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William A Wallace, David A Dorward, Donald M Salter
The morphological appearances of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) are often characteristic however immunohistochemistry (IHC) is frequently employed to support the diagnosis, especially when there is crush artefact. In general histopathologists look for expression of cytokeratins, CD56 and TTF1 but it is well recognised that SCLC may not show typical staining reactions. While CD56 is usually expressed TTF1 may be negative and cytokeratin staining may be very focal or even absent. We report three cases of mediastinal alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma who presented with radiological features of lung cancer where the morphological and immunohistochemical profile mimicked SCLC...
November 15, 2018: Histopathology
Andrew D Spence, James Trainor, Úna McMenamin, Richard C Turkington, Stephen McQuaid, Victoria Bingham, Jacqueline James, Manuel Salto-Tellez, Damian T McManus, Brian T Johnston, Chris R Cardwell, Helen G Coleman
AIMS: High prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-2 (PTGS2) enzyme expression in oesophageal adenocarcinoma has been shown to independently predict poor prognosis, however evidence is inconsistent. We investigated the association between PTGS2 expression and prognosis in patients with oesophageal adenocarcinoma. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cohort of 135 patients with oesophageal adenocarcinoma who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and surgery from 2004 to 2012 was identified in the Northern Ireland Cancer Centre...
November 8, 2018: Histopathology
Kshitij Arora, Miguel Rivera, David T Ting, Vikram Deshpande
INTRODUCTION: The pathologic diagnosis of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) relies on histology, IgG4 positive cells and increased IgG4:IgG. Small biopsies from patients with a presumptive diagnosis of IgG4-RD often fail to meet consensus histologic guidelines. We evaluate consecutive small biopsies from patients with a presumptive diagnosis of IgG4-RD and assess the significance of the pathologic findings. METHODS: We evaluated 55 small biopsies from patients with a presumptive diagnosis of IgG4-RD...
November 8, 2018: Histopathology
Jianjun Qiao, Sha Zhou, Sheng Li, Ruzeng Xue, Yunlei Pan, Shunli Tang, Qingmiao Sun, Yanyan Wu, Su Wang, Yinhua Wu, Juan Bai, Tingting Qu, Xiuming Zhang, Chuanyin Sun, Hong Fang
AIMS: Persistent pruritic eruptions (PPEs), presenting with dyskeratotic keratinocytes histologically, are common in patients with adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD). The lesions may be histologically similar to other entities that present with dyskeratosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: To investigate whether histopathological findings can be used to discriminate among PPEs and other entities presenting with dyskeratotic keratinocytes, cutaneous histopathological changes of PPEs associated with AOSD (n=26) were compared with those of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (n=16), dermatomyositis (n=19), and drug eruption (n=16)...
November 8, 2018: Histopathology
Cécile Le Page, Kurosh Rahimi, Anne-Marie Mes-Masson, Martin Köbel
The association between progesterone receptor (PR) expression and improved outcome of ovarian cancer patients has been reported with conflicting results (1). To clarify the prognostic role of PR expression patients, Luo et al. (1) performed a meta-analysis of 28 published studies. The authors found that PR expression detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) was associated with favorable overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.86) combining studies not stratified by histotypes. This article is protected by copyright...
November 7, 2018: Histopathology
Luc Xerri, José Adélaide, Morgan Avenin, Arnaud Guille, Sebastien Taix, Nathalie Bonnet, Nadine Carbuccia, Séverine Garnier, Lenaïg Mescam, Anne Murati, Max Chaffanet, Diane Coso, Reda Bouabdallah, François Bertucci, Daniel Birnbaum
AIMS: Molecular pathways underlying the putative evolution from lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) to cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (c-ALCL) and lymph node invasion (LNI) remain elusive. METHODS AND RESULTS: To clarify this point, we analyzed nine sequential tumors from the same patient presenting a parallel evolution of LyP (n=3) and c-ALCL (n=1) with LNI (n=1) combined with systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLCL) (n=4). Clonality analysis showed a common clonal T-cell origin in the five CD30+ lesions and a common clonal B-cell origin in the four DLCL relapses...
November 4, 2018: Histopathology
Joshua Li, Wai Yee Ho, Julia Ys Tsang, Yun-Bi Ni, Siu-Ki Chan, Gary M Tse
Phyllodes tumors (PT) of the breast are uncommon fibroepithelial neoplasms with potential to recur and metastasize. Apart from histologic grading, the expression of biologic markers and its relationship with tumor behavior have been a topic of interest. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/ AKT pathway regulates diverse biologic functions and is one of most frequently deregulated pathways in cancers. Little is known of PI3K/AKT pathway alteration in PT METHODS: This study investigated the expression of four biologic markers involved in this pathway (PTEN, INPP4B, PI3KCA and pAKT) in 134 PTs by immunohistochemistry RESULTS: Using an immunoscore incorporating staining intensity and proportion, a low epithelial INPP4B (p=0...
November 1, 2018: Histopathology
Gregory R Bean, Gregor Krings, Christopher N Otis, David A Solomon, Joaquín J García, Annemieke van Zante, Sandra Camelo-Piragua, Jessica Van Ziffle, Yunn-Yi Chen
AIMS: Mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC) are the most common malignant neoplasms of salivary glands but are uncommon in other sites. Salivary gland MEC are most frequently associated with CRTC1-MAML2 translocations. Exceedingly rare MEC of the breast demonstrate a basal-like and often triple (estrogen and progesterone receptor, HER2) negative immunophenotype, with a single case previously reported to show MAML2 rearrangement, although the fusion partner was not known. Comprehensive genomic studies of breast MEC are lacking...
October 31, 2018: Histopathology
Maurice B Loughrey, Philip D Dunne, Helen G Coleman, Stephen McQuaid, Jacqueline A James
We read with interest the description by Niu et al of punctate immunostaining for the mismatch repair (MMR) protein MLH1 in a small series of cases of endometrial cancer, in association with complete loss of PMS2 immunostaining. (1) The authors conclude that unawareness of this rare pattern of aberrant MLH1 staining can result in erroneous reporting of such cases as isolated loss of PMS2 staining, interpreted as representing likely Lynch syndrome due to germline mutation, whereas in fact somatic hypermethylation of the MLH1 promoter is the likely underlying molecular mechanism leading to defective mismatch repair in most such cases...
October 31, 2018: Histopathology
Cristina Graham Martínez, Nikki Knijn, Marcel Verheij, Iris D Nagtegaal, Rachel S van der Post
AIMS: Tumour deposits (TDs) are clusters of cancer cells in the soft tissue that are discontinuous from the primary tumour. In this review we are exploring their relevance for prognosis in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: A literature search was performed to identify studies providing data on TDs and prognosis in gastric cancer patients. Eight papers were included in the meta-analysis, which was carried out in terms of risk ratios (RR) and hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI)...
October 30, 2018: Histopathology
Jianghua Wu, Yanhui Zhang, Runfen Cheng, Wenchen Gong, Tingting Ding, Qiongli Zhai, Yong Wang, Bin Meng, Baocun Sun
AIMS: To assess the expression of EMT regulators in follicular thyroid tumours. METHODS AND RESULTS: The expression of E-cadherin (E-CAD) and transcription factors TWIST, SLUG, and SNAIL in follicular thyroid tumours were examined by immunohistochemistry in tissue samples, including 18 follicular adenomas (FA), 12 minimally invasive follicular thyroid carcinomas (MI-FTC), 16 widely invasive follicular thyroid carcinomas (WI-FTC), 10 poorly differentiated follicular thyroid carcinomas (PDTC), and 6 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATC)...
October 28, 2018: Histopathology
Antonio Travaglino, Antonio Raffone, Gabriele Saccone, Antonio Mollo, Giuseppe De Placido, Luigi Insabato, Fulvio Zullo
BACKGROUND: Endometrial hyperplasia (EH) is classified into benign and precancerous according to two different histomorphologic systems: WHO (based on the subjective evaluation of cytologic atypia) and EIN (based on a combination of several parameters, assessable subjectively, or objectively through computerized analysis). ACOG recommends the use of EIN system. Nonetheless, higher prognostic value for EIN criteria was demonstrated only with the objective assessment, which is not routinely applicable...
October 22, 2018: Histopathology
Yuichiro Kai, Vishwa Jeet Amatya, Kei Kushitani, Takahiro Kambara, Rui Suzuki, Yasuhiro Tsutani, Yoshihiro Miyata, Morihito Okada, Yukio Takeshima
AIMS: The process of differential diagnosis between epithelioid mesothelioma and lung adenocarcinoma has been progressing; however, there are no absolute immunohistochemical markers to definitively diagnose epithelioid mesothelioma. The aim of this study was to search for a novel negative marker of epithelioid mesothelioma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We immunohistochemically studied the applicability of mucin 21 (MUC21), which was identified in our previous study, as a novel, negative diagnostic marker for epithelioid mesothelioma...
October 17, 2018: Histopathology
Isabelle Opitz, Olivia Lauk, Didier Schneiter, Silvia Ulrich, Francesco Maisano, Walter Weder, Beata Bode-Lesniewska
Fusions of the EWSR1 gene with partners from the CREB gene family have been identified in several histologic entities, mostly mesenchymal tumors of variable clinical malignant potential, including angiomatoid fibrous histiocytomas (AFH), clear cell sarcomas (CCS), clear cell sarcoma-like tumors of the gastrointestinal tract (CCSLTGT), primary pulmonary myxoid sarcoma (PPMS), intracranial myxoid neoplasias (iMN) and rare carcinoma variants. Interestingly, some of EWSR1-CREB-family gene fusion associated tumors show a prominent myxoid component and some of such tumors were histologically in the past diagnosed as "consistent with extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas (EMC)"...
October 16, 2018: Histopathology
Linyuan Wang, Peter F Rambau, Linda E Kelemen, Michael S Anglesio, Samuel Leung, Aline Talhouk, Martin Köbel
AIMS: Ovarian endometrioid carcinoma (EC) generally has a good prognosis. Adjuvant chemotherapy can be spared in low stage disease, but prognostic biomarkers are needed to refine the treatment threshold. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is commonly altered in EC. We examined immunohistochemical expression of nuclear β-catenin and CDX2, both are mediators of the Wnt pathway, as prognostic biomarkers for EC. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated two ovarian EC cohorts, discovery set (N=183) and validation set (N=174), with ovarian cancer-specific survival (OCSS) as the primary end-point...
October 16, 2018: Histopathology
Numbereye Numbere, Aaron R Huber, Chanjuan Shi, Justin M M Cates, Raul S Gonzalez
AIM: Well-differentiated small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) are often multifocal, and this has been suggested to impart worse disease-free survival. Practice guidelines have not been established for World Health Organization (WHO) grading of multiple primary lesions. METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified 68 patients with ileal/jejunal SI-NET, for a combined total of 207 primary lesions. Each case was evaluated for patient age and sex; size of all tumors; presence of lymph node metastases, mesenteric tumor deposits, or distant metastases; and disease-specific outcome...
October 16, 2018: Histopathology
B Delahunt, J R Srigley, M J Judge, M B Amin, A Billis, P Camparo, A J Evans, S Fleming, D Griffiths, A Lopez-Beltran, G Martignoni, H Moch, J N Nacey, M Zhou
AIMS: The International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR) has provided detailed datasets based upon the published reporting protocols of the Royal College of Pathologists, The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia and the College of American Pathologists. METHODS AND RESULTS: The dataset for carcinomas of renal tubular origin treated by nephrectomy was developed to provide a minimum structured reporting template suitable for international use and incorporated recommendations from the 2012 Vancouver Consensus Conference of the International Society of Urological Pathology and the fourth edition of the World Health Organization Bluebook on tumours of the urinary and male genital systems published in 2016...
October 16, 2018: Histopathology
W Glenn McCluggage, Anne-Sophie Chong, Ayoma D Attygalle, Blaise A Clarke, William Chapman, Barbara Rivera, William D Foulkes
AIMS: To expand the morphological spectrum of ovarian microcystic stromal tumour, a rare neoplasm considered to have a relatively constant morphology with microcysts, solid cellular regions and hyalinized fibrous stroma. METHODS AND RESULTS: We report four ovarian neoplasms in patients aged 45, 56, 61 and 71 years with the characteristic immunophenotype of microcystic stromal tumour (diffuse nuclear positivity with beta-catenin, cyclin D1 and WT1; diffuse cytoplasmic positivity with CD10; negative inhibin, calretinin, oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor)...
October 16, 2018: Histopathology
Miki Asahina, Tsuyoshi Saito, Takuo Hayashi, Yuki Fukumura, Keiko Mitani, Takashi Yao
AIMS: PLAG1 (pleomorphic adenoma gene 1) rearrangement is well known in pleomorphic adenoma (PA), which is histologically characterized by admixed epithelial and mesenchymal components. Multiple fusion variants of PLAG1 and HMGA2 (high-mobility group AT-hook 2) have been reported; however, currently little is known regarding the clinicopathological impacts of these fusion types METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the PLAG1- and HMGA2-related fusion status in 105 PAs and 11 cases of carcinoma ex PAs (CXPA) arising from salivary glands and lacrimal glands to elucidate their correlation to the clinicopathological factors...
October 11, 2018: Histopathology
Yui Hattori, Kazuhiro Sentani, Shunsuke Shinmei, Htoo Zarni Oo, Takuya Hattori, Takeharu Imai, Yohei Sekino, Naoya Sakamoto, Naohide Oue, Hiroaki Niitsu, Takao Hinoi, Hideki Ohdan, Wataru Yasui
AIMS: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Genes expressed only in cancer tissue may be useful biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and therapeutics. The aim of the present study was to analyse the regulators of calcineurin 2 (RCAN2) in a large number of GCs and to investigate how these expression patterns correlate with clinicopathologic parameters and various markers. METHODS AND RESULTS: An immunohistochemical analysis of RCAN2 in 207 GC tissue samples showed that 110 (53%) GC cases were positive for RCAN2...
October 11, 2018: Histopathology
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