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Human Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088346/msi1-promotes-tumor-progression-by-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-cervical-cancer
#1
Pijun Gong, Yidong Wang, Yane Gao, Mei Gao, Lixia Liu, Ping Qu, Xinxing Jin, Qing Gao
Musashi1 (Msi1) is an RNA-binding protein that has been reported to be a pivotal regulator in tumorigenesis and progression in several cancers. However, its function and mechanism in cervical cancer is still unknown. In this study, Msi1 expression was found elevated in cervical cancers by immunohistochemistry and correlated with poor outcomes. Then, endogenous Msi1 was silenced in cervical cancer cell lines by short hairpin RNA (shRNA), and its function and mechanism were determined. The results showed that the silencing of Msi1 in SiHa and HeLa cells inhibited the cells' migratory and invasive abilities in vitro and tumor progression in vivo...
January 11, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088345/phenotypic-characterization-of-perivascular-myoid-cell-neoplasms-using-myosin-1b-a-newly-identified-human-pericyte-marker
#2
Shiori Meguro, Taisuke Akamatsu, Sayomi Matsushima, Isao Kosugi, Hideya Kawasaki, Yosifumi Arai, Satoshi Baba, Takashi Tsuchida, Youji Shido, Takafumi Suda, Toshihide Iwashita
Our aim was to identify pericyte-specific markers for the analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human tissue samples, and to characterize perivascular myoid cell neoplasms phenotypically. Previously identified pericyte markers failed to distinguish pericytes from other cellular types, such as vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) and fibroblasts, in immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. However, we compared gene expression profiles between pericytes, vSMCs, and fibroblasts, and performed human skin vasculature IHC analysis, which led to the identification of myosin 1B (MYO1B) as a novel pericyte marker...
January 11, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087478/renal-involvement-in-lysinuric-protein-intolerance-contribution-of-pathology-to-assessment-of-heterogeneity-of-renal-lesions
#3
Emmanuel Estève, Pauline Krug, Aurélie Hummel, Jean-Baptiste Arnoux, Olivia Boyer, Anais Brassier, Pascale de Lonlay, Vincent Vuiblet, Stéphanie Gobin, Rémi Salomon, Christine Piètrement, Jean-Paul Bonnefont, Aude Servais, Louise Galmiche
Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the SLC7A7 gene encoding the light subunit of a cationic amino acid transporter. Symptoms mimic primary urea cycle defects but dysimmune symptoms are also described. Renal involvement in LPI was first described in the 1980's. In 2007, it appeared that it could concern as much as 75% of LPI patients and could lead to end stage renal disease. The most common feature is proximal tubular dysfunction and nephrocalcinosis but glomerular lesions are also reported...
January 10, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087477/overexpression-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-induced-protein-8-tnfaip8-is-associated-with-tumor-aggressiveness-and-poor-prognosis-in-patients-with-invasive-ductal-breast-carcinoma
#4
Min Xiao, QingYong Xu, Chun Lou, Yu Qin, XiaoMing Ning, TianBo Liu, XuHai Zhao, ShuSheng Jia, YuanXi Huang
Tumor necrosis factor-α-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8), a transcription factor NF-κB-inducible, antiapoptotic and oncogenic molecule, is associated with prognosis of several human malignancies. However, the relationship between TNFAIP8 and the prognosis of the invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast remains unclear. TNFAIP8 expression was evaluated using real-time PCR and Western blot analysis in 20 fresh IDC tissues, and immunohistochemical analysis in 351 paraffin-embedded IDC tissues. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated that both TNFAIP8 mRNA and protein were upregulated in IDC tissues compared with the paired adjacent noncancerous tissues...
January 10, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087476/phospholipase-d-mrna-expression-and-clinical-role-in-high-grade-serous-carcinoma
#5
Keren Harel-Dassa, Saul Yedgar, Claes G Tropé, Ben Davidson, Reuven Reich
This objective of this study was to analyze the expression and clinical role of phospholipase D (PLD) in high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC). PLD1 and PLD2 isoform expression was studied in 125 HGSC specimens (73 effusions, 28 ovarian tumors, 24 solid metastases) using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Expression levels were analyzed for association with clinicopathologic parameters, including chemoresponse, and survival. PLD1 and PLD2 isoforms were found in the majority of specimens at all anatomic sites and their levels were strongly positively related (P<...
January 10, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087475/immunohistochemical-approach-for-the-diagnosis-of-a-liver-mass-on-small-biopsy-specimens
#6
Won-Tak Choi, Rageshree Ramachandran, Sanjay Kakar
Well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) shares overlapping histological features with benign hepatocellular lesions, including hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) and focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) in non-cirrhotic liver, and with high-grade dysplastic nodule (HGDN) in cirrhotic liver. Several metastatic tumors, such as neuroendocrine tumor, renal cell carcinoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, melanoma, and epithelioid angiomyolipoma, can be indistinguishable from HCC on histologic grounds. Since this distinction has important therapeutic implications, judicious use of immunohistochemical markers plays an important role in establishing an accurate diagnosis, especially when limited material of tumor is available on cell block or a small core biopsy...
January 10, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087474/foxo1-downregulation-is-associated-with-worse-outcome-in-bladder-cancer-and-adds-significant-prognostic-information-to-p53-overexpression
#7
Josep Lloreta, Alba Font-Tello, Núria Juanpere, Albert Frances, Marta Lorenzo, Lara Nonell, Silvia de Muga, Ivonne Vázquez, Lluís Cecchini, Silvia Hernández-Llodrà
Nuclear FOXOs mediate cell cycle arrest and promote apoptosis. FOXOs and p53 could have similar effects as tumor suppressor genes. In spite of extensive literature, little is known about the role of FOXO1 and its relationship with p53 status in bladder cancer. Expression of FOXO1 and p53 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 162 urothelial carcinomas (UC). Decreased FOXO1 expression, p53 overexpression and the combination FOXO1 downregulation/p53 overexpression were strongly associated with high grade (P=...
January 10, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041975/determination-of-esophageal-eosinophil-counts-and-other-histologic-features-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis-by-pathology-trainees-is-highly-accurate
#8
Spencer Rusin, Shannon Covey, Irina Perjar, Johnny Hollyfield, Olga Speck, Kimberly Woodward, John T Woosley, Evan S Dellon
Many studies of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) utilize expert pathology review, but it is unknown whether less experienced pathologists can reliably assess EoE histology. We aimed to determine whether trainee pathologists can accurately quantify esophageal eosinophil counts and identify associated histologic features of EoE, as compared to expert pathologists. We used a set of 40 digitized slides from patients with varying degrees of esophageal eosinophilia. Each of six trainee pathologists underwent a teaching session and used our validated protocol to determine eosinophil counts and associated EoE findings...
December 29, 2016: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041974/low-expression-of-rassf10-is-associated-with-poor-survival-in-patients-with-colorectal-cancer
#9
Fei Wang, Peng Li, Ying Feng, Yi-Lin Hu, Yi-Fei Liu, Yi-Bing Guo, Xin-Lin Jiang, Qin-Sheng Mao, Wan-Jiang Xue
The Ras-association domain family member 10 (RASSF10) has been identified as a tumor suppressor in human colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the expression of RASSF10 in patients with CRC has not been evaluated for its potential use as a biomarker in the diagnosis and prognosis assessment of CRC. We analyzed the expression of RASSF10 mRNA (n=30) and protein (n=205) in CRC and matched non-cancerous colon tissue samples to explore the relationships among RASSF10 expression, clinical pathological factors, and prognosis in patients with CRC...
December 29, 2016: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041973/prognostic-significance-of-stromal-grem1-expression-in-colorectal-cancer
#10
Bo Gun Jang, Hye Sung Kim, Weon Young Chang, Jeong Mo Bae, Hyeon Jeong Oh, Xianyu Wen, Seorin Jeong, Nam Yun Cho, Woo Ho Kim, Gyeong Hoon Kang
Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the dominant cell population in the cancer stroma. Gremlin 1 (GREM1), an antagonist of the bone morphogenetic protein pathway, is expressed by CAFs in a variety of human cancers. However, its biological significance for cancer patients is largely unknown. We applied RNA in situ hybridization (ISH) to evaluate the prognostic value of stromal GREM1 expression in a large cohort of 670 colorectal cancers (CRCs). Overall GREM1 expression in CRCs was lower than that of the matched normal mucosa, and GREM1 expression had a strong positive correlation with BMI1 and inverse correlations with EPHB2 and OLFM4...
December 29, 2016: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041972/breast-cancer-biomarkers-before-and-after-neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-does-repeat-testing-impact-therapeutic-management
#11
Zhaoying Xian, Alexander K Quinones, Gary Tozbikian, Debra L Zynger
In patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), there is no consensus on retesting biomarkers within the excision specimen. Our aim was to investigate the clinical relevance of biomarker changes post-NAC at a large tertiary medical center. A retrospective search was performed to identify cases from 2012-2015 with needle biopsy confirmed invasive breast carcinoma treated with NAC and subsequent excision containing residual invasive tumor. Biomarkers (estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2/neu (HER2)) were performed on all pre-NAC biopsies...
December 29, 2016: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041971/clinicopathological-analysis-of-mixed-endometrial-carcinomas-clinical-relevance-of-different-neoplastic-components
#12
Esther Diana Rossi, Tommaso Bizzarro, Giorgia Monterossi, Frediano Inzani, Francesco Fanfani, Giovanni Scambia, Gian Franco Zannoni
Mixed endometrial carcinomas (MEC) refer to tumors characterized by 2 or more distinct histotypes mostly comprised of endometrioid (EC) and serous /clear cell carcinomas (SC/CC). The specific quantification of these distinct components represents a challenging and critical point for both prognosis and management. Herein, we analyze a large series of MEC and compare them with EC and SC/CC. We evaluated a series of 69 MEC between January 2002 and December 2015. We compared the MEC series with 186 EC (including 117 endometrioid G3), 31 SC and 38 CC...
December 29, 2016: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034727/diagnosing-colorectal-medullary-carcinoma-interobserver-variability-and-clinicopathological-implications
#13
Lik Hang Lee, Rhonda K Yantiss, Eran Sadot, Bing Ren, Marcela Santos Calvacanti, Jaclyn F Hechtman, Sinisa Ivelja, Be Huynh, Yue Xue, Tatiana Shitilbans, Hamza Guend, Zsofia K Stadler, Martin R Weiser, Efsevia Vakiani, Mithat Gonen, David S Klimstra, Jinru Shia
Colorectal medullary carcinoma, recognized by the World-Health-Organization as a distinct histologic subtype, is commonly regarded as a specific entity with an improved prognosis and unique molecular pathogenesis. A fundamental but as-yet unaddressed question, however, is whether it can be diagnosed reproducibly. In this study, by analyzing 80 colorectal adenocarcinomas whose dominant growth pattern was solid (thus encompassing medullary carcinoma and its mimics), we provided a detailed description of the morphological spectrum from "classic medullary histology" to non-medullary poorly-differentiated histologies and demonstrated significant overlapping between categories...
December 26, 2016: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025080/expression-of-mtorc1-2-related-proteins-in-primary-and-brain-metastatic-lung-adenocarcinoma
#14
Ildikó Krencz, Anna Sebestyén, Katalin Fábián, Ágnes Márk, Judit Moldvay, András Khoor, László Kopper, Judit Pápay
Brain metastases are common complications of adenocarcinomas of the lung and are associated with a poor prognosis. Although an increasing amount of data indicates that dysregulated activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) can influence the metastatic potential of various tumors, the role of mTOR complexes in the development of brain metastases from adenocarcinomas of the lung is largely unknown. To estimate mTOR activity, we studied the expression of mTOR related proteins (mTORC1: p-mTOR, p-S6; mTORC2: p-mTOR, Rictor) in primary (n=67) and brain metastatic (n=67) lung adenocarcinomas, including 15 paired tissue samples, using immunohistochemistry and tissue microarrays...
December 23, 2016: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025079/%C3%AE-iii-tubulin-overexpression-is-linked-to-agressive-tumor-features-and-genetic-instability-in-urinary-bladder-cancer
#15
Andrea Hinsch, Aref Chaker, Christian Burdelski, Christina Koop, Maria Christina Tsourlakis, Stefan Steurer, Michael Rink, Till Simon Eichenauer, Waldemar Wilczak, Corinna Wittmer, Margit Fisch, Ronald Simon, Guido Sauter, Franziska Büschek, Till Clauditz, Sarah Minner, Frank Jacobsen
Development of genetic instability is a hallmark of tumor progression. Type III ß-tubulin (TUBB3) is a component of microtubules involved in chromosome segregation. Its overexpression has been linked to adverse features of urinary bladder cancer. To investigate the role of TUBB3 for development of genetic instability, we compared TUBB3 expression with histopathological features and surrogate markers of genetic instability and tumor aggressiveness, copy number changes of HER2, TOP2A, CCND1, RAF1, and FGFR1, nuclear accumulation of p53, and cell proliferation, in a tissue microarray with >700 bladder cancers...
December 23, 2016: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025078/analysis-of-kras-nras-pik3ca-and-braf-mutational-profile-in-poorly-differentiated-clusters-pdc-of-kras-mutated-colon-cancer
#16
Luca Reggiani Bonetti, Valeria Barresi, Stefania Bettelli, Cecilia Caprera, Samantha Manfredini, Antonio Maiorana
Recently, a grading system based on the counting of poorly differentiated clusters (PDC) of neoplastic cells was shown to be a strong predictor of nodal metastases and negative prognosis in colon cancer (CC). In this study, we assessed and compared the mutational status of KRAS, NRAS and PIK3CA in PDC and corresponding main tumor tissue of 25 CCs with KRAS mutations. For each tumor, PDC and main tumor tissue were distinctly analyzed by using laser microdissection and mass spectrometry. In 3 CCs the main tumor tissue had also PIK3CA mutations (C420R: 1; E545K: 1; H1047R: 1) and in 1 it showed NRAS mutation (codon 12)...
December 23, 2016: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025077/cd45-is-a-more-sensitive-marker-than-cd3-to-diagnose-lymphocytic-myocarditis-in-the-endomyocardium
#17
Linde Woudstra, P Stefan Biesbroek, Reindert W Emmens, Stephane Heymans, Lynda J Juffermans, Allard C van der Wal, Albert C van Rossum, Hans W M Niessen, Paul A J Krijnen
To diagnose lymphocytic myocarditis (LM) immuno-histopathological examination of endomyocardial biopsies (EMB) is used with a cut-off value of ≥14 leukocytes/mm(2), composed of CD3 and CD68 positive cells. We hypothesized that a more common leukocyte marker, CD45, instead of CD3 could increase the diagnostic sensitivity. In hearts of mice with acute viral myocarditis (n=9), controls (n=7) and in the EMB sampling area of the left ventricular posterior wall (LVPW) obtained from autopsy hearts of patients diagnosed with LM (n=18) and controls (n=6) were stained with anti-CD68, -CD3 and -CD45...
December 23, 2016: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025076/unusual-extramedullary-hematopoietic-neoplasms-in-lymph-nodes
#18
Vanessa D Dayton, Sarah J Williams, Robert W McKenna, Michael A Linden
Myeloid, plasma cell, and lymphoblastic neoplasms are expected findings in bone marrow but are much less commonly diagnosed as primary processes in lymph nodes. The objective of this review is to aid pathologists in recognizing common hematopoietic neoplasms in the unusual setting of initial presentation in lymph nodes. Review of historical background and evolution of testing strategies is presented in order to improve understanding of the need for accurate diagnosis and classification using current nomenclature...
December 23, 2016: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017397/corrigendum-to-does-the-distance-between-tumor-and-margin-in-radical-prostatectomy-specimens-correlate-with-prognosis-relation-to-tumor-location-hum-pathol-2016-56-11-15
#19
Swetha Paluru, Jonathan I Epstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2016: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993581/the-effect-of-limited-tertiary-gleason-pattern-5-on-the-new-prostate-cancer-grade-groups
#20
Alexander S Baras, Joel B Nelson, Misop Han, Anil V Parwani, Jonathan I Epstein
The risk of recurrence for prostatic adenocarcinoma following prostatectomy, as detected by prostate specific antigen (PSA) or other modalities, is based primarily on Gleason score along with pathologic tumor stage and surgical margin status. Recent large multi-institutional data spanning the last decade have supported modification of risk of recurrence stratification based on Grade Groups: Grade Group 1 (3+3=6), Grade Group 2 (3+4=7), Grade Group 3 (4+3=7), Grade Group 4 (4+4=8), and Grade Group 5 (Gleason scores 9 and 10)...
December 16, 2016: Human Pathology
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