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Daniela Paganini, Mary A Uyoga, Guus A M Kortman, Colin I Cercamondi, Hans C Winkler, Jos Boekhorst, Diego Moretti, Christophe Lacroix, Simon Karanja, Michael B Zimmermann
OBJECTIVE: Many African infants receiving iron fortificants also receive antibiotics. Antibiotic efficacy against enteropathogens may be modified by high colonic iron concentrations. In this study, we evaluated the effect of antibiotics on the infant gut microbiome and diarrhoea when given with or without iron-containing micronutrient powders (MNPs). DESIGN: In a controlled intervention trial, four groups of community-dwelling infants (n=28; aged 8-10 months) received either: (A) antibiotics for 5 days and iron-MNPs for 40 days (Fe+ Ab+ ); (B) antibiotics and no-iron-MNPs (Fe- Ab+ ); (C) no antibiotics and iron-MNPs (Fe+ Ab- ); or (D) no antibiotics and no-iron-MNPs (Fe- Ab- )...
November 17, 2018: Gut
Tim Hendrikx, Yi Duan, Yanhan Wang, Jee-Hwan Oh, Laura M Alexander, Wendy Huang, Peter Stärkel, Samuel B Ho, Bei Gao, Oliver Fiehn, Patrick Emond, Harry Sokol, Jan-Peter van Pijkeren, Bernd Schnabl
OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial C-type lectin regenerating islet-derived 3 gamma (REG3G) is suppressed in the small intestine during chronic ethanol feeding. Our aim was to determine the mechanism that underlies REG3G suppression during experimental alcoholic liver disease. DESIGN: Interleukin 22 (IL-22) regulates expression of REG3G. Therefore, we investigated the role of IL-22 in mice subjected to chronic-binge ethanol feeding (NIAAA model). RESULTS: In a mouse model of alcoholic liver disease, we found that type 3 innate lymphoid cells produce lower levels of IL-22...
November 17, 2018: Gut
Zhiwei Liu, Rotana Alsaggaf, Katherine A McGlynn, Lesley A Anderson, Huei-Ting Tsai, Bin Zhu, Yue Zhu, Sam M Mbulaiteye, Shahinaz M Gadalla, Jill Koshiol
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between statin use and risk of biliary tract cancers (BTC). DESIGN: This is a nested case-control study conducted in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We included cases diagnosed with incident primary BTCs, including cancers of the gall bladder, bile duct (ie, both intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma), ampulla of Vater and mixed type, between 1990 and 2017. For each case, we selected five controls who did not develop BTCs at the time of case diagnosis, matched by sex, year of birth, calendar time and years of enrolment in the general practice using incidence density sampling...
November 17, 2018: Gut
Ji Young Bang, Shyam Varadarajulu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2018: Gut
Morgane Cheminant, Julie Bruneau, Georgia Malamut, David Sibon, Nicolas Guegan, Tom van Gils, Sascha Cording, Amélie Trinquand, Virginie Verkarre, Ludovic Lhermitte, Nicole Brousse, Anne-Sophie Jannot, Sherine Khater, Laurent Frenzel, Richard Delarue, Felipe Suarez, Ambroise Marçais, Chris Jj Mulder, Elizabeth Macintyre, Vahid Asnafi, Laurent Pouyet, Cécile Bonnafous, Florence Lhospice, Thierry Jo Molina, Bertrand Meresse, Christophe Cellier, Nadine Cerf-Bensussan, Olivier Hermine
OBJECTIVES: Primary GI T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (T-LPD) are heterogeneous entities, which raise difficult diagnosis and therapeutic challenges. We have recently provided evidences that lymphomas complicating coeliac disease (CD) arise from innate-like lymphocytes, which may carry NK receptors (NKRs). DESIGN: NKRs expression was compared by flow cytometry in intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) from CD, type I or type II refractory CD (RCD). NKp46 was next assessed by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded biopsies from 204 patients with CD, RCDI, RCDII or GI T-cell lymphomas and from a validation cohort of 61 patients...
November 17, 2018: Gut
Claus Hellerbrand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2018: Gut
Philip Wai Yan Chiu, Noriya Uedo, Rajvinder Singh, Takuji Gotoda, Enders Kwok Wai Ng, Kenshi Yao, Tiing Leong Ang, Shiaw Hooi Ho, Daisuke Kikuchi, Fang Yao, Rapat Pittayanon, Kenichi Goda, James Y W Lau, Hisao Tajiri, Haruhiro Inoue
BACKGROUND: This is a consensus developed by a group of expert endoscopists aiming to standardise the preparation, process and endoscopic procedural steps for diagnosis of early upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. METHOD: The Delphi method was used to develop consensus statements through identification of clinical questions on diagnostic endoscopy. Three consensus meetings were conducted to consolidate the statements and voting. We conducted a systematic literature search on evidence for each statement...
November 12, 2018: Gut
Hong Liu, Maozhen Han, Shuai Cheng Li, Guangming Tan, Shiwei Sun, Zhiqiang Hu, Pengshuo Yang, Rui Wang, Yawen Liu, Feng Chen, Jianjun Peng, Hong Peng, Hongxing Song, Yang Xia, Liqun Chu, Quan Zhou, Feng Guan, Jing Wu, Dongbo Bu, Kang Ning
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2018: Gut
Ryan C Ungaro, Berkeley N Limketkai, Camilla Bjørn Jensen, Kristine Højgaard Allin, Manasi Agrawal, Thomas Ullman, Jean-Frederic Colombel, Tine Jess
OBJECTIVE: The benefit of continuing 5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA) in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) who initiate anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha (anti-TNF) biologics is unknown. We aimed to compare clinical outcomes in patients with UC already on 5-ASA who started anti-TNF and then either stopped or continued 5-ASA. DESIGN: Our primary outcome was any adverse clinical event defined as a composite of new corticosteroid use, UC-related hospitalisation or surgery...
November 12, 2018: Gut
Delphine Goehrig, Jérémy Nigri, Rémi Samain, Zhichong Wu, Paola Cappello, Gaëlle Gabiane, Xinyi Zhang, Yajie Zhao, In-San Kim, Marie Chanal, Roberta Curto, Valerie Hervieu, Christelle de La Fouchardière, Francesco Novelli, Pascale Milani, Richard Tomasini, Corinne Bousquet, Philippe Bertolino, Ana Hennino
OBJECTIVE: Pancreatic cancer is associated with an abundant stromal reaction leading to immune escape and tumour growth. This massive stroma drives the immune escape in the tumour. We aimed to study the impact of βig-h3 stromal protein in the modulation of the antitumoural immune response in pancreatic cancer. DESIGN: We performed studies with p48- Cre; Kras G12D , pdx1 -Cre; KrasG12D ;Ink4a / Arf fl/fl , pdx1 -Cre; KrasG12D ; p53R172H mice and tumour tissues from patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA)...
November 10, 2018: Gut
Yong Lv, Luo Zuo, Xuan Zhu, Jianbo Zhao, Hui Xue, Zaibo Jiang, Yuzheng Zhuge, Chunqing Zhang, Junhui Sun, Pengxu Ding, Weixin Ren, Yingchun Li, Kewei Zhang, Wenguang Zhang, Chuangye He, Jiawei Zhong, Qifeng Peng, Fuquan Ma, Junyang Luo, Ming Zhang, Guangchuan Wang, Minhuang Sun, Junjiao Dong, Wei Bai, Wengang Guo, Qiuhe Wang, Xulong Yuan, Zhengyu Wang, Tianlei Yu, Bohan Luo, Xiaomei Li, Jie Yuan, Na Han, Ying Zhu, Jing Niu, Kai Li, Zhanxin Yin, Yongzhan Nie, Daiming Fan, Guohong Han
OBJECTIVES: Early placement of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) has been shown to improve survival in high-risk patients (Child-Pugh B plus active bleeding at endoscopy or Child-Pugh C 10-13) with cirrhosis and acute variceal bleeding (AVB). However, early TIPS criteria may overestimate the mortality risk in a significant proportion of patients, and the survival benefit conferred by early TIPS in such patients has been questioned. Alternative criteria have been proposed to refine the criteria used to identify candidates for early TIPS...
November 10, 2018: Gut
James Rw Conway, David Herrmann, Tr Jeffry Evans, Jennifer P Morton, Paul Timpson
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is among the most deadly solid tumours. This is due to a generally late-stage diagnosis of a primarily treatment-refractory disease. Several large-scale sequencing and mass spectrometry approaches have identified key drivers of this disease and in doing so highlighted the vast heterogeneity of lower frequency mutations that make clinical trials of targeted agents in unselected patients increasingly futile. There is a clear need for improved biomarkers to guide effective targeted therapies, with biomarker-driven clinical trials for personalised medicine becoming increasingly common in several cancers...
November 5, 2018: Gut
Lotte Boxhoorn, Paul Fockens, Rogier P Voermans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2018: Gut
Hongda Chen, Ni Li, Jiansong Ren, Xiaoshuang Feng, Zhangyan Lyu, Luopei Wei, Xin Li, Lanwei Guo, Zhaoxu Zheng, Shuangmei Zou, Yueming Zhang, Jiang Li, Kai Zhang, Wanqing Chen, Min Dai, Jie He
OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been widely implemented in many countries. However, evidence on participation and diagnostic yield of population-based CRC screening in China is sparse. DESIGN: The analyses were conducted in the context of the Cancer Screening Program in Urban China, which recruited 1 381 561 eligible participants aged 40-69 years from 16 provinces in China from 2012 to 2015. 182 927 participants were evaluated to be high risk for CRC by an established risk score system and were subsequently recommended for colonoscopy...
October 30, 2018: Gut
John Ong, Carla Swift, Ian Allwood, Roger Norman, Yasseen Al-Naeeb, Arun Shankar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2018: Gut
Wei-Kai Wu, Chieh-Chang Chen, Po-Yu Liu, Suraphan Panyod, Ben-Yang Liao, Pei-Chen Chen, Hsien-Li Kao, Han-Chun Kuo, Ching-Hua Kuo, Tina H T Chiu, Rou-An Chen, Hsiao-Li Chuang, Yen-Te Huang, Hsin-Bai Zou, Cheng-Chih Hsu, Ting-Yan Chang, Chin-Lon Lin, Chi-Tang Ho, Hon-Tsen Yu, Lee-Yan Sheen, Ming-Shiang Wu
OBJECTIVE: The gut microbiota-derived metabolite, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) plays an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). The fasting plasma TMAO was shown as a prognostic indicator of CVD incident in patients and raised the interest of intervention targeting gut microbiota. Here we develop a clinically applicable method called oral carnitine challenge test (OCCT) for TMAO-related therapeutic drug efforts assessment and personalising dietary guidance. DESIGN: A pharmacokinetic study was performed to verify the design of OCCT protocol...
October 30, 2018: Gut
George Yizhou Tang, Jake Peter Mann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2018: Gut
Zhen He, Raad Z Gharaibeh, Rachel C Newsome, Jllian L Pope, Michael W Dougherty, Sarah Tomkovich, Benoit Pons, Gladys Mirey, Julien Vignard, David R Hendrixson, Christian Jobin
OBJECTIVE: Campylobacter jejuni produces a genotoxin, cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), which has DNAse activity and causes DNA double-strand breaks. Although C. jejuni infection has been shown to promote intestinal inflammation, the impact of this bacterium on carcinogenesis has never been examined. DESIGN: Germ-free (GF) ApcMin/+ mice, fed with 1% dextran sulfate sodium, were used to test tumorigenesis potential of CDT-producing C. jejuni . Cells and enteroids were exposed to bacterial lysates to determine DNA damage capacity via γH2AX immunofluorescence, comet assay and cell cycle assay...
October 30, 2018: Gut
Christopher M Stark, Apryl Susi, Jill Emerick, Cade M Nylund
OBJECTIVE: Gut microbiota alterations are associated with obesity. Early exposure to medications, including acid suppressants and antibiotics, can alter gut biota and may increase the likelihood of developing obesity. We investigated the association of antibiotic, histamine-2 receptor antagonist (H2RA) and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) prescriptions during early childhood with a diagnosis of obesity. DESIGN: We performed a cohort study of US Department of Defense TRICARE beneficiaries born from October 2006 to September 2013...
October 30, 2018: Gut
Huiyun Zhu, Han Lin, Xiangyu Kong, Zhendong Jin, Zhaoshen Li, Yiqi Du
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 27, 2018: Gut
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