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Human Reproduction

S Sørensen, N Brix, A Ernst, L L B Lauridsen, C H Ramlau-Hansen
STUDY QUESTION: Is maternal age at menarche associated with pubertal development in sons and daughters? SUMMARY ANSWER: Maternal age at menarche was associated with pubertal development in both sons and daughters. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Studies have shown that age at menarche is greatly inherited from mother to daughter, but it remains largely unknown to what extent age at menarche in mothers is associated with timing of puberty in sons. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: In this population-based study we used data from the Puberty Cohort nested within the Danish National Birth Cohort...
October 11, 2018: Human Reproduction
Johannes Bobjer, Marianna Katrinaki, Erini Dermitzaki, Andrew N Margioris, Aleksander Giwercman, Christos Tsatsanis
STUDY QUESTION: Are chemerin levels different in subfertile men compared to men from the general population, and how does chemerin relate to reproductive hormonal status? SUMMARY ANSWER: Chemerin is negatively associated to LH, SHBG and estradiol and lower levels of chemerin are detected among subfertile men compared to controls. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Adipokines have pleiotropic effects on tissue homeostasis and have been shown to affect both sex steroid production and action...
October 10, 2018: Human Reproduction
Georg Griesinger, Christophe Blockeel, Gennady T Sukhikh, Ameet Patki, Bharati Dhorepatil, Dong-Zi Yang, Zi-Jiang Chen, Elke Kahler, Claire Pexman-Fieth, Herman Tournaye
STUDY QUESTION: Is oral dydrogesterone 30 mg daily non-inferior to 8% micronized vaginal progesterone (MVP) gel 90 mg daily for luteal phase support in IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER: Oral dydrogesterone demonstrated non-inferiority to MVP gel for the presence of fetal heartbeats at 12 weeks of gestation (non-inferiority margin 10%). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The standard of care for luteal phase support in IVF is the use of MVP; however, it is associated with vaginal irritation, discharge and poor patient compliance...
October 10, 2018: Human Reproduction
Sara Farag, Pamela Frazzini Padilla, Katherine A Smith, Rebecca Flyckt, Michael L Sprague, Stephen E Zimberg
STUDY QUESTION: Is there perfusion to the fallopian tubes in ex-vivo and in-vivo uteri at the time of total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH), as observed using laser angiography with indocyanine green (ICG)? SUMMARY ANSWER: The fallopian tubes may have perfusion from the utero-ovarian vasculature alone. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The fallopian tubes are perfused by the uterine and utero-ovarian vessels. Perfusion can be measured using laser angiography with ICG...
October 10, 2018: Human Reproduction
Kun Huang, Yujie Dang, Pan Zhang, Cong Shen, Xuesong Sui, Guoliang Xia, Yingying Qin, Xue Jiao, Chao Wang, Ran Huo, Zi-Jiang Chen
STUDY QUESTION: What is the function of CAV1 in folliculogenesis and female reproduction? SUMMARY ANSWER: CAV1 regulates germline cyst breakdown and primordial follicle (PF) formation in mice, and CAV1 mutation may be related to premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Pre-granulosa cells are essential for the establishment of the PF pool, which determines female fertility and reproductive lifespan. Cav1 participates in vascularization in fetal mouse ovaries...
October 9, 2018: Human Reproduction
M Candiani, J Ottolina, E Posadzka, S Ferrari, L M Castellano, I Tandoi, L Pagliardini, A Nocun, R Jach
STUDY QUESTION: Does CO2 laser vaporization offer better results in treating endometrioma in terms of ovarian reserve preservation compared to traditional cystectomy? SUMMARY ANSWER: Assessing both antral follicle count (AFC) and serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels as measures of ovarian reserve, the results suggest that CO2 technology may be an alternative treatment for endometrioma, causing minimal damage to adjacent healthy ovarian tissue. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Excisional surgery has been questioned as an ideal surgical approach for endometriomas because it is associated with potential reduction of ovarian reserve...
October 9, 2018: Human Reproduction
Y Ikemoto, K Kuroda, A Ochiai, S Yamashita, S Ikuma, S Nojiri, A Itakura, S Takeda
STUDY QUESTION: What is the prevalence of multiple pregnancy with zygotic splitting after single embryo transfer (SET)? SUMMARY ANSWER: The prevalence of multiple pregnancy with zygotic splitting after SET was 1.36%. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In 2008, the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (JSOG) recommended the adoption of SET to reduce multiple births. Since then, to improve the clinical pregnancy rate, elective SET using blastocyst transfer and frozen-warmed ET has increased...
October 8, 2018: Human Reproduction
Marina Suhorutshenko, Viktorija Kukushkina, Agne Velthut-Meikas, Signe Altmäe, Maire Peters, Reedik Mägi, Kaarel Krjutškov, Mariann Koel, Francisco M Codoñer, Juan Fco Martinez-Blanch, Felipe Vilella, Carlos Simón, Andres Salumets, Triin Laisk
STUDY QUESTION: Does cellular composition of the endometrial biopsy affect the gene expression profile of endometrial whole-tissue samples? SUMMARY ANSWER: The differences in epithelial and stromal cell proportions in endometrial biopsies modify the whole-tissue gene expression profiles and affect the results of differential expression analyses. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN: Each cell type has its unique gene expression profile. The proportions of epithelial and stromal cells vary in endometrial tissue during the menstrual cycle, along with individual and technical variation due to the method and tools used to obtain the tissue biopsy...
October 8, 2018: Human Reproduction
K Papaikonomou, Helena Kopp Kallner, Fabian Söderdahl, K Gemzell-Danielsson
STUDY QUESTION: Does pre-treatment with a low dose of mifepristone improve irregular vaginal bleeding patterns during the initial 3 months after LNG-IUS placement? SUMMARY ANSWER: Mifepristone treatment prior to LNG-IUS insertion results in significantly lower bleeding and spotting rates for the first month post insertion but no significant reduction at 3 months post insertion. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: One of the leading causes of premature discontinuation of the LNG-IUS is unscheduled bleeding in the first months following its insertion...
October 8, 2018: Human Reproduction
S L Loy, Y B Cheung, S E Soh, S Ng, M T Tint, I M Aris, J Y Bernard, Y S Chong, K M Godfrey, L P Shek, K H Tan, Y S Lee, H H Tan, B S M Chern, N Lek, F Yap, S Y Chan, C Chi, J K Y Chan
STUDY QUESTION: Are higher overall and central adiposity associated with reduced fecundability, measured by time-to-pregnancy (TTP), in Asian women? SUMMARY ANSWER: Higher overall adiposity, but not central adiposity, was associated with longer TTP in Asian women. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: High body mass index (BMI) has been associated with a longer TTP, although the associations of body composition and distribution with TTP are less clear. There are no previous studies of TTP in Asian women, who have a relatively higher percentage of body fat and abdominal fat at relatively lower BMI...
October 4, 2018: Human Reproduction
F Lotti, G Corona, A Cocci, S Cipriani, E Baldi, S Degl'Innocenti, P N Franco, M Gacci, M Maggi
STUDY QUESTION: When is the investigation and treatment of midline prostatic cysts (MPC) of clinical value in the work-up of males of infertile couples? SUMMARY ANSWER: With a prevalence of 10.2% in infertile men, MPC should be investigated according to a seminal algorithm detecting a MPC volume >0.117 ml, which may impair semen parameters, and could be treated to improve sperm count and achieve natural pregnancy. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: MPC are frequent and are considered a correctable cause of male infertility...
October 4, 2018: Human Reproduction
Dan Cui, Linlin Sui, Xiao Han, Man Zhang, Zhenzhen Guo, Wanfang Chen, Xinxin Yu, Qiannan Sun, Ming Dong, Tonghui Ma, Ying Kong
STUDY QUESTION: How does aquaporin-3 (AQP3) affect endometrial receptivity? SUMMARY ANSWER: AQP3, which is regulated by the combination and estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4), induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of endometrial epithelial cells. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Embryo implantation is an extremely complex process, and endometrial receptivity is essential for successful embryo implantation. Estrogen and progesterone regulate endometrial receptivity...
October 4, 2018: Human Reproduction
Arie Berkovitz, Netanella Miller, Michal Silberman, Michael Belenky, Pavel Itsykson
STUDY QUESTION: Does a novel sperm vitrification device (SpermVD) provide an efficient method for freezing a small number of human spermatozoa from men suffering from non-obstructive azoospermia? SUMMARY ANSWER: The novel SpermVD is an efficient and simple carrier method for freezing a small number of spermatozoa in low-volume droplets, reducing post-thaw search time from hours to minutes, allowing a 96% recovery rate and leading to successful use of sperm for fertilization...
October 4, 2018: Human Reproduction
Marta Devesa, Rosa Tur, Ignacio Rodríguez, Buenaventura Coroleu, Francisca Martínez, Nikolaos P Polyzos
STUDY QUESTION: Is there any relationship between the number of oocytes retrieved and cumulative live birth rates (CLBRs) in women of advanced age? SUMMARY ANSWER: CLBRs increase with the number of oocytes retrieved in women of advanced reproductive age up to 41 years old, the added value is minimal in women more than 41 years and futile in women 44 years or older. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: CLBR is actually the most relevant outcome of IVF from patients' perspective...
September 29, 2018: Human Reproduction
Chuyue Zhang, Jin Ma, Wangsheng Wang, Yun Sun, Kang Sun
STUDY QUESTION: Is overexpression of lysyl oxidase (LOX), an enzyme responsible for the cross-linking of collagens, a cause of anovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: LOX overexpression was present in PCOS ovaries, due at least in part to interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and inhibition of LOX activity with β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) ameliorated polycystic ovary morphology and anovulation. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Aberrant ovarian extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and inflammation may contribute to the development of PCOS...
September 29, 2018: Human Reproduction
Joni Macdonald, Karen R Kilcoyne, Richard M Sharpe, Áine Kavanagh, Richard A Anderson, Pamela Brown, Lee B Smith, Anne Jørgensen, Rod T Mitchell
STUDY QUESTION: Does loss of DMRT1 in human fetal testis alter testicular development and result in testicular dysgenesis? SUMMARY ANSWER: DMRT1 repression in human fetal testis alters the expression of key testicular and ovarian determining genes, and leads to focal testicular dysgenesis. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) is associated with common testicular disorders in young men, but its etiology is unknown. DMRT1 has been shown to play a role in the regulation of sex differentiation in the vertebrate gonad...
September 29, 2018: Human Reproduction
Danilo Cimadomo, Antonio Capalbo, Paolo Emanuele Levi-Setti, Daria Soscia, Giovanna Orlando, Elena Albani, Valentina Parini, Marta Stoppa, Lisa Dovere, Luisa Tacconi, Elena Ievoli, Roberta Maggiulli, Filippo Maria Ubaldi, Laura Rienzi
STUDY QUESTION: Are trophectoderm biopsy or other pre-vitrification features or laboratory practices associated with differences in blastocyst post-warming behavior (degeneration, re-expansion and live birth after single embryo transfer (SET))? SUMMARY ANSWER: Blastocyst morphology, day of full development and artificial shrinkage (either laser-assisted or biopsy-induced) are the pre-vitrification parameters/practices most strongly associated with post-warming behavior and implantation potential while there was no association with trophectoderm biopsy...
September 28, 2018: Human Reproduction
I J M Duijkers, I Klingmann, R Prinz, M Wargenau, S Hrafnsdottir, Th B Magnusdottir, C Klipping
STUDY QUESTION: Which progesterone vaginal pessary dose regimen induces adequate secretory transformation of the endometrium, in comparison with progesterone vaginal gel and placebo? SUMMARY ANSWER: The best secretory transformation of the endometrium was observed during treatment with 400 mg progesterone vaginal pessaries, administered twice daily. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Vaginally administered progesterone is widely used for luteal phase support (LPS) in assisted reproductive techniques (ART)...
September 28, 2018: Human Reproduction
Eri Maeda, Jacky Boivin, Satoshi Toyokawa, Katsuyuki Murata, Hidekazu Saito
STUDY QUESTION: What are the long-term effects of fertility education on knowledge and reproductive outcome? SUMMARY ANSWER: Participants in the intervention group retained some knowledge after 2 years and the partnered women had a new child more quickly than the comparison group. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Fertility education improves knowledge, at least in the short-term. Attitudes toward childbearing and its timing can change after exposure to educational materials...
September 28, 2018: Human Reproduction
M Heijligers, L M M Verheijden, L M Jonkman, M van der Sangen, M Meijer-Hoogeveen, Y Arens, M A van der Hoeven, C E M de Die-Smulders
STUDY QUESTION: Does PGD increase the risk on adverse cognitive and socio-emotional development? SUMMARY ANSWER: The cognitive and socio-emotional development in children born after PGD seems to be normal when compared to control groups. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A limited number of studies with small sample sizes indicate that the cognitive and socio-emotional development of (pre)school-aged children born after either PGD or PGS seem to be comparable to those of children born after IVF/ICSI and to naturally conceived (NC) children from the general population...
September 28, 2018: Human Reproduction
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