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Johannah Ruddy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2018: Gastroenterology
Renumathy Dhanasekaran, Jean-Charles Nault, Lewis R Roberts, Jessica Zucman-Rossi
The pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is poorly understood, but recent advances in genomics have increased our understanding of the mechanisms by which HBV, HCV, alcohol, fatty liver disease, and other environmental factors, such as aflatoxin, cause liver cancer. Genetic analyses of liver tissues from patients have provided important information about tumor initiation and progression. Findings from these studies can potentially be used to individualize the management of HCC. In addition to sorafenib, other multi-kinase inhibitors have recently been approved for treatment of HCC and the preliminary success of immunotherapy has raised hopes...
November 4, 2018: Gastroenterology
Aasma Shaukat, Amy A Gravely, Adam S Kim, Jeffery Rank, Timothy R Church, John I Allen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 4, 2018: Gastroenterology
Anuradha Bishnoi, Nirmalya Banerjee, Keshavamurthy Vinay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2018: Gastroenterology
Ikuo Hirano, Margaret H Collins, Yehudith Assouline-Dayan, Larry Evans, Sandeep Gupta, Alain M Schoepfer, Alex Straumann, Ekaterina Safroneeva, Michael Grimm, Heather Smith, Cindy-Ann Tompkins, Amy Woo, Robert Peach, Paul Frohna, Sheila Gujrathi, Darryl N Penenberg, Caiyan Li, Gregory J Opiteck, Allan Olson, Richard Aranda, Marc E Rothenberg, Evan S Dellon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2018: Gastroenterology
Werna T Uniken Venema, Michiel D Voskuil, Arnau Vich Vila, Gerben van der Vries, Bernadien H Jansen, B Jabri, Klaas Nico Faber, Gerard Dijkstra, Ramnik J Xavier, Cisca Wijmenga, Daniel B Graham, Rinse K Weersma, Eleonora A Festen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2018: Gastroenterology
Qing Yang, Tomohiko Yasuda, Eunyoung Choi, Takeshi Toyoda, Joseph T Roland, Eiji Uchida, Hiroshi Yoshida, Yasuyuki Seto, James R Goldenring, Sachiyo Nomura
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2018: Gastroenterology
John W Ward, Alan R Hinman
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) cause 1.3 million deaths annually. To prevent over 7 million deaths by 2030, the World Health Organization set goals to eliminate HBV and HCV, defined as a 90% reduction in new infections and a 65% reduction in deaths, and prevent more than 7 million related deaths by 2030. Elimination of HBV and HCV is feasible because of characteristics of the viruses, reliable diagnostic tools, and available cost-effective or cost-saving interventions. Broad implementation of infant immunization against HBV, blood safety and infection-control programs have greatly reduced the burden of HBV and HCV infections...
November 1, 2018: Gastroenterology
Fabian Frost, Tim Kacprowski, Malte Rühlemann, Robin Bülow, Jens-Peter Kühn, Andre Franke, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Maik Pietzner, Matthias Nauck, Uwe Völker, Henry Völzke, Ali A Aghdassi, Matthias Sendler, Julia Mayerle, Frank U Weiss, Georg Homuth, Markus M Lerch
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Changes in intestinal microbiome composition are associated with inflammatory, metabolic, and malignant disorders. We studied how exocrine pancreatic function affects intestinal microbiota. METHODS: We performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis of stool samples from 1795 volunteers from the population-based study of health in Pomerania who had no history of pancreatic disease. We also measured fecal pancreatic elastase by ELISA and performed quantitative imaging of secretin-stimulated pancreatic fluid secretion...
November 1, 2018: Gastroenterology
Robbert A Hollemans, Olaf J Bakker, Marja A Boermeester, Thomas L Bollen, Koop Bosscha, Marco J Bruno, Erik Buskens, Cornelis H Dejong, Peter van Duijvendijk, Casper H van Eijck, Paul Fockens, Harry van Goor, Wilhelmina M van Grevenstein, Erwin van der Harst, Joos Heisterkamp, Eric J Hesselink, Sijbrand Hofker, Alexander P Houdijk, Tom Karsten, Philip M Kruyt, Cornelis J van Laarhoven, Johan S Laméris, Maarten S van Leeuwen, Eric R Manusama, I Quintus Molenaar, Vincent B Nieuwenhuijs, Bert van Ramshorst, Daphne Roos, Camiel Rosman, Alexander F Schaapherder, George P van der Schelling, Robin Timmer, Robert C Verdonk, Ralph J de Wit, Hein G Gooszen, Marc G Besselink, Hjalmar C van Santvoort
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In a 2010 randomized trial (the PANTER trial), a surgical step-up approach for infected necrotizing pancreatitis was found to reduce the composite endpoint of death or major complications compared with open necrosectomy; 35% of patients were successfully treated with simple catheter drainage only. There is concern, however, that minimally invasive treatment increases the need for reinterventions for residual peripancreatic necrotic collections and other complications during the long term...
November 1, 2018: Gastroenterology
Seth Crockett, Katarina B Greer, Shahnaz Sultan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2018: Gastroenterology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2018: Gastroenterology
George N Ioannou, Jordan J Feld
Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimens are safe and effective at eradicating hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Unfortunately, DAAs remain expensive, so treatment of all HCV-infected patients would substantially affect healthcare costs. It is therefore critical to continue to assess hepatic and extrahepatic benefits of DAA-induced sustained virologic responses (SVRs). DAA-induced SVRs results reduces patients' risk of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and many extra-hepatic manifestations of HCV infection; there are also data that an SVR reduces mortality...
October 24, 2018: Gastroenterology
Laura Kulik, Hashem B El-Serag
The major risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a contemporary clinical practice is becoming increasingly related to post sustained virological response hepatitis C, suppressed hepatitis B virus on treatment, alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We review the emerging data on the risk and determinants of HCC in these conditions, and the implications to HCC surveillance. However, from a public health perspective, active hepatitis C and B continue to drive most of the global burden of HCC...
October 24, 2018: Gastroenterology
Adam Gehring, Ulrike Protzer
Fewer than 1% of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections per year are cured with antiviral treatment. This creates a need for long-term treatment, which poses challenges for patients and health systems. Since cure is accompanied by recovery of antiviral immunity, a combination of direct-acting antiviral agents and immunotherapy are likely to be required. Extensive efforts have been made to identify determinants of the failed immune response to HBV in patients with chronic infection. We review mechanisms of immune dysfunction in patients with chronic HBV infection, immunotherapy strategies in development and the challenges associated with successful implementation of immunotherapy...
October 24, 2018: Gastroenterology
Fang Hua, Shuang Shang, Yu-Wei Yang, Hai-Zeng Zhang, Tian-Lei Xu, Jiao-Jiao Yu, Dan-Dan Zhou, Bing Cui, Ke Li, Xiao-Xi Lv, Xiao-Wei Zhang, Shan-Shan Liu, Jin-Mei Yu, Feng Wang, Cheng Zhang, Bo Huang, Zhuo-Wei Hu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Activation of Wnt signaling to beta-catenin contributes to development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Expression of tribbles pseudokinase 3 (TRIB3) is increased in some colorectal tumors and associated with poor outcome. We investigated whether increased TRIB3 expression promotes stem cell features of CRC cells and tumor progression by interacting with the Wnt signaling pathway. METHODS: We performed studies with C57BL/6J-ApcMin /J mice injected with an adeno-associated virus vector that expresses a small hairpin RNA against Trib3 mRNA (ApcMin /J-Trib3KD ) or a control vector (ApcMin /J-Ctrl)...
October 23, 2018: Gastroenterology
Christopher Koh, Theo Heller, Jeffrey S Glenn
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection of humans was first reported in 1977, and now it is now estimated that 15-20 million people are infected worldwide. Infection with HDV can be an acute or chronic process that occurs only in patients with an HBV infection. Chronic HDV infection commonly results in the most rapidly progressive form of viral hepatitis; it is the chronic viral infection that is most likely to lead to cirrhosis, and it is associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. HDV infection is the only chronic human hepatitis virus infection without a therapy approved by the Food and Drug Administration...
October 18, 2018: Gastroenterology
Lihong Wang-Bishop, Zheng Chen, Ahmed Gomaa, Albert Craig Lockhart, Safia Salaria, Jialiang Wang, Keeli B Lewis, Jeffrey Ecsedy, Kay Washington, Robert Daniel Beauchamp, Wael El-Rifai
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Activation of KRAS signaling and overexpression of the aurora kinase A (AURKA) are often detected in luminal gastrointestinal cancers. We investigated regulation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase B1 (RPS6KB1) by AURKA and the effects of alisertib, an AURKA inhibitor, in mice xenograft tumors grown from human gastrointestinal cancer cells with mutant, activated forms of KRAS. METHODS: We tested the effects of alisertib, or AURKA overexpression or knock down, in 10 upper gastrointestinal or colon cancer cell lines with KRAS mutations or amplifications using the CellTiter-Glo luminescence and clonogenic cell survival assays...
October 17, 2018: Gastroenterology
Yuko Omori, Yusuke Ono, Mishie Tanino, Hidenori Karasaki, Hiroshi Yamaguchi, Toru Furukawa, Katsuro Enomoto, Jun Ueda, Atsuko Sumi, Jin Katayama, Miho Muraki, Kenzui Taniue, Kuniyuki Takahashi, Yoshiyasu Ambo, Toshiya Shinohara, Hiroshi Nishihara, Junpei Sasajima, Hiroyuki Maguchi, Yusuke Mizukami, Toshikatsu Okumura, Shinya Tanaka
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are regarded as precursors of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAs), but little is known about mechanism of progression. This makes it a challenge to assess cancer risk in patients with IPMNs. We investigated associations of IPMNs with concurrent PDAs by genetic and histologic analyses. METHODS: We obtained 30 pancreatic tissues with concurrent PDAs and IPMNs; 168 lesions, including incipient foci, were mapped, microdissected, and analyzed for mutations in 18 pancreatic cancer-associated genes and expression of tumor suppressors...
October 17, 2018: Gastroenterology
Thomas F Baumert, Thomas Berg, Joseph K Lim, David R Nelson
Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Following the discovery of HCV 3 decades ago, the identification of the structure of the viral proteins, combined with high-throughput replicon models, enabled the discovery and development of direct-acting antivirals. These agents have revolutionized care of patients, with cure rates of more than 90%. We review the status of direct-acting antiviral therapies for HCV infection and discuss remaining challenges...
October 17, 2018: Gastroenterology
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