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Histopathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805966/phyllodes-tumour-of-the-urinary-bladder-a-report-of-a-unique-case
#1
LETTER
N Tchrakian, E Browne, J H Shanks, R Flynn, S Crowther
Phyllodes tumours (PT) of the male urogenital tract are rare; to date, fewer than one hundred cases have been described in the prostate, and under fifteen in the seminal vesicle.(1) They display histologic features and clinical behaviour similar to PTs of the female breast; the lesions may be cured by surgical resection, but a large proportion exhibit local recurrence, and cases of direct invasion into adjacent organs and widespread metastasis have been reported.(2) Although no single morphologic feature is reliably predictive of prognosis, a combined assessment may be used for grading and prognostication, as in the breast...
August 14, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796900/punch-scoring-a-technique-that-facilitates-melanoma-diagnosis-of-clinically-suspicious-pigmented-lesions
#2
Judith Grogan, Caroline L Cooper, Tristan J Dodds, Pascale Guitera, Scott W Menzies, Richard A Scolyer
AIMS: Early recognition and accurate diagnosis underpins melanoma survival. Identifying early melanomas arising in association with pre-existing lesions is often challenging. Clinically suspicious foci, however small, must be identified and examined histologically. This study assessed the accuracy of punch biopsy "scoring" of suspicious foci in excised atypical pigmented skin lesions to identify early melanomas. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-one excised pigmented skin lesions with a clinically/dermoscopically focal area of concern for melanoma, with the suspicious focus marked prior to excision with a punch biopsy "score" (a partial incision into the skin surface), were analysed...
August 10, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796899/plag1-immunohistochemistry-is-a-sensitive-marker-for-pleomorphic-adenoma-a-comparative-study-with-plag1-genetic-abnormalities
#3
Nora Katabi, Bin Xu, Achim A Jungbluth, Lei Zhang, Sung Yun Shao, Jason Lane, Ronald Ghossein, Cristina R Antonescu
AIMS: PLAG1 gene rearrangement is the most common genetic abnormality in pleomorphic adenoma (PA), resulting in overexpression of PLAG1 protein. PA and carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma (CA ex-PA) can mimic various benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. The aims of this study are to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of PLAG1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the differential diagnosis of PA and CA ex-PA and to compare the PLAG1 immunohistochemical results to PLAG1 gene abnormalities as detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)...
August 10, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796347/clinicopathological-analysis-of-atrx-daxx-and-notch-receptor-expression-in-angiosarcomas
#4
Gauri Panse, John S A Chrisinger, Cheuk H Leung, Davis R Ingram, Samia Khan, Khalida Wani, Heather Lin, Alexander J Lazar, Wei-Lien Wang
AIMS: Multiple genetic alterations including alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) and NOTCH mutations have been described in angiosarcoma. Loss of ATRX (α-thalessemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked) and DAXX (death domain-associated 6) expression is frequently associated with the ALT phenotype. Additionally, inhibition of NOTCH signaling induces malignant vascular tumors in mice, indicating a tumor suppressive role of the NOTCH pathway in the pathogenesis of angiosarcoma...
August 10, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795426/blinded-histopathological-characterisation-of-pole-exonuclease-domain-mutant-endometrial-cancers-sheep-in-wolf-s-clothing
#5
Inge C Van Gool, Jef E H Ubachs, Ellen Stelloo, Cor D de Kroon, Jelle J Goeman, Vincent T H B M Smit, Carien L Creutzberg, Tjalling Bosse
AIMS: POLE exonuclease domain mutations identify a subset of endometrial cancer (EC) patients with an excellent prognosis. Implementation of this biomarker has been suggested to refine adjuvant treatment decisions, but the necessary sequencing is not widely performed and relatively expensive. Therefore, we aimed to identify histopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics to aid the detection of POLE-mutant ECs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty-one POLE-mutant endometrioid, 67 POLE-wild-type endometrioid and 15 POLE-wild-type serous ECs were included (total N=133)...
August 10, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795418/cd274-pdl1-and-jak2-genomic-amplifications-in-pulmonary-squamous-cell-and-adenocarcinoma-patients
#6
Sergi Clavé, Lara Pijuan, David Casadevall, Álvaro Taus, Javier Gimeno, Sílvia Hernández-Llodrà, María Rodríguez-Rivera, Marta Lorenzo, Sílvia Menéndez, Joan Albanell, Blanca Espinet, Edurne Arriola, Marta Salido
AIMS: CD274 (PDL1) and JAK2 (9p24.1) gene amplifications have been recently described in pulmonary carcinomas in association with PD-L1 protein expression. Also, PTEN loss have been explored preclinically in relation with PD-L1 expression. It remains to be determined if these genomic alterations may affect PD-L1 expression levels in non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS AND RESULTS: PD-L1 and PTEN protein expression by IHC, and CD274, JAK2 and PTEN gene copy number alterations (CNAs) by FISH were studied in 171 pulmonary carcinoma specimens...
August 10, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795410/clinicopathological-analysis-of-46-cases-with-cd4-and-or-cd56-immature-hematolymphoid-malignancy-reappraisal-of-blastic-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cell-and-related-neoplasms
#7
Yuka Suzuki, Seiichi Kato, Kei Kohno, Akira Satou, Ahmed E Eladl, Naoko Asano, Michihiro Kono, Yuichi Kato, Masafumi Taniwaki, Masashi Akiyama, Shigeo Nakamura
AIMS: Here we aimed to investigate the clinicopathological features of CD4+ and/or CD56+ immature hematolymphoid malignancy (iHLM), including blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN). METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed the clinicopathological features of 46 patients consecutively diagnosed with CD4+/CD56+ iHLM. These cases were categorized into three groups based on their immunohistochemical expression of three plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) markers (CD123, CD303, and TCL1): cutaneous BPDCN (n = 35), non-cutaneous BPDCN (n = 6), and non-BPDCN-type CD56+ neoplasms (n = 5)...
August 10, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782131/diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-associated-with-chronic-inflammation-arising-within-atrial-myxoma-aggressive-histologic-features-but-indolent-clinical-behaviour
#8
Jinhai Yan, Luo Donglan, Fen Zhang, Jiao He, Su Yao, Luo Xinlan, Fangping Xu, Yu Chen, Lingyi Fu, Jie Xu, Yanhui Liu
AIMS: Primary cardiac lymphoma (PCL) is a rare neoplasm. PCL is fatal, unless it is diagnosed and treated early. Recently, a small number of cases of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) arising within atrial myxoma have been reported in immunocompetent patients and showed aggressive histologic features but an indolent clinical behaviour. METHODS AND RESULTS: We presented four unusual cases of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive DLBCL arising within atrial myxoma with detailed clinical, histologic, immunophenotypic and genotypic features in immunocompetent patients, and reviewed the literature for 11 similar cases...
August 7, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782127/crucial-parameters-in-thyroid-carcinoma-reporting-challenges-controversies-and-clinical-implications
#9
Bin Xu, Ronald Ghossein
In the modern era, a pathology report of thyroid carcinoma requires the inclusion of numerous prognostically relevant histopathologic features, e.g. the presence and extent of vascular and capsular invasion, extrathyroidal extension, the surgical margin status, and the characteristics of nodal metastasis. These pathologic features are crucial components of the initial risk stratification to determine the need for completion thyroidectomy and/or post-operative radioactive iodine ablation therapy. The current review aims to summarize the diagnostic criteria, the controversies, the prognostic impacts, and the challenges of these pathologic characteristics, focusing specifically on the parameters that are incorporated into the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system, College of American Pathologists (CAP) reporting template, American Thyroid Association (ATA), and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines...
August 7, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771788/her2-challenge-contest-a-detailed-assessment-of-automated-her2-scoring-algorithms-in-whole-slide-images-of-breast-cancer-tissues
#10
Talha Qaiser, Abhik Mukherjee, Chaitanya Reddy Pb, Sai Dileep Munugoti, Vamsi Tallam, Tomi Pitkäaho, Taina Lehtimäki, Thomas Naughton, Matt Berseth, Aníbal Pedraza, Ramakrishnan Mukundan, Matthew Smith, Abhir Bhalerao, Erik Rodner, Marcel Simon, Joachim Denzler, Chao-Hui Huang, Gloria Bueno, David Snead, Ian O Ellis, Mohammad Ilyas, Nasir Rajpoot
AIMS: Evaluating expression of the Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) by visual examination of immunohistochemistry (IHC) on invasive breast cancer (BCa) is a key part of the diagnostic assessment of BCa due to its recognised importance as a predictive and prognostic marker in clinical practice. However, visual scoring of Her2 is subjective and consequently prone to inter-observer variability. Given the prognostic and therapeutic implications of Her2 scoring, a more objective method is required...
August 3, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771772/altered-glutamine-metabolism-in-breast-cancer-subtype-dependencies-and-alternative-adaptations
#11
REVIEW
Rokaya El Ansari, Alan McIntyre, Madeleine L Craze, Ian O Ellis, Emad A Rakha, Andrew R Green
Cancer cells must alter their metabolism in order to satisfy the demands of necessary energy and cellular building blocks. These metabolic alterations are mediated by many oncogenic changes that affect cellular signalling pathways, which result in sustained cell growth and proliferation. Recently, metabolomics, has received great attention in the field of cancer research and as the essential metabolic pathways that drive tumour growth and progression are determined, the possibilities of new targets for therapeutic intervention are opened...
August 3, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766736/cutaneous-intravascular-nk-t-cell-lymphoma-with-peculiar-immunophenotype
#12
Victoria Alegría-Landa, Félix Manzarbeitia, Maria Gabriela Salvatierra Calderón, Luis Requena, Socorro María Rodríguez-Pinilla
Intravascular lymphoma (IVL) is a rare entity. Most cases are a variant of extranodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and fewer than 10% of the published cases are of T-cell origin. Only intravascular B-cell lymphoma is recognized as a distinct entity in the most recent WHO classification of lymphoproliferative disorders. We describe a case of cutaneous NK/T IVL, with a cytotoxic immunophenotype and EBV positivity. However, our case was immunohistochemically negative not only for TCR-βF1 and TCR-γ (TCR-silent), but also for CD56, making it the first triple-negative NK/T IVL case to be described...
August 2, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756621/microscopic-tubal-sex-cord-proliferations-with-a-sertoli-cell-tumour-pattern-and-ovarian-type-stromal-transformation-of-the-fimbriae
#13
LETTER
Vicente Crespo-Lora, Nelly Cruz-Viruel, Margherita Goia, Silvia Chiarelli, Francisco F Nogales
A recent paper(1) reported microscopic nodules of sex-cord stromal proliferations mimicking adult granulosa cell and sex-cord tumour with annular tubules in extraovarian locations. However, Sertoli cell tumour patterns were not described in them. We add two cases of multiple, microscopic foci of differentiated Sertoli cell proliferation in the fallopian tube, one of which coexisted and merged with areas of fimbrial ectopic ovarian-like stroma. Both cases were incidental findings in the fallopian tubes from 42 and 35 year-old patients, operated respectively for uterine leiomyoma and ovarian grade 1 endometrioid carcinoma...
July 30, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756620/mdm4-amplification-in-a-case-of-dedifferentiated-liposarcoma-and-in-silico-data-supporting-an-oncogenic-event-alternative-to-mdm2-amplification-in-a-subset-of-cases
#14
LETTER
Daniel Pissaloux, Francois Le Loarer, Anne-Valérie Decouvelaere, Sandrine Paindavoine, Aurélie Houlier, Lionel Vernay, Vincent Bland, Jean-Michel Coindre, Jean-Yves Blay, Dominique Ranchère-Vince
Well differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcomas (WD/DDLPS) are underlined by 12q13-q14 amplifications encompassing MDM2, considered as the core oncogene driving their pathogenesis through TP53 inactivation(1, 2) . Their progression involves the inactivation of the RB1 pathway through CDKN2A-CCND1-CDK4 alterations(3) . According to the French sarcoma database RRePS, 1% of cases suspicious for WD/DDLPS fail to prove MDM2 amplification, therefore suggesting that alternative oncogenic pathways might replace MDM2 amplification...
July 30, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756619/prostate-carcinoma-with-amphicrine-features-further-refining-the-spectrum-of-neuroendocrine-differentiation-in-tumours-of-primary-prostatic-origin
#15
Susan Prendeville, Issam Al-Bozom, Eva Compérat, Joan Sweet, Andrew J Evans, Mohamed Ben-Gashir, Ozgur Mete, Theodorus H van der Kwast, Michelle R Downes
OBJECTIVE: The current WHO classification categorises high grade neuroendocrine (NE) carcinomas of the prostate into small cell and large cell types. A distinct form of carcinoma demonstrating synchronous dual exocrine and NE differentiation, termed amphicrine carcinoma, has been described at various other sites, primarily within the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we describe the clinicopathologic features of a series of metastatic prostatic carcinomas with amphicrine features...
July 30, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746988/the-association-between-clinical-outcome-and-cd8-lymphocytic-infiltration-in-advanced-stages-of-colorectal-cancer-differs-by-latent-virus-infection-in-the-tumour-tissue
#16
Britta Kleist, Marius Bagdonas, Prakash Oommen, Irina Schoenhardt, Janina Levermann, Micaela Poetsch
AIMS: In near future, an immunoscore based on the quantification of lymphocytic populations can be expected as fundamental supplement of colorectal cancer (CRC) classification. This study explored, whether latent viral infection has an influence on prognostic relevant host immunity in CRC. METHODS AND RESULTS: CD8+ lymphocytic infiltration in three tumour compartments of 121 CRC was compared with clinical data and occurrence of latent infection with HSV1, HSV2, CMV, EBV, HPV16, and HPV18 in the tumour tissue, which was determined by PCR...
July 26, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746986/the-histopathological-classification-diagnosis-and-differential-diagnosis-of-mucinous-appendiceal-neoplasms-appendiceal-adenocarcinomas-and-pseudomyxoma-peritonei
#17
REVIEW
Norman J Carr, Frederic Bibeau, Robert F Bradley, Peggy Dartigues, Roger M Feakins, Kim R Geisinger, Xianyong Gui, Sylvie Isaac, Massimo Milione, Joseph Misdraji, Reetesh K Pai, Manuel Rodriguez-Justo, Leslie H Sobin, Marie-Louise F van Velthuysen, Rhonda K Yantiss
The vermiform appendix is the primary site of several distinctive benign and malignant neoplasms. Some can produce the clinical syndrome of pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP). A consensus on their terminology was reached by an international panel of pathologists and clinicians working under the auspices of the Peritoneal Surface Oncology Group International (PSOGI) and this review discusses the application of the PSOGI classification to routine reporting. We discuss diagnosis and differential diagnosis together with implications for patient management, covering low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms, high-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms, serrated polyps, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas...
July 26, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746984/identical-tp53-mutations-provide-evidence-that-late-recurring-tubo-ovarian-high-grade-serous-carcinomas-do-not-represent-new-peritoneal-primaries
#18
LETTER
Michael S Anglesio, Ciaran J O'Neill, Janine Senz, C Blake Gilks, W Glenn McCluggage
Tubo-ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most common female adnexal malignancy and by far the most lethal. There is now compelling evidence that most of these neoplasms arise from the distal fallopian tube from a precursor referred to as serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) (1-5). Most cases present at advanced stage (FIGO stages III-IV) and the overall prognosis is poor (6). While most cases respond well initially to chemotherapy, early recurrence (within a few years) is common and most patients will eventually succumb to their disease (6) This article is protected by copyright...
July 26, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746978/digital-image-analysis-of-her2-immunohistochemistry-in-gastric-and-oesophageal-adenocarcinoma-a-validation-study-on-biopsies-and-surgical-specimens
#19
Timco Koopman, Geertruida H de Bock, Henk J Buikema, Maria M Smits, Maarten Louwen, Mariska Hage, Alex Lt Imholz, Bert van der Vegt
AIMS: to test the validity of diagnostics incorporating digital image analysis (DIA) for human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) immunohistochemistry (IHC) in gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinomas, as an alternative to current standard diagnostics using manual scoring. METHODS AND RESULTS: we included 319 consecutive gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinomas (232 biopsies and 87 surgical specimens). DIA was applied to determine HER2 IHC classification, using both standard breast cancer (BC) and modified gastro-oesophageal cancer (GEC) cutoffs...
July 26, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746977/intra-tumoural-stromal-morphometry-predicts-disease-recurrence-but-not-response-to-5-fluorouracil-results-from-the-quasar-trial-of-colorectal-cancer
#20
Gordon G A Hutchins, Darren Treanor, Alexander Wright, Kelly Handley, Laura Magill, Emma Tinkler-Hundal, Katie Southward, Matthew Seymour, David Kerr, Richard Gray, Philip Quirke
The biological importance of tumour-associated stroma is increasingly apparent, yet clinical utility remains ill-defined. In stage-II / Dukes B colorectal cancer (CRC), clinical biomarkers are urgently required to direct therapeutic options. We report here prognostic/predictive analyses, and molecular associations, of stromal morphometric quantification in the Quick and Simple and Reliable (QUASAR) trial of CRC MATERIALS AND METHODS: Relative proportions of tumour epithelium (PoT) or stroma (PoS) were morphometrically quantified using digitised haematoxylin and eosin sections derived from 1,800 patients enrolled in QUASAR which randomised 3,239 (91% stage II) CRC patients between adjuvant fluorouracil/folinic acid (FUFA) chemotherapy and observation...
July 26, 2017: Histopathology
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