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Gastroenterology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438611/low-dietary-cholesterol-availability-during-lactation-programs-intestinal-absorption-of-cholesterol-in-adult-mice
#1
Lidiya G Dimova, Jan Freark de Boer, Josee Plantinga, Torsten Plösch, Menno Hoekstra, Henkjan J Verkade, Uwe J F Tietge
In nematodes, the intestine senses and integrates early-life dietary cues that lead to lifelong epigenetic adaptations to a perceived nutritional environment-it is not clear whether this process occurs in mammals. We aimed to establish a mouse model of reduced dietary cholesterol availability from maternal milk and investigate the consequences of decreased milk cholesterol availability, early in life, on metabolism of cholesterol in adult mice. We blocked intestinal absorption of cholesterol in milk fed to newborn mice by supplementing the food of dams (for 3 weeks between birth and weaning) with ezetimibe, which is secreted into milk...
April 21, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438610/hyperglycemia-increases-interstitial-cells-of-cajal-via-mapk1-and-mapk3-signaling-to-etv1-and-kit-leading-to-rapid-gastric-emptying
#2
Yujiro Hayashi, Yoshitaka Toyomasu, Siva Arumugam Saravanaperumal, Michael R Bardsley, John A Smestad, Andrea Lorincz, Seth T Eisenman, Gianluca Cipriani, Molly H Nelson Holte, Fatimah J Al Khazal, Sabriya A Syed, Gabriella B Gajdos, Kyoung Moo Choi, Gary J Stoltz, Katie E Miller, Michael L Kendrick, Brian P Rubin, Simon J Gibbons, Adil E Bharucha, David R Linden, Louis James Maher, Gianrico Farrugia, Tamas Ordog
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Depletion of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) is common in diabetic gastroparesis. However, in approximately 20% of patients with diabetes, gastric emptying (GE) is accelerated. GE is also faster in obese individuals, and is associated with increased blood levels of glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes. To understand the fate of ICCs in hyperinsulinemic, hyperglycemic states characterized by rapid GE, we studied mice with mutation of the leptin receptor (Lepr(db/db)), which in our colony had accelerated GE...
April 21, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435028/antagonistic-effects-of-p53-and-hif1a-on-microrna-34a-regulation-of-ppp1r11-and-stat3-and-hypoxia-induced-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-colorectal-cancer-cells
#3
Huihui Li, Matjaz Rokavec, Longchang Jiang, David Horst, Heiko Hermeking
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In colorectal tumors, hypoxia causes resistance to therapy and promotes metastasis. Loss of the tumor suppressor p53 (encoded by TP53) provides cancer cells with a selective advantage under conditions of hypoxia, but little is known about the mediators of this effect. METHODS: Isogenic CRC cell lines with different TP53 genotypes were placed under conditions of hypoxia. We examined the effects on levels and activity of microRNA-34 a (MIR34A) in CRC cells...
April 20, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433349/micro-coordination-of-pacemaker-potentials-in-the-intestine-of-the-mouse
#4
Hirotaka Morishita, Naoko Iwata, Chiho Takai, Naoto Mochizuki, Noriyuki Kaji, Masatoshi Hori, Shunichi Kajioka, Shinsuke Nakayama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431885/safety-of-adding-oats-to-a-gluten-free-diet-for-patients-with-celiac-disease-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-clinical-and-observational-studies
#5
María Inés Pinto-Sánchez, Natalia Causada-Calo, Premysl Bercik, Alexander C Ford, Joseph A Murray, David Armstrong, Carol Semrad, Sonia S Kupfer, Armin Alaedini, Paul Moayyedi, Daniel A Leffler, Elena F Verdú, Peter Green
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with celiac disease should maintain a gluten-free diet (GFD), excluding wheat, rye, and barley. Oats might increase the nutritional value of a GFD, but their including is controversial. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the safety of oats as part of a GFD in patients with celiac disease. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases for clinical trials and observational studies of the effects of including oats in GFD of patients with celiac disease...
April 18, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428144/association-of-aflatoxin-and-gallbladder-cancer
#6
Jill Koshiol, Yu-Tang Gao, Michael Dean, Patricia Egner, Chirag Nepal, Kristine Jones, Bingsheng Wang, Asif Rashid, Wen Luo, Alison Van Dyke, Catterina Ferreccio, Michael Malasky, Ming-Chang Shen, Bin Zhu, Jesper B Andersen, Allan Hildesheim, Ann W Hsing, John Groopman
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Aflatoxin, which causes hepatocellular carcinoma, may also cause gallbladder cancer. We investigated whether patients with gallbladder cancer have higher exposure to aflatoxin than patients with gallstones. METHODS: We measured aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-lysine adducts in plasma samples from the Shanghai Biliary Tract Cancer case-control study, conducted from 1997 through 2001. We calculated age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs and the population-attributable fraction for 209 patients with gallbladder cancer and gallstones vs 250 patients with gallstones without cancer (controls)...
April 17, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428143/high-quality-diets-associate-with-reduced-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-analyses-of-diet-quality-indexes-in-the-multiethnic-cohort
#7
Song-Yi Park, Carol J Boushey, Lynne R Wilkens, Christopher A Haiman, Loïc Le Marchand
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Healthy eating patterns assessed by diet quality indexes (DQIs) have been related to lower risk of colorectal cancer-mostly among whites. We investigated the associations between 4 DQI scores (the Healthy Eating Index 2010 [HEI-2010], the Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 [AHEI-2010], the alternate Mediterranean diet score [aMED], and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score) and colorectal cancer risk in the Multiethnic Cohort. METHODS: We analyzed data from 190,949 African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos and whites, 45-75 years old, who entered the Multiethnic Cohort study from 1993 through 1996...
April 17, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428142/increased-rate-of-adenoma-detection-associates-with-reduced-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-and-death
#8
M F Kaminski, P Wieszczy, M Rupinski, U Wojciechowska, J Didkowska, E Kraszewska, J Kobiela, R Franczyk, M Rupinska, B Kocot, A Chaber-Ciopinska, J Pachlewski, M Polkowski, J Regula
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Quality of endoscopists' performance of colonoscopy is measured by adenoma detection rate (ADR). Although ADR is inversely associated with interval colorectal cancer and colorectal cancer death, the effects of increasing ADR have not been demonstrated. We investigated whether increasing ADRs from individual endoscopists associates with reduced risks of interval colorectal cancer and subsequent death METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of individuals who underwent screening colonoscopy within the National Colorectal Cancer Screening Program in Poland, from January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2008...
April 17, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400196/association-of-rnaset2-gene-polymorphisms-with-decreased-expression-and-clinical-characteristics-of-severity-in-crohn-s-disease
#9
Rivkah Gonsky, Phillip Fleshner, Richard L Deem, Eva Biener-Ramanujan, Dalin Li, Alka A Potdar, Janine Bilsborough, Shaohong Yang, Dermot P B McGovern, Stephan R Targan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Variants in the tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 15 gene (TNFSF15, also called TL1A) have been associated with risk for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). TL1A affects expression of multiple cytokines to promote mucosal inflammation. Little is known about the TL1A-response pathways that regulate cytokine expression. We investigated T-cell gene expression patterns to determine the mechanisms by which TL1A regulates cytokine production, and whether these associate with outcomes of patients with Crohn's disease (CD)...
April 8, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400195/egfr-in-tumor-associated-myeloid-cells-promotes-development-of-colorectal-cancer-in-mice-and-associates-with-outcomes-of-patients
#10
Sriram Srivatsa, Mariel C Paul, Claudia Cardone, Martin Holcmann, Nicole Amberg, Paulina Pathria, Michaela A Diamanti, Markus Linder, Gerald Timelthaler, Hans P Dienes, Lukas Kenner, Fritz Wrba, Gerald W Prager, Stefan Rose-John, Robert Eferl, Giuseppina Liguori, Gerardo Botti, Erika Martinelli, Florian R Greten, Fortunato Ciardiello, Maria Sibilia
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are the first-line therapy for patients with metastatic colorectal tumors without RAS mutations. However, EGFR inhibitors are ineffective in these patients, and tumor level of EGFR does not associate with response to therapy. We screened human colorectal tumors for EGFR-positive myeloid cells and investigated their association with patient outcome. We also performed studies in mice to evaluate how EGFR expression in tumor cells and myeloid cells contributes to development of colitis-associated cancer and ApcMin-dependent intestinal tumorigenesis...
April 8, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400194/increased-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-in-patients-with-multiple-serrated-polyps-and-their-first-degree-relatives
#11
Cecilia Egoavil, Miriam Juarez, Carla Guarinos, María Rodríguez-Soler, Eva Hernández-Illán, Cristina Alenda, Artemio Payá, Adela Castillejo, Anna Serradesanferm, Luis Bujanda, Fernando Fernández-Bañares, Joaquín Cubiella, Luisa de-Castro, Ana Guerra, Elena Aguirre, Alberto Herreros-de-Tejada, Xavier Bessa, Maite Herráiz, José-Carlos Marín-Gabriel, Judith Balmaña, Virginia Piñol, Miriam Cuatrecasas, Francesc Balaguer, Antoni Castells, José-Luis Soto, Pedro Zapater, Rodrigo Jover
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We investigated whether patients with multiple serrated polyps, but not meeting the World Health Organization criteria for serrated polyposis syndrome, and their relatives have similar risks for colorectal cancer (CRC) as those diagnosed with serrated polyposis. METHODS: We collected data from patients with more than 10 colonic polyps, recruited in 2008-2009 from 24 hospitals in Spain for a study of causes of multiple colonic polyps. We analyzed data from 53 patients who met the criteria for serrated polyposis and 145 patients who did not meet these criteria, but who had more than 10 polyps throughout the colon, of which more than 50% were serrated...
April 8, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400193/autologous-mesenchymal-stem-cells-applied-in-a-bioabsorbable-matrix-for-treatment-of-perianal-fistulas-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#12
Allan B Dietz, Eric J Dozois, Joel G Fletcher, Greg W Butler, Darcie Radel, Amy L Lightner, Maneesh Dave, Jessica Friton, Asha Nair, Emily T Camilleri, Amel Dudakovic, Andre J van Wijnen, William A Faubion
In patients with Crohn's disease (CD), perianal fistulas frequently recur, causing substantial morbidity. We performed a 12 patient, 6 month phase I trial to determine whether autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), applied in a bioabsorbable matrix, can heal the fistula. Fistula repair was not associated with any serious adverse events related to MSCs or plug placement. At 6 months, 10/12 patients (83%) had complete clinical healing and radiographic markers of response. We found placement of MSC-coated matrix fistula plugs in 12 patients with chronic perianal fistulas to be safe and lead to clinical healing and radiographic response in 10 patients...
April 8, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396144/supplementation-of-diet-with-galacto-oligosaccharides-increases-bifidobacteria-but-not-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-prediabetic-individuals
#13
Emanuel E Canfora, Christina M van der Beek, Gerben D A Hermes, Gijs H Goossens, Johan W E Jocken, Jens J Holst, Hans M van Eijk, Koen Venema, Hauke Smidt, Erwin G Zoetendal, Cornelis H C Dejong, Kaatje Lenaerts, Ellen E Blaak
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The gut microbiota affects host lipid and glucose metabolism, satiety, and chronic low-grade inflammation to contribute to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Fermentation end products, in particular the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) acetate, are believed to be involved in these processes. We investigate the long-term effects of supplementation with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), an acetogenic fiber, on the composition of the human gut microbiota and human metabolism. METHODS: We performed a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel intervention study of 44 overweight or obese (body mass index, 28-40 kg/m2) prediabetic men and women (ages, 45-70 years) from October 2014 through October 2015 in Maastricht, The Netherlands...
April 7, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390869/efficacy-of-8-weeks-of-sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-and-voxilaprevir-in-patients-with-chronic-hcv-infection-2-phase-3-randomized-trials
#14
Ira M Jacobson, Eric Lawitz, Edward J Gane, Bernard E Willems, Peter J Ruane, Ronald G Nahass, Sergio M Borgia, Stephen D Shafran, Kimberly A Workowski, Brian Pearlman, Robert H Hyland, Luisa M Stamm, Evguenia Svarovskaia, Hadas Dvory-Sobol, Yanni Zhu, G Mani Subramanian, Diana M Brainard, John G McHutchison, Norbert Bräu, Thomas Berg, Kosh Agarwal, Bal Raj Bhandari, Mitchell Davis, Jordan J Feld, Gregory J Dore, Catherine A M Stedman, Alexander J Thompson, Tarik Asselah, Stuart K Roberts, Graham R Foster
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection have high rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) following 12 weeks of treatment with the nucleotide polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir combined with the NS5A inhibitor velpatasvir. We assessed the efficacy of 8 weeks of treatment with sofosbuvir and velpatasvir plus the pangenotypic NS3/4A protease inhibitor voxilaprevir (sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir). METHODS: In 2 phase 3, open-label trials, patients with HCV infection who had not previously been treated with a direct-acting antiviral agent were randomly assigned to groups given sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir for 8 weeks or sofosbuvir-velpatasvir for 12 weeks...
April 5, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390868/small-nucleolar-noncoding-rna-snora23-upregulated-in-human-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-regulates-expression-of-syne2-to-promote-growth-and-metastasis-of-xenograft-tumors-in-mice
#15
Lin Cui, Kenji Nakano, Sumalee Obchoei, Kiyoko Setoguchi, Masaki Matsumoto, Tsuyoshi Yamamoto, Satoshi Obika, Kazuaki Shimada, Nobuyoshi Hiraoka
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Small nucleolar noncoding RNAs (snoRNAs) regulate function of ribosomes, and specific snoRNAs are dysregulated in some cancer cells. We investigated dysregulation of snoRNAs in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. METHODS: We investigated snoRNA expression in PDAC cell lines by cDNA microarray and quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR. In PDAC (n=133), intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN, n=16), mucinous cystic neoplasm-associated PDAC (n=1), and non-tumor pancreas (n=8) and liver (n=3) tissues from subjects who underwent surgical resection, levels of snoRNA were measured by qRT-PCR and compared with clinicopathological parameters and survival times determined by Kaplan Meier analysis...
April 5, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390867/efficacy-and-safety-of-medi2070-an-antibody-against-interleukin-23-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-crohn-s-disease-a-phase-2a-study
#16
Bruce E Sands, Jingjing Chen, Brian G Feagan, Mark Penney, William A Rees, Silvio Danese, Peter D R Higgins, Paul Newbold, Raffaella Faggioni, Kaushik Patra, Jing Li, Paul Klekotka, Chris Morehouse, Erik Pulkstenis, Jörn Drappa, René van der Merwe, Robert A Gasser
BACKGROUND & AIMS: MEDI2070 is a human monoclonal antibody that selectively inhibits interleukin 23 (IL23), a cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD). We analyzed its safety and efficacy in treatment of CD in a phase 2a study. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, study of 119 adults with moderate to severe CD failed by treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to groups given MEDI2070 (700 mg) or placebo intravenously at weeks 0 and 4...
April 5, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390866/activation-of-transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-signaling-in-gastric-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-increases-their-motility-via-expression-of-rhomboid-5-homolog-2-and-ability-to-induce-invasiveness-of-gastric-cancer-cells
#17
Takatsugu Ishimoto, Keisuke Miyake, Tannistha Nandi, Masakazu Yashiro, Nobuyuki Onishi, Kie Kyon Huang, Suling Joyce Lin, Ramnarayanan Kalpana, Su Ting Tay, Yuka Suzuki, Byoung Chul Cho, Daisuke Kuroda, Kota Arima, Daisuke Izumi, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Yoshifumi Baba, Eiji Oki, Masayuki Watanabe, Hideyuki Saya, Kosei Hirakawa, Hideo Baba, Patrick Tan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fibroblasts that interact with cancer cells are called cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs)-they promote progression of different tumor types. We investigated the characteristics and functions of CAFs in diffuse-type gastric cancers (DGCs) by analyzing features of their genome and gene expression patterns. METHODS: We isolated CAFs and adjacent non-cancer fibroblasts (NFs) from 110 GC tissues from patients who underwent gastrectomy in Japan from 2008 through 2016...
April 5, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390865/spdef-induces-quiescence-of-colorectal-cancer-cells-by-changing-the-transcriptional-targets-of-%C3%AE-catenin
#18
Yuan-Hung Lo, Taeko K Noah, Min-Shan Chen, Winnie Zou, Ester Borras, Eduardo Vilar, Noah F Shroyer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The canonical Wnt signaling pathway activates the transcriptional activity of β-catenin. This pathway is often activated in colorectal cancer cells, but strategies to block it in tumors have not been effective. The SAM pointed domain containing ETS transcription factor (SPDEF) suppresses formation of colon tumors by unclear mechanisms. We investigated these mechanisms and the effects of SPDEF on β-catenin activity in mouse models of colorectal cancer (CRC), CRC cell lines, and mouse and human normal and cancer colonoids...
April 5, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389209/advances-in-obesity-causes-consequences-and-therapy
#19
Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Samuel Klein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 4, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388419/a-rare-gastrointestinal-presentation-in-an-hiv-infected-patient
#20
Mohamed M Abdelfatah, Bryan Tuttle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 4, 2017: Gastroenterology
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