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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30228220/prevalence-and-burden-of-hepatitis-d-virus-infection-in-the-global-population-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Hai-Yan Chen, Dan-Ting Shen, Dong-Ze Ji, Pei-Chun Han, Wei-Ming Zhang, Jian-Feng Ma, Wen-Sen Chen, Hemant Goyal, Shiyang Pan, Hua-Guo Xu
OBJECTIVE: Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective virus that completes its life cycle only with hepatitis B virus (HBV). The HBV with HDV super-infection has been considered as one of the most severe forms of the chronic viral hepatitis. However, there is a scarcity of data on the global burden of HDV infection. DESIGN: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and China Knowledge Resource Integrated databases from 1 January 1977 to 31 December 2016. We included studies with a minimum sample size of 50 patients...
September 18, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30228219/arid1a-a-swi-snf-subunit-is-critical-to-acinar-cell-homeostasis-and-regeneration-and-is-a-barrier-to-transformation-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-the-pancreas
#2
Wenjia Wang, Scott C Friedland, Bing Guo, Michael R O'Dell, William B Alexander, Christa L Whitney-Miller, Diana Agostini-Vulaj, Aaron R Huber, Jason R Myers, John M Ashton, Richard F Dunne, Laurie A Steiner, Aram F Hezel
OBJECTIVE: Here, we evaluate the contribution of AT-rich interaction domain-containing protein 1A ( ARID1A ), the most frequently mutated member of the SWItch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) complex, in pancreatic homeostasis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) pathogenesis using mouse models. DESIGN: Mice with a targeted deletion of Arid1a in the pancreas by itself and in the context of two common genetic alterations in PDAC, Kras and p53 , were followed longitudinally...
September 18, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30228218/antipruritic-effect-of-bezafibrate-and-serum-autotaxin-measures-in-patients-with-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#3
Andreas E Kremer, Aline Le Cleac'h, Sara Lemoinne, Katharina Wolf, Luc De Chaisemartin, Sylvie Chollet-Martin, Lydie Humbert, Dominique Rainteau, Raoul Poupon, Alexandra Rousseau, Olivier Chazouillères, Christophe Corpechot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30228217/virtual-reality-in-gi-endoscopy-intuitive-zoom-for-improving-diagnostics-and-training
#4
Alexander Hann, Benjamin M Walter, Niklas Mehlhase, Alexander Meining
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30228216/changes-in-neuromuscular-structure-and-functions-of-human-colon-during-ageing-are-region-dependent
#5
John Broad, Victor W S Kung, Alexandra Palmer, Shezan Elahi, Azadeh Karami, Taher Darreh-Shori, Shafi Ahmed, Mohamed Adhnan Thaha, Rebecca Carroll, Joanne Chin-Aleong, Joanne E Martin, M Jill Saffrey, Charles H Knowles, Gareth John Sanger
OBJECTIVE: To determine if human colonic neuromuscular functions decline with increasing age. DESIGN: Looking for non-specific changes in neuromuscular function, a standard burst of electrical field stimulation (EFS) was used to evoke neuronally mediated (cholinergic/nitrergic) contractions/relaxations in ex vivo muscle strips of human ascending and descending colon, aged 35-91 years (macroscopically normal tissue; 239 patients undergoing cancer resection). Then, to understand mechanisms of change, numbers and phenotype of myenteric neurons (30 306 neurons stained with different markers), densities of intramuscular nerve fibres (51 patients in total) and pathways involved in functional changes were systematically investigated (by immunohistochemistry and use of pharmacological tools) in elderly (≥70 years) and adult (35-60 years) groups...
September 18, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30194220/age-dependent-changes-in-gi-physiology-and-microbiota-time-to-reconsider
#6
REVIEW
Ran An, Ellen Wilms, Ad A M Masclee, Hauke Smidt, Erwin G Zoetendal, Daisy Jonkers
Our life expectancy is increasing, leading to a rise in the ageing population. Ageing is associated with a decline in physiological function and adaptive capacity. Altered GI physiology can affect the amount and types of nutrients digested and absorbed as well as impact the intestinal microbiota. The intestinal microbiota is considered a key player in our health, and a variety of studies have reported that microbiota composition is changing during ageing. Since ageing is associated with a decline in GI function and adaptive capacity, it is crucial to obtain insights into this decline and how this is related to the intestinal microbiota in the elderly...
September 7, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177543/stromal-biology-and-therapy-in-pancreatic-cancer-ready-for-clinical-translation
#7
REVIEW
Albrecht Neesse, Christian Alexander Bauer, Daniel Öhlund, Matthias Lauth, Malte Buchholz, Patrick Michl, David A Tuveson, Thomas M Gress
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is notoriously aggressive and hard to treat. The tumour microenvironment (TME) in PDA is highly dynamic and has been found to promote tumour progression, metastasis niche formation and therapeutic resistance. Intensive research of recent years has revealed an incredible heterogeneity and complexity of the different components of the TME, including cancer-associated fibroblasts, immune cells, extracellular matrix components, tumour vessels and nerves. It has been hypothesised that paracrine interactions between neoplastic epithelial cells and TME compartments may result in either tumour-promoting or tumour-restraining consequences...
September 3, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177542/liquid-biopsy-for-liver-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Jelena Mann, Helen L Reeves, Ariel E Feldstein
With the growing number of novel therapeutic approaches for liver diseases, significant research efforts have been devoted to the development of liquid biopsy tools for precision medicine. This can be defined as non-invasive reliable biomarkers that can supplement and eventually replace the invasive liver biopsy for diagnosis, disease stratification and monitoring of response to therapeutic interventions. Similarly, detection of liver cancer at an earlier stage of the disease, potentially susceptible to curative resection, can be critical to improve patient survival...
September 3, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171065/small-metabolites-possible-big-changes-a-microbiota-centered-view-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#9
REVIEW
Huikuan Chu, Yi Duan, Ling Yang, Bernd Schnabl
The spectrum of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) ranges from simple hepatic steatosis, commonly associated with obesity, to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, which can progress to fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD pathophysiology involves environmental, genetic and metabolic factors, as well as changes in the intestinal microbiota and their products. Dysfunction of the intestinal barrier can contribute to NAFLD development and progression. Although there are technical limitations in assessing intestinal permeability in humans and the number of patients in these studies is rather small, fewer than half of the patients have increased intestinal permeability and translocation of bacterial products...
August 31, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30171064/population-level-analysis-of-blastocystis-subtype-prevalence-and-variation-in-the-human-gut-microbiota
#10
Raul Y Tito, Samuel Chaffron, Clara Caenepeel, Gipsi Lima-Mendez, Jun Wang, Sara Vieira-Silva, Gwen Falony, Falk Hildebrand, Youssef Darzi, Leen Rymenans, Chloë Verspecht, Peer Bork, Severine Vermeire, Marie Joossens, Jeroen Raes
OBJECTIVE: Human gut microbiome studies are mainly bacteria- and archaea-oriented, overlooking the presence of single-cell eukaryotes such as Blastocystis, an enteric stramenopiles with worldwide distribution. Here, we surveyed the prevalence and subtype variation of Blastocystis in faecal samples collected as part of the Flemish Gut Flora Project (FGFP), a Western population cohort. We assessed potential links between Blastocystis subtypes and identified microbiota-host covariates and quantified microbiota differentiation relative to subtype abundances...
August 31, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30158253/authors-response-association-between-ibd-and-parkinson-s-disease-seek-and-you-shall-find
#11
Marie Villumsen, Susana Aznar, Bente Pakkenberg, Tomasz Brudek, Tine Jess
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30158252/-primum-non-nocere-is-faecal-microbiota-transplantation-doing-harm-to-patients-with-ibs
#12
Paul Enck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 29, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30154172/the-use-of-faecal-microbiota-transplant-as-treatment-for-recurrent-or-refractory-clostridium-difficile-infection-and-other-potential-indications-joint-british-society-of-gastroenterology-bsg-and-healthcare-infection-society-his-guidelines
#13
Benjamin H Mullish, Mohammed Nabil Quraishi, Jonathan P Segal, Victoria L McCune, Melissa Baxter, Gemma L Marsden, David J Moore, Alaric Colville, Neeraj Bhala, Tariq H Iqbal, Christopher Settle, Graziella Kontkowski, Ailsa L Hart, Peter M Hawkey, Simon D Goldenberg, Horace R T Williams
Interest in the therapeutic potential of faecal microbiota transplant (FMT) has been increasing globally in recent years, particularly as a result of randomised studies in which it has been used as an intervention. The main focus of these studies has been the treatment of recurrent or refractory Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but there is also an emerging evidence base regarding potential applications in non-CDI settings. The key clinical stakeholders for the provision and governance of FMT services in the UK have tended to be in two major specialty areas: gastroenterology and microbiology/infectious diseases...
August 28, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30131322/enterocolitis-due-to-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Emilie Soularue, Patricia Lepage, Jean Frederic Colombel, Clelia Coutzac, David Faleck, Lysiane Marthey, Michael Collins, Nathalie Chaput, Caroline Robert, Franck Carbonnel
Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1)/ligand are increasingly used to treat several types of cancer. These drugs enhance antitumour T-cell activity and therefore induce immune-related adverse effects (irAE), of which gastrointestinal (GI) irAE are among the most frequent and severe. This systematic literature review summarises the clinical manifestations, management and pathophysiology of GI irAE due to immune checkpoint inhibitors...
August 21, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30131321/oral-vancomycin-induces-clinical-and-mucosal-remission-of-colitis-in-children-with-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-ulcerative-colitis
#15
Li-Zsa Tan, Claire R Reilly, Lana C Steward-Harrison, Fariha Balouch, Richard Muir, Peter J Lewindon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 21, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30126889/fifty-years-of-faecal-microbiota-transplant-in-central-australia
#16
Eliza Jane Temple Milliken
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 20, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121628/response-to-letter-to-the-editor-by-moayyedi-et-al
#17
Ka-Shing Cheung, Wai Keung Leung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121627/switchable-car-t-cells-mediate-remission-in-metastatic-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#18
Deepak Raj, Ming-Hsin Yang, David Rodgers, Eric N Hampton, Julfa Begum, Arif Mustafa, Daniela Lorizio, Irene Garces, David Propper, James G Kench, Travis S Young, Alexandra Aicher, Christopher Heeschen
OBJECTIVE: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a disease of unmet medical need. While immunotherapy with chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells has shown much promise in haematological malignancies, their efficacy for solid tumours is challenged by the lack of tumour-specific antigens required to avoid on-target, off-tumour effects. Switchable CAR-T cells whereby activity of the CAR-T cell is controlled by dosage of a tumour antigen-specific recombinant Fab-based 'switch' to afford a fully tunable response may overcome this translational barrier...
August 18, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121626/prediagnostic-circulating-markers-of-inflammation-and-risk-of-oesophageal-adenocarcinoma-a-study-within-the-national-cancer-institute-cohort-consortium
#19
Michael B Cook, Matthew J Barnett, Cathryn H Bock, Amanda J Cross, Phyllis J Goodman, Gary E Goodman, Christopher A Haiman, Kay-Tee Khaw, Marjorie L McCullough, Christine C Newton, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Eiliv Lund, Martin Rutegård, Mark D Thornquist, Michael Spriggs, Carol Giffen, Neal D Freedman, Troy Kemp, Candyce H Kroenke, Loïc Le Marchand, Jin Young Park, Michael Simon, Lynne R Wilkens, Ligia Pinto, Allan Hildesheim, Peter T Campbell
OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional data indicate that systemic inflammation is important in oesophageal adenocarcinoma. We conducted a prospective study to assess whether prediagnostic circulating markers of inflammation were associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma and to what extent they mediated associations of obesity and cigarette smoking with cancer risk. DESIGN: This nested case-control study included 296 oesophageal adenocarcinoma cases and 296 incidence density matched controls from seven prospective cohort studies...
August 18, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121625/alcohol-inhibits-t-cell-glucose-metabolism-and-hepatitis-in-aldh2-deficient-mice-and-humans-roles-of-acetaldehyde-and-glucocorticoids
#20
Yanhang Gao, Zhou Zhou, Tianyi Ren, Seung-Jin Kim, Yong He, Wonhyo Seo, Adrien Guillot, Yanhua Ding, Ruihong Wu, Shuang Shao, Xiaomei Wang, Hong Zhang, Wei Wang, Dechun Feng, Mingjiang Xu, Elaine Han, Wei Zhong, Zhanxiang Zhou, Pal Pacher, Junqi Niu, Bin Gao
OBJECTIVE: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), a key enzyme to detoxify acetaldehyde in the liver, exists in both active and inactive forms in humans. Individuals with inactive ALDH2 accumulate acetaldehyde after alcohol consumption. However, how acetaldehyde affects T-cell hepatitis remains unknown. DESIGN: Wild-type (WT) and Aldh2 knockout ( Aldh2 -/- ) mice were subjected to chronic ethanol feeding and concanavalin A (ConA)-induced T-cell hepatitis. Effects of acetaldehyde on T-cell glucose metabolism were investigated in vitro...
August 18, 2018: Gut
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