regarded as a premenopausal disease, resolving after natural or iatrogenic menopause due to declining oestrogen levels. Nonetheless, case reports over the years have highlighted the incidence of recurrent postmenopausal endometriosis. It is now clear that both recurrence and malignant transformation of endometriotic foci can occur in the postmenopausal period. Postmenopausal women are commonly treated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to treat climacteric symptoms and prevent bone loss; however, HRT may reactivate endometriosis and stimulate malignant transformation in women with a history of endometriosis...
May 11, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486593/prevalence-of-obesity-associated-gonadal-dysfunction-in-severely-obese-men-and-women-and-its-resolution-after-bariatric-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Hector F Escobar-Morreale, Elisa Santacruz, Manuel Luque-Ramírez, José I Botella Carretero
BACKGROUND: Sexual dimorphism manifests noticeably in obesity-associated gonadal dysfunction. In women, obesity is associated with androgen excess disorders, mostly the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), whereas androgen deficiency is frequently present in obese men in what has been termed as male obesity-associated secondary hypogonadism (MOSH). Obesity-associated gonadal dysfunction, consisting of PCOS in women and MOSH in men, is a frequent finding in patients with severe obesity and it may be ameliorated or even resolve with marked weight loss, especially after bariatric surgery...
May 9, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431155/motoring-through-the-role-of-kinesin-superfamily-proteins-in-female-meiosis
#5
Nicole J Camlin, Eileen A McLaughlin, Janet E Holt
BACKGROUND: The kinesin motor protein family consists of 14 distinct subclasses and 45 kinesin proteins in humans. A large number of these proteins, or their orthologues, have been shown to possess essential function(s) in both the mitotic and the meiotic cell cycle. Kinesins have important roles in chromosome separation, microtubule dynamics, spindle formation, cytokinesis and cell cycle progression. This article contains a review of the literature with respect to the role of kinesin motor proteins in female meiosis in model species...
April 18, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379559/sperm-recovery-and-icsi-outcomes-in-klinefelter-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Giovanni Corona, Alessandro Pizzocaro, Fabio Lanfranco, Andrea Garolla, Fiore Pelliccione, Linda Vignozzi, Alberto Ferlin, Carlo Foresta, Emmanuele A Jannini, Mario Maggi, Andrea Lenzi, Daniela Pasquali, Sandro Francavilla
BACKGROUND: Specific factors underlying successful surgical sperm retrieval rates (SRR) or pregnancy rates (PR) after testicular sperm extraction (TESE) in adult patients with Klinefelter syndrome (KS) have not been completely clarified. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this review was to meta-analyse the currently available data from subjects with KS regarding SRRs as the primary outcome. In addition, when available, PRs and live birth rates (LBRs) after the ICSI technique were also investigated as secondary outcomes...
April 4, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333357/dietary-patterns-foods-and-nutrients-in-male-fertility-parameters-and-fecundability-a-systematic-review-of-observational-studies
#7
Albert Salas-Huetos, Mònica Bulló, Jordi Salas-Salvadó
BACKGROUND: Infertility is a global public health issue, affecting 15% of all couples of reproductive age. Male factors, including decreased semen quality, are responsible for ~25% of these cases. The dietary pattern, the components of the diet and nutrients have been studied as possible determinants of sperm function and/or fertility. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Previous systematic reviews have been made of the few heterogeneous low-quality randomized clinical trials (RCTs) conducted in small samples of participants and investigating the effect of specific nutrients and nutritional supplements on male infertility...
March 10, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333354/men-s-knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviours-relating-to-fertility
#8
Karin Hammarberg, Veronica Collins, Carol Holden, Kate Young, Robert McLachlan
BACKGROUND: The increasingly common practice in high-income countries to delay childbearing to the fourth and fifth decades of life increases the risk of involuntary childlessness or having fewer children than desired. Older age also increases the risk of age-related infertility, the need for ART to conceive, and obstetric and neonatal complications. Existing research relating to childbearing focusses almost exclusively on women, and in public discourse declining fertility rates are often assumed to be the result of women delaying childbearing to pursue other life goals such as a career and travel...
March 10, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333235/ovarian-hormones-and-obesity
#9
Brigitte Leeners, Nori Geary, Philippe N Tobler, Lori Asarian
BACKGROUND: Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE...
March 2, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333221/surgical-treatment-of-adhesion-related-chronic-abdominal-and-pelvic-pain-after-gynaecological-and-general-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Barend A van den Beukel, Roy de Ree, Suzanne van Leuven, Erica A Bakkum, Chema Strik, Harry van Goor, Richard P G Ten Broek
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is a frequent post-operative complication, affecting ~20-40% of patients who have undergone surgery of the female genital or alimentary tract. Chronic pain is an important risk factor for diminished quality of life after surgery. Adhesions are frequently associated with chronic post-operative pain; however, surgical treatment of adhesion-related pain is controversial. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and harms of surgical interventions for chronic post-operative pain attributable to adhesions...
March 2, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062551/new-stimulation-regimens-endogenous-and-exogenous-progesterone-use-to-block-the-lh-surge-during-ovarian-stimulation-for-ivf
#11
Nathalie Massin
BACKGROUND: The advent of embryo and oocyte vitrification today gives reproductive specialists an opportunity to consider new strategies for improving the practice and results of IVF attempts. As the freezing of entire cohorts does not compromise, and may even improve, the results of IVF attempts, it is possible to break away from the standard sequence of stimulation-retrieval-transfer. The constraints associated with ovarian stimulation in relation to the potential harmful effects of the hormonal environment on endometrial receptivity can be avoided...
March 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062550/what-is-the-optimal-means-of-preparing-the-endometrium-in-frozen-thawed-embryo-transfer-cycles-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Eva R Groenewoud, Astrid E P Cantineau, Boudewijn J Kollen, Nick S Macklon, Ben J Cohlen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007752/assessment-of-the-uterus-with-three-dimensional-ultrasound-in-women-undergoing-art
#13
Sotirios H Saravelos, Kannamannadiar Jayaprakasan, Kamal Ojha, Tin-Chiu Li
BACKGROUND: A detailed assessment of the uterus forms a pivotal part of the ART treatment process. The emergence of three-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) has provided clinicians with a highly powerful tool in this respect. Assessments with 3D US range from the reconstruction of anatomical planes elusive to conventional US, to the objective measurement of anatomical volumes and vascularization parameters. However, despite the ever increasing number of publications emerging in the literature, the question of which aspects of 3D US are of most clinical value remains a topic of debate...
March 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979878/implications-of-telomeres-and-telomerase-in-endometrial-pathology
#14
D K Hapangama, A Kamal, G Saretzki
BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic chromosomal ends are linear and are protected by nucleoprotein complexes known as telomeres. The complex structural anatomy and the diverse functions of telomeres as well as the unique reverse transcriptase enzyme, telomerase that maintains telomeres are under intensive scientific scrutiny. Both are involved in many human diseases including cancer, but also in ageing and chronic disease such as diabetes. Their intricate involvement in many cellular processes and pathways is being dynamically deciphered in many organs including the endometrium...
March 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920066/new-concepts-for-an-old-problem-the-diagnosis-of-endometrial-hyperplasia
#15
Peter A Sanderson, Hilary O D Critchley, Alistair R W Williams, Mark J Arends, Philippa T K Saunders
BACKGROUND: Endometrial hyperplasia (EH) is a uterine pathology representing a spectrum of morphological endometrial alterations. It is predominantly characterized by an increase in the endometrial gland-to-stroma ratio when compared to normal proliferative endometrium. The clinical significance of EH lies in the associated risk of progression to endometrioid endometrial cancer (EC) and 'atypical' forms of EH are regarded as premalignant lesions. Traditional histopathological classification systems for EH exhibit wide and varying degrees of diagnostic reproducibility and, as a consequence, standardized patient management can be challenging...
March 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864302/interpregnancy-interval-following-miscarriage-and-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Chrishny Kangatharan, Saffi Labram, Sohinee Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: A short interpregnancy interval (IPI) following a delivery is believed to be associated with adverse outcomes in the next pregnancy. The optimum IPI following miscarriage is controversial. Based on a single large-scale study in Latin and South America, the World Health Organization recommends delaying pregnancy for 6 months after a miscarriage to achieve optimal outcomes in the next pregnancy. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: Our aim was to determine if a short IPI (<6 months) following miscarriage is associated with adverse outcomes in the next pregnancy...
March 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852683/potential-of-human-twin-embryos-generated-by-embryo-splitting-in-assisted-reproduction-and-research
#17
Laila Noli, Caroline Ogilvie, Yacoub Khalaf, Dusko Ilic
BACKGROUND: Embryo splitting or twinning has been widely used in veterinary medicine over 20 years to generate monozygotic twins with desirable genetic characteristics. The first human embryo splitting, reported in 1993, triggered fierce ethical debate on human embryo cloning. Since Dolly the sheep was born in 1997, the international community has acknowledged the complexity of the moral arguments related to this research and has expressed concerns about the potential for reproductive cloning in humans...
March 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827818/oocyte-embryo-and-blastocyst-cryopreservation-in-art-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-comparing-slow-freezing-versus-vitrification-to-produce-evidence-for-the-development-of-global-guidance
#18
Laura Rienzi, Clarisa Gracia, Roberta Maggiulli, Andrew R LaBarbera, Daniel J Kaser, Filippo M Ubaldi, Sheryl Vanderpoel, Catherine Racowsky
BACKGROUND: Successful cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos is essential not only to maximize the safety and efficacy of ovarian stimulation cycles in an IVF treatment, but also to enable fertility preservation. Two cryopreservation methods are routinely used: slow-freezing or vitrification. Slow-freezing allows for freezing to occur at a sufficiently slow rate to permit adequate cellular dehydration while minimizing intracellular ice formation. Vitrification allows the solidification of the cell(s) and of the extracellular milieu into a glass-like state without the formation of ice...
March 1, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333337/tubal-anastomosis-after-previous-sterilization-a-systematic-review
#19
Jacoba A H van Seeters, Su Jen Chua, Ben W J Mol, Carolien A M Koks
BACKGROUND: Female sterilization is one of the most common contraceptive methods. A small number of women, however, opt for reversal of sterilization procedures after they experience regret. Procedures can be performed by laparotomy or laparoscopy, with or without robotic assistance. Another commonly utilized alternative is IVF. The choice between surgery and IVF is often influenced by reimbursement politics for that particular geographic location. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: We evaluated the fertility outcomes of different surgical methods available for the reversal of female sterilization, compared these to IVF and assessed the prognostic factors for success...
February 22, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180264/preimplantation-and-prenatal-diagnosis-wrongful-birth-and-wrongful-life-a-global-view-of-bioethical-and-legal-controversies
#20
Paola Frati, Vittorio Fineschi, Mariantonia Di Sanzo, Raffaele La Russa, Matteo Scopetti, Filiberto M Severi, Emanuela Turillazzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: Human Reproduction Update
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