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Human Pathology

Danielle Hutchings, James A Miller, Lysandra Voltaggio
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors are widely used in the therapy of certain autoimmune disorders. Paradoxical immunologic reactions manifesting as new-onset autoimmune disease or exacerbation of the underlying condition have been reported in association with these drugs. In this study, we reviewed gastrointestinal biopsies and clinical findings in patients with rheumatologic disease on TNF inhibitor therapy and compared to patients with rheumatologic disease not on TNF inhibitors. Eighteen biopsies from nine patients treated with TNF inhibitor therapy and 249 biopsies from 120 control patients not treated with TNF inhibitors were included...
November 16, 2018: Human Pathology
Luan D Truong, Lillian W Gaber, Faiza Khan
Knowledge on renal involvement in kidney donors with diabetes i.e., diabetic nephropathy (DN), is limited. During the 7years (2010-2017), 921 post-perfusion biopsies were performed for living donors (14%) or deceased donors (86%). The Renal Pathology Society Classification schema for DN (Class 0-IV) was used. Biopsies with light microscopic changes of DN (at least Class IIa) were selected for study. Eleven biopsies (1.2%) showed DN, all from deceased donors (Class IIa in 8, Class IIb in 2, and Class III in 1 biopsy)...
November 15, 2018: Human Pathology
Fumiyoshi Fujishima, Hiroki Katsushima, Noriko Fukuhara, Sachiko Konosu-Fukaya, Yasuhiro Nakamura, Hajime Usubuchi, Satoko Sato, Yasunori Ota, Akiko Yashima-Abo, Tomohiro Nakamura, Naoki Nakaya, Hideo Harigae, Hironobu Sasano, Ryo Ichinohasama
Immunohistochemistry is not only the most important tool for pathologists to establish a final diagnosis but it can also inform decisions regarding optimal treatment methods. However, there is no universal standard notation for expressing immunohistochemical findings. For a diagnosis of malignant lymphoma, it is important to confirm the presence or absence of MYC translocation and communicate these results to a clinical audience. However, the criteria for selecting cases for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis to confirm MYC translocation are ill-defined...
November 15, 2018: Human Pathology
Li-Ping Gong, Jian-Ning Chen, Lin Xiao, Qiong He, Zhi-Ying Feng, Zhi-Gang Zhang, Jian-Pei Liu, Hong-Bo Wei, Chun-Kui Shao
EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) is a distinct entity which has conspicuously inflammatory infiltration compared with EBV-negative gastric carcinoma (EBVnGC). To date, the local immune status in EBVaGC and its relationship with patient prognosis and apoptosis of tumor cells is largely unknown. In this study, we evaluated the density of different types of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in 53 EBVaGCs and 67 EBVnGCs and analyzed its relationship with patient outcomes and apoptosis of tumor cells in EBVaGC...
November 15, 2018: Human Pathology
Younghye Kim, Jung-Woo Choi, Ju-Han Lee, Young-Sik Kim
Overexpression of mitotic arrest deficient 2 (MAD2) and/or cell division cycle 20 (CDC20) in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) leads to chromosomal instability (CIN) and aneuploidy. Cell-in-cell (CIC) structures are formed by the process that cancer or immune cells are internalized into adjacent host cancer cells. Here, we investigated the clinicopathologic significances of SAC protein overexpression and CIC structures in 829 cases of normal, premalignant, and gastric cancer (GC) lesions. MAD2 and CDC20 expressions were significantly increased in intestinal metaplasia (IM), low-grade dysplasia (LGD), high-grade dysplasia (HGD), and early gastric cancer (EGC) than normal mucosa and their expression levels were the highest in HGD...
November 15, 2018: Human Pathology
Masako Ishikawa, Kentaro Nakayama, Kohei Nakamura, Ruriko Ono, Hitomi Yamashita, Tomoka Ishibashi, Toshiko Minamoto, Kouji Iida, Sultana Razia, Noriyoshi Ishikawa, Satoru Kyo
Synchronous endometrial and ovarian carcinomas (SEOs) represent 5% to 10% of endometrial or ovarian carcinomas. We assessed genetic alterations (in PTEN, CTNNB1, POLE, etc.) and evaluated correlations with patient outcomes to determine the utility of clonality analyses for differentiating between metastases and concurrent primary tumors and for determining whether genetic alterations in synchronous tumors are predictive of biological behavior. Genomic DNA was isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and frozen tissues from patients with SEOs...
November 15, 2018: Human Pathology
Ako Yokoi BPh, Toshihide Matsumoto, Go Watanabe, Masataka Tochimoto, Makoto Saegusa
Although proteomic profiles for ovarian epithelial carcinoma (OECa) have been widely investigated, no single marker or set of predictors has been clinically implemented mainly because their reliability and validity have not yet been well established. To establish immunohistochemical (IHC) panels for prognosis prediction of OECa for use in daily pathology practice, the expression patterns of 12 IHC markers, p53, HNF-1β, ARID1A, estrogen receptor-α, progesterone receptor, vimentin, PTEN, PIK3CA, WT1, left-right determination factor, β-catenin, and Ki-67, were investigated using 282 OECas...
November 15, 2018: Human Pathology
Zhihong Hu, C Bueso Ramos, L Jeffrey Medeiros, Chong Zhao, C Cameron Yin, Shaoying Li, Shimin Hu, Wei Wang, Beenu Thakral, Jie Xu, Srdan Verstovsek, Pei Lin
The concurrent presence of JAK2 V617F, monocytosis and bone marrow fibrosis can be observed in both chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). It can be challenging to distinguish CMML with JAK2 mutation and fibrosis from other myeloid neoplasms, particularly PMF. To identify key features that may help distinguish these two entities, we retrospectively studied 21 cases diagnosed as "CMML" with JAK2 V617F and bone marrow fibrosis that were identified from a cohort of 610 cases of CMML diagnosed during 2006-2016...
November 15, 2018: Human Pathology
Xinchao Ban, Jie Yan, Shuangni Yu, Zhaohui Lu, Xiaoyan Chang, Congwei Jia, Cen Gao, Huilin Shao, Yan Wu, Xinxin Mao, Yue Zhang, Yuan Li, Jie Chen
Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PanNENs) have an unpredictable clinical course that varies from indolent to highly malignant. No immunohistochemical markers are available for reliable prediction of the biological behavior of early-stage PanNENs. Minichromosome maintenance protein 7 (MCM7) is a putative powerful marker of cell proliferation. Whether the expression of MCM7 is related to the risk of PanNENs progression remains unclear. We assessed the clinical behavior of 156 PanNENs with respect to stage, grade, Ki-67 index, MCM7 index, and other pathologic features...
November 15, 2018: Human Pathology
Doreen N Palsgrove, Diana Taheri, Simeon U Springer, Morgan Cowan, Gunes Guner, Maria A Mendoza Rodriguez, Maria Del Carmen Rodriguez Pena, Yuxuan Wang, Isaac Kinde, Bernardo F P Ricardo, Isabela Cunha, Kazutoshi Fujita, Dilek Ertoy, Kenneth W Kinzler, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Nickolas Papadopoulos, Bert Vogelstein, George J Netto
Activating mutations in the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene are the most common genetic alterations in urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder and upper urinary tract. While the cadherin 1 (CDH1) gene is commonly mutated in the clinically aggressive plasmacytoid variant of urothelial carcinoma (PUC), little is known about their TERT promoter mutation status. A retrospective search of our archives for PUC and UC with plasmacytoid and/or signet ring cell features (2007-2014) was performed...
November 14, 2018: Human Pathology
Amilcar Barreta, Luís Otávio Sarian, Amanda Canato Ferracini, Larissa Bastos Eloy Costa, Priscila Gava Mazzola, Liliana de Angelo Andrade, Sophie Derchain
Ovarian clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas (Type I) are thought to develop from endometriosis. ARID1A loss of expression is known to be related to the promotion of the endometriosis carcinogenesis. Despite the diverse origins and prognosis of Type I and Type II carcinomas, surgery followed by platinum-based chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for both. Limited knowledge about the expression of targeted therapies' biomarkers prevents the use of such markers as potential guides for tailored treatment...
November 14, 2018: Human Pathology
Kaleigh E Lindholm, Neda Kalhor, Cesar A Moran
Three cases of primary carcinomas of the lung each with an extensive osteoclast-like giant cell component are presented. The patients are three men between the ages of 58 and 67years (average: 62.5years) who presented with non-specific symptomatology. A prior history of malignancy, infectious, or granulomatous disease was negative in all the patients. Diagnostic imaging disclosed the presence of a large intrapulmonary mass; in one case in the right upper lobe and in two cases in the right lower lobe. Surgical resection via lobectomy was performed in the three patients...
November 14, 2018: Human Pathology
Wen-Yih Liang, Yu-Chen Wang, Chih-Yi Hsu, Shung-Haur Yang
Peritoneal involvement in colorectal cancer (CRC) has prognostic significance and is an important parameter in pathologic tumor staging. Restaging of tumors based on peritoneal elastic lamina invasion (ELI) has prognostic significance in CRCs classified as pathologic stage 3 tumors without regional lymph node metastasis (pT3N0). However, limited data are available on the significance of ELI in patients with node-positive disease. We applied elastic stain to one block per case for 141 consecutive patients with pT3N1M0 CRCs...
November 12, 2018: Human Pathology
Heather Dawson, Francesca Galuppini, Peter Träger, Martin D Berger, Peter Studer, Lukas Brügger, Inti Zlobec, Daniel Inderbitzin, Alessandro Lugli
Tumor budding is a robust prognostic parameter in colorectal cancer and can be used as an additional factor to guide patient management. Though backed by large bodies of data, a standardized scoring method is essential for integrating tumor budding in reporting protocols. The International Tumor Budding Consensus Conference (ITBCC) 2016 has proposed such a scoring system. The aim of this study is to validate the ITBCC method of tumor budding assessment on a well-characterized CRC cohort. 379 patients with resected Stage I-IV colorectal cancer were entered into the study...
November 11, 2018: Human Pathology
Casper Reijnen, Heidi V N Küsters-Vandevelde, Karin Abbink, Petra L M Zusterzeel, Antonius E van Herwaarden, Jeroen A W M van der Laak, Leon F A G Massuger, Marc P L M Snijders, Johanna M A Pijnenborg, Johan Bulten
Endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (EECs) are correlated with high serum levels of androgens and estrogen. We hypothesized that Leydig cells and ovarian stromal hyperplasia contribute to postmenopausal ovarian androgen production, and are observed more frequently in EEC patients. Ovaries of postmenopausal women with EEC (n=36) or non-endometrioid endometrial carcinoma (NEEC) (n=19) were examined for the presence of hilar Leydig cells, and compared with ovaries resected for benign conditions (n=22). Leydig cells were counted manually and a Leydig cell density was calculated per mm2 hilar surface...
November 11, 2018: Human Pathology
Jalid Sehouli, Elena Ioana Braicu, Rolf Richter, Carsten Denkert, Paul Jank, Philipp Sebastian Jurmeister, Catarina Alisa Kunze, Jan Budczies, Sylvia Darb-Esfahani, Wolfgang Daniel Schmitt, A Traut, Jacek Grabowski, ElianeTabea Taube, Helmut Plett
Low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (LGSOC) has recently come up as a distinct rare entity of epithelial ovarian cancer. Predictive and prognostic markers are not well studied yet. As Ki-67 and hormone receptors (HR) has been established as relevant cancer biomarkers in several malignant tumors we evaluated Ki-67 and HR expression rates by immunohistochemistry in 68 patients with LGSOC. We used standardized cutoff-finder algorithm to analyze prognostic significance for overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS)...
November 11, 2018: Human Pathology
Christopher J Schwartz, Igor Dolgalev, Esther Yoon, Iman Osman, Adriana Heguy, Eleazar Vega-Saenz de Miera, Diana Nimeh, George Jour, Farbod Darvishian
Microglandular adenosis (MGA) is a rare breast lesion reported to be associated with invasive carcinoma in up to 20-30% of cases, and has been proposed as a non-obligate precursor to basal-like breast cancers. We identified a case of matrix-producing metaplastic carcinoma with morphologic and immunohistochemical evidence of progression from MGA to atypical MGA (AMGA), carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive carcinoma. We performed whole exome sequencing of each component (MGA, AMGA, CIS and cancer) to characterize the mutational landscape of these foci...
November 11, 2018: Human Pathology
Rocco Cappellesso, Irene Coati, Luisa Barzon, Elektra Peta, Giulia Masi, Marco Scarpa, Cristiano Lanza, Mauro Michelotto, Alberto Ruol, Sonia Cesaro, Carlo Castoro, Giorgio Palù, Gerard J Nuovo, Matteo Fassan, Massimo Rugge
Verrucous carcinoma of the esophagus (VCE) is a rare variant of squamous cell cancer, with a puzzling clinical, etiological, and molecular profile. The etiological involvement of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the cancer's natural history is controversial. This study considers nine cases of VCE, focusing on patients' clinical history before surgery, histological phenotype, immunophenotype (EGFR, E-cadherin, cyclin D1, p16, and p53 expression), HPV infection, and TP53 gene mutational status (exons 5-8). Using three different molecular test methods, not one of these cases of VCE featured HPV infection...
November 10, 2018: Human Pathology
Kun Yao, Zejun Duan, Yin Wang, Mingshan Zhang, Tao Fan, Bin Wu, Xueling Qi
Subependymomas are rare, slow-growing, grade I glial tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). Recently, diffuse midline gliomas with mutations in the H3.1 or H3.3 genes at the position of amino acid 27, resulting in the replacement of lysine by methionine (K27 M), which were defined as the new grade IV entity. As H3K27M mutations have been reported in midline gliomas, gangliogliomas and pilocytic astrocytomas, whether they occur in midline subependymomas has been unclear. We were to determine whether any such mutations can be found in them and to analyze the prognostic relevance of any such mutations in subependymomas...
October 30, 2018: Human Pathology
Halla Vidarsdottir, Lena Tran, Björn Nodin, Karin Jirström, Maria Planck, Per Jönsson, Johanna Sm Mattsson, Johan Botling, Patrick Micke, Hans Brunnström
Correct diagnosis of pulmonary tumors is essential for treatment decision and often rely on immunohistochemical markers. We stained tissue microarrays from resected primary lung cancer (n=665) and pulmonary metastases (n=425) for CK7, CK20, CDX2, CK5, p40, p63, TTF-1, napsin A, GATA3 and PAX8 to systematically assess the diagnostic value of these markers. Primary lung adenocarcinomas expressed TTF-1 in 90% and napsin A in 84% of the cases, while 10% were positive for p63, 7% for CDX2, 2% for CK20 and 2% for GATA3...
October 30, 2018: Human Pathology
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