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Gut

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141958/dna-methylation-defines-regional-identity-of-human-intestinal-epithelial-organoids-and-undergoes-dynamic-changes-during-development
#1
Judith Kraiczy, Komal M Nayak, Kate J Howell, Alexander Ross, Jessica Forbester, Camilla Salvestrini, Roxana Mustata, Sally Perkins, Amanda Andersson-Rolf, Esther Leenen, Anke Liebert, Ludovic Vallier, Philip C Rosenstiel, Oliver Stegle, Gordon Dougan, Robert Heuschkel, Bon-Kyoung Koo, Matthias Zilbauer
OBJECTIVE: Human intestinal epithelial organoids (IEOs) are increasingly being recognised as a highly promising translational research tool. However, our understanding of their epigenetic molecular characteristics and behaviour in culture remains limited. DESIGN: We performed genome-wide DNA methylation and transcriptomic profiling of human IEOs derived from paediatric/adult and fetal small and large bowel as well as matching purified human gut epithelium. Furthermore, organoids were subjected to in vitro differentiation and genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 technology...
November 15, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141957/adherent-invasive-escherichia-coli-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#2
REVIEW
Carolina Palmela, Caroline Chevarin, Zhilu Xu, Joana Torres, Gwladys Sevrin, Robert Hirten, Nicolas Barnich, Siew C Ng, Jean-Frederic Colombel
Intestinal microbiome dysbiosis has been consistently described in patients with IBD. In the last decades, Escherichia coli, and the adherent-invasive E coli (AIEC) pathotype in particular, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD. Since the discovery of AIEC, two decades ago, progress has been made in unravelling these bacteria characteristics and its interaction with the gut immune system. The mechanisms of adhesion of AIEC to intestinal epithelial cells (via FimH and cell adhesion molecule 6) and its ability to escape autophagy when inside macrophages are reviewed here...
November 15, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122851/guidelines-on-the-management-of-abnormal-liver-blood-tests
#3
Philip N Newsome, Rob Cramb, Suzanne M Davison, John F Dillon, Mark Foulerton, Edmund M Godfrey, Richard Hall, Ulrike Harrower, Mark Hudson, Andrew Langford, Anne Mackie, Robert Mitchell-Thain, Karen Sennett, Nicholas C Sheron, Julia Verne, Martine Walmsley, Andrew Yeoman
These updated guidelines on the management of abnormal liver blood tests have been commissioned by the Clinical Services and Standards Committee (CSSC) of the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG) under the auspices of the liver section of the BSG. The original guidelines, which this document supersedes, were written in 2000 and have undergone extensive revision by members of the Guidelines Development Group (GDG). The GDG comprises representatives from patient/carer groups (British Liver Trust, Liver4life, PBC Foundation and PSC Support), elected members of the BSG liver section (including representatives from Scotland and Wales), British Association for the Study of the Liver (BASL), Specialist Advisory Committee in Clinical Biochemistry/Royal College of Pathology and Association for Clinical Biochemistry, British Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (BSPGHAN), Public Health England (implementation and screening), Royal College of General Practice, British Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiologists (BSGAR) and Society of Acute Medicine...
November 9, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122850/differential-preventive-activity-of-sulindac-and-atorvastatin-in-apc-min-fccc-mice-with-or-without-colorectal-adenomas
#4
Wen-Chi L Chang, Christina Jackson, Stacy Riel, Harry S Cooper, Karthik Devarajan, Harvey H Hensley, Yan Zhou, Lisa A Vanderveer, Minhhuyen T Nguyen, Margie L Clapper
OBJECTIVE: The response of subjects to preventive intervention is heterogeneous. The goal of this study was to determine if the efficacy of a chemopreventive agent differs in non-tumour-bearing animals versus those with colorectal tumours. Sulindac and/or atorvastatin was administered to Apc(+/Min-FCCC) mice with known tumour-bearing status at treatment initiation. DESIGN: Male mice (6-8 weeks old) underwent colonoscopy and received control chow or chow with sulindac (300 ppm), atorvastatin (100 ppm) or sulindac/atorvastatin...
November 9, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114070/srsf6-regulated-alternative-splicing-that-promotes-tumour-progression-offers-a-therapy-target-for-colorectal-cancer
#5
Ledong Wan, Wenying Yu, Enhui Shen, Wenjie Sun, Yuan Liu, Jianlu Kong, Yihua Wu, Fengyan Han, Lei Zhang, Tianze Yu, Yuwei Zhou, Sunzhe Xie, Enping Xu, Honghe Zhang, Maode Lai
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the molecular function of splicing factor SRSF6 in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and discover candidate chemicals for cancer therapy through targeting SRSF6. DESIGN: We performed comprehensive analysis for the expression of SRSF6 in 311 CRC samples, The Cancer Genome Atlas and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Functional analysis of SRSF6 in CRC was performed in vitro and in vivo. SRSF6-regulated alternative splicing (AS) and its binding motif were identified by next-generation RNA-sequencing and RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (RIP-seq), which was validated by gel shift and minigene reporter assay...
November 7, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102920/gastric-microbial-community-profiling-reveals-a-dysbiotic-cancer-associated-microbiota
#6
Rui M Ferreira, Joana Pereira-Marques, Ines Pinto-Ribeiro, Jose L Costa, Fatima Carneiro, Jose C Machado, Ceu Figueiredo
OBJECTIVE: Gastric carcinoma development is triggered by Helicobacter pylori. Chronic H. pylori infection leads to reduced acid secretion, which may allow the growth of a different gastric bacterial community. This change in the microbiome may increase aggression to the gastric mucosa and contribute to malignancy. Our aim was to evaluate the composition of the gastric microbiota in chronic gastritis and in gastric carcinoma. DESIGN: The gastric microbiota was retrospectively investigated in 54 patients with gastric carcinoma and 81 patients with chronic gastritis by 16S rRNA gene profiling, using next-generation sequencing...
November 4, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101263/assessment-of-liver-fibrosis-with-the-gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase-to-platelet-ratio-a-multicentre-validation-in-patients-with-hbv-infection
#7
LETTER
Xiao-Jie Lu, Xiu-Hui Li, Zhao-Xin Yuan, Hai-Ying Sun, Xiao-Chen Wang, Xiaolong Qi, Xin Zhang, Beicheng Sun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101262/genome-wide-dna-methylation-analysis-reveals-a-prognostic-classifier-for-non-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-promcol-classifier
#8
Melanie Gündert, Dominic Edelmann, Axel Benner, Lina Jansen, Min Jia, Viola Walter, Phillip Knebel, Esther Herpel, Jenny Chang-Claude, Michael Hoffmeister, Hermann Brenner, Barbara Burwinkel
OBJECTIVE: Pathological staging used for the prediction of patient survival in colorectal cancer (CRC) provides only limited information. DESIGN: Here, a genome-wide study of DNA methylation was conducted for two cohorts of patients with non-metastatic CRC (screening cohort (n=572) and validation cohort (n=274)). A variable screening for prognostic CpG sites was performed in the screening cohort using marginal testing based on a Cox model and subsequent adjustment of the p-values via independent hypothesis weighting using the methylation difference between 34 pairs of tumour and normal mucosa tissue as auxiliary covariate...
November 3, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101261/butyrate-reduces-appetite-and-activates-brown-adipose-tissue-via-the-gut-brain-neural-circuit
#9
Zhuang Li, Chun-Xia Yi, Saeed Katiraei, Sander Kooijman, Enchen Zhou, Chih Kit Chung, Yuanqing Gao, José K van den Heuvel, Onno C Meijer, Jimmy F P Berbée, Marieke Heijink, Martin Giera, Ko Willems van Dijk, Albert K Groen, Patrick C N Rensen, Yanan Wang
OBJECTIVE: Butyrate exerts metabolic benefits in mice and humans, the underlying mechanisms being still unclear. We aimed to investigate the effect of butyrate on appetite and energy expenditure, and to what extent these two components contribute to the beneficial metabolic effects of butyrate. DESIGN: Acute effects of butyrate on appetite and its method of action were investigated in mice following an intragastric gavage or intravenous injection of butyrate. To study the contribution of satiety to the metabolic benefits of butyrate, mice were fed a high-fat diet with butyrate, and an additional pair-fed group was included...
November 3, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101260/long-term-performance-of-colorectal-cancer-screening-programmes-based-on-the-faecal-immunochemical-test
#10
Manuel Zorzi, Cesare Hassan, Giulia Capodaglio, Chiara Fedato, Adriana Montaguti, Anna Turrin, Alberto Rosano, Daniele Monetti, Carmen Stocco, Susanna Baracco, Francesca Russo, Alessandro Repici, Massimo Rugge
BACKGROUND: The long-term performance of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes based on a 2-year faecal immunochemical test (FIT) is still unclear. METHODS: In a sample of 50 to 69-year-olds repeatedly screened with the FIT (OC-Hemodia latex agglutination test; cut-off: 20 µg haemoglobin/g faeces), we examined: (1) the FIT positivity rate, the CRC and advanced adenoma detection rate and the FIT's positive predictive value (PPV) for advanced neoplasia, at each round of screening and (2) the cumulative CRC and advanced adenoma detection rate after five rounds of FIT...
November 3, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101259/deciphering-the-biology-of-igg4-related-disease-specific-antigens-and-disease
#11
EDITORIAL
Debashis Haldar, Gideon M Hirschfield
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 3, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097439/mucosa-associated-invariant-t-cells-link-intestinal-immunity-with-antibacterial-immune-defects-in-alcoholic-liver-disease
#12
Antonio Riva, Vishal Patel, Ayako Kurioka, Hannah C Jeffery, Gavin Wright, Sarah Tarff, Debbie Shawcross, Jennifer M Ryan, Alexander Evans, Sarah Azarian, Jasmohan S Bajaj, Andrew Fagan, Vinood Patel, Kosha Mehta, Carlos Lopez, Marieta Simonova, Krum Katzarov, Tanya Hadzhiolova, Slava Pavlova, Julia A Wendon, Ye Htun Oo, Paul Klenerman, Roger Williams, Shilpa Chokshi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Intestinal permeability with systemic distribution of bacterial products are central in the immunopathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), yet links with intestinal immunity remain elusive. Mucosa-associated invariant T cells (MAIT) are found in liver, blood and intestinal mucosa and are a key component of antibacterial host defences. Their role in ALD is unknown. METHODS/DESIGN: We analysed frequency, phenotype, transcriptional regulation and function of blood MAIT cells in severe alcoholic hepatitis (SAH), alcohol-related cirrhosis (ARC) and healthy controls (HC)...
November 2, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097438/whole-grain-rich-diet-reduces-body-weight-and-systemic-low-grade-inflammation-without-inducing-major-changes-of-the-gut-microbiome-a-randomised-cross-over-trial
#13
Henrik Munch Roager, Josef K Vogt, Mette Kristensen, Lea Benedicte S Hansen, Sabine Ibrügger, Rasmus B Mærkedahl, Martin Iain Bahl, Mads Vendelbo Lind, Rikke L Nielsen, Hanne Frøkiær, Rikke Juul Gøbel, Rikard Landberg, Alastair B Ross, Susanne Brix, Jesper Holck, Anne S Meyer, Morten H Sparholt, Anders F Christensen, Vera Carvalho, Jens Juul Holst, Jüri Johannes Rumessen, Allan Linneberg, Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén, Marlene D Dalgaard, Andreas Blennow, Henrik Lauritz Frandsen, Silas Villas-Bôas, Karsten Kristiansen, Henrik Vestergaard, Torben Hansen, Claus T Ekstrøm, Christian Ritz, Henrik Bjørn Nielsen, Oluf Borbye Pedersen, Ramneek Gupta, Lotte Lauritzen, Tine Rask Licht
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a whole grain diet alters the gut microbiome and insulin sensitivity, as well as biomarkers of metabolic health and gut functionality. DESIGN: 60 Danish adults at risk of developing metabolic syndrome were included in a randomised cross-over trial with two 8-week dietary intervention periods comprising whole grain diet and refined grain diet, separated by a washout period of ≥6 weeks. The response to the interventions on the gut microbiome composition and insulin sensitivity as well on measures of glucose and lipid metabolism, gut functionality, inflammatory markers, anthropometry and urine metabolomics were assessed...
November 1, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089382/long-term-proton-pump-inhibitors-and-risk-of-gastric-cancer-development-after-treatment-for-helicobacter-pylori-a-population-based-study
#14
Ka Shing Cheung, Esther W Chan, Angel Y S Wong, Lijia Chen, Ian C K Wong, Wai Keung Leung
OBJECTIVE: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is associated with worsening of gastric atrophy, particularly in Helicobacter pylori (HP)-infected subjects. We determined the association between PPIs use and gastric cancer (GC) among HP-infected subjects who had received HP therapy. DESIGNS: This study was based on a territory-wide health database of Hong Kong. We identified adults who had received an outpatient prescription of clarithromycin-based triple therapy between year 2003 and 2012...
October 31, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084829/methylation-panel-is-a-diagnostic-biomarker-for-barrett-s-oesophagus-in-endoscopic-biopsies-and-non-endoscopic-cytology-specimens
#15
Hamza Chettouh, Oliver Mowforth, Núria Galeano-Dalmau, Navya Bezawada, Caryn Ross-Innes, Shona MacRae, Irene Debiram-Beecham, Maria O'Donovan, Rebecca C Fitzgerald
OBJECTIVE: Barrett's oesophagus is a premalignant condition that occurs in the context of gastro-oesophageal reflux. However, most Barrett's cases are undiagnosed because of reliance on endoscopy. We have developed a non-endoscopic tool: the Cytosponge, which when combined with trefoil factor 3 immunohistochemistry, can diagnose Barrett's oesophagus. We investigated whether a quantitative methylation test that is not reliant on histopathological analysis could be used to diagnose Barrett's oesophagus...
October 30, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084828/comparison-of-early-radiological-predictors-of-outcome-in-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-with-unresectable-hepatic-metastases-treated-with-bevacizumab
#16
Thibault Mazard, Piyaporn Boonsirikamchai, Michael J Overman, Mohamed A Asran, Haesun Choi, Delise Herron, Cathy Eng, Dipen M Maru, Marc Ychou, Jean-Nicolas Vauthey, Evelyne M Loyer, Scott Kopetz
OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to validate the prognostic value of an early optimal morphological response on CT in patients treated with bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy for unresectable colorectal cancer liver metastases (CLM). It also evaluated the prognostic value of size-based criteria and the association of optimal morphological response with the receipt of bevacizumab. DESIGN: 141 patients treated first using bevacizumab and 142 patients from a randomised study evaluating the addition of bevacizumab to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy were retrospectively analysed...
October 30, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080859/integrin-%C3%AE-6-variants-and-colorectal-cancer
#17
LETTER
Jean-François Beaulieu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 28, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080858/tailored-first-line-and-second-line-cdk4-targeting-treatment-combinations-in-mouse-models-of-pancreatic-cancer
#18
Angela Chou, Danielle Froio, Adnan M Nagrial, Ashleigh Parkin, Kendelle J Murphy, Venessa T Chin, Dalia Wohl, Angela Steinmann, Rhys Stark, Alison Drury, Stacey N Walters, Claire Vennin, Andrew Burgess, Mark Pinese, Lorraine A Chantrill, Mark J Cowley, Timothy J Molloy, Nicola Waddell, Amber Johns, Sean M Grimmond, David K Chang, Andrew V Biankin, Owen J Sansom, Jennifer P Morton, Shane T Grey, Thomas R Cox, John Turchini, Jaswinder Samra, Stephen J Clarke, Paul Timpson, Anthony J Gill, Marina Pajic
OBJECTIVE: Extensive molecular heterogeneity of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), few effective therapies and high mortality make this disease a prime model for advancing development of tailored therapies. The p16-cyclin D-cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6-retinoblastoma (RB) protein (CDK4) pathway, regulator of cell proliferation, is deregulated in PDA. Our aim was to develop a novel personalised treatment strategy for PDA based on targeting CDK4. DESIGN: Sensitivity to potent CDK4/6 inhibitor PD-0332991 (palbociclib) was correlated to protein and genomic data in 19 primary patient-derived PDA lines to identify biomarkers of response...
October 28, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080857/enterochromaffin-cells-in-the-gut-a-distant-regulator-of-brain-function
#19
LETTER
Chun Yang, Jie Gao, Jie Zhang, Ai-Lin Luo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 28, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074727/liver-reptin-ruvbl2-controls-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism-with-opposite-actions-on-mtorc1-and-mtorc2-signalling
#20
Joaquim Javary, Nathalie Allain-Courtois, Nicolas Saucisse, Pierre Costet, Capucine Heraud, Fadila Benhamed, Rémi Pierre, Corinne Bure, Nestor Pallares-Lupon, Marcio Do Cruzeiro, Catherine Postic, Daniela Cota, Pierre Dubus, Jean Rosenbaum, Samira Benhamouche-Trouillet
OBJECTIVE: The AAA+ ATPase Reptin is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma and preclinical studies indicate that it could be a relevant therapeutic target. However, its physiological and pathophysiological roles in vivo remain unknown. This study aimed to determine the role of Reptin in mammalian adult liver. DESIGN AND RESULTS: We generated an inducible liver-specific Reptin knockout (Repin(LKO) ) mouse model. Following Reptin invalidation, mice displayed decreased body and fat mass, hypoglycaemia and hypolipidaemia...
October 26, 2017: Gut
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