journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Endocrine Reviews

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924299/the-rasopathy-family-consequences-of-germline-activation-of-the-ras-mapk-pathway
#1
Mylène Tajan, Romain Paccoud, Sophie Branka, Thomas Edouard, Armelle Yart
Noonan syndrome (NS; Mendelian Inheritance in Men (MIM) ♯163950) and related syndromes (Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NS-ML, formerly called LEOPARD syndrome; MIM ♯151100), Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair (NS-LAH; MIM ♯607721), Costello syndrome (CS; MIM ♯218040), Cardio-Facio-Cutaneous syndrome (CFCS; MIM ♯115150), type I Neurofibromatosis (NF1; MIM ♯162200), and Legius syndrome (LS; MIM ♯611431)) are a group of related genetic disorders, associating distinctive facial features, cardiopathies, growth and skeletal abnormalities, developmental delay/mental retardation, and tumor predisposition...
June 18, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905835/glucocorticoids-and-bone-consequences-of-endogenous-and-exogenous-excess-and-replacement-therapy
#2
Rowan S Hardy, Hong Zhou, Markus J Seibel, Mark S Cooper
Osteoporosis associated with long-term glucocorticoid therapy remains a common and serious bone disease. In addition, in recent years it has become clear that more subtle states of endogenous glucocorticoid excess may have a major impact on bone health. Adverse effects can be seen with mild systemic glucocorticoid excess but there is also evidence of tissue-specific regulation of glucocorticoid action within bone as a mechanism of disease. This review article will examine a) the role of endogenous glucocorticoids in normal bone physiology, b) the skeletal effects of endogenous glucocorticoid excess in the context of endocrine conditions such as Cushing's disease/syndrome and autonomous cortisol secretion (subclinical Cushing's syndrome), and c) the actions of therapeutic (exogenous) glucocorticoids on bone...
June 13, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905829/two-hormones-for-one-receptor-evolution-biochemistry-actions-and-pathophysiology-of-lh-and-hcg
#3
Livio Casarini, Daniele Santi, Giulia Brigante, Manuela Simoni
Luteinizing hormone (LH) and chorionic gonadotropin (CG) are glycoproteins fundamental for sexual development and reproduction. Since they act on the same receptor (LHCGR), there is a general consensus that LH and hCG are equivalent. However, separate evolution of LHβ and hCGβ subunits occurred in primates, resulting in two molecules sharing ∼85% identity and regulating different physiological events. Pituitary, pulsatile LH production results in a ∼90 min half-life molecule targeting the gonads, to regulate gametogenesis and androgen synthesis...
June 13, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905825/targeting-the-incretin-glucagon-system-with-triagonists-to-treat-diabetes
#4
Megan E Capozzi, Richard D DiMarchi, Matthias H Tschöp, Brian Finan, Jonathan E Campbell
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have been efficacious for the treatment of type 2 diabetes due to their ability to reduce weight and attenuate hyperglycemia. However, the activity of GLP-1R-directed strategies is sub-maximal, and the only potent, sustainable treatment for metabolic dysfunction is bariatric surgery, necessitating the development of novel therapeutics. GLP-1 is structurally related to glucagon and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), allowing for the development of intermixed, unimolecular peptides with activity at each of their respective receptors...
June 13, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901737/estrogen-receptors-new-directions-in-the-new-millennium
#5
Sylvia C Hewitt, Kenneth S Korach
Nineteen years have passed since our previous review in this journal in 1999 regarding estrogen receptors. At that time, we described the current assessments of the physiological activities of estrogen and ER. Since that time there has been an explosion of progress in our understanding of details of estrogen receptor mediated processes from the molecular and cellular level to the whole organism. Here, we will review the basic understanding of estrogen signaling, then elaborate on the progress and current understanding of estrogen receptor actions that have developed using new models and continuing clinical studies...
June 12, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897433/regulation-of-skeletal-homeostasis
#6
Mone Zaidi, Tony Yuen, Li Sun, Clifford J Rosen
Landmark advances in skeletal biology have arisen mainly from the identification of disease-causing mutations and the advent of rapid and selective gene targeting technologies to phenocopy human disease in mice. Here, we discuss work on newly identified mechanisms controlling the remodeling of bone, communication of bone cells with cells of other lineages, and crosstalk between bone and vital organs, as these relate to the therapeutic targeting of the skeleton.
June 11, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771299/at-the-crossroads-of-fate-somatic-cell-lineage-specification-in-the-fetal-gonad
#7
Emmi Rotgers, Anne Jørgensen, Humphrey Hung-Chang Yao
The reproductive endocrine systems are vastly different between male and female. This sexual dimorphism of endocrine milieu originates from sex-specific differentiation of the somatic cells in the gonads during fetal life. The majority of gonadal somatic cells arise from the adrenogonadal primordium. After separation of the adrenal and gonadal primordia, the gonadal somatic cells initiate sex-specific differentiation during gonadal sex determination with the specification of the supporting cell lineages: Sertoli cells in the testis vs...
May 15, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697773/metabolic-flexibility-as-an-adaptation-to-energy-resources-and-requirements-in-health-and-disease
#8
Reuben L Smith, Maarten R Soeters, Rob C I Wüst, Riekelt H Houtkooper
The ability to efficiently adapt metabolism by substrate sensing, trafficking, storage and utilization, dependent on availability and requirement is known as metabolic flexibility. In this review, we discuss the breadth and depth of metabolic flexibility and its impact on health and disease. Metabolic flexibility is essential to maintain energy homeostasis in times of either caloric excess or caloric restriction, and in times of either low or high energy demand, such as during exercise. The liver, adipose tissue and muscle govern systemic metabolic flexibility and manage nutrient sensing, uptake, transport, storage and expenditure by communication via endocrine cues...
April 24, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684108/pituitary-diseases-and-bone
#9
Gherardo Mazziotti, Stefano Frara, Andrea Giustina
Neuroendocrinology of bone is a new area of research based on the evidence that pituitary hormones may directly modulate bone remodeling and metabolism. Skeletal fragility associated with high risk of fractures is a common complication of several pituitary diseases such as hypopituitarism, Cushing disease, acromegaly and hyperprolactinemia. As in other forms of secondary osteoporosis, pituitary diseases generally affect bone quality more than bone quantity and fractures may occur even in the presence of normal or low-normal bone mineral density as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, making difficult the prediction of fractures in these clinical settings...
April 19, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668873/sex-and-gender-differences-research-design-for-basic-clinical-and-population-studies-essentials-for-investigators
#10
Janet W Rich-Edwards, Ursula B Kaiser, Grace L Chen, JoAnn E Manson, Jill Goldstein
A sex and gender-informed perspective increases rigor, promotes discovery, and expands the relevance of biomedical research. In the current era of accountability to present data for males and females, thoughtful and deliberate methodology can improve study design and inference in sex and gender differences research. We address issues of motivation, subject selection, sample size, data collection, analysis, and interpretation, considering implications for basic, clinical, and population research. In particular, we focus on methods to test sex/gender differences as effect modification or interaction, and discuss why some inferences from sex-stratified data should be viewed with caution...
April 12, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518206/the-science-of-obesity-management-an-endocrine-society-scientific-statement
#11
George A Bray, William E Heisel, Ashkan Afshin, Michael D Jensen, William H Dietz, Michael Long, Robert F Kushner, Stephen R Daniels, Thomas A Wadden, Adam G Tsai, Frank B Hu, John M Jakicic, Donna H Ryan, Bruce M Wolfe, Thomas H Inge
The prevalence of obesity, measured by body mass index, has risen to unacceptable levels in both men and women in the United States and worldwide with resultant hazardous health implications. Genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors influence the development of obesity, and both the general public and health professionals stigmatize those who suffer from the disease. Obesity is associated with and contributes to a shortened life span, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, some cancers, kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea, gout, osteoarthritis, and hepatobiliary disease, among others...
April 1, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385433/sexual-dimorphism-and-the-origins-of-human-spinal-health
#12
Vicente Gilsanz, Tishya A L Wren, Skorn Ponrartana, Stefano Mora, Clifford J Rosen
Recent observations indicate that the cross-sectional area (CSA) of vertebral bodies is on average 10% smaller in healthy newborn girls than in newborn boys, a striking difference that increases during infancy and puberty and is greatest by the time of sexual and skeletal maturity. The smaller CSA of female vertebrae is associated with greater spinal flexibility and could represent the human adaptation to fetal load in bipedal posture. Unfortunately, it also imparts a mechanical disadvantage that increases stress within the vertebrae for all physical activities...
April 1, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325023/the-extending-spectrum-of-npc1-related-human-disorders-from-niemann-pick-c1-disease-to-obesity
#13
Amel Lamri, Marie Pigeyre, William S Garver, David Meyre
The Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) protein regulates the transport of cholesterol and fatty acids from late endosomes/lysosomes and has a central role in maintaining lipid homeostasis. NPC1 loss-of-function mutations in humans cause NPC1 disease, a rare autosomal-recessive lipid-storage disorder characterized by progressive and lethal neurodegeneration, as well as liver and lung failure, due to cholesterol infiltration. In humans, genome-wide association studies and post-genome-wide association studies highlight the implication of common variants in NPC1 in adult-onset obesity, body fat mass, and type 2 diabetes...
April 1, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309555/evaluating-causality-of-gut-microbiota-in-obesity-and-diabetes-in-humans
#14
Abraham S Meijnikman, Victor E Gerdes, Max Nieuwdorp, Hilde Herrema
The pathophysiology of obesity and obesity-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is complex and driven by many factors. One of the most recently identified factors in development of these metabolic pathologies is the gut microbiota. The introduction of affordable, high-throughput sequencing technologies has substantially expanded our understanding of the role of the gut microbiome in modulation of host metabolism and (cardio)metabolic disease development. Nevertheless, evidence for a role of the gut microbiome as a causal, driving factor in disease development mainly originates from studies in mouse models: data showing causality in humans are scarce...
April 1, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300866/diagnostic-utility-of-molecular-and-imaging-biomarkers-in-cytological-indeterminate-thyroid-nodules
#15
Elizabeth J de Koster, Lioe-Fee de Geus-Oei, Olaf M Dekkers, Ilse van Engen-van Grunsven, Jaap Hamming, Eleonora P M Corssmit, Hans Morreau, Abbey Schepers, Jan Smit, Wim J G Oyen, Dennis Vriens
Indeterminate thyroid cytology (Bethesda III and IV) corresponds to follicular-patterned benign and malignant lesions, which are particularly difficult to differentiate on cytology alone. As ~25% of these nodules harbor malignancy, diagnostic hemithyroidectomy is still custom. However, advanced preoperative diagnostics are rapidly evolving.This review provides an overview of additional molecular and imaging diagnostics for indeterminate thyroid nodules in a preoperative clinical setting, including considerations regarding cost-effectiveness, availability, and feasibility of combining techniques...
April 1, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584816/erratum
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534161/erratum-for-ovarian-follicular-theca-cell-recruitment-differentiation-and-impact-on-fertility-2017-update
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 8, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522088/lessons-from-the-testosterone-trials
#18
Peter J Snyder, Shalender Bhasin, Glenn R Cunningham, Alvin M Matsumoto, Alisa J Stephens-Shields, Jane A Cauley, Thomas M Gill, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, Ronald S Swerdloff, Christina Wang, Kristine E Ensrud, Cora E Lewis, John T Farrar, David Cella, Raymond C Rosen, Marco Pahor, Jill P Crandall, Mark E Molitch, Susan M Resnick, Matthew Budoff, Emile R Mohler, Nanette K Wenger, Harvey Jay Cohen, Stanley Schrier, Tony M Keaveny, David Kopperdahl, David Lee, Denise Cifelli, Susan S Ellenberg
The Testosterone Trials (TTrials) were a coordinated set of seven, placebo-controlled, double blind trials in 788 men of mean age 72 years to determine the efficacy of increasing the testosterone levels of older men with low testosterone. Testosterone treatment increased the median testosterone level from unequivocally low at baseline to midnormal for young men after three months and maintained that level until month 12. In the Sexual Function Trial, testosterone increased sexual activity, sexual desire and erectile function...
March 7, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490014/the-circadian-clock-in-white-and-brown-adipose-tissue-mechanistic-endocrine-and-clinical-aspects
#19
Oren Froy, Marta Garaulet
Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of illnesses, such as insulin resistance and hypertension and has become a serious public health problem. Mammals have developed a circadian clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) that responds to the environmental light-dark cycle. Clocks similar to the one located in the SCN are found in peripheral tissues, such as the kidney, liver and adipose tissue. The circadian clock regulates metabolism and energy homeostasis in peripheral tissues by mediating activity and/or expression of key metabolic enzymes and transport systems...
February 27, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438472/klinefelter-syndrome-integrating-genetics-neuropsychology-and-endocrinology
#20
Claus H Gravholt, Simon Chang, Mikkel Wallentin, Jens Fedder, Philip Moore, Anne Skakkebæk
Although first identified over 70 years ago, Klinefelter syndrome (KS) continue to pose significant diagnostic challenges, as many patients are still misdiagnosed, or remain undiagnosed. In fact, as few as 25% of KS patients are accurately diagnosed, and most of these diagnoses are not made until adulthood. Classic characteristics of KS include small testes, infertility, hypergonadothropic hypogonadism, and cognitive impairment. However, the pathophysiology behind KS is not well understood, although genetic effects are also thought to play a role...
February 9, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
journal
journal
20099
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"