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HIV Medicine

A Knudsen, U S Kristoffersen, I Panum, Y B Hansen, P D Skottrup, P Hasbak, A Kjaer, A-M Lebech
Coinfection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) may be involved in cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected patients. We found that higher level of CMV immunoglobulin G (IgG) was independently associated with an increased risk of coronary artery calcium and higher intima-media thickness in HIV-infected patients but not in healthy controls after adjustment for other cardiovascular risk factors and levels of herpes viridae IgG.
September 4, 2018: HIV Medicine
J L Marcus, L B Hurley, A Prasad, J Zaroff, D B Klein, M A Horberg, A S Go, G N DeLorenze, C P Quesenberry, S Sidney, J C Lo, M J Silverberg
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association of HIV infection and immunodeficiency with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) recurrence, and with all-cause mortality as a secondary outcome, after hospitalization for ACS among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study within Kaiser Permanente Northern California of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults discharged after ACS hospitalization [types: ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI, or unstable angina] during 1996-2010...
September 4, 2018: HIV Medicine
R Jaspal, B Lopes, J Bayley, P Papaloukas
OBJECTIVES: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention tool for high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). However, acceptability and uptake have been variable. This study explored the factors that predict PrEP acceptability in MSM in Leicester, where HIV prevalence is double the national average. METHODS: A total of 191 HIV-negative MSM completed a cross-sectional survey. Participants provided demographic information, and completed measures of HIV knowledge, perceived HIV risk, engagement in sexual risk behaviour, acquisition of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the last 12 months, frequency of HIV testing and PrEP acceptability...
August 30, 2018: HIV Medicine
L Aurpibul, P Sugandhavesa, K Srithanaviboonchai, W Sitthi, A Tangmunkongvorakul, C Chariyalertsak, K Rerkasem
OBJECTIVES: HIV infection has become a chronic disease requiring long-term treatment. Premature cardiovascular disease resulting from atherosclerosis in the HIV-infected population has been observed. We assessed the prevalence of peripheral artery disease (PAD), a common consequence of atherosclerosis, in HIV-infected patients aged ≥ 50 years receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART). METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 community hospitals in Chiang Mai, Thailand...
August 30, 2018: HIV Medicine
R F Thudium, J Lundgren, T Benfield, B G Nordestgaard, Á H Borges, J Gerstoft, S D Nielsen, A Ronit
OBJECTIVES: Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is associated with an increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and has been related to CD4 T-cell count decline in people living with HIV (PLWH). We determined whether HIV status is associated with AAT concentrations and assessed associations between AAT concentration, pulmonary function and immunological status. METHODS: Alpha-1 antitrypsin was measured and spirometry performed in 1011 PLWH from the Copenhagen Comorbidity in HIV Infection (COCOMO) study and in 11 962 age- and sex-matched uninfected controls...
August 30, 2018: HIV Medicine
E M Kiefer, D R Hoover, Q Shi, J C Dusingize, J D Sinayobye, K Anastos
OBJECTIVES: African women are disproportionately affected by HIV infection and may experience non-AIDS-related complications associated with inflammation. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), d-dimer and transthyretin have been examined as inflammatory markers elsewhere, but it is unclear how they change over time in HIV-negative or HIV-positive African women with or without antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. METHODS: We examined hsCRP, d-dimer and transthyretin levels at baseline and at follow-up of ≥2 years in 185 HIV-negative and 510 HIV-positive Rwandan women who were ART naïve at study entry...
August 30, 2018: HIV Medicine
A Ronit, T Benfield, A Mocroft, J Gerstoft, B G Nordestgaard, J Vestbo, S D Nielsen
OBJECTIVES: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is underdiagnosed in the general population and possibly also in people living with HIV (PLWH). We evaluated the diagnostic performance of symptoms and risk factors for assessment of airflow limitation in PLWH and in uninfected controls. METHODS: Spirometry was performed in the Copenhagen Comorbidity in HIV Infection (COCOMO) study and Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS), and airflow limitation was defined by forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity < lower limit of normal...
August 30, 2018: HIV Medicine
C Dewar, Q M Anstee, D A Price, Bai Payne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2018: HIV Medicine
K Fenton, A Cropp, M Chauhan, K Foster, J Harwood, C Lyth, D A Price, M Valappil, D Weiand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2018: HIV Medicine
D Hagins, C Orkin, E S Daar, A Mills, C Brinson, E DeJesus, F A Post, J Morales-Ramirez, M Thompson, O Osiyemi, B Rashbaum, H-J Stellbrink, C Martorell, H Liu, Y-P Liu, D Porter, S E Collins, D SenGupta, M Das
OBJECTIVES: The single-tablet regimen rilpivirine, emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide (RPV/FTC/TAF) for treatment of HIV-1-infected adults was approved based on bioequivalence. We assessed the clinical efficacy, safety and tolerability of switching to RPV/FTC/TAF from either RPV/FTC/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or efavirenz (EFV)/FTC/TDF. METHODS: We conducted two distinct randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, noninferiority trials in participants taking RPV/FTC/TDF (Study 1216) and EFV/FTC/TDF (Study 1160)...
August 12, 2018: HIV Medicine
J O Lam, G M Barnell, M Merchant, C G Ellis, M J Silverberg
OBJECTIVES: HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk of anal cancer. Screening for anal cancer precursors using high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) may be clinically beneficial. In this study, we examined patient tolerability of this procedure. METHODS: The acceptability of HRA was evaluated among HIV-infected patients who completed a first-time HRA between July 2008 and December 2013 at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. We reviewed electronic medical records to identify lack of HRA acceptability, which was defined as receipt of HRA with sedation, dispensation of opioid analgaesia, and/or an urgent care visit following HRA, and to evaluate factors associated with patients not returning for a recommended repeat HRA (proxy for HRA acceptability)...
August 6, 2018: HIV Medicine
H Nassereddine, C Charpentier, M Bucau, V Joly, L Bienvenu, C Davitian, L Abramowitz, D Benabderrahmane, L Kotelevets, E Chastre, T Lehy, F Walker
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the interest to combine cytological examination and human papillomavirus (HPV) typing of anal and cervical Papanicolaou (Pap) smears of HIV-infected patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), to evaluate whether differences in prevalence exist between anal and cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions in patients with high-risk oncogenic HPV infection. METHODS: Anal and/or cervical Pap smears were obtained by anoscopy and/or colposcopy in 238 subjects recruited consecutively in 2015: anal smears were obtained from 48 male and female patients [42 men; 35 men who have sex with men (MSM)] and cervical smears from 190 female patients...
July 30, 2018: HIV Medicine
K Kusejko, A Marzel, B Hampel, N Bachmann, H Nguyen, J Fehr, D L Braun, M Battegay, E Bernasconi, A Calmy, M Cavassini, M Hoffmann, J Böni, S Yerly, T Klimkait, M Perreau, A Rauch, H F Günthard, R D Kouyos
OBJECTIVES: Despite the huge success of antiretroviral therapy (ART), there is an ongoing HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in resource-rich countries. Understanding the driving factors underlying this process is important for curbing the epidemic. METHODS: We simulated the HIV epidemic in MSM in Switzerland by stratifying a mathematical model by CD4 count, the care cascade and condom use. The model was parametrised with clinical, epidemiological and behavioural data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and surveys in the HIV-negative population...
July 26, 2018: HIV Medicine
G Ireland, V Delpech, P Kirwan, S Croxford, S Lattimore, C Sabin, K Porter, S Mandal, R Simmons
OBJECTIVES: In persons with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, HIV coinfection leads to faster progression to advanced liver disease. The aim of our study was to estimate diagnosed HIV prevalence among people with evidence of current HCV infection (polymerase chain reaction positive) and examine predictors of coinfection. METHODS: Adults (≥ 15 years old) with a current HCV infection reported to the Public Health England (PHE) sentinel surveillance of blood-borne viruses were linked to the PHE national HIV database using a deterministic methodology...
July 26, 2018: HIV Medicine
C I Hatleberg, L Ryom, A d'Arminio Monforte, E Fontas, P Reiss, O Kirk, W El-Sadr, A Phillips, S de Wit, F Dabis, R Weber, M Law, J D Lundgren, C Sabin
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have suggested that hypertension in HIV-positive individuals is associated primarily with traditional risk factors such as older age, diabetes and dyslipidaemia. However, controversy remains as to whether exposure to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs poses additional risk, and we investigated this question in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) cohort. METHODS: The incidence of hypertension [systolic blood pressure (BP) > 140 and/or diastolic BP > 90 mmHg and/or initiation of antihypertensive treatment] was determined overall and in strata defined by demographic, metabolic and HIV-related factors, including cumulative exposure to each individual ARV drug...
July 18, 2018: HIV Medicine
M C Acosta, M Kundro, G Viloria, A Peressín Paz, F Morello, F Latorre, E Seoane, J Toibaro, M Losso
OBJECTIVES: Up to 20% of HIV-related focal brain lesion (FBL) diagnoses cannot be determined without invasive procedures. In such cases, brain biopsy is an important step in the evaluation algorithm. The aims of this study were to describe the clinical outcomes of patients with FBL, the proportion of diagnoses confirmed by brain biopsies and their aetiologies, and to analyse the proportion of patients in whom the biopsy motivated a change in therapeutic management. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed...
July 13, 2018: HIV Medicine
S Gallien, M Massetti, P Flandre, H Leleu, D Descamps, E Lazaro
OBJECTIVES: To compare nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-sparing regimens with tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)-based combinations in HIV-1-infected adults, we performed a network meta-analysis (NMA) to provide estimates of relative efficacy for these two regimens. METHODS: A systematic literature review (SLR) was performed to identify phase 3/4 randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of commonly used combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) including an NRTI backbone or that of commonly used NRTI-sparing regimens...
July 13, 2018: HIV Medicine
M G Ahlström, A Knudsen, H Ullum, J Gerstoft, A Kjaer, A-M Lebech, P Hasbak, N Obel
OBJECTIVES: Smoking is a major contributor to mortality and morbidity in HIV-positive individuals. Our primary objective was to evaluate the association between smoking status determined by plasma cotinine (P-cotinine) concentration and inflammatory and endothelial biomarkers in HIV-positive versus HIV-negative individuals. METHODS: We studied eight inflammatory/endothelial biomarkers [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), E-selectin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9), myeloperoxidase (MPO), tissue type plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (tPAI) and endothelin] in 105 HIV-positive individuals and 105 HIV-negative individuals matched on age, sex and self-reported smoking status...
July 9, 2018: HIV Medicine
G Fabbri, I Mastrorosa, A Vergori, L Timelli, P Lorenzini, M Zaccarelli, S Cicalini, R Bellagamba, M M Plazzi, V Mazzotta, A Antinori, A Ammassari
OBJECTIVES: Only a few studies have addressed liver stiffness dynamics after hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment in patients with HIV/HCV coinfection. The aim was to evaluate the variation in liver stiffness and in serum liver fibrosis scores in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients before and after treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). METHODS: Liver stiffness measured using transient elastography as well as serum liver fibrosis scores [fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score and the aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI)] were evaluated before and at 6-12 months after DAA treatment...
June 28, 2018: HIV Medicine
T Seers, P Vassallo, K Pollock, J P Thornhill, S Fidler, C Foster
OBJECTIVES: In adults with horizontally acquired HIV infection, an inverted CD4:CD8 ratio is associated with persistent immune activation, size of HIV reservoir and predicts an increased risk of non-AIDS-defining adverse events. Normalization of this ratio with antiretroviral therapy (ART) is suboptimal in adults, despite viral suppression, and is less well described in paediatric populations. We investigated rates of CD4:CD8 ratio recovery in children with perinatally acquired HIV infection (PaHIV) on ART...
October 2018: HIV Medicine
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