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Gastroenterology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317277/increasing-rates-of-surgery-for-patients-with-non-malignant-colorectal-polyps-in-the-united-states
#1
Anne F Peery, Katherine S Cools, Paula D Strassle, Sarah K McGill, Seth D Crockett, Aubrey Barker, Mark Koruda, Ian S Grimm
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Despite the availability of endoscopic therapy, many patients in the United States undergo surgical resection for non-malignant colorectal polyps. We aimed to quantify and examine trends in the use of surgery for non-malignant colorectal polyps in a nationally representative sample. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample for the years 2000 through 2014. We included all adult patients who underwent elective colectomy or proctectomy and had a diagnosis of either non-malignant colorectal polyp or colorectal cancer...
January 6, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317276/accuracy-of-the-enhanced-liver-fibrosis-test-vs-fibrotest-elastography-and-indirect-markers-in-detection-of-advanced-fibrosis-in-patients-with-alcoholic-liver-disease
#2
Maja Thiele, Bjørn Stæhr Madsen, Janne Fuglsang Hansen, Sönke Detlefsen, Steen Antonsen, Aleksander Krag
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol is the leading cause of cirrhosis and liver-related mortality, but we lack serum markers to detect compensated disease. We compared the accuracy of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis test (ELF), the FibroTest, liver stiffness measurements (made by transient elastography and 2-dimensional shear-wave elastography), and 6 indirect marker tests in detection of advanced liver fibrosis (Kleiner stage ≥F3). METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 10 liver fibrosis markers (patented and not), all performed on the same day...
January 6, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317275/increasing-infliximab-dose-based-on-symptoms-biomarkers-and-serum-drug-concentrations-does-not-increase-clinical-endoscopic-or-corticosteroid-free-remission-in-patients-with-active-luminal-crohn-s-disease
#3
Geert D'Haens, Severine Vermeire, Guy Lambrecht, Filip Baert, Peter Bossuyt, Benjamin Pariente, Anthony Buisson, Yoram Bouhnik, Jérôme Filippi, Janneke Vander Woude, Philippe Van Hootegem, Jacques Moreau, Edouard Louis, Denis Franchimont, Martine De Vos, Fazia Mana, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Hedia Brixi, Matthieu Allez, Philip Caenepeel, Alexandre Aubourg, Bas Oldenburg, Marieke Pierik, Ann Gils, Sylvie Chevret, David Laharie
BACKGROUND & AIMS: A combination of infliximab and immunomodulators is the most efficacious treatment for Crohn's disease (CD). Patients have the best outcomes when their serum concentrations of these drugs are above a determined therapeutic threshold. We performed a prospective, randomized trial to determine whether therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) to maintain serum levels of infliximab above 3 μg/mL produced higher rates of clinical and endoscopic remission than adapting dose based only on symptoms...
January 6, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309776/glycome-patterns-of-perfusate-in-livers-before-transplantation-associate-with-primary-non-function
#4
Xavier Verhelst, Anja Geerts, Ina Jochmans, Dieter Vanderschaeghe, Agnes Paradissis, Aude Vanlander, Frederik Berrevoet, Géraldine Dahlqvuist, Frederik Nevens, Jacques Pirenne, Xavier Rogiers, Nico Callewaert, Roberto I Troisi, Hans Van Vlierberghe
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Primary non-function (PNF) is a rare complication after liver transplantation that requires urgent re-transplantation. PNF is associated with livers from extended-criteria donors. Clinical and biochemical factors have not been identified that reliably associate with graft function after liver transplantation. Serum patterns of N-glycans associate with changes in the liver. We analyzed perfusate from grafted liver to identify protein glycosylation patterns associated with PNF...
January 5, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309775/raster-scanning-optoacoustic-mesoscopy-for-gastrointestinal-imaging-at-high-resolution
#5
Ferdinand Knieling, Jean Gonzales-Menezes, Jing Claussen, Mathias Schwarz, Clemens Neufert, Fabian B Fahlbusch, Timo Rath, Oana-Maria Thoma, Viktoria Kramer, Bianca Menchicchi, Christina Kersten, Kristina Scheibe, Sebastian Schürmann, Birgitta Carlé, Wolfgang Rascher, Markus F Neurath, Vasilis Ntziachristos, Maximilian J Waldner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 5, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309774/glycosylation-of-immunoglobulin-g-associates-with-clinical-features-of-inflammatory-bowel-diseases
#6
Mirna Šimurina, Noortje de Haan, Frano Vučković, Nicholas A Kennedy, Jerko Štambuk, David Falck, Irena Trbojević-Akmačić, Florent Clerc, Genadij Razdorov, Anna Khon, Anna Latiano, Renata D'Incà, Silvio Danese, Stephan Targan, Carol Landers, Marla Dubinsky, Dermot P B McGovern, Vito Annese, Manfred Wuhrer, Gordan Lauc
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Causes of inflammatory bowel diseases are not well understood and the most prominent forms Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are sometimes hard to distinguish. Glycosylation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) has been associated with CD and UC. IgG Fc-glycosylation affects IgG effector functions. We evaluated changes in IgG Fc-glycosylation associated with UC and CD, as well as with disease characteristics in different patient groups. METHODS: We analyzed 3441 plasma samples, obtained from 2 independent cohorts of patients with CD (874 patients in Italy and 391 in the United States [US]) or UC (1056 in Italy and 253 in the US and healthy individuals (controls) (427 in Italy and 440 in the US)...
January 5, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305935/hedgehog-yap-signaling-pathway-regulates-glutaminolysis-to-control-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation
#7
Kuo Du, Jeongeun Hyun, Richard T Premont, Steve S Choi, Gregory A Michelotti, Marzena Swiderska-Syn, George D Dalton, Eric Thelen, Bahar Salimian Rizi, Youngmi Jung, Anna Mae Diehl
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cirrhosis results from accumulation of myofibroblasts derived from quiescent hepatic stellate cells (Q-HSCs); it regresses when myofibroblastic HSCs are depleted. Hedgehog signaling promotes transdifferentiation of HSCs by activating Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1 or YAP) and inducing aerobic glycolysis. However, increased aerobic glycolysis alone cannot meet the high metabolic demands of myofibroblastic HSCs. Determining the metabolic processes of these cells could lead to strategies to prevent progressive liver fibrosis, so we investigated whether glutaminolysis (conversion of glutamine to alpha-ketoglutarate) sustains energy metabolism and permits anabolism when Q-HSCs become myofibroblastic, and whether this is controlled by hedgehog signaling to YAP...
January 3, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305934/efficacy-of-laparoscopic-nissen-fundoplication-vs-transoral-incisionless-fundoplication-or-proton-pump-inhibitors-in-patients-with-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#8
Joel Richter, Ambuj Kumar, Seth Lipka, Branko Miladinovic, Vic Velanovich
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The effects of transoral incisionless fundoplication (TIF) and laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF) have been compared with those of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or a sham procedure in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), but there has been no direct comparison of TIF vs LNF. We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to compare the relative efficacies of TIF vs LNF in patients with GERD. METHODS: We searched publication databases and conference abstracts through May 10, 2017 for randomized controlled trials that compared the efficacy of TIF or LNF with that of a sham procedure or PPIs in patients with GERD...
January 3, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305933/effects-of-weight-loss-medications-on-cardiometabolic-risk-profiles-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#9
Rohan Khera, Ambarish Pandey, Apoorva K Chandar, Mohammad H Murad, Larry J Prokop, Ian J Neeland, Jarett Berry, Michael Camilleri, Siddharth Singh
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We performed a systematic review and network meta-analysis to evaluate the overall and comparative effects of weight-loss medications, approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for long-term use, on cardiometabolic risk profiles of obese adults. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review through February 28, 2017 to identify randomized clinical trials of the effects of FDA-approved weight loss medications (orlistat, lorcaserin, naltrexone-bupropion, phentermine-topiramate, and liraglutide), administered to obese adults for 1 year or more, compared with placebo or another active agent...
January 3, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329905/consensus-recommendations-for-evaluation-interpretation-and%C3%A2-utilization-of-computed-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-enterography-in-patients-with-small-bowel-crohn-s%C3%A2-disease
#10
David H Bruining, Ellen M Zimmermann, Edward V Loftus, William J Sandborn, Cary G Sauer, Scott A Strong
Computed tomography and magnetic resonance enterography have become routine small bowel imaging tests to evaluate patients with established or suspected Crohn's disease, but the interpretation and use of these imaging modalities can vary widely. A shared understanding of imaging findings, nomenclature, and utilization will improve the utility of these imaging techniques to guide treatment options, as well as assess for treatment response and complications. Representatives from the Society of Abdominal Radiology Crohn's Disease-Focused Panel, the Society of Pediatric Radiology, the American Gastroenterological Association, and other experts, systematically evaluated evidence for imaging findings associated with small bowel Crohn's disease enteric inflammation and established recommendations for the evaluation, interpretation, and use of computed tomography and magnetic resonance enterography in small bowel Crohn's disease...
December 30, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289528/cystic-fibrosis-colorectal-cancer-screening-consensus-recommendations
#11
Denis Hadjiliadis, Alexander Khoruts, Ann G Zauber, Sarah E Hempstead, Patrick Maisonneuve, Albert B Lowenfels
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Improved therapy has substantially increased survival of persons with cystic fibrosis (CF). But the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in adults with CF is 5-10 times greater compared to the general population, and 25-30 times greater in CF patients after an organ transplantation. To address this risk, the CF Foundation convened a multi-stakeholder task force to develop CRC screening recommendations. METHODS: The 18-member task force consisted of experts including pulmonologists, gastroenterologists, a social worker, nurse coordinator, surgeon, epidemiologist, statistician, CF adult, and a parent...
December 28, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288656/functional-bowel-disorders-a-roadmap-to-guide-the-next-generation-of-research
#12
Lin Chang, Carlo Di Lorenzo, Gianrico Farrugia, Frank A Hamilton, Gary M Mawe, Pankaj J Pasricha, John W Wiley
In June 2016, the National Institutes of Health hosted a workshop on functional bowel disorders (FBDs), particularly irritable bowel syndrome, with the objective of elucidating gaps in current knowledge and recommending strategies to address these gaps. The workshop aimed to provide a roadmap to help strategically guide research efforts during the next decade. Attendees were a diverse group of internationally recognized leaders in basic and clinical FBD research. This document summarizes the results of their deliberations, including the following general conclusions and recommendations...
December 27, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288655/cost-effectiveness-of-screening-individuals-with-cystic-fibrosis-for-colorectal-cancer
#13
Andrea Gini, Ann G Zauber, Dayna R Cenin, Amir-Houshang Omidvari, Sarah E Hempstead, Aliza K Fink, Albert B Lowenfels, Iris Lansdorp-Vogelaar
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Individuals with cystic fibrosis are at increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) compared to the general population, and risk is higher among those who received an organ transplant. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine optimal CRC screening strategies for patients with cystic fibrosis. METHODS: We adjusted the existing Microsimulation Screening Analysis-Colon microsimulation model to reflect increased CRC risk and lower life expectancy in patients with cystic fibrosis...
December 27, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287624/reshaping-the-tumor-stroma-for-treatment-of-pancreatic-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Claire Vennin, Kendelle J Murphy, Jennifer P Morton, Thomas R Cox, Marina Pajic, Paul Timpson
Pancreatic cancer is accompanied with a fibrotic reaction that alters interactions between tumor cells and the stroma to promote tumor progression. Consequently, strategies to target the tumor stroma might be used to treat patients with pancreatic cancer. We review recently developed approaches for re-shaping the pancreatic tumor stroma and discuss how these might improve patient outcomes. We also describe relationships between the pancreatic tumor extracellular matrix, the vasculature, the immune system, and metabolism and discuss the implications for the development of stromal compartment-specific therapies...
December 26, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277561/nuclear-receptor-subfamily-1-group-d-member-1-regulates-circadian-activity-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-to-reduce-the-severity-of-fulminant-hepatitis-in-mice
#15
B Pourcet, M Zecchin, L Ferri, J Beauchamp, S Sitaula, C Billon, S Delhaye, J Vanhoutte, A Mayeuf-Louchart, Q Thorel, J Haas, J Eeckhoute, D Dombrowicz, C Duhem, A Boulinguiez, S Lancel, Y Sebti, T Burris, B Staels, H Duez
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The innate immune system responds not only to bacterial signals, but also to non-infectious danger-associated molecular patterns that activate the NLRP3 inflammasome complex after tissue injury. Immune functions vary over the course of the day, but it is not clear whether these changes affect the activity of the NLRP3 inflammasome. We investigated whether the core clock component nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group D member 1 (NR1D1, also called Rev-erbα) regulates expression, activity of the NLRP3 inflammasome, and its signaling pathway...
December 22, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277560/long-term-efficacy-and-safety-of-stem-cell-therapy-cx601-for-complex-perianal-fistulas-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#16
Julián Panés, Damián García-Olmo, Gert Van Assche, Jean Frederic Colombel, Walter Reinisch, Daniel C Baumgart, Axel Dignass, Maria Nachury, Marc Ferrante, Lili Kazemi-Shirazi, Jean C Grimaud, Fernando de la Portilla, Eran Goldin, Marie Paule Richard, Mary Carmen Diez, Ignacio Tagarro, Anne Leselbaum, Silvio Danese
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Therapies for perianal fistulas in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) are often ineffective in producing long-term healing. We performed a randomized placebo-controlled trial to determine the long-term efficacy and safety of a single local administration of allogeneic expanded adipose-derived stem cells (Cx601) in patients with CD and perianal fistulas. METHODS: We performed a double-blind study at 49 hospitals in Europe and Israel, comprising 212 patients with CD and treatment-refractory, draining, complex perianal fistulas...
December 22, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277559/pan-genotype-hepatitis-e-virus-replication-in-stem-cell-derived-hepatocellular-systems
#17
Xianfang Wu, Viet Loan Dao Thi, Peng Liu, Constantin N Takacs, Kuanhui Xiang, Linda Andrus, Jérôme Gouttenoire, Darius Moradpour, Charles M Rice
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The 4 genotypes of hepatitis E virus (HEV) that infect humans (genotypes 1-4) vary in geographical distribution, transmission, and pathogenesis. Little is known about the properties of HEV or its hosts that contribute to these variations. Primary isolates grow poorly in cell culture; most studies have relied on variants adapted to cancer cell lines, which likely alter virus biology. We investigated the infection and replication of primary isolates of HEV in hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) derived from human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells...
December 22, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274870/villin-1-and-gelsolin-regulate-changes-in-actin-dynamics-that-affect-cell-survival-signaling-pathways-and-intestinal-inflammation
#18
Swati Roy, Amin Esmaeilniakooshkghazi, Srinivas Patnaik, Yaohong Wang, Sudeep P George, Afzal Ahrorov, Jason K Hou, Allan J Herron, Hiromi Sesaki, Seema Khurana
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cell stress signaling pathways result in phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit alpha (EIF2S1 or EIF2A), which affects regulation of protein translation. Translation reprogramming mitigates stress by activating pathways that result in autophagy and cell death, to eliminate damaged cells. Actin is modified during stress and EIF2A is dephosphorylated to restore homeostasis. It is not clear how actin affects EIF2A signaling. We studied the actin-binding proteins villin 1 (VIL1) and gelsolin (GSN) in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) to determine whether they respond to cell stress response and affect signaling pathways...
December 21, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274869/neuromodulators-for-functional-gi-disorders-disorders-of-gut-brain-interaction-a-rome-foundation-working-team-report
#19
REVIEW
Douglas A Drossman, Jan Tack, Alexander C Ford, Eva Szigethy, Hans Törnblom, Lukas Van Oudenhove
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Central neuromodulators (antidepressants, antipsychotics and other CNS targeted medications) are increasingly used for treatment of functional GI disorders (FGIDs), now recognized as disorders of gut-brain interaction. However, the available evidence and guidance for the use of central neuromodulators in these conditions is scanty and incomplete. In this Rome Foundation Working Team report, a multidisciplinary team summarized available research evidence and clinical experience to provide guidance and treatment recommendations...
December 21, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274868/galectin-3-mediates-tumor-cell-stroma-interactions-by-activating-pancreatic-stellate-cells-to-produce-cytokines-via-integrin-signaling
#20
Wei Zhao, Jaffer A Ajani, Guha Sushovan, N Ochi, Rosa Hwang, Margarete Hafley, Randy L Johnson, Robert S Bresalier, Craig D Logsdon, Zhiqian Zhang, Shumei Song
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), abundance of extracellular matrix (ECM), and production of cytokines and chemokines. Galectin 3 (GAL3), a β galactoside-specific lectin, contributes to PDAC development but its effects on the stroma and cytokine production are unclear. METHODS: The effect of recombinant human GAL3 (rGAL3) on activation of PSC, production of cytokines, and ECM proteins were determined by proliferation, invasion, cytokine array, and quantitative PCR...
December 21, 2017: Gastroenterology
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