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Arduino Arduini, Victor A Zammit, Mario Bonomini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2019: Gut
Pujan Kandel, Eelco Christiaan Brand, Joe Pelt, Colleen T Ball, Wei-Chung Chen, Ernest P Bouras, Victoria Gomez, Massimo Raimondo, Timothy A Woodward, Michael B Wallace
OBJECTIVE: It is unclear whether endoscopic assessment of scars after colorectal endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) has to include biopsies, even if endoscopy is negative. Vice versa, endoscopic diagnosis of recurrent adenoma may not require biopsy before endoscopic reinterventions. We prospectively analysed various endoscopic modalities in the diagnosis of recurrence following EMR. DESIGN: We conducted a prospective study of patients undergoing colonoscopy after EMR of large (≥20 mm) colorectal neoplasia...
January 11, 2019: Gut
Sarmed S Sami, Adharsh Ravindran, Allon Kahn, Diana Snyder, Jose Santiago, Jacobo Ortiz-Fernandez-Sordo, Wei Keith Tan, Ross A Dierkhising, Julia E Crook, Michael G Heckman, Michele L Johnson, Ramona Lansing, Krish Ragunath, Massimiliano di Pietro, Herbert Wolfsen, Francisco Ramirez, David Fleischer, Kenneth K Wang, Cadman L Leggett, David A Katzka, Prasad G Iyer
OBJECTIVE: Surveillance interval protocols after complete remission of intestinal metaplasia (CRIM) post radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in Barrett's oesophagus (BE) are currently empiric and not based on substantial evidence. We aimed to assess the timeline, location and patterns of recurrence following CRIM to inform these guidelines. DESIGN: Data on patients undergoing RFA for BE were obtained from prospectively maintained databases of five (three USA and two UK) tertiary referral centres...
January 11, 2019: Gut
Ting Li, Hanqing Guo, Hong Li, Yanzhi Jiang, Kun Zhuang, Chao Lei, Jian Wu, Haining Zhou, Ruixue Zhu, Xiaodi Zhao, Yuanyuan Lu, Chongkai Shi, Yongzhan Nie, Kaichun Wu, Zuyi Yuan, Dai-Ming Fan, Yongquan Shi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) is common in the gastric epithelium of patients with chronic atrophic gastritis. CDX2 activation in IM is driven by reflux of bile acids and following chronic inflammation. But the mechanism underlying how bile acids activate CDX2 in gastric epithelium has not been fully explored. METHODS: We performed microRNA (miRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling using microarray in cells treated with bile acids. Data integration of the miRNA/mRNA profiles with gene ontology (GO) analysis and bioinformatics was performed to detect potential miRNA-mRNA regulatory circuits...
January 11, 2019: Gut
Hua-Jun Zhao, Qiu-Ju Han, Guan Wang, Ang Lin, Dong-Qing Xu, Ya-Qun Wang, Lian-Hui Zhao, Zhi-Gang Tian, Jian Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) virus infection is a global health problem. Finding a cure for CHB remains a challenging task. DESIGN: In this study, poly I:C was employed as an adjuvant for HBV therapeutic vaccine (referred to as pHBV-vaccine) and the feasibility and efficiency of pHBV-vaccine in CHB treatment were evaluated in HBV-carrier mice. RESULTS: We found that pHBV-vaccine decreased HBsAg and HBV DNA efficiently and safely in HBV-carrier mice...
January 11, 2019: Gut
Simone N Vigod, Paul Kurdyak, Hilary K Brown, Geoffrey C Nguyen, Laura E Targownik, Cynthia H Seow, M Ellen Kuenzig, Eric I Benchimol
OBJECTIVE: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an elevated risk of mental illness. We determined the incidence and correlates of new-onset mental illness associated with IBD during pregnancy and post partum. DESIGN: This cohort study using population-based health administrative data included all women with a singleton live birth in Ontario, Canada (2002-2014). The incidence of new-onset mental illness from conception to 1-year post partum was compared between 3721 women with and 798 908 without IBD, generating adjusted HRs (aHR)...
January 9, 2019: Gut
Anita Schuch, Elahe Salimi Alizei, Kathrin Heim, Dominik Wieland, Michael Muthamia Kiraithe, Janine Kemming, Sian Llewellyn-Lacey, Özlem Sogukpinar, Yi Ni, Stephan Urban, Peter Zimmermann, Michael Nassal, Florian Emmerich, David A Price, Bertram Bengsch, Hendrik Luxenburger, Christoph Neumann-Haefelin, Maike Hofmann, Robert Thimme
OBJECTIVE: A hallmark of chronic HBV (cHBV) infection is the presence of impaired HBV-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Functional T cell exhaustion induced by persistent antigen stimulation is considered a major mechanism underlying this impairment. However, due to their low frequencies in chronic infection, it is currently unknown whether HBV-specific CD8+ T cells targeting different epitopes are similarly impaired and share molecular profiles indicative of T cell exhaustion. DESIGN: By applying peptide-loaded MHC I tetramer-based enrichment, we could detect HBV-specific CD8+ T cells targeting epitopes in the HBV core and the polymerase proteins in the majority of 85 tested cHBV patients with low viral loads...
January 8, 2019: Gut
Philip R Harvey, Ben Coupland, Jemma Mytton, Felicity Evison, Prashant Patel, Nigel J Trudgill
INTRODUCTION: Achalasia is a disorder characterised by failed relaxation of the lower oesophageal sphincter. The aim of this study was to examine, at a national level, the long-term outcomes of achalasia therapies. METHODS: Hospital Episode Statistics include diagnostic and procedural data for all English National Health Service-funded hospital admissions. Subjects with a code for achalasia who had their initial treatment between January 2006 and December 2015 were grouped by treatment; pneumatic dilatation (PD) or surgical Heller's myotomy (HM)...
January 3, 2019: Gut
Hannelie Korf, Johannie du Plessis, Jos van Pelt, Sofie De Groote, David Cassiman, Len Verbeke, Bart Ghesquière, Sarah-Maria Fendt, Matthew J Bird, Ali Talebi, Matthias Van Haele, Rita Feio-Azevedo, Lore Meelberghs, Tania Roskams, Rajeshwar P Mookerjee, Gautam Mehta, Rajiv Jalan, Thierry Gustot, Wim Laleman, Frederik Nevens, Schalk Willem van der Merwe
OBJECTIVE: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is associated with dysfunctional circulating monocytes whereby patients become highly susceptible to bacterial infections. Here, we identify the pathways underlying monocyte dysfunction in ACLF and we investigate whether metabolic rewiring reinstates their phagocytic and inflammatory capacity. DESIGN: Following phenotypic characterisation, we performed RNA sequencing on CD14+ CD16- monocytes from patients with ACLF and decompensated alcoholic cirrhosis...
December 22, 2018: Gut
Ruben C Hoogeveen, Maxwell P Robidoux, Tatjana Schwarz, Laura Heydmann, James A Cheney, Daniel Kvistad, Jasneet Aneja, Juliana G Melgaço, Carlos A Fernandes, Raymond T Chung, Andre Boonstra, Arthur Y Kim, Thomas F Baumert, Jörg Timm, Lia L Lewis-Ximenez, Pierre Tonnerre, Georg M Lauer
OBJECTIVE: Chronic HBV infection affects more than 250 million people worldwide and remains a global healthcare problem in part because we lack curative treatment. Sustained viral control requires HBV-specific T cells, but these become functionally impaired in chronic infection. Clinical evidence indicates that functional cure of HBV infection by the host immune response is feasible. Developing T cell-based therapies able to achieve functional cure will require identification of the requirements for a successful T cell response against HBV and the relative contribution of individual T cell specificities to HBV control...
December 22, 2018: Gut
Marietta Iacucci, Federica Furfaro, Takayuki Matsumoto, Toshio Uraoka, Samuel Smith, Subrata Ghosh, Ralf Kiesslich
Endoscopic assessment of inflammation and mucosal healing is crucial for appropriate management in IBD. Current definition of endoscopic mucosal healing has been derived using previous generation of standard white light endoscopes. New endoscopy technologies widely available provide much more detailed images of mucosal and vascular patterns. Novel endoscopic techniques with high definition image, optical and digital enhancement have enhanced the quality and fine details of vascular and mucosal pattern so that endoscopic images have started to reflect histological changes for lesions and inflammation/healing...
December 22, 2018: Gut
Alexander J Stockdale, Benno Kreuels, Marc R Y Henrion, Emanuele Giorgi, Irene Kyomuhangi, Anna Maria Geretti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2018: Gut
Cyrielle Caussy, Veeral H Ajmera, Puneet Puri, Cynthia Li-Shin Hsu, Shirin Bassirian, Mania Mgdsyan, Seema Singh, Claire Faulkner, Mark A Valasek, Emily Rizo, Lisa Richards, David A Brenner, Claude B Sirlin, Arun J Sanyal, Rohit Loomba
OBJECTIVE: Non-invasive and accurate diagnostic tests for the screening of disease severity in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remain a major unmet need. Therefore, we aimed to examine if a combination of serum metabolites can accurately predict the presence of advanced fibrosis. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective derivation cohort including 156 well-characterised patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and two validation cohorts, including (1) 142 patients assessed using MRI elastography (MRE) and(2) 59 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD with untargeted serum metabolome profiling...
December 19, 2018: Gut
Paula Perez-Pardo, Hemraj B Dodiya, Phillip A Engen, Christopher B Forsyth, Andrea M Huschens, Maliha Shaikh, Robin M Voigt, Ankur Naqib, Stefan J Green, Jeffrey H Kordower, Kathleen M Shannon, Johan Garssen, Aletta D Kraneveld, Ali Keshavarzian
OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggesting an important role of gut-derived inflammation in brain disorders has opened up new directions to explore the possible role of the gut-brain axis in neurodegenerative diseases. Given the prominence of dysbiosis and colonic dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), we propose that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated intestinal dysfunction could contribute to intestinal and central inflammation in PD-related neurodegeneration. DESIGN: To test this hypothesis we performed studies in both human tissue and a murine model of PD...
December 15, 2018: Gut
Jessica Stjärngrim, Anders Ekbom, Ulf Hammar, Rolf Hultcrantz, Anna M Forsberg
OBJECTIVE: The rate of postcolonoscopy colorectal cancer (PCCRC) is considered a key quality indicator of colonoscopy; little is known about PCCRC in IBD. DESIGN: A population-based cohort study of colonoscopies in Sweden from 2001 to 2010 was conducted. Individuals with a colorectal cancer (CRC) detected within 36 months after a colonoscopy were identified and stratified on UC, Crohn's disease (CD) or non-IBD. The CRCs were classified as detected CRCs (dCRC) (0-6 months) or as PCCRCs (6-36 months)...
December 15, 2018: Gut
Hiroki Kitamoto, Masashi Fukushima, Tetsuro Inokuma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 15, 2018: Gut
Amanda J Cross, Kate Wooldrage, Emma C Robbins, Ines Kralj-Hans, Eilidh MacRae, Carolyn Piggott, Iain Stenson, Aaron Prendergast, Bhavita Patel, Kevin Pack, Rosemary Howe, Nicholas Swart, Julia Snowball, Stephen W Duffy, Stephen Morris, Christian von Wagner, Stephen P Halloran, Wendy S Atkin
OBJECTIVE: The English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) recommends 3 yearly colonoscopy surveillance for patients at intermediate risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) postpolypectomy (those with three to four small adenomas or one ≥10 mm). We investigated whether faecal immunochemical tests (FITs) could reduce surveillance burden on patients and endoscopy services. DESIGN: Intermediate-risk patients (60-72 years) recommended 3 yearly surveillance were recruited within the BCSP (January 2012-December 2013)...
December 11, 2018: Gut
Carlo Senore, Partha Basu, Ahti Anttila, Antonio Ponti, Mariano Tomatis, Diama Bhadra Vale, Gugliemo Ronco, Isabelle Soerjomataram, Maja Primic-Žakelj, Emilia Riggi, Joakim Dillner, Miriam Klara Elfström, Stefan Lönnberg, Rengaswamy Sankaranarayanan, Nereo Segnan
OBJECTIVE: To present comparative data about the performance of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes in the European Union Member States (EU MSs). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. We analysed key performance indicators-participation rate, positivity rate (PR), detection rate (DR) and positive predictive value for adenomas and CRC-based on the aggregated quantitative data collected for the second EU screening report. We derived crude and pooled (through a random effects model) estimates to describe and compare trends across different MSs/regions and screening protocols...
December 10, 2018: Gut
Raad Z Gharaibeh, Christian Jobin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2018: Gut
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