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Human Reproduction

S S Malchau, A A Henningsen, J Forman, A Loft, A Nyboe Andersen, A Pinborg
STUDY QUESTION: Is the number of aspirated oocytes in the first ART cycle associated with the cumulative live birthrates (CLBR) in subsequent cycles? SUMMARY ANSWER: The number of aspirated oocytes in the first cycle was associated with CLBR in subsequent cycles. Previous treatment response predicts outcome in future cycles. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous reports have shown a positive association between the number of retrieved oocytes and live birthrate per fresh treatment cycle...
December 12, 2018: Human Reproduction
Helena J Teede, Marie L Misso, Michael F Costello, Anuja Dokras, Joop Laven, Lisa Moran, Terhi Piltonen, Robert J Norman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2018: Human Reproduction
Mila Maidarti, Yvonne L Clarkson, Marie McLaughlin, Richard A Anderson, Evelyn E Telfer
STUDY QUESTION: Does ovarian follicle activation by phosphatase homologue of chromosome-10 (PTEN) inhibition affect DNA damage and repair in bovine oocytes and granulosa cells? SUMMARY ANSWER: PTEN inhibition promotes bovine non-growing follicle activation but results in increased DNA damage and impaired DNA repair capacity in ovarian follicles in vitro. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Inhibition of PTEN is known to activate primordial follicles but may compromise further developmental potential...
December 6, 2018: Human Reproduction
A La Marca, M Dal Canto, M Buccheri, M Valerio, M Mignini Renzini, A Rodriguez, R Vassena
STUDY QUESTION: What is the clinical efficacy of an oocyte donation program based on the transportation of frozen semen and embryos between two countries? SUMMARY ANSWER: The transnational oocyte donation program is efficient and reliable and it could provide a first-line strategy to overcome the lack of donors in some countries. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: While there is increasing need for donated oocytes, in many countries the availability of donors is still insufficient to cover the therapeutic demands, and patients are referred abroad for treatment...
December 6, 2018: Human Reproduction
Gamze Bildik, Nazli Akin, Ayse Seyhan, Yashar Esmaeilian, Kayhan Yakin, Ipek Keles, Basak Balaban, Baris Ata, Bulent Urman, Ozgur Oktem
STUDY QUESTION: Are there any differences in the molecular characteristics of the luteal granulosa cells (GC) obtained from stimulated versus non-stimulated (natural) IVF cycles that may help explain the defective luteal phase in the former? SUMMARY ANSWER: Luteal GC of stimulated IVF cycles, particularly those of agonist-triggered antagonist cycles, are less viable ex vivo, express LH receptor and anti-apoptotic genes at lower levels, undergo apoptosis earlier and fail to maintain their estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) production in comparison to natural cycle GC...
December 6, 2018: Human Reproduction
G Bourel, N Pelletier-Fleury, J Bouyer, A Delbarre, H Fernandez, P Capmas
STUDY QUESTION: Is conservative surgery (laparoscopic salpingotomy) cost-effective, using fertility as the endpoint compared with medical management (Methotrexate) in women with an early tubal pregnancy? SUMMARY ANSWER: Conservative surgery appeared slightly, but not statistically significantly, more effective than medical management but also more costly. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Women with an early tubal pregnancy treated with medical therapy (Methotrexate) or conservative surgery (laparoscopic salpingotomy) have comparable future intrauterine pregnancy rates by natural conception...
December 6, 2018: Human Reproduction
C Jean, F Haghighirad, Y Zhu, M Chalbi, A Ziyyat, E Rubinstein, C Gourier, P Yip, J P Wolf, J E Lee, C Boucheix, V Barraud-Lange
STUDY QUESTION: Is JUNO protein present at the surface membrane of human oocytes and involved in the fertilisation process? SUMMARY ANSWER: JUNO protein is expressed on the plasma membrane of human oocytes and its inhibition by a monoclonal antibody completely blocks gamete fusion. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Fusion of gamete membranes is the culminating event of the fertilisation process, but its molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Until now, three molecules have been shown to be essential: CD9 tetraspanin in the oocyte, Izumo1 protein on the sperm and Juno, its corresponding receptor on the oocyte...
December 5, 2018: Human Reproduction
Samer Tannus, Yoni Cohen, Sara Henderson, Na'ama Al Ma'mari, Tal Shavit, Weon-Young Son, Michael H Dahan
STUDY QUESTION: In IVF cycles in which the entire embryo cohort is slow growing, is it optimal to perform fresh transfer in Day 5 or to extend the culture and transfer in subsequent vitrified-warmed cycles? SUMMARY ANSWER: The outcomes depend on the degree of embryo development on Day 5. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Slow-growing blastocysts have lower implantation potential when transferred in fresh cycles. It has been suggested that embryo-endometrial asynchrony could explain this finding...
December 4, 2018: Human Reproduction
Yuan Yuan, Qingyun Mai, Jiaxuan Ma, Mingfen Deng, Yanwen Xu, Guanglun Zhuang, Canquan Zhou
STUDY QUESTION: Do human embryos survive long-term cryopreservation (CP) (≥12 years) and implant after frozen embryo transfer (ET)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Human embryos remain usable after long-term CP. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Several cohort studies have reported the live birth rate or neonatal outcomes of human embryos after CP for up to 5 years. Only a few case reports have described successful live births from human embryos after long-term CP up to 12 years...
December 4, 2018: Human Reproduction
Kim G Harley, Kimberly P Berger, Katherine Kogut, Kimberly Parra, Robert H Lustig, Louise C Greenspan, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Brenda Eskenazi
STUDY QUESTION: Are in-utero or peripubertal exposures to phthalates, parabens and other phenols found in personal care products associated with timing of pubertal onset in boys and girls? SUMMARY ANSWER: We found some associations of altered pubertal timing in girls, but little evidence in boys. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Certain chemicals in personal care and consumer products, including low molecular weight phthalates, parabens and phenols, or their precursors, are associated with altered pubertal timing in animal studies...
December 4, 2018: Human Reproduction
Elizabeth R Hammond, Dean E Morbeck
STUDY QUESTION: Can embryology key performance indicators (KPIs) detect shifts in laboratory performance that precede changes in clinical outcomes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Day 5 usable blastocyst rate (D5BUR) is an important embryology KPI that complements total usable blastocyst rate (TBUR) in its ability to rapidly identify adverse embryology outcomes, prior to changes in clinical outcomes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The hypothesis that monitoring performance of an IVF laboratory using statistical process controls (SPCs) can act as an early warning signal of shifts in laboratory conditions is a hypothesis that requires validation...
December 4, 2018: Human Reproduction
Luca Boeri, Paolo Capogrosso, Eugenio Ventimiglia, Filippo Pederzoli, Walter Cazzaniga, Francesco Chierigo, Edoardo Pozzi, Massimo Clementi, Paola Viganò, Emanuele Montanari, Francesco Montorsi, Andrea Salonia
STUDY QUESTION: Does the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in semen impact seminal parameters and sperm DNA quality in white European men seeking medical help for primary couple's infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: HPV seminal infections involving high-risk (HR) genotypes are associated with impaired sperm progressive motility and sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) values. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: HPV is commonly present in semen samples. However, whether the presence of HPV in semen is actually associated with impaired sperm parameters and SDF values have yet to be elucidated...
December 4, 2018: Human Reproduction
Yonghong Zhang, Lina Ma, Xiaohui Hu, Jinlu Ji, Gil Mor, Aihua Liao
STUDY QUESTION: What is the role of the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/PD-1 ligand-1 (PD-L1) axis in macrophage polarization during early pregnancy? SUMMARY ANSWER: PD-1 signaling is a major regulator of macrophage differentiation and function, and it is critical for the success of a pregnancy. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The predominance of decidual macrophages (DMs) with an M2 phenotype is an important contributor to maternal-fetal tolerance during early pregnancy...
November 30, 2018: Human Reproduction
Lauren A Murphy, Emily A Seidler, Denis A Vaughan, Nina Resetkova, Alan S Penzias, Thomas L Toth, Kim L Thornton, Denny Sakkas
STUDY QUESTION: What is the treatment path and cumulative live birth (CLB) rate from a single oocyte retrieval of patients who intend to pursue PGT-A at the start of an IVF cycle compared to matched controls? SUMMARY ANSWER: The choice of PGT-A at the start of the first IVF cycle decreases the CLB per oocyte retrieval for patients <38 years of age, however patients ≥38 years of age benefit significantly per embryo transfer (ET) when live birth (LB) is evaluated...
November 30, 2018: Human Reproduction
Sandrine Frantz, Jean Parinaud, Marion Kret, Gaelle Rocher-Escriva, Aline Papaxanthos-Roche, Hélène Creux, Lucie Chansel-Debordeaux, Antoine Bénard, Claude Hocké
STUDY QUESTION: Does endometrial scratch in women undergoing a first or second IVF/ICSI attempt improve the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Endometrial scratch (ES) in women undergoing their first or second IVF/ICSI attempt does not enhance the CPR under the technical conditions of our study. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Several studies have suggested that physical scratch of the endometrium before an IVF attempt could improve embryo implantation...
November 29, 2018: Human Reproduction
Lisa Molines, Simon Nusinovici, Marie Moreau, Mathilde Remy, Pascale May-Panloup, Cyril Flamant, Jean-Christophe Roze, Patrick Van Bogaert, Pierre-Emmanuel Bouet, Géraldine Gascoin
STUDY QUESTION: Is assisted conception associated with neonatal morbidity and mortality and with neurodevelopmental impairment at 2 years of corrected age in preterm infants born before 34 weeks of gestational age? SUMMARY ANSWER: Assisted conception is not associated with an increase in neonatal morbidity and mortality and is even significantly associated with a better 2-year neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Assisted conception appears to increase the rate of preterm births, though few studies have analysed outcomes for these preterm infants...
November 29, 2018: Human Reproduction
D K Hapangama, J Drury, L Da Silva, H Al-Lamee, A Earp, A J Valentijn, D P Edirisinghe, P A Murray, A T Fazleabas, C E Gargett
STUDY QUESTION: Is endometriosis associated with abnormally located endometrial basalis-like (SSEA1+/SOX9+) cells in the secretory phase functionalis and could they contribute to ectopic endometriotic lesion formation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Women with endometriosis had an abnormally higher number of basalis-like SSEA1+/SOX9+ epithelial cells present in the stratum functionalis and, since these cells formed 3D structures in vitro with phenotypic similarities to ectopic endometriotic lesions, they may generate ectopic lesions following retrograde menstruation...
November 29, 2018: Human Reproduction
M A Brower, Y Hai, M R Jones, X Guo, Y-D I Chen, J I Rotter, R M Krauss, R S Legro, R Azziz, M O Goodarzi
STUDY QUESTION: What are the causal relationships between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and body mass index (BMI)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Bidirectional Mendelian randomization analyses suggest that increased BMI is causal for PCOS while the reverse is not the case. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The contribution of obesity to the pathogenesis of PCOS is controversial. To date, published genetic studies addressing this question have generated conflicting results and have not utilized the full extent of known single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with body mass index (BMI)...
November 29, 2018: Human Reproduction
Luigi Maione, Anne Fèvre, Immacolata Cristina Nettore, Ashmeetha Manilall, Bruno Francou, Séverine Trabado, Jérôme Bouligand, Anne Guiochon-Mantel, Brigitte Delemer, Colleen A Flanagan, Paolo Emidio Macchia, Robert P Millar, Jacques Young
STUDY QUESTION: Does the phenotype of women with normosmic congenital hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (nCHH) and pituitary resistance to GnRH caused by biallelic mutations in the GnRH receptor (GNRHR) (nCHH/bi-GNRHR) differ from that of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Women with nCHH/bi-GNRHR have variable pubertal development but nearly all have primary amenorrhea and an exaggerated LH response to GnRH stimulation, similar to that seen in women with PCOS...
November 24, 2018: Human Reproduction
Christos A Venetis, Liza Tilia, Erin Panlilio, Andrew Kan
STUDY QUESTION: Is the number of oocytes retrieved after ovarian stimulation for ICSI independently associated with the number of day-3 euploid embryos (EE)? SUMMARY ANSWER: A larger oocyte yield is independently associated with more day-3 EE, although the expected benefit decreases significantly with advancing age. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Although traditionally ovarian stimulation aims at collecting more than one oocyte in order to increase the chance of pregnancy, there is evidence suggesting that excessive ovarian response leads to lower live birth rates...
November 24, 2018: Human Reproduction
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