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European Journal of Pain: EJP

Liv Inger Strand, Kim Gundrosen, Regina Küfner Lein, Marjan Laekeman, Frank Lobbezoo, Ruth Defrin, Bettina S Husebø
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pain assessment tools for cognitively impaired older people, unable to self-report pain, are commonly founded upon observation of pain behavior, like facial expressions, vocalizations, and body movements. The scientific basis for claiming that body movements may indicate pain has not formerly been investigated in a systematic review. The objective was to explore research evidence for body movements being pain indicators in older people with cognitive impairment...
November 19, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
S Fakhri, L Dargahi, F Abbaszadeh, M Jorjani
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes continuous neurological deficits and major sensory-motor impairments. There is no effective treatment to enhance sensory-motor function following SCI. Thus, it is crucial to develop novel therapeutics for this particular patient population. Astaxanthin (AST) is a strong anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic agent. In the present study, it was tested in a severe compression SCI model with emphasis on sensory-motor outcomes, signaling pathway, along with other complications...
November 14, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Ghallab Alotaibi, Shafiqur Rahman
BACKGROUND: Nociceptive pain remains a prevalent clinical problem and often poorly responsive to the currently available analgesics. Previous studies have shown that astroglial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is critically involved in pain processing and modulation. However, the role of astroglial GLT-1 in nociceptive pain involving the hippocampus and ACC remains unknown. We investigated the role of 3-[[(2-Methylphenyl) methyl]thio]-6-(2-pyridinyl)-pyridazine (LDN-212320), a GLT-1 activator, in nociceptive pain model and hippocampal-dependent behavioral tasks in mice...
November 14, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Yoshiki Ogata, Wataru Nemoto, Ryota Yamagata, Osamu Nakagawasai, Shuji Shimoyama, Tomonori Furukawa, Shinya Ueno, Koichi Tan-No
BACKGROUND: We have recently reported that the spinal angiotensin (Ang) converting enzyme (ACE)/Ang II/AT1 receptor axis and downstream p38 MAPK phosphorylation are activated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice and leads to tactile hypersensitivity. Moreover, our previous results suggested that the intrathecal (i.t.) administration of Ang (1-7), an N-terminal fragment of Ang II, may attenuate the Ang II-induced nociceptive behaviour through the inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation via Mas receptors...
November 12, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
A Shires, L Sharpe, T Newton John
BACKGROUND: This study investigated whether the ability to disengage quickly from pain-related stimuli moderated the relative efficacy of a mindfulness-based intervention versus distraction in response to an experimental pain task. METHODS: Participants (n = 100) completed a dot-probe task with eye-tracking and were then randomized (2:2:1) to receive a mindfulness-based interoceptive exposure task (MIET), distraction instructions or no instructions (control group) before engaging in the cold pressor test...
November 12, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Sebastiano Mercadante, Claudio Adile, Francesco Masedu, Paolo Marchetti, Andrea Costanzi, Federica Aielli
Controversies exist about the choice and the doses of opioid medication in breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP). The aim was to assess factors influencing the use and the doses of opioids prescribed for BTcP. It was performed a secondary analysis of a national, multicenter study that involving 32 centers performed in patients having BTcP. Diagnosis of BTcP was based on a definite algorithm. Patients using opioids for background pain and for BTcP, were selected. Average pain intensity and opioids used for background pain and BTcP, and adverse effects were assessed, as well as patient's satisfaction and the grade of mucositis...
November 12, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
M P Jensen, R M Brownstone
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Despite the value of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in treating some patients with focal neuropathic pain, technological advances in stimulator design and treatment protocols have not correlated with significant improvements in clinical outcomes. This may be because incomplete understanding of the mechanisms underlying SCS precludes improvement in clinical efficacy. In this brief review, we (1) review phenomenological effects of SCS, (2) review the literature on proposed spinal sites of action of SCS, and (3) propose a novel hypothesis of mechanism of action...
November 8, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Cristina Bosetti, Claudia Santucci, Silvia Radrezza, Juliana Erthal, Stefano Berterame, Oscar Corli
BACKGROUND: Over the last decades, consumption of opioids for the treatment of pain increased steadily in the USA, Australia, and a few European countries. To date, no study has analysed time trends in opioid consumption across Europe. METHODS: We analysed data provided by International Narcotics Control Boards on the consumption of fentanyl, oxycodone, morphine, hydromorphone, and pethidine in 40 European countries over the last decade. Trends in total opioid consumption from 1990 to 2016 in 22 selected European countries, the European Union (EU) as a whole, and, for comparison purpose, the USA, were analysed using the joinpoint regression analysis...
November 8, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
J Kappesser, J de Laffolie, D Faas, H Ehrhardt, C Hermann
BACKGROUND: Many neonatal observational pain assessment tools are available. Their application in clinical settings, however, has been limited. A further difficulty for decision makers may be to choose among the variety of available tools the appropriate one(s) for their patients. Aims of the present study were (1) to compare two commonly cited neonatal pain assessment tools, the Neonatal Facial Coding System - Revised (NFCS-R) and the Children and Infant's Postoperative Pain Scale (CHIPPS), with regard to their psychometric qualities and (2) to explore intuitive clinicians' ratings by relating them to the tools' items...
November 8, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
A Williams, J M van Dongen, S J Kamper, K M O'Brien, L Wolfenden, S L Yoong, R K Hodder, H Lee, E K Robson, R Haskins, C Rissel, J Wiggers, C M Williams
BACKGROUND: Economic evaluations which estimate cost-effectiveness of potential treatments can guide decisions about real world healthcare services. We performed an economic evaluation of a healthy lifestyle intervention targeting weight loss, physical activity and diet for patients with chronic low back pain, who are overweight or obese. METHODS: Eligible patients with chronic low back pain (n=160) were randomised to an intervention or usual care control group...
October 31, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Tal Assa, Nirit Geva, Yoni Zarkh, Ruth Defrin
BACKGROUND: Studies assessing athletes' pain sensitivity yield inconsistent data, which demonstrate either increased pain threshold and tolerance in athletes than controls or similar thresholds. This inconsistency may result from the variability in the type of sport practiced by the athletes and its effect on pain perception. For example, endurance athletes perform continuous intense exercise for prolonged durations whereas strength athletes perform short bouts of extreme efforts. Consequently, endurance athletes may tolerate and modulate pain better than strength athletes...
October 31, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
N Paniagua, C Goicoechea, R Abalo, V López-Miranda, J M Vela, M Merlos, M I Martín Fontelles, R Girón
BACKGROUND: The antineoplastic drugs cisplatin and vincristine induce peripheral neuropathies. The sigma-1 receptor (σ1R) is expressed in areas of pain control and its blockade with the novel selective antagonist MR-309 has shown efficacy in nociceptive and neuropathic pain models. Our goal was to test whether this compound reduces neuropathic signs provoked by these antitumoural drugs. METHODS: Rats were treated with cisplatin or vincristine to induce neuropathies...
October 30, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Fanny Joubert, Maria Del Carmen Acosta, Juana Gallar, Darine Fakih, José-Alain Sahel, Christophe Baudouin, Laurence Bodineau, Stéphane Mélik Parsadaniantz, Annabelle Réaux-Le Goazigo
BACKGROUND: Ocular surface diseases are among the most frequent ocular pathologies. Ocular pain following corneal injury is frequently observed in clinic. Corneal sensory innervation is supplied by ciliary nerves derived from ophthalmic division of the trigeminal ganglion. METHODS & RESULTS: Extracellular activity of the mouse ciliary nerve was first used to investigate the corneal responsiveness to chemical, mechanical and thermal stimulations in order to specifically study the responses of polymodal nociceptors, mechano-nociceptors and cold thermoreceptor in a control cornea...
October 29, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
M H Eerdekens, S Kapanadze, E D Koch, G Kralidis, G Volkers, S H Ahmedzai, W Meissner
BACKGROUND: Cancer-related pain is a growing health problem given the increasing life expectancy of cancer patients. Opioids are commonly used to treat cancer-related pain, but carry the risk of severe side effects, limiting their use. Cebranopadol is a first-in-class drug candidate, combining nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide and opioid peptide receptor agonism. This trial examined the analgesic efficacy of cebranopadol compared with morphine prolonged release (PR) in patients with moderate to severe cancer-related pain...
October 26, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
F S S Bonafé, L A Campos, J Marôco, J A D B Campos
BACKGROUND: This study presents an adaptation of the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) extending its use in clinical/epidemiological contexts and the evaluation of the properties of BPI (short form) in a sample of Brazilian adults. METHODS: Part of item 1 of this instrument was removed because it prevented the participation of individuals with usual pain. In addition to the reference period of original response "last 24 hours", a new period "last pain experience" was proposed...
October 26, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
S L Ravn, K I Karstoft, M Sterling, T E Andersen
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are highly prevalent after whiplash and associated with pain-related symptoms. While mutual maintenance between pain and PTSD has been suggested, knowledge on individual differences in the course of these symptoms is needed. The present study aimed to identify trajectories of PTSD symptoms following whiplash and test predictors and functional outcomes of such trajectories. METHODS: In a prospective cohort design with assessments at baseline (<4 weeks), 3 months, and 6 months post-injury (n=229, whiplash-grade I-III), we identified PTSD-trajectories using Latent Growth Mixture Modeling...
October 14, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Winfried Häuser, Elmar Brähler, Gabriele Schmutzer, Heide Glaesmer
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) might predispose to and resilience might protect against chronic noncancer pain (CNCP). We studied whether ACE are positively associated with CNCP, whether resilience was negatively associated with CNCP and whether resilience buffered a potential association of ACE with CNCP. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey (N = 2,425) representative for the adult German general population was conducted in 2013. The following questionnaires were used: Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire for CNCP stages; Childhood Trauma Screener for ACE; Brief Resilient Coping Scale for resilience; Patient Health Questionnaire 4 for psychological symptom burden; Giessen Subjective Complaints List for somatic symptom burden...
October 14, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Miriam Martínez-Navarro, Rafael Maldonado, Josep-E Baños
Injury to peripheral nerves often lead to abnormal pain states (hyperalgesia, allodynia and spontaneous pain), which can remain long after the injury heals. Although opioid agonists remain the gold standard for the treatment of moderate to severe pain, they show reduced efficacy against neuropathic pain. In addition to analgesia, opioid use is also associated to hyperalgesia and analgesia tolerance, whose underlying mechanisms share some commonalities with nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity. Here we reviewed up-to-day research exploring the contribution of mu-opioid receptor (MOR) on the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain and on analgesic opioid actions under these conditions...
October 14, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
Lea Schemer, Andreas Schroeder, Eva Ørnbøl, Julia Anna Glombiewski
BACKGROUND: To improve treatment outcomes, it is essential to understand the processes involved in therapeutic change. The aim of this study was to investigate the processes involved in treatment of individuals with chronic lower back pain (CLBP) and high fear-avoidance. Graded in vivo exposure (Exposure), a specific treatment, and cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), a general treatment, were compared. METHODS: Our study used data from a three-arm randomized controlled trial...
October 14, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
S Hestehave, K S P Abelson, T Brønnum Pedersen, G Munro
BACKGROUND: Translating efficacy of analgesic drugs from animal models to humans remains challenging. Reasons are multifaceted, but lack of sufficiently rigorous preclinical study design criteria and phenotypically relevant models may be partly responsible. To begin to address this fundamental issue, we assessed the analgesic efficacy of morphine in three inbred rat strains (selected based on stress reactivity and affective/pain phenotypes), and outbred Sprague Dawley (SD) rats supplied from two vendors...
October 14, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
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