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Human Reproduction

Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón, Audrey J Gaskins, Yu-Han Chiu, Carmen Messerlian, Paige L Williams, Jennifer B Ford, Irene Souter, Russ Hauser, Jorge E Chavarro
STUDY QUESTION: Is self-reported type of underwear worn associated with markers of testicular function among men at a fertility center? SUMMARY ANSWER: Men who reported most frequently wearing boxers had higher sperm concentration and total count, and lower FSH levels, compared to men who did not. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Elevated scrotal temperatures are known to adversely affect testicular function. However, the epidemiologic literature on type of underwear, as a proxy of scrotal temperature, and male testicular function is inconsistent...
August 8, 2018: Human Reproduction
Mohamed Fawzy, Mai Emad, Ali Mahran, Mohamed Sabry, Ahmed N Fetih, Hazem Abdelghafar, Salah Rasheed
STUDY QUESTION: Are pregnancy and birth rates affected by artificial oocyte activation (AOA) with SrCl2 or calcimycin after ICSI for couples with male-factor infertility linked to abnormal sperm morphology or for couples with previous ICSI cycles of unexplained low fertilization or inadequate fertilization associated with impaired oocyte morphology? SUMMARY ANSWER: AOA with either SrCl2 or calcimycin can improve the rates of clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy and live birth compared with ICSI alone, and the two agents have diverse effects for different subgroups of patients...
August 7, 2018: Human Reproduction
J A Leijdekkers, M J C Eijkemans, T C van Tilborg, S C Oudshoorn, D J McLernon, S Bhattacharya, B W J Mol, F J M Broekmans, H L Torrance
STUDY QUESTION: Are the published pre-treatment and post-treatment McLernon models, predicting cumulative live birth rates (LBR) over multiple complete IVF cycles, valid in a different context? SUMMARY ANSWER: With minor recalibration of the pre-treatment model, both McLernon models accurately predict cumulative LBR in a different geographical context and a more recent time period. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous IVF prediction models have estimated the chance of a live birth after a single fresh embryo transfer, thereby excluding the important contribution of embryo cryopreservation and subsequent IVF cycles to cumulative LBR...
August 6, 2018: Human Reproduction
Willem Verpoest, Catherine Staessen, Patrick M Bossuyt, Veerle Goossens, Gheona Altarescu, Maryse Bonduelle, Martha Devesa, Talia Eldar-Geva, Luca Gianaroli, Georg Griesinger, Georgia Kakourou, Georgia Kokkali, Jana Liebenthron, Maria-Cristina Magli, Monica Parriego, Andreas G Schmutzler, Monica Tobler, Katrin van der Ven, Joep Geraedts, Karen Sermon
STUDY QUESTION: Does preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) by comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS) of the first and second polar body to select embryos for transfer increase the likelihood of a live birth within 1 year in advanced maternal age women aged 36-40 years planning an ICSI cycle, compared to ICSI without chromosome analysis? SUMMARY ANSWER: PGT-A by CCS in the first and second polar body to select euploid embryos for transfer does not substantially increase the live birth rate in women aged 36-40 years...
August 6, 2018: Human Reproduction
Ivy van Dijke, Lance Bosch, Annelien L Bredenoord, Martina Cornel, Sjoerd Repping, Saskia Hendriks
STUDY QUESTION: What are the reasons for or against the future clinical application of germline genome modification (GGM)? SUMMARY ANSWER: A total of 169 reasons were identified, including 90 reasons for and 79 reasons against future clinical application of GGM. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: GGM is still unsafe and insufficiently effective for clinical purposes. However, the progress made using Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)- CRISPR-associated system (Cas) has led scientists to expect to overcome the technical hurdles in the foreseeable future...
August 6, 2018: Human Reproduction
Emily S Barrett, Wendy Vitek, Omar Mbowe, Sally W Thurston, Richard S Legro, Ruben Alvero, Valerie Baker, G Wright Bates, Peter Casson, Christos Coutifaris, Esther Eisenberg, Karl Hansen, Stephen Krawetz, Randal Robinson, Mitchell Rosen, Rebecca Usadi, Heping Zhang, Nanette Santoro, Michael Diamond
STUDY QUESTION: Among infertile women undergoing ovarian stimulation, is allostatic load (AL), a measure of chronic physiological stress, associated with subsequent fertility and pregnancy outcomes? SUMMARY ANSWER: AL at baseline was not associated with conception, spontaneous abortion or live birth, however, it was significantly associated with increased odds of pre-eclampsia and preterm birth among women who had a live birth in the study. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Several studies have linked AL during pregnancy to adverse outcomes including preterm birth and pre-eclampsia, hypothesizing that it may contribute to well-documented disparities in pregnancy and birth outcomes...
August 1, 2018: Human Reproduction
Horace Roman, Isabella Chanavaz-Lacheray, Marcos Ballester, Sofiane Bendifallah, Salma Touleimat, Jean-Jacques Tuech, Marilena Farella, Benjamin Merlot
STUDY QUESTION: What are fertility outcomes in patients surgically managed for large deep endometriosis infiltrating the rectum who intend to get pregnant postoperatively? SUMMARY ANSWER: Surgical management for rectal endometriosis is followed by high pregnancy rates, with a majority of natural conceptions. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Optimal management such as surgery versus first-line ART for patients with severe deep endometriosis who desire pregnancy is not defined...
July 25, 2018: Human Reproduction
J-B Stukenborg, J P Alves-Lopes, M Kurek, H Albalushi, A Reda, V Keros, V Töhönen, R Bjarnason, P Romerius, M Sundin, U Norén Nyström, C Langenskiöld, H Vogt, L Henningsohn, R T Mitchell, O Söder, C Petersen, K Jahnukainen
STUDY QUESTION: Does chemotherapy exposure (with or without alkylating agents) or primary diagnosis affect spermatogonial quantity in human prepubertal testicular tissue? SUMMARY ANSWER: Spermatogonial quantity is significantly reduced in testes of prepubertal boys treated with alkylating agent therapies or with hydroxyurea for sickle cell disease. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Cryopreservation of spermatogonial stem cells, followed by transplantation into the testis after treatment, is a proposed clinical option for fertility restoration in children...
July 25, 2018: Human Reproduction
Jiao Jiao, Bei Shi, Tianren Wang, Yuanyuan Fang, Tiefeng Cao, Yiming Zhou, Xiuxia Wang, Da Li
STUDY QUESTION: Do long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) profiles in follicular fluid from mature and immature ovarian follicles differ between healthy women and women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: lncRNA and mRNA profiles in follicular fluid from both mature and immature ovarian follicles differed significantly between healthy women and PCOS patients. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Unlike microRNAs, which have been extensively studied, lncRNAs present in follicular fluid have never been sequenced and the biological associations of lncRNAs in healthy follicles and follicles in women who develop PCOS remain largely unknown...
July 25, 2018: Human Reproduction
Helena J Teede, Marie L Misso, Michael F Costello, Anuja Dokras, Joop Laven, Lisa Moran, Terhi Piltonen, Robert J Norman
STUDY QUESTION: What is the recommended assessment and management of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), based on the best available evidence, clinical expertise and consumer preference? SUMMARY ANSWER: International evidence-based guidelines, including 166 recommendations and practice points, addressed prioritized questions to promote consistent, evidence-based care and improve the experience and health outcomes of women with PCOS. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous guidelines either lacked rigorous evidence-based processes, did not engage consumer and international multidisciplinary perspectives, or were outdated...
July 19, 2018: Human Reproduction
J Grosbois, I Demeestere
STUDY QUESTION: How does biochemical stimulation or inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway affect the activation and the growth of human primordial follicles in vitro? SUMMARY ANSWER: The PI3K/Akt activators act synergistically with the Hippo signaling pathway, disrupted by tissue fragmentation, to accelerate primordial follicles recruitment while mTORC1 inhibitor partially prevents the massive spontaneous activation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Hippo disruption caused by ovarian fragmentation and exposure to PI3K/Akt activators have been successfully used to activate resting follicles prior to grafting in patients with premature ovarian insufficiency...
July 19, 2018: Human Reproduction
Ch De Geyter, C Calhaz-Jorge, M S Kupka, C Wyns, E Mocanu, T Motrenko, G Scaravelli, J Smeenk, S Vidakovic, V Goossens
STUDY QUESTION: What are the European trends and developments in ART and IUI in 2014 as compared to previous years? SUMMARY ANSWER: The 18th ESHRE report on ART shows a continuing expansion of both treatment numbers in Europe and more variability in treatment modalities resulting in a rising contribution to the birth rates in most participating countries. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Since 1997, ART data generated by national registries have been collected, analysed by the European IVF-monitoring (EIM) Consortium and reported in 17 manuscripts published in Human Reproduction...
July 19, 2018: Human Reproduction
Nadia Bellofiore, Shreya Rana, Hayley Dickinson, Peter Temple-Smith, Jemma Evans
STUDY QUESTION: Is the newly discovered menstruating rodent, the spiny mouse, a valid model for studying endometrial morphology and menstruation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our study is the first to demonstrate a primate-like pattern of natural menstruation in a rodent, with decidualization, spiral arteriole remodeling and piece-meal endometrial shedding. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The spiny mouse has a naturally occurring menstrual cycle. This unique feature has the potential to reduce the heavy reliance on primates and provide a more appropriate small animal model for menstrual physiology research...
July 19, 2018: Human Reproduction
H Zandstra, L B P M Brentjens, B Spauwen, R N H Touwslager, J A P Bons, A L Mulder, L J M Smits, M A H B M van der Hoeven, R J T van Golde, J L H Evers, J C M Dumoulin, A P A Van Montfoort
STUDY QUESTION: Is embryo culture media used during an IVF/ICSI treatment associated with differences in growth, body composition and cardiovascular development as determined in 9-year-old singleton IVF children? SUMMARY ANSWER: The choice of in vitro culture medium for human embryos is associated with differences in body weight, BMI, truncal adiposity, waist circumference and waist/hip ratio at the age of 9, while no significant differences were observed in cardiovascular development...
July 19, 2018: Human Reproduction
C Foresta, U Valente, A Di Nisio, N Cacco, S Magagna, I Cosci, A Presciutti, A Garolla
STUDY QUESTION: Is the anogenital distance (AGD) correlated to anthropometric, genital and sperm parameters in young adult men? SUMMARY ANSWER: We observed that reduced AGD is strongly associated with altered semen parameters and reduced testicular volume. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Abnormalities in the foetal development of the testis have been suggested as causative of common male reproductive disorders, such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, reduced semen quality and testicular germ cell tumour, collectively defined as 'testicular dysgenesis syndrome'...
July 19, 2018: Human Reproduction
A Gunness, A Pazderska, M Ahmed, A McGowan, N Phelan, G Boran, A E Taylor, M W O'Reilly, W Arlt, K Moore, L A Behan, M Sherlock, J Gibney
STUDY QUESTION: What information does androgen profiling using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) provide in reproductive-age women with Type 1 diabetes (T1D)? SUMMARY ANSWER: In T1D women, androstenedione proved most useful of the measured androgens in differentiating subgroups based on clinical phenotypes of hyperandrogenism (HA) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The prevalence of HA and PCOS are increased in women with T1D...
July 18, 2018: Human Reproduction
Sakthivignesh Ponandai-Srinivasan, Karin L Andersson, Monica Nister, Merli Saare, Halima A Hassan, Suby J Varghese, Maire Peters, Andres Salumets, Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson, Parameswaran Grace Luther Lalitkumar
STUDY QUESTION: Is there molecular evidence for a link between endometriosis and endometriosis-associated ovarian cancers (EAOC)? STUDY ANSWER: We identified aberrant gene expression signatures associated with malignant transformation in a small subgroup of women with ovarian endometriosis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Epidemiological studies have shown an increased risk of EAOC in women with ovarian endometriosis. However, the cellular and molecular changes leading to EAOC are largely unexplored...
July 18, 2018: Human Reproduction
Verna Jans, Wybo Dondorp, Ellen Goossens, Heidi Mertes, Guido Pennings, Hubert Smeets, Guido de Wert
It is widely acknowledged that the responsible introduction of new assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) requires preclinical safety research, including the use of animal models and human embryos. However, the moral sensitivity of human embryo research has led to regulations and guidance stating that human embryos may only be used for research that cannot also be conducted with animals. We call this the 'use animals first' (UAF) rule. In the field of ART research, this translates into the notion of an ideal chain of consecutive preclinical research steps, where research using human embryos may only be considered as a further step after promising results have been obtained in animals first...
July 18, 2018: Human Reproduction
Holly R Harris, Friedrich Wieser, Allison F Vitonis, Janet Rich-Edwards, Renée Boynton-Jarrett, Elizabeth R Bertone-Johnson, Stacey A Missmer
STUDY QUESTION: Is there an association between physical and sexual abuse occurring in childhood or adolescence and risk of laparoscopically-confirmed endometriosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: Early life sexual and physical abuse was associated with an increased risk of endometriosis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous studies have reported that physical and sexual abuse are associated with chronic pelvic pain (CPP). However, only one study has examined the association between childhood physical abuse and laparoscopically-confirmed endometriosis, and did not observe an association with endometriosis risk...
July 17, 2018: Human Reproduction
F Fabregues, I González-Foruria, J Peñarrubia, F Carmona
STUDY QUESTION: Is the length of the anogenital distance (AGD) a biomarker of ovarian reserve and response to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Shorter AGD is associated with presence of poor ovarian response. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Organ development during prenatal life is influenced by the prevailing intrauterine environment, and it has been suggested that nutritional, environmental and toxic factors could affect ovarian reserve set prenatally...
July 16, 2018: Human Reproduction
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