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Human Reproduction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431097/on-the-appropriate-interpretation-of-evidence-the-example-of-culture-media-and-birth-weight
#1
Stephen A Roberts, Andy Vail
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430968/sex-chromosome-dependent-differential-viability-of-human-spermatozoa-during-prolonged-incubation
#2
Young-Ah You, Woo-Sung Kwon, Md Saidur Rahman, Yoo-Jin Park, Young-Ju Kim, Myung-Geol Pang
STUDY QUESTION: Are there significant differences in the ability of X chromosome-bearing (X) spermatozoa and Y chromosome-bearing (Y) spermatozoa to survive incubation under stressful conditions? SUMMARY ANSWER: Y spermatozoa are more vulnerable to stress than their X counterparts depending on culture period and temperature, and show higher expression of apoptotic proteins. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The primary sex ratio is determined by there being an equal number of spermatozoa carrying X and Y chromosomes...
April 19, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402552/induced-abortion
#3
(no author information available yet)
Abortion is common. Data on abortion rates are inexact but can be used to explore trends. Globally, the estimated rate in the period 2010-2014 was 35 abortions per 1000 women (aged 15-44 years), five points less than the rate of 40 for the period 1990-1994. Abortion laws vary around the world but are generally more restrictive in developing countries. Restrictive laws do not necessarily deter women from seeking abortion but often lead to unsafe practice with significant mortality and morbidity. While a legal framework for abortion is a prerequisite for availability, many laws, which are not evidence based, restrict availability and delay access...
April 10, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402544/angiotensin-1-7-in-human-follicular-fluid-correlates-with-oocyte-maturation
#4
Ines K Cavallo, Cynthia Dela Cruz, Marilene L Oliveira, Helen L Del Puerto, Júlia A Dias, Veronica N Lobach, Maíra Casalechi, Maria G Camargos, Adelina M Reis, Robson A Santos, Fernando M Reis
STUDY QUESTION: Do angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) levels in human ovarian follicular fluid (FF) correlate with the number and proportion of mature oocytes obtained for IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER: The present study shows for the first time that Ang-(1-7) levels in human FF correlate with the proportion of mature oocytes collected upon ovarian stimulation for IVF. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Ang-(1-7) is an active peptide of the renin-angiotensin system that stimulates oocyte maturation in isolated rabbit and rat ovaries...
April 10, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402449/enhancement-of-trophoblast-differentiation-and-survival-by-low-molecular-weight-heparin-requires-heparin-binding-egf-like-growth-factor
#5
Alan D Bolnick, Jay M Bolnick, Hamid-Reza Kohan-Ghadr, Brian A Kilburn, Omar J Pasalodos, Pankaj K Singhal, Jing Dai, Michael P Diamond, D Randall Armant, Sascha Drewlo
STUDY QUESTION: Does low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) require heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factor (HBEGF) signaling to induce extravillous trophoblast differentiation and decrease apoptosis during oxidative stress? SUMMARY ANSWER: LMWH increased HBEGF expression and secretion, and HBEGF signaling was required to stimulate trophoblast extravillous differentiation, increase invasion in vitro and reduce trophoblast apoptosis during oxidative stress...
April 10, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402417/grandmaternal-smoke-exposure-reduces-female-fertility-in-a-murine-model-with-great-grandmaternal-smoke-exposure-unlikely-to-have-an-effect
#6
N J Camlin, A G Jarnicki, R L Vanders, K A Walters, P M Hansbro, E A McLaughlin, J E Holt
STUDY QUESTION: What effect does multigenerational (F2) and transgenerational (F3) cigarette smoke exposure have on female fertility in mice? SUMMARY ANSWER: Cigarette smoking has a multigenerational effect on female fertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: It has been well established that cigarette smoking decreases female fertility. Furthermore, a growing body of evidence suggests that smoking during pregnancy decreases the fertility of daughters and increases cancer and asthma incidence in grandchildren and great-grandchildren...
April 10, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402415/single-versus-repeat-doses-of-misoprostol-for-treatment-of-early-pregnancy-loss-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Yossi Mizrachi, Ann Dekalo, Ohad Gluck, Hadas Miremberg, Lotem Dafna, Ohad Feldstein, Eran Weiner, Jacob Bar, Ron Sagiv
STUDY QUESTION: Does repeat administration of misoprostol for early pregnancy loss increase the treatment success rate? SUMMARY ANSWER: Repeat administration of misoprostol does not increase the treatment success rate, and is associated with more analgesics use. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Misoprostol reduces the need for surgical evacuation and shortens the time to complete expulsion in patients with early pregnancy loss. However, the impact of repeat doses of misoprostol is not clear...
April 10, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398523/transitions-in-pregnancy-planning-in-women-recruited-for-a-large-prospective-cohort-study
#8
U Luderer, T Li, J P Fine, R F Hamman, J B Stanford, D Baker
STUDY QUESTION: Do the rates at which women transition among different intensities of pregnancy planning vary with age, marital status and race/ethnicity? SUMMARY ANSWER: Rates of transition from low or moderate pregnancy probability groups (PPGs) to higher PPGs vary by age, marital status and race/ethnicity. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The design of prospective studies of the effects of pre- and peri-conception exposures on fecundity, pregnancy and children's health is challenging because at any specific time only a small percentage of reproductive age women is attempting to conceive...
April 7, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398491/pregnancy-and-neonatal-outcomes-following-letrozole-use-in-frozen-thawed-single-embryo-transfer-cycles
#9
T Tatsumi, S C Jwa, A Kuwahara, M Irahara, T Kubota, H Saito
STUDY QUESTION: Are pregnancy and neonatal outcomes following letrozole use comparable with natural and HRT cycles in patients undergoing single frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Letrozole use was significantly associated with higher rates of clinical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy with fetal heart beat and live birth, and with a lower rate of miscarriage, compared with natural and HRT cycles. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Letrozole is the most commonly used aromatase inhibitor for mild ovarian stimulation in ART...
April 7, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398477/elective-embryo-transfers-on-day-6-reduce-implantation-compared-with-transfers-on-day-5
#10
V Poulsen, H J Ingerslev, K Kirkegaard
STUDY QUESTION: Is there a difference in pregnancy rates between embryos transferred electively on Day 5 and Day 6, respectively? SUMMARY ANSWER: The chance of pregnancy is significantly reduced (odds ratio (OR): 0.34; 95% CI 0.22-0.52) if transfer is performed on Day 6 compared with Day 5. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Several studies report that Day 5 transfers have higher implantation rates (IRs) when compared with Day 6 transfers. These studies were based on non-elective Day 6 transfers, where transfers on Day 6 were performed with developmentally delayed embryos...
April 7, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387858/mitochondrial-dna-quantification-as-a-tool-for-embryo-viability-assessment-retrospective-analysis-of-data-from-single-euploid-blastocyst-transfers
#11
K Ravichandran, C McCaffrey, J Grifo, A Morales, M Perloe, S Munne, D Wells, E Fragouli
STUDY QUESTION: Does the amount of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in blastocyst biopsy specimens have the potential to serve as a biomarker of euploid embryo implantation ability, independent of morphology? SUMMARY ANSWER: The results of this study strongly suggest that elevated mtDNA levels, above a previously defined threshold, are strongly associated with blastocyst implantation failure and represent an independent biomarker of embryo viability. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Improved methods of embryo selection are highly desirable in order to increase the efficiency of IVF treatment...
April 6, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387798/two-year-development-of-children-conceived-by-ivm-a-prospective-controlled-single-blinded-study
#12
S Roesner, M von Wolff, M Elsaesser, K Roesner, G Reuner, J Pietz, T Bruckner, T Strowitzki
STUDY QUESTION: Is there a difference in mental development of children conceived by IVM in comparison to IVF or ICSI, independently, at the age of 2 years? SUMMARY ANSWER: No differences could be found in mental development of IVM children compared to IVF and IVM children compared to ICSI as well. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Only few retrospective or non-controlled studies addressed the health of IVM children and did not show a negative impact of the IVM procedure...
April 6, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383690/semen-quality-of-young-men-from-the-general-population-in-baltic-countries
#13
Juris Erenpreiss, Margus Punab, Birute Zilaitiene, Solveiga Hlevicka, Pawel Zayakin, Valentinas Matulevicius, Romualdas Tomas Preiksa, Niels Jørgensen
STUDY QUESTION: What are the parameters of semen quality in Baltic men? SUMMARY ANSWER: Combined parameters of sperm concentration, motility and morphology revealed that 11-15% of men had low semen quality, 37-50% intermediate and 38-52% high semen quality. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous studies have revealed regional differences in semen parameters, and semen quality of Baltic men has been suggested to be better than that of other European men...
April 5, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383711/synergistic-effect-of-regulatory-t-cells-and-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-angiogenesis-in-the-endometriotic-milieu
#14
Xiao-Qiu Wang, Wen-Jie Zhou, Xue-Zhen Luo, Yu Tao, Da-Jin Li
STUDY QUESTION: Do regulatory T cells (Tregs) contribute to angiogenesis in endometriosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: High levels of CCL17 and CCL22 cause the recruitment of Tregs, upregulate the immunosuppression of Tregs and, in turn, may promote angiogenesis in endometrial cells in synergy with proinflammatory cytokines. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN: The peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis has a higher percentage of Tregs than that of normal individuals; however, the regulatory role of Tregs in the disease remains unclear...
April 4, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383700/measuring-health-related-quality-of-life-in-women-with-endometriosis-comparing-the-clinimetric-properties-of-the-endometriosis-health-profile-5-ehp-5-and-the-euroqol-5d-eq-5d
#15
G Aubry, P Panel, G Thiollier, C Huchon, A Fauconnier
STUDY QUESTION: Which of the Endometriosis Health Profile-5 (EHP-5) and the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) is the most efficient to assess quality of life in women suffering from endometriosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: Although EHP-5 and EQ-5D instruments had an excellent responsiveness, EHP-5 has a better discriminative ability than EQ-5 to measure health-related quality of life (HrQoL). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Proper measurement of HrQoL is important in endometriosis...
April 4, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369509/revisiting-the-human-seminiferous-epithelium-cycle
#16
F Nihi, M L M Gomes, F A R Carvalho, A B Reis, R Martello, R C N Melo, F R C L Almeida, H Chiarini-Garcia
STUDY QUESTION: Can all types of testicular germ cells be accurately identified by microscopy techniques and unambiguously distributed in stages of the human seminiferous epithelium cycle (SEC)? SUMMARY ANSWER: By using a high-resolution light microscopy (HRLM) method, which enables an improved visualization of germ cell morphological features, we identified all testicular germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium and precisely grouped them in six well-delimitated SEC stages, thus providing a reliable reference source for staging in man...
March 28, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369440/extravillous-trophoblast-invasion-of-venous-as-well-as-lymphatic-vessels-is-altered-in-idiopathic-recurrent-spontaneous-abortions
#17
Karin Windsperger, Sabine Dekan, Sophie Pils, Carsten Golletz, Victoria Kunihs, Christian Fiala, Glen Kristiansen, Martin Knöfler, Jürgen Pollheimer
STUDY QUESTION: Do extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) invade non-arterial decidual vessels in healthy and pathological pregnancies? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our results reveal that trophoblast invasion of venous and lymphatic vessels is a frequent event during the first trimester of pregnancy and is compromised in  recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). In addition, the present data suggest that EVTs populate regional lymph nodes during pregnancy. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN: Human trophoblasts remodel and invade decidual spiral arteries...
March 28, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369394/developments-in-ivf-warrant-the-adoption-of-new-performance-indicators-for-art-clinics-but-do-not-justify-the-abandonment-of-patient-centred-measures
#18
J Wilkinson, S A Roberts, A Vail
Recent advances in embryo freezing technology together with growing concerns over multiple births have shifted the paradigm of appropriate IVF. This has led to the adoption of new performance indicators for ART clinics by national reporting schemes, such as those curated by the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) and the Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA). Using these organizations as case studies, we review several outcome measures from a statistical perspective. We describe several denominators that are used to calculate live birth rates...
March 24, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369357/general-practitioners-adherence-to-work-up-and-referral-recommendations-in-fertility-care
#19
H W van der Pluijm-Schouten, R P M G Hermens, C F van Heteren, H J Schers, M J Schleedoorn, M Arkenbout, P W Maassen, J A M Kremer, W L D M Nelen
STUDY QUESTION: What is the current guideline adherence by general practitioners (GPs) for work-up and subsequent referral from primary to secondary care for patients suffering from infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER: Guideline adherence by GPs concerning infertility was 9.2% in couples referred. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Adherence to recommendations can decrease unnecessary referral, diagnostics and treatments, and consequently result in lower expenditures...
March 24, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369535/the-production-of-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-by-human-sertoli-cells-is-substantially-reduced-in-sertoli-cell-only-testes
#20
D Singh, D A Paduch, P N Schlegel, K E Orwig, A Mielnik, A Bolyakov, W W Wright
STUDY QUESTION: Do human Sertoli cells in testes that exhibit the Sertoli cell-only (SCO) phenotype produce substantially less glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) than Sertoli cells in normal testes? SUMMARY ANSWER: In human SCO testes, both the amounts of GDNF mRNA per testis and the concentration of GDNF protein per Sertoli cell are markedly reduced as compared to normal testes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In vivo, GDNF is required to sustain the numbers and function of mouse spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and their immediate progeny, transit-amplifying progenitor spermatogonia...
May 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
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