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Gastroenterology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209530/slc39a6-promotes-aggressiveness-of-esophageal-carcinoma-cells-by-increasing-intracellular-levels-of-zinc-activating-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-signaling-and-upregulating-genes-that-regulate-metastasis
#1
Xinxin Cheng, Lixuan Wei, Xudong Huang, Jian Zheng, Mingming Shao, Ting Feng, Jun Li, Yaling Han, Wenle Tan, Wen Tan, Dongxin Lin, Chen Wu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: A common variant in the solute carrier family 39 member 6 gene (SLC39A6) has been associated with survival times of patients with esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC). We investigated the function of SLC39A6 and ways in which this variant affects tumor progression by studying ESCC samples and cell lines. METHODS: SLC39A6 was expressed, or knocked down by expression of small hairpin RNAs, in ESCC cells (KYSE30 and KYSE450) and HeLa cells using lentiviral vectors; we analyzed effects on proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion in vitro...
February 13, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209529/menopausal-hormone-therapy-is-associated-with-increased-risk-of-fecal-incontinence-in-women-after-menopause
#2
Kyle Staller, Mary K Townsend, Hamed Khalili, Raaj Mehta, Francine Grodstein, William E Whitehead, Catherine A Matthews, Braden Kuo, Andrew T Chan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Low estrogen levels could contribute to development of fecal incontinence (FI) in women after menopause by altering neuromuscular continence mechanisms. However, studies have produced conflicting results on the association between menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and risk of FI. METHODS: We studied the association between MHT and risk of FI among 55,828 post-menopausal women (mean age 73 years) who participated in the Nurses' Health Study, enrolled since 2008, with no report of FI...
February 13, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193518/safety-and-efficacy-of-elbasvir-grazoprevir-in-patients-with-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-and-compensated-cirrhosis-an-integrated-analysis
#3
Ira M Jacobson, Eric Lawitz, Paul Y Kwo, Christophe Hézode, Cheng-Yuan Peng, Anita Y M Howe, Peggy Hwang, Janice Wahl, Michael Robertson, Eliav Barr, Barbara A Haber
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Persons with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are at risk of progressive liver disease, cirrhosis, and decompensation. We analyzed the effects of the direct-acting antiviral agents elbasvir and grazoprevir in patients with HCV infection and compensated cirrhosis, combining data from 6 clinical trials. METHODS: We performed an integrated analysis of 402 patients with HCV genotype 1, 4, or 6 infection and Child-Pugh A compensated cirrhosis enrolled in 6 clinical trials...
February 10, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193517/obesity-energetics-body-weight-regulation-and-the-effects-of-diet-composition
#4
Kevin D Hall, Juen Guo
Weight changes are accompanied by imbalances between calorie intake and expenditure. This fact is often misinterpreted to suggest that obesity is caused by gluttony and sloth and can be treated by simply advising people to eat less and move more. However, various components of energy balance are dynamically interrelated and weight loss is resisted by counterbalancing physiological processes. While low carbohydrate diets have been suggested to partially subvert these processes by increasing energy expenditure and promoting fat loss, our meta-analysis of 32 controlled feeding studies with isocaloric substitution of carbohydrate for fat found that both energy expenditure (26 kcal/d; p<0...
February 10, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193516/metabolic-and-bariatric-surgery-for-obesity
#5
Josep Vidal, Ricard Corcelles, Amanda Jiménez, Lílliam Flores, Antonio M Lacy
Metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS) leads to weight loss in obese individuals and reduces comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes. MBS is superior to medical therapy in reducing hyperglycemia in persons with type 2 diabetes, and has been associated with reduced mortality and incidences of cardiovascular events and cancer in obese individuals. New guidelines have been proposed for the use of MBS in persons with type 2 diabetes. We review the use of MBS as a treatment for obesity and obesity-related conditions and, based on recent evidence, propose health care systems make the appropriate changes to increase accessibility for eligible patients...
February 10, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193515/infliximab-not-associated-with-increased-risk-of-malignancy-or-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-in-pediatric-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
Jeffrey S Hyams, Marla C Dubinsky, Robert N Baldassano, Richard B Colletti, Salvatore Cucchiara, Johanna Escher, William Faubion, John Fell, Benjamin D Gold, Anne Griffiths, Sibylle Koletzko, Subra Kugathasan, James Markowitz, Frank M Ruemmele, Gigi Veereman, Harland Winter, Nicholas Masel, Chu Ri Shin, Kezhen L Tang, Meena Thayu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Immunosuppressive therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in pediatric patients is thought to increase risk of malignancy and lymphoproliferative disorders, including hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). We compared unadjusted incidence rates and of malignancy and HLH in pediatric patients with IBD exposed to infliximab compared with patients not exposed to biologics and calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). METHODS: We collected and analyzed data from 5766 participants in a prospective study of long-term outcomes of pediatric patients with IBD (NCT00606346), from 2007 through 30 June 2016...
February 10, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193514/microrna-301a-promotes-intestinal-inflammation-and-colitis-associated-cancer-development-by-inhibiting-btg1
#7
Chong He, Tianming Yu, Yan Shi, Caiyun Ma, Wenjing Yang, Leilei Fang, Mingming Sun, Wei Wu, Fei Xiao, Feifan Guo, Minhu Chen, Hong Yang, Jiaming Qian, Yingzi Cong, Zhanju Liu
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intestinal tissues from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colorectal cancer have increased expression of microRNA-301a (MIR301A), compared to tissues from patients without IBD. We studied the mechanisms of MIR301A in progression of IBD in human tissues and mice. METHODS: We isolated intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from colon biopsy samples of 153 patients with different stages of IBD activity, 6 patients with colitis-associated cancer (CAC), and 35 healthy individuals (controls), enrolled in the study in Shanghai, China...
February 10, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193513/the-importance-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-in-controlling-food-intake-and-regulating-energy-balance
#8
M P Monteiro, R L Batterham
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, the key interface between ingested nutrients and the body, plays a critical role in regulating energy homeostasis. Gut-derived signals convey information regarding incoming nutrients to the brain, initiating changes in eating behavior and energy expenditure, to maintain energy balance. Here we review hormonal, neural and nutrient signals emanating from the GI tract and evidence for their role in controlling feeding behavior. Mechanistic studies that have utilized pharmacological and/or transgenic approaches targeting an individual hormone/mediator have yielded somewhat disappointing bodyweight changes, often leading to the hormone/mediator in question being dismissed as a potential obesity therapy...
February 10, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192110/risk-of-obesity-related-cardiometabolic-complications-in-special-populations-a-crisis-in-asians
#9
N Abate, M Chandalia
The prospect of significant increase in global health-related costs associated with high cardiometabolic complications of obesity in Asians has encouraged more attention to the problem of growing obesity prevalence in these populations. While these studies have shown that cardiometabolic complications occur more frequently and at lower body mass index (BMI) in Asians than in European populations, the mechanisms involved are yet to be discovered. Ethnic/racial differences in body composition and fat distribution have been extensively studied...
February 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192109/intensive-lifestyle-intervention-for-obesity-principles-practices-and-results
#10
Victoria L Webb, Thomas A Wadden
Using the Guidelines for the Management of Overweight and Obesity in Adults as a framework, this article reviews intensive lifestyle interventions for weight loss. The Guidelines recommend a minimum of 6 months of high-intensity, comprehensive lifestyle intervention, consisting of a reduced-calorie diet, increased physical activity, and behavior therapy. Persons with obesity typically lose about 8 kg (approximately 8% of initial weight) with this approach, accompanied by improvements in health and quality of life...
February 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192108/timely-use-of-probiotics-in-hospitalized-adults-prevents-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-systematic-review-with-meta-regression-analysis
#11
Nicole T Shen, Anna Maw, Lyubov L Tmanova, Alejandro Pino, Kayley Ancy, Carl V Crawford, Matthew S Simon, Arthur T Evans
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systematic reviews have provided evidence for the efficacy of probiotics in preventing Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but guidelines do not recommend probiotic use for prevention of CDI. We performed an updated systematic review to help guide clinical practice. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics, and The Cochrane Library databases for randomized controlled trials evaluating use of probiotics and CDI in hospitalized adults taking antibiotics...
February 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192107/gastrointestinal-complications-of-obesity
#12
Michael Camilleri, Harmeet Malhi, Andres Acosta
Obesity is usually associated with morbidity related to diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are many gastrointestinal and hepatic diseases for which obesity is the direct cause [e.g. non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD)] or is a significant risk factor, such as reflux esophagitis and gallstones. When obesity is a risk factor, it may interact with other mechanisms and result in earlier presentation or complicated diseases. There are increased odds ratios or relative risks of several gastrointestinal complications of obesity: gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), erosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, erosive gastritis, gastric cancer, diarrhea, colonic diverticular disease, polyps, cancer, liver disease including NAFLD, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, gallstones, acute pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer...
February 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192106/blaming-the-brain-for-obesity-integration-of-hedonic-and-homeostatic-mechanisms
#13
Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Heike Münzberg, Christopher D Morrison
The brain plays a key role in the controls of energy intake and expenditure and many genes associated with obesity are expressed in the central nervous system. Technological and conceptual advances in both basic and clinical neurosciences have expanded the traditional view of homeostatic regulation of body weight by mainly the hypothalamus to include hedonic controls of appetite by cortical and subcortical brain areas processing external sensory information, reward, cognition, and executive functions. Thus, hedonic controls interact with homeostatic controls to regulate body weight in a flexible and adaptive manner that takes environmental conditions into account...
February 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192105/adolescent-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-roles-of-ectopic-fat-accumulation-and-adipose-inflammation
#14
Sonia Caprio, Rachel Perry, Romy Kursawe
As a consequence of the global rise in the prevalence of Adolescent Obesity, an unprecedented phenomenon of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) has emerged in pediatrics. At the heart of T2D development lies a key metabolic derangement: Insulin Resistance (IR) . Despite the widespread occurrence of IR affecting an unmeasurable number of youths worldwide, its pathogenesis remains elusive. IR in obese youth is a complex phenomenon that defies explanation by a single pathway. In this review we first describe recent data on the prevalence, severity, and racial/ethnic differences in Pediatric Obesity...
February 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192104/practical-use-of-pharmacotherapy-for-obesity
#15
Leon I Igel, Rekha B Kumar, Katherine H Saunders, Louis J Aronne
Obesity management requires a multidisciplinary approach, as there are many factors that contribute to the development of obesity as well as the preservation of excess weight once it has been gained. Diet, exercise and behavior modification are key components of treatment. In addition to lifestyle changes, weight gain secondary to medications is an important modifiable risk factor. Even after appropriate lifestyle modification, and medication adjustments (where possible) to avoid agents that can contribute to weight gain, many patients are still unable to achieve clinically meaningful weight loss...
February 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192103/endoscopic-bariatric-and-metabolic-therapies-new-and-emerging-technologies
#16
Shelby Sullivan, Steven A Edmundowicz, Christopher C Thompson
Endoscopic Bariatric and Metabolic Therapies (EBMT) are a new addition to the treatment arsenal for obesity. These include devices which are placed or removed via flexible endoscopy, and procedures which utilize instruments that require flexible endoscopy for the indications of weight loss or treatment of glucose intolerance (from pre-diabetes to diabetes). The EBMTs are generally divided into gastric and small bowel categories, and although individual EBMTs may have unique mechanisms of action, similar themes in proposed mechanism of action are seen in the gastric and small bowel EBMTs respectively...
February 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192102/role-of-the-gut-microbiome-in-the-pathogenesis-of-obesity-and-obesity-related-metabolic-dysfunction
#17
Kristien E Bouter, Daniël H van Raalte, Albert K Groen, Max Nieuwdorp
The potential role of intestinal microbiota in the etiology of various human diseases has attracted massive attention in the last decade. As such, the intestinal microbiota has been advanced as an important partaker in the development of obesity and obesity-related metabolic dysfunctions, amongst others. Experiments in animal models have produced evidence for a causal role of intestinal microbiota in the etiology of obesity and insulin resistance. However, with a few exceptions such causal relation is lacking for humans...
February 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192101/transforming-gastroenterology-care-with-telemedicine
#18
REVIEW
Corey A Siegel
Healthcare is changing rapidly, so we must change with the times to develop more efficient, practical, cost-effective and, importantly, high-quality methods to care for patients. We teach medial students that optimal patient care requires face to face interactions, to collect information on patients' history, and the physical examination. However, management of many patients-especially those with chronic diseases-does not always require physical examination. Telemedicine offers an opportunity to take advantage of technology while leveraging the progressive push towards efficiency and value, but also requires the belief that excellent patient care is not always provided in person...
February 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188748/association-between-high-avidity-t-cell-receptors-induced-by-alpha-fetoprotein-derived-peptides-and-anti-tumor-effects-in-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#19
Hidetoshi Nakagawa, Eishiro Mizukoshi, Eiji Kobayashi, Toshikatsu Tamai, Hiroshi Hamana, Tatsuhiko Ozawa, Hiroyuki Kishi, Masaaki Kitahara, Tatsuya Yamashita, Kuniaki Arai, Takeshi Terashima, Noriho Iida, Kazumi Fushimi, Atsushi Muraguchi, Shuichi Kaneko
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Levels of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) are measured for surveillance and diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We performed a phase 1 trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of AFP-derived peptides as an anti-tumor vaccine for patients with advanced HCC, and characterized induction of AFP-specific T-cell receptors (TCRs). METHODS: We performed a prospective study, of 15 patients with HCC seen at Kanazawa University Hospital in Japan from March 2010 through March 2012...
February 7, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188747/high-incidence-of-celiac-disease-in-a-long-term-study-of-adolescents-with-susceptibility-genotypes
#20
Edwin Liu, Fran Dong, Anna E Barón, Iman Taki, Jill M Norris, Brigitte I Frohnert, Edward J Hoffenberg, Marian Rewers
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Little is known about the incidence of celiac disease in the general population of children in the United States. We aimed to estimate the cumulative incidence of celiac disease in adolescents born in the Denver metropolitan area. METHODS: We collected data on HLA-DR, DQ genotypes of 31,766 infants, born from 1993 through 2004 at St. Joseph's Hospital in Denver, from the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young. Subjects with susceptibility genotypes for celiac disease and type 1 diabetes were followed for up to 20 years for development of tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA)...
February 7, 2017: Gastroenterology
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