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Neil Gupta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Gastroenterology
T Jake Liang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Gastroenterology
Mariya Markova, Olga Pivovarova, Silke Hornemann, Stephanie Sucher, Turid Frahnow, Katrin Wegner, Jürgen Machann, Klaus Jürgen Petzke, Johannes Hierholzer, Ralf Lichtinghagen, Christian Herder, Maren Carstensen-Kirberg, Michael Roden, Natalia Rudovich, Susanne Klaus, Ralph Thomann, Rosemarie Schneeweiss, Sascha Rohn, Andreas F H Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with increased risk of hepatic, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases. High-protein diets, rich in methionine and branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), apparently reduce liver fat but may induce insulin resistance. We investigated the effects of diets high in animal protein vs plant protein, which differ in levels of methionine and BCAA, in subjects with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD. We examined levels of liver fat, lipogenic indices, markers of inflammation, serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), and activation of signaling pathways in adipose tissue...
October 17, 2016: Gastroenterology
Tonya Kaltenbach, Roy Soetikno
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Gastroenterology
Naga Chalasani, Arie Regev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2016: Gastroenterology
Fernando Velayos, Priya Kathpalia, Emily Finlayson
This review chronicles the evolution of dysplasia detection and management in IBD since 1925, the year the first case report of colitis-related colorectal cancer was published. We have grouped advances in colorectal cancer research, endoscopic techniques, surgery, and technology into 4 unequally timed eras, before colonoscopy, early era of colonoscopy, new century, and 2017 and beyond. We conclude that colorectal cancer prevention and dysplasia management for patients with IBD has changed over these periods, from somewhat hopeless to hopeful...
October 17, 2016: Gastroenterology
Julian Panes, Vipul Jairath, Barrett G Levesque
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are heterogeneous inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and therapeutic requirements vary among patients. We have a limited capacity to predict disease progression for individual patients, so it is important that they are evaluated for presence of active disease when symptoms are mild or even absent, when patients are more likely to respond to new treatment interventions. It is then important to monitor responses to treatment, to quickly identify those therapies that are ineffective, modify or change therapy, and avoid disease complications...
October 14, 2016: Gastroenterology
Giles Major, Sue Pritchard, Kathryn Murray, Jan Paul Alappadan, Caroline Hoad, Luca Marciani, Penny Gowland, Robin Spiller
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Poorly digested, fermentable carbohydrates may induce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), via unclear mechanisms. We performed a randomized trial with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis to investigate correlations between symptoms and changes in small and large bowel contents following oral challenge. METHODS: We performed a 3-period crossover study of 29 adult patients with IBS (based on Rome III criteria, with symptoms of abdominal pain or discomfort for at least 2 days/week) and reported bloating...
October 13, 2016: Gastroenterology
Adam S Cheifetz, Robert Gianotti, Raphael Luber, Peter R Gibson
Patients and physicians often have many questions regarding the role of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs), or non-allopathic therapies, for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). CAMs of various forms are used by more than half of patients with IBD during some point in their disease course. We summarize the available evidence for the most commonly used and discussed CAMs. We discuss evidence for the effects of herbs (such as cannabis and curcumin), probiotics, acupuncture, exercise, and mind-body therapy...
October 12, 2016: Gastroenterology
Hyo Min Park, Kim A Russo, Grigory Karateev, Michael Park, Elena Dubikovskaya, Lance J Kriegsfeld, Andreas Stahl
Alterations in hepatic free fatty acid (FFA) uptake and metabolism contribute to development of prevalent liver disorders such as hepatosteatosis. However, detecting dynamic changes in FFA uptake by the liver in live model organisms has proven difficult. To enable non-invasive real-time imaging of FFA flux in the liver, we generated transgenic mice with liver-specific expression of luciferase and performed bioluminescence imaging with an FFA probe. Our approach enabled us to observe the changes in FFA hepatic uptake under different physiological conditions in live animals...
October 11, 2016: Gastroenterology
Thaddeus S Stappenbeck, Dermot P B McGovern
Pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) involves immune and microbial dysregulation, induced by environmental factors in genetically susceptible individuals. There are believed to be multiple subtypes of CD, which contributes to its observed clinical heterogeneity. This concept has been reinforced by recognition of the complexity of the genetic, microbial, immune, and environmental factors that affect risk for CD. Paneth cells mediate immunity in and maintain the small intestinal epithelium; defects in activities of these cells have been observed in high proportions of patients with CD, and associated with more aggressive CD phenotype...
October 8, 2016: Gastroenterology
Julien Tap, Muriel Derrien, Hans Törnblom, Rémi Brazeilles, Stéphanie Cools-Portier, Joël Doré, Stine Störsrud, Boris Le Nevé, Lena Öhman, Magnus Simrén
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We have limited knowledge about the association between the composition of the intestinal microbiota and clinical features of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We collected information on the fecal and mucosa-associated microbiota of patients with IBS and evaluated whether these were associated with symptoms. METHODS: We collected fecal and mucosal samples from adult patients who met the Rome III criteria for IBS at secondary or tertiary care outpatient clinics in Sweden, as well as from healthy subjects...
October 7, 2016: Gastroenterology
Braedon McDonald, Paul Kubes
The sterile inflammatory response (inflammation in the absence of infection) to tissue injury and cell death is required for normal wound healing. However, dysregulated sterile inflammation leads to various acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, including those of the liver and gastrointestinal tract. It is therefore important to increase our understanding of the mechanisms that control physiologic vs pathologic sterile inflammation. We have begun to clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms that coordinate the innate immune response to tissue damage and cell death in the liver...
October 7, 2016: Gastroenterology
Ko-Chin Chen, Hsu-Heng Yen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Gastroenterology
Brandon Sprung, Thomas Wert, Aaron R Huber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Gastroenterology
Juan G Abraldes, Ferran Torres, Jaime Bosch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Gastroenterology
Jean-Frederic Colombel, Neeraj Narula, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet
Strategies for management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are shifting from simple control of symptoms toward full control of these diseases (clinical and endoscopic remission), with the final aim of blocking their progression and preventing bowel damage and disability. New goals have been proposed for treatment, such as treat to target and tight control based on therapeutic monitoring and early intervention. For patients who achieve clinical remission, there is often interest in discontinuation of therapy due to safety and/or economic concerns...
October 5, 2016: Gastroenterology
Florian Rieder, Claudio Fiocchi, Gerhard Rogler
In the last 10 years, we have learned much about the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of intestinal fibrosis in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Just a decade ago, intestinal strictures were considered to be an inevitable consequence of long-term inflammation in patients who did not respond to anti-inflammatory therapies. IBD-associated fibrosis was seen as an irreversible process that frequently led to intestinal obstructions requiring surgical intervention. This paradigm has changed rapidly, due to the anti-fibrotic approaches that may become available...
October 5, 2016: Gastroenterology
Paul Kwo, Edward Gane, Cheng-Yuan Peng, Brian Pearlman, John M Vierling, Lawrence Serfaty, Maria Buti, Stephen Shafran, Paul Stryszak, Li Lin, Jacqueline Gress, Stuart Black, Frank J Dutko, Michael Robertson, Janice Wahl, Lisa Lupinacci, Eliav Barr, Barbara Haber
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1, 4, or 6, with or without cirrhosis, previously treated with peg-interferon and ribavirin, are a challenge to treat. We performed a phase 3 randomized controlled open-label trial to assess the effects of 12 or 16 weeks of treatment with once-daily elbasvir (an HCV NS5A inhibitor, 50 mg) and grazoprevir (an HCV NS3/4A protease inhibitor, 100 mg), in a fixed-dose combination tablet, with or without twice-daily ribavirin, in this patient population...
October 5, 2016: Gastroenterology
Hamed Khalili, Ola Olén
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2016: Gastroenterology
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