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Histopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524618/prominent-neural-invasion-of-mucosal-gastric-cancer-into-the-muscularis-propria
#1
LETTER
Young-Bae Kim, Sang-Uk Han, Dakeun Lee
Neural invasion (NI) is one way of cancer spreading, and it is now considered a poor prognostic factor across the gastrointestinal tract malignancies including gastric cancer (GC).(1, 2) NI occurs frequently and with greater severity in cholangiocarcinoma and pancreatic cancer in particular, which may contribute to the dismal prognoses in these cancers.(1) In the stomach, the nerve plexuses are concentrated in Meissner's plexus in the submucosa and Auerbach's plexus between the circular and longitudinal fibers of the muscularis propria...
May 19, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513875/incidence-clinicopathologic-features-and-fusion-transcript-landscape-of-translocation-renal-cell-carcinomas
#2
Xiao-Tong Wang, Qiu-Yuan Xia, Xiao-Jun Zhou, Qiu Rao
The recent article entitled "Incidence, clinicopathologic features, and fusion transcript landscape of translocation renal cell carcinomas" by Marion Classe and colleagues has been accepted in January 2017 by Histopathology(1) . The authors aimed to describe the landscape of fusion transcript in a large single institution series of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed translocation renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). They also identified two new fusion partners, GRIPAP1 and MED15, in Xp11 translocation RCCs...
May 17, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513873/myxoid-fibroadenomas-differ-from-conventional-fibroadenomas-a-hypothesis-generating-study
#3
John R Lozada, Kathleen A Burke, Aoife Maguire, Fresia Pareja, Raymond S Lim, Jisun Kim, Rodrigo Gularte-Merida, Melissa P Murray, Edi Brogi, Britta Weigelt, Jorge S Reis-Filho, Felipe C Geyer
AIMS: Breast myxoid fibroadenomas (MFAs) are characterized by a distinctive hypocellular myxoid stroma, and occur sporadically or in the context of Carney Complex, an inheritable condition caused by PRKAR1A inactivating germline mutations. Conventional fibroadenomas (FAs) are underpinned by recurrent MED12 mutations in the stromal components of the lesions. We sought to investigate the genomic landscape of MFAs and compare it to that of conventional FAs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eleven MFAs from patients without clinical and/or genetic evidence of Carney Complex were retrieved...
May 17, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513868/her2-assessment-in-locally-advanced-gastric-cancer-comparing-the-results-of-using-2-primary-tumour-blocks-versus-all-primary-tumour-blocks
#4
Chen Xu, Yalan Liu, Dongxian Jiang, Xiaowen Ge, Ying Zhang, Jieakesu Su, Haiying Zeng, Jie Huang, Yuan Ji, Jun Hou, Yihong Sun, Kuntang Shen, Tianshu Liu, Yingyong Hou, Jing Qin
AIMS: HER2 is currently the only biomarker used to select eligible patients with advanced gastric cancer (GC) for targeted therapy. To verify the value of dual-block HER2 assessment and to explore whether increasing the block number is more beneficial, we carried out this randomized prospective cohort study by comparing dual-block and all-block HER2 assessment in resected specimens of GC. METHODS AND RESULTS: 549 resected GC specimens were randomly enrolled into two cohorts: a dual-block group (n=274) with two primary tumor blocks tested, and an all-block group (n=275) with all primary tumor blocks tested...
May 17, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502100/her2-fish-results-in-breast-cancers-with-increased-cen17-signals-using-alternative-chromosome-17-probes-reclassifying-cases-in-the-equivocal-category
#5
Maria-Anna Holzschuh, Zbigniew Czyz, Sven Hauke, Elisabeth Christine Inwald, Bernhard Polzer, Gero Brockhoff
AIMS: HER2 testing of invasive breast cancer by in-situ hybridisation guides therapy decisions. Probing HER2 and cen17 simultaneously is supposed to reveal both a potential HER2 gene amplification and polysomy 17. However, a considerable number of breast cancer patients with quasi polysomy 17 are considered "equivocal" which is diagnostically meaningless. Moreover, patients with equivocal / false polysomic tumours are prevented from a potentially beneficial anti-HER2 treatment. Here we evaluated the RAI1, D17S122, and TP53 hybridisation markers to reliably indicate true polysomy and to accurately reclassify equivocal samples as HER2-positive...
May 14, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502094/programmed-cell-death-ligand-1-pd-l1-overexpression-in-ampulla-of-vater-carcinoma-and-its-pre-invasive-lesions
#6
Deborah Saraggi, Francesca Galuppini, Andrea Remo, Emanuele D L Urso, Deborah Bacchin, Roberta Salmaso, Cristiano Lanza, Riccardo Q Bao, Giuseppe Niccolò Fanelli, Vincenza Guzzardo, Claudio Luchini, Marco Scarpa, Fabio Farinati, Matteo Fassan, Massimo Rugge
AIMS: PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint immunotherapy has recently been proposed as a promising treatment in relapsed/refractory disease, eventually used in combination with the traditional chemotherapy in different cancer settings. No data are still now available about PD-L1 expression in ampulla of Vater carcinoma and its preinvasive lesions. METHODS AND RESULTS: We assessed the immunohistochemical expression of PD-L1 in a series of 26 ampullary adenocarcinomas, 50 ampullary dysplastic lesions, and 10 normal duodenal mucosa samples...
May 14, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493604/cic-break-apart-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridisation-misses-a-subset-of-cic-dux4-sarcomas-a-clinicopathological-and-molecular-study
#7
Akihiko Yoshida, Yasuhito Arai, Eisuke Kobayashi, Kan Yonemori, Koichi Ogura, Natsuko Hama, Wakako Mukai, Toru Motoi, Akira Kawai, Tatsuhiro Shibata, Nobuyoshi Hiraoka
AIMS: Approximately 60-70% of high-grade round-cell sarcomas that lack the EWSR1 rearrangement harbour a rearrangement of the CIC gene, most commonly CIC-DUX4. Recent studies have established that CIC-rearranged sarcomas constitute a distinct group characterised by recognisable histology and immunoprofiles, such as positivity for ETV4 and WT1 and negativity for NKX2.2. Although these sarcomas are increasingly diagnosed in practice by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with CIC break-apart probes, the optimal modality to diagnose these sarcomas has not been determined...
May 11, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485101/alterted-slit2-robo1-signalling-is-linked-to-impaired-placentation-of-missed-and-threatened-miscarriage-in-early-pregnancy
#8
Ping Li, Yuxun Shi, Hanlin Shuai, Yanzhen Cai, Wenhui Lu, Guang Wang, Lufen Gao, Lijing Wang, Xiujun Fan, Xuesong Yang
AIMS: Two-thirds of early pregnancy failures present with the reduced trophoblast invasion, and SLIT2/ROBO1 signaling is considered to play an important role in trophoblast function during pregnancy. We investigated SLIT2/ROBO1 signaling associated with missed and threatened miscarriage during early gestation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Human placenta samples were collected from women with missed miscarriage (n=25), threatened miscarriage (n=22) and termination of pregnancy controls (n=32)...
May 9, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485054/egfr-gene-mutation-in-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors
#9
Shan-Shan Shi, Nan Wu, Yan He, Xue Wei, Qiu-Yuan Xia, Xuan Wang, Sheng-Bin Ye, Rui Li, Qiu Rao, Xiao-Jun Zhou
AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutation status of EGFR in gastrointestinal stromal tumours and its association with various clinicopathological variables as well as to further discuss its effects of EGFR mutations on tumor formation and progression. METHODS: A well-characterized cohort of 323 GISTs, obtained between 2010 and 2015 from the surgical pathology files of at the Department of Pathology of the Nanjing Jinling Hospital, was screened for mutations in exon 19 and 21 of the EGFR gene...
May 9, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477388/phenotypic-and-molecular-differences-between-giant-cell-tumor-of-soft-tissue-and-its-bone-counterpart
#10
Irene Mancini, Alberto Righi, Marco Gambarotti, Piero Picci, Angelo Paolo Dei Tos, Steven D Billings, Lisa Simi, Alessandro Franchi
AIMS: Giant cell tumor of soft tissue (GCT-ST) is a primary soft tissue neoplasm histologically similar to GCT of bone (GCT-B). Recently, it has been reported that >90% of GCT-B have a driver mutation in H3F3A gene. Since the relationship between GCT-ST and GCT-B is unclear, we compared a series of GCT-ST and GCT-B for the presence of H3F3A mutations and for several immunophenotypic markers. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight cases of GCT-ST were retrieved from our institutional archives...
May 6, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477361/high-grade-serous-carcinoma-hgsc-of-tubo-ovarian-origin-recent-developments
#11
REVIEW
Naveena Singh, W Glenn McCluggage, C Blake Gilks
Extra-uterine high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) accounts for most of the morbidity and mortality associated with ovarian carcinoma, and is one of the leading causes of cancer death in women. Until recently our understanding of HGSC was very limited, compared to other common cancers, and it has only been in the last 15 years that we have learned how to accurately diagnose this ovarian carcinoma histotype. Since then, however, there has been rapid progress, with identification of a precursor lesion in the fallopian tube, development of prevention strategies for both those with inherited susceptibility (Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome) and without the syndrome, and elucidation of the molecular events important in oncogenesis...
May 6, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470753/stalk-versus-base-invasion-in-pt1-papillary-cancers-of-the-bladder-improved-substaging-system-predicting-risk-of-progression
#12
Margaret Lawless, Roman Gulati, Maria Tretiakova
AIMS: Pathologic stage T1 (pT1) bladder cancers are a clinically heterogeneous group. However, current staging guidelines for superficially invasive cancers do not acknowledge the variability in type and extent of lamina propria invasion in papillary urothelial carcinomas (PUC), and historically proposed substaging systems showed either high inter-observer variation or limited value in predicting patient outcomes. Herein we reappraise pT1 PUC substaging, aiming to identify a novel scheme which is reproducible and prognostically meaningful...
May 4, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464318/examination-of-phox2b-in-adult-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-reveals-relatively-frequent-expression-in-pheochromocytomas-and-paragangliomas
#13
John P Lee, Yin P Hung, Thomas M O'Dorisio, James R Howe, Jason L Hornick, Andrew M Bellizzi
AIMS: Paired-like homeobox 2b (PHOX2B) is a transcription factor with expression outside of the central nervous system restricted to neurons and chromaffin cells of the autonomic nervous system. Germline mutations cause congenital central hypoventilation syndrome and predispose to neuroblastoma and Hirschsprung disease. Among pediatric small round cell tumors, PHOX2B is neuroblastoma-specific. Two studies of adult autonomic nervous system tumors (n=62) produced conflicting results (all tumors stained in one; expression was restricted to 40% of paragangliomas in the other)...
May 2, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463429/hmga2-is-a-specific-immunohistochemical-marker-for-pleomorphic-adenoma-and-carcinoma-ex-pleomorphic-adenoma
#14
Jeffrey K Mito, Vickie Y Jo, Simion I Chiosea, Paola Dal Cin, Jeffrey F Krane
AIMS: Accurate classification of salivary gland neoplasms may be challenging due to morphologic overlap, particularly in small biopsies. Recurrent translocations involving High Mobility Group A2 (HMGA2) are present in a subset of pleomorphic adenoma (PA) and carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma (CA ex-PA). We evaluated immunohistochemical HMGA2 expression in 225 salivary gland tumors including 56 PAs, 37 CA ex-PAs and 132 potential histologic mimics to determine its diagnostic utility. METHODS AND RESULTS: HMGA2 expression was identified in 19 PAs (33...
April 30, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425135/image-editing-for-pathologists
#15
LETTER
Tim Helliwell
The correspondence from Driman and Schick (Histopathology 2017, 70, 840) provides useful guidance to contributors on how to optimise the quality of images in publications. As these authors note, care must be taken to avoid misrepresentation of the information provided in the image. Ethical guidance on the appropriate use and manipulation of digital images is available - see table (Cromey, 2010) and has been adopted by various print and online publications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
April 20, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425130/histological-grading-based-on-poorly-differentiated-clusters-pdc-is-predictive-of-tumor-response-and-clinical-outcome-in-rectal-carcinoma-treated-with-neo-adjuvant-chemo-radiotherapy
#16
Luca Reggiani Bonetti, Simona Lionti, Federica Domati, Giuliana Pagliani, Elisabetta Mattioli, Valeria Barresi
AIMS: The clinical outcome of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer submitted to neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) is influenced by tumour response to treatment, which is reflected by tumour regression grade (TRG) and post-treatment (y) TNM stage. Little is known on the prognostic value of pre-treatment histopathological features of the tumour which may be useful to discriminate potential non-responders and to design tailored therapeutic strategies. In this study, we aimed to investigate the prognostic role of poorly differentiated clusters (PDC) of neoplastic cells in pre-treatment biopsies of rectal cancer submitted to neo-adjuvant CRT...
April 20, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418164/molecular-subtyping-of-mammary-like-adenocarcinoma-of-the-vulva-shows-molecular-similarity-to-breast-carcinomas
#17
Basile Tessier-Cloutier, Karama Asleh-Aburaya, Varsha Shah, W Glenn McCluggage, Anna Tinker, C Blake Gilks
AIMS: Mammary-like adenocarcinoma (MLA) of the vulva is thought to be derived from vulvar mammary-like glands. We characterized a series of MLA using an immunohistochemical algorithm that identifies the major molecular subtypes of breast cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seven cases of vulval MLA were stained for ER, PR, HER2, Ki-67, EGFR, CK5, nestin and INPP4b. 17 cases of vulval extramammary Paget disease (EMPD), 7 with invasion, were studied for comparison. The median age of patients with MLA was 72 years...
April 18, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417598/genetic-analysis-of-a-morphologically-heterogeneous-ovarian-endometrioid-carcinoma
#18
Felipe C Geyer, Fresia Pareja, Kathleen A Burke, Anne M Schultheis, Yaser R Hussein, Jiqing Ye, Maria R De Filippo, Caterina Marchio, Gabriel S Macedo, Salvatore Piscuoglio, Raymond S Lim, Eugene Toy, Rajmohan Murali, Achim A Jungbluth, Jorge S Reis-Filho, Robert A Soslow, Britta Weigelt
AIMS: Low-grade ovarian endometrioid carcinomas may be associated with high-grade components. Whether the latter are clonally-related to and originate from the low-grade endometrioid carcinoma remains unclear. Here we employed massively parallel sequencing to characterize the genomic landscape and clonal relatedness of an ovarian endometrioid carcinoma containing low- and high-grade components. METHODS AND RESULTS: DNA samples extracted from each tumor component (low-grade endometrioid, high-grade anaplastic, high-grade squamous) and matched normal tissue were subjected to targeted massively parallel sequencing using the 410 gene Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets (MSK-IMPACT) sequencing assay...
April 18, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419539/pd-l1-expression-in-extrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma
#19
Dirk Walter, Eva Herrmann, Andreas Schnitzbauer, Stefan Zeuzem, Martin Leo Hansmann, Jan Peveling-Oberhag, Sylvia Hartmann
AIMS: To investigate expression of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) receptor / programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway as well as clinicopathological characteristics in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (eCCA). METHODS: Tissue samples from patients with eCCA (n=69; perihilar CCA=40, distal CCA=29), who underwent surgical resection in the period from 2007 to 2015 were evaluated for PD-1, PD-L1, CD3 and CD163 expression and correlation with clinicopathological characteristics, including survival data, was performed...
April 17, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407385/effect-of-formalin-fixation-and-tumor-size-in-small-sized-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-prospective-single-center-study
#20
Heae Surng Park, Sungsoo Lee, Seokjin Haam, Geun Dong Lee
AIM: Formalin fixation can cause tumor shrinkage. We prospectively evaluated the effect of overnight formalin fixation on tumor size and the effect of clinicopathological parameters on changes in tumor size in small-sized non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS AND RESULTS: Our study included 126 surgically resected NSCLC specimens submitted in a fresh state. We measured the largest cross-sectional tumor diameters in the fresh and formalin-fixed specimens. Tumor size significantly differed (mean, 0...
April 13, 2017: Histopathology
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