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HIV Medicine

M C Acosta, M Kundro, G Viloria, A Peresin, F Morello, F Latorre, E Seoane, J Toibaro, M Losso
OBJECTIVES: Up to 20% of HIV-related focal brain lesion (FBL) diagnoses cannot be determined without invasive procedures. In such cases, brain biopsy is an important step in the evaluation algorithm. The aims of this study were to describe the clinical outcomes of patients with FBL, the proportion of diagnoses confirmed by brain biopsies and their aetiologies, and to analyse the proportion of patients in whom the biopsy motivated a change in therapeutic management. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed...
July 13, 2018: HIV Medicine
S Gallien, M Massetti, P Flandre, H Leleu, D Descamps, E Lazaro
OBJECTIVES: To compare nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-sparing regimens with tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)-based combinations in HIV-1-infected adults, we performed a network meta-analysis (NMA) to provide estimates of relative efficacy for these two regimens. METHODS: A systematic literature review (SLR) was performed to identify phase 3/4 randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of commonly used combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) including an NRTI backbone or that of commonly used NRTI-sparing regimens...
July 13, 2018: HIV Medicine
M Scholten, I Suárez, M Platten, T Kümmerle, N Jung, C Wyen, A Ernst, C Horn, V Burst, V Suárez, J Rybniker, G Fätkenheuer, C Lehmann
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the trend in usage of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) after HIV-1 risk exposure and evaluated PEP prescription decision making of physicians according to guidelines. METHODS: All PEP consultations from January 2014 to December 2016 in patients presenting at the University Hospital of Cologne (Germany) were retrospectively analysed. HIV risk contacts included sexual and occupational exposure. The European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) Guidelines for HIV PEP (version 9...
July 11, 2018: HIV Medicine
J D Kowalska, D Bursa, D Gökengin, D Jilich, J Tomazic, M Vasylyev, P Bukovinowa, V Mulabdic, S Antonyak, A Horban
OBJECTIVES: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV infection has been introduced in only a few European countries. We investigated the potential to provide PrEP in the Central and Eastern European region, and in neighbouring countries. METHODS: The Euroguidelines in Central and Eastern Europe (ECEE) Network Group was formed in February 2016 to review standards of care for HIV infection in the region. Information related to PrEP was collected through on-line surveys...
July 10, 2018: HIV Medicine
S A Haberlen, L P Jacobson, F J Palella, A Dobs, M Plankey, J E Lake, L A Kingsley, R Stall, W S Post, T T Brown
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to characterize contemporary patterns and correlates of testosterone therapy (TTh) use and discontinuation by HIV serostatus among men in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS). METHODS: Self-reported testosterone use data were collected semiannually from 2400 (1286 HIV-infected and 1114 HIV-uninfected) men who have sex with men. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios for TTh use and predictors of TTh discontinuation (2012-2015)...
July 10, 2018: HIV Medicine
M G Ahlström, A Knudsen, H Ullum, J Gerstoft, A Kjaer, A-M Lebech, P Hasbak, N Obel
OBJECTIVES: Smoking is a major contributor to mortality and morbidity in HIV-positive individuals. Our primary objective was to evaluate the association between smoking status determined by plasma cotinine (P-cotinine) concentration and inflammatory and endothelial biomarkers in HIV-positive versus HIV-negative individuals. METHODS: We studied eight inflammatory/endothelial biomarkers [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), E-selectin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9), myeloperoxidase (MPO), tissue type plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (tPAI) and endothelin] in 105 HIV-positive individuals and 105 HIV-negative individuals matched on age, sex and self-reported smoking status...
July 9, 2018: HIV Medicine
I Krznaric, M Bickel, A Carganico, P De Leuw, A Haberl, G Knecht, C Koegl, P Lauscher, G Schüttfort, C Stephan, E Wolf, T Wolf
OBJECTIVES: Raltegravir is used in many antiretroviral combinations, but its use in treatment-experienced patients without knowledge of baseline resistance is discussed controversially as a number of comparative studies have shown a higher rate of virological failure. However, it has been used frequently for the management of treatment failure, as it was the first integrase inhibitor to become available, and thus offered new options for patients with multiple resistance. The strategic use of raltegravir in this setting is examined in this study...
July 3, 2018: HIV Medicine
J Hongler, J Musaazi, B Ledergerber, N Eberhard, C Sekaggya-Wiltshire, P M Keller, J Fehr, B Castelnuovo
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to clarify how HIV infection affects tuberculosis liquid and solid culture results in a resource-limited setting. METHODS: We used baseline data from the Study on Outcomes Related to Tuberculosis and HIV Drug Concentrations in Uganda (SOUTH), which included 268 HIV/tuberculosis (TB)-coinfected individuals. Culture results from Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) solid culture and mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) liquid culture systems and culture-based correlates for bacillary density from the sputum of HIV/TB-coinfected individuals at baseline were analysed...
July 3, 2018: HIV Medicine
L J Brown, K S Tan, L E Guerra, C J Naidoo, A Nardone
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine whether behaviourally informed short message service (SMS) primer and reminder messages could increase the return rate of HIV self-sampling kits ordered online. METHODS: The study was a 2 × 2 factorial design randomized control trial. A total of 9585 individuals who ordered a self-sampling kit from different SMS combinations: 1) standard reminders sent days 3 and 7 after dispatch (control); 2) primer sent 1 day after dispatch plus standard reminders; 3) behavioural insights (BI) reminders (no primer); or 4) primer plus BI reminders...
July 2, 2018: HIV Medicine
G Fabbri, I Mastrorosa, A Vergori, L Timelli, P Lorenzini, M Zaccarelli, S Cicalini, R Bellagamba, M M Plazzi, V Mazzotta, A Antinori, A Ammassari
OBJECTIVES: Only a few studies have addressed liver stiffness dynamics after hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment in patients with HIV/HCV coinfection. The aim was to evaluate the variation in liver stiffness and in serum liver fibrosis scores in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients before and after treatment with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). METHODS: Liver stiffness measured using transient elastography as well as serum liver fibrosis scores [fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score and the aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI)] were evaluated before and at 6-12 months after DAA treatment...
June 28, 2018: HIV Medicine
B Rossetti, S Di Giambenedetto, C Torti, M C Postorino, G Punzi, F Saladini, W Gennari, V Borghi, L Monno, A R Pignataro, E Polilli, M Colafigli, A Poggi, S Tini, M Zazzi, A De Luca
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate the evolution of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance (TDR) prevalence in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients from 2006 to 2016. METHODS: HIV-1 sequences were retrieved from the Antiviral Response Cohort Analysis (ARCA) database and TDR was defined as detection of at least one mutation from the World Health Organization (WHO) surveillance list. RESULTS: We included protease/reverse transcriptase sequences from 3573 patients; 455 had also integrase sequences...
June 22, 2018: HIV Medicine
D Sculier, T Doco-Lecompte, S Yerly, K J Metzner, L A Decosterd, A Calmy
OBJECTIVES: Dolutegravir (DTG) is a highly effective integrase inhibitor with a strong genetic resistance barrier and a potential role in simplified HIV maintenance treatment. We assessed the feasibility of DTG maintenance monotherapy and measured HIV reservoirs on DTG monotherapy. METHODS: An interventional, open-label, single-arm study including eight virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected patients switched to DTG 50 mg once daily for 24 weeks was performed...
June 22, 2018: HIV Medicine
J L Casado, C Santiuste, M J Vivancos, M Monsalvo, A Moreno, M J Perez-Elías, J M Del Rey, S Moreno
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the reversibility of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-associated renal decline and tubular dysfunction using different antiretroviral strategies. METHODS: A successive evaluation of renal [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)] and tubular (phosphataemia, proteinuria, albuminuria, phosphaturia, uricosuria, glycosuria and tubular proteinuria) parameters was performed in 231 patients, before and after switching from TDF to abacavir (n = 60), using dual therapy (n = 49), or continuing the same regimen including TDF (n = 122)...
June 22, 2018: HIV Medicine
C Sagnelli, C Uberti-Foppa, H Hasson, G Bellini, C Minichini, S Salpietro, E Messina, D Barbanotti, M Merli, F Punzo, N Coppola, A Lazzarin, E Sagnelli, F Rossi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate whether the rs35761398 variants of the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) gene may influence the acquisition of HIV infection and the clinical presentation of HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection. METHODS: We compared 166 HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with 186 HCV-monoinfected patients, all with biopsy-proven chronic hepatitis (using the Ishak scoring system), naïve for anti-HCV treatment and tested for the CB2 rs35761398 polymorphism (using the TaqMan assay)...
June 22, 2018: HIV Medicine
A E Brown, S Nash, N Connor, P D Kirwan, D Ogaz, S Croxford, D De Angelis, V C Delpech
OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to present recent trends in the UK HIV epidemic (2007-2016) and the public health response. METHODS: HIV diagnoses and clinical markers were extracted from the HIV and AIDS Reporting System; HIV testing data in sexual health services (SHS) were taken from GUMCAD STI Surveillance System. HIV data were modelled to estimate the incidence in men who have sex with men (MSM) and post-migration HIV acquisition in heterosexuals. Office for National Statistics (ONS) data enabled mortality rates to be calculated...
June 20, 2018: HIV Medicine
X Mao, Z Wang, Q Hu, C Huang, H Yan, Z Wang, L Lu, M Zhuang, X Chen, J Fu, W Geng, Y Jiang, H Shang, J Xu
OBJECTIVES: The HIV epidemic is worsening among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China, especially among those who are younger than 25 years old [younger MSM (YMSM)]. The aim of the study was to compare the prevalences of HIV incidence and recent HIV infection as well as factors associated with recent HIV infection in YMSM and older MSM (OMSM). METHODS: A multicentre cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4496 MSM recruited from seven Chinese cities. YMSM were defined as those aged < 25 years...
June 19, 2018: HIV Medicine
D-T Chu, N Vo Truong Nhu, Y Tao, S Le Hoang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2018: HIV Medicine
E Focà, G Cavaglià, S Rusconi, A Cascavilla, G Cenderello, A Re, S Casari, L van den Bogaart, P L Zinzani, D Caracciolo, G Di Perri, A Bonito, A Lucchini, G Cassola, P Viale, A Calcagno
OBJECTIVES: Lymphoproliferative disorders are often observed in HIV-positive patients. Combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) during antineoplastic chemotherapy is beneficial, but little is known about the clinical outcome according to different antiretroviral combinations. The aim of the study was to address this gap in current knowledge. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in five large Italian centres for the period from 1998 to 2015; HIV-positive patients diagnosed with lymphoma were included and demographic, clinical and therapeutic variables were recorded and associated with clinical outcomes...
June 4, 2018: HIV Medicine
M Hentzien, A Cabie, P Pugliese, É Billaud, I Poizot-Martin, C Duvivier, M-A Valantin, A Kaladjian, M Dramé, F Bani-Sadr
OBJECTIVES: People living with HIV (PLHIV) are at a higher risk of dying by suicide than the general population. Epidemiological data regarding determinants of suicide in PLHIV are scarce. The aim of this study was thus to study demographic, socio-economic, psychiatric history and immunovirological characteristics associated with death from suicide in the French multicenter Dat'AIDS cohort, from January 2000 to July 2013. METHODS: This was a nested case-control study...
June 1, 2018: HIV Medicine
L Taramasso, A Di Biagio, F Maggiolo, A Tavelli, S Lo Caputo, S Bonora, M Zaccarelli, P Caramello, A Costantini, C Viscoli, A d'Arminio Monforte, A Cozzi-Lepri
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the durabilities of efavirenz (EFV) and rilpivirine (RPV) in combination with tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) in first-line regimens. METHODS: A multicentre prospective and observational study was carried out. We included all patients participating in the Italian Cohort Naive Antiretrovirals (ICONA) Foundation Study who started first-line combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) with TDF/FTC in combination with RPV or EFV, with a baseline viral load < 100 000 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL...
May 30, 2018: HIV Medicine
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