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Endocrine Reviews

Karen D Corbin, Kimberly A Driscoll, Richard E Pratley, Steven R Smith, David M Maahs, Elizabeth J Mayer-Davis
There has been an alarming increase in the prevalence of obesity in people with type 1 diabetes in recent years. Although obesity has long been recognized as a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes and a catalyst for complications, much less is known about the role of obesity in the initiation and pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. Emerging evidence suggests that obesity contributes to insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and cardiometabolic complications in type 1 diabetes. Unique therapeutic strategies may be required to address these comorbidities within the context of intensive insulin therapy, which promotes weight gain...
July 27, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Nadia Bougarne, Basiel Weyers, Sofie J Desmet, Julie Deckers, David W Ray, Bart Staels, Karolien De Bosscher
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a nuclear receptor of clinical interest as a drug target in various metabolic disorders. PPARα also exhibits marked anti-inflammatory capacities. The first generation PPARα agonists, the fibrates, have however been hampered by drug-drug interaction issues, statin drop-in and ill-designed cardiovascular intervention trials. Notwithstanding, understanding the molecular mechanisms by which PPARα works will enable control of its activities as a drug target for metabolic diseases with an underlying inflammatory component...
July 17, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
David J Handelsman, Angelica Lindén Hirschberg, Stephane Bermon
Elite athletic competitions have separate male and female events due to men's physical advantages in strength, speed and endurance so that a protected female category with objective entry criteria is required. Prior to puberty, there is no sex difference in circulating testosterone concentrations or athletic performance but from puberty onwards sex difference in athletic performance emerges as circulating testosterone concentrations rise in men because testes produce 30 times more testosterone than before puberty with circulating testosterone exceeding 15-fold those of women at any age...
July 13, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Teresa M Seccia, Brasilina Caroccia, Elise P Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E Gomez-Sanchez, Gian Paolo Rossi
The identification of several germline and somatic ion channel mutations in aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) and detection of cell clusters that can be responsible for excess aldosterone production, as well as the isolation of autoantibodies activating the angiotensin II type 1 receptor, have rapidly advanced the understanding of the biology of primary aldosteronism (PA), in particular that of APA. Hence, the main purpose of this review is to discuss how discoveries of the last decade could impact on histopathology analysis and clinical practice...
July 10, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Martijn J J Finken, Manouk van der Steen, Carolina C J Smeets, Marie J E Walenkamp, Christiaan de Bruin, Anita C S Hokken-Koelega, Jan M Wit
Children born small-for-gestational age (SGA), defined as a birth weight and/or length <-2 SDS, comprise a heterogeneous group. The causes of SGA are multifactorial and include maternal life-style and obstetric factors, placental dysfunction, and numerous fetal (epi)genetic abnormalities. Short-term consequences of SGA include increased risks of hypothermia, polycythemia, and hypoglycemia. Although the majority of SGA infants show catch-up growth by 2 years of age, approximately 10% remain short. Short children born SGA are amenable to growth hormone (GH) treatment, which increases their adult height by on average 1...
July 4, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Julien Favresse, Maria-Cristina Burlacu, Dominique Maiter, Damien Gruson
Current automated immunoassays used to evaluate thyroid function are vulnerable to different types of interference that can impact clinical decision. This review provides a detailed overview of the six main interferences affecting measurements of thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine, namely macroTSH, biotin, anti-streptavidin antibodies, anti-ruthenium antibodies, thyroid hormone autoantibodies, and heterophilic antibodies. As the prevalence of some of these conditions has been reported to approach 1% and the frequency of testing for thyroid dysfunction is important, the scale of the problem might therefore be tremendous...
July 4, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Ali Abbara, Sophie A Clarke, Waljit S Dhillo
Infertility affects 1 in 6 of the population and increasingly couples require treatment with assisted reproductive techniques (ART). In vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment is most commonly conducted using exogenous FSH to induce follicular growth and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to induce final oocyte maturation. However, hCG may cause the potentially life-threatening iatrogenic complication 'ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome' (OHSS), which can cause significant morbidity and rarely even mortality in otherwise healthy women...
July 2, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Ross C Anderson, Claire L Newton, Richard A Anderson, Robert P Millar
The gonadotropin receptors, luteinising hormone receptor, and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, play a central role in governing reproductive competency/fertility. Gonadotropin hormone analogues have been utilised clinically for decades, in assisted reproductive therapies, and in the treatment of various infertility disorders. While these treatments are effective, the clinical protocols demand multiple injections, and the hormone preparations can lack uniformity and stability. The past two decades have seen a drive to develop chimeric and modified peptide analogues with more desirable pharmacokinetic profiles with some displaying clinical efficacy, such as corifollitropin alfa which is now in clinical use...
July 2, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Mylène Tajan, Romain Paccoud, Sophie Branka, Thomas Edouard, Armelle Yart
Noonan syndrome (NS; Mendelian Inheritance in Men (MIM) ♯163950) and related syndromes (Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NS-ML, formerly called LEOPARD syndrome; MIM ♯151100), Noonan-like syndrome with loose anagen hair (NS-LAH; MIM ♯607721), Costello syndrome (CS; MIM ♯218040), Cardio-Facio-Cutaneous syndrome (CFCS; MIM ♯115150), type I Neurofibromatosis (NF1; MIM ♯162200), and Legius syndrome (LS; MIM ♯611431)) are a group of related genetic disorders, associating distinctive facial features, cardiopathies, growth and skeletal abnormalities, developmental delay/mental retardation, and tumor predisposition...
June 18, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Rowan S Hardy, Hong Zhou, Markus J Seibel, Mark S Cooper
Osteoporosis associated with long-term glucocorticoid therapy remains a common and serious bone disease. In addition, in recent years it has become clear that more subtle states of endogenous glucocorticoid excess may have a major impact on bone health. Adverse effects can be seen with mild systemic glucocorticoid excess but there is also evidence of tissue-specific regulation of glucocorticoid action within bone as a mechanism of disease. This review article will examine a) the role of endogenous glucocorticoids in normal bone physiology, b) the skeletal effects of endogenous glucocorticoid excess in the context of endocrine conditions such as Cushing's disease/syndrome and autonomous cortisol secretion (subclinical Cushing's syndrome), and c) the actions of therapeutic (exogenous) glucocorticoids on bone...
June 13, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Livio Casarini, Daniele Santi, Giulia Brigante, Manuela Simoni
Luteinizing hormone (LH) and chorionic gonadotropin (CG) are glycoproteins fundamental for sexual development and reproduction. Since they act on the same receptor (LHCGR), there is a general consensus that LH and hCG are equivalent. However, separate evolution of LHβ and hCGβ subunits occurred in primates, resulting in two molecules sharing ∼85% identity and regulating different physiological events. Pituitary, pulsatile LH production results in a ∼90 min half-life molecule targeting the gonads, to regulate gametogenesis and androgen synthesis...
June 13, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Megan E Capozzi, Richard D DiMarchi, Matthias H Tschöp, Brian Finan, Jonathan E Campbell
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have been efficacious for the treatment of type 2 diabetes due to their ability to reduce weight and attenuate hyperglycemia. However, the activity of GLP-1R-directed strategies is sub-maximal, and the only potent, sustainable treatment for metabolic dysfunction is bariatric surgery, necessitating the development of novel therapeutics. GLP-1 is structurally related to glucagon and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), allowing for the development of intermixed, unimolecular peptides with activity at each of their respective receptors...
June 13, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Sylvia C Hewitt, Kenneth S Korach
Nineteen years have passed since our previous review in this journal in 1999 regarding estrogen receptors. At that time, we described the current assessments of the physiological activities of estrogen and ER. Since that time there has been an explosion of progress in our understanding of details of estrogen receptor mediated processes from the molecular and cellular level to the whole organism. Here, we will review the basic understanding of estrogen signaling, then elaborate on the progress and current understanding of estrogen receptor actions that have developed using new models and continuing clinical studies...
June 12, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Mone Zaidi, Tony Yuen, Li Sun, Clifford J Rosen
Landmark advances in skeletal biology have arisen mainly from the identification of disease-causing mutations and the advent of rapid and selective gene targeting technologies to phenocopy human disease in mice. Here, we discuss work on newly identified mechanisms controlling the remodeling of bone, communication of bone cells with cells of other lineages, and crosstalk between bone and vital organs, as these relate to the therapeutic targeting of the skeleton.
June 11, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Janet W Rich-Edwards, Ursula B Kaiser, Grace L Chen, JoAnn E Manson, Jill M Goldstein
A sex- and gender-informed perspective increases rigor, promotes discovery, and expands the relevance of biomedical research. In the current era of accountability to present data for males and females, thoughtful and deliberate methodology can improve study design and inference in sex and gender differences research. We address issues of motivation, subject selection, sample size, data collection, analysis, and interpretation, considering implications for basic, clinical, and population research. In particular, we focus on methods to test sex/gender differences as effect modification or interaction, and discuss why some inferences from sex-stratified data should be viewed with caution...
August 1, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
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June 1, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Peter J Snyder, Shalender Bhasin, Glenn R Cunningham, Alvin M Matsumoto, Alisa J Stephens-Shields, Jane A Cauley, Thomas M Gill, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, Ronald S Swerdloff, Christina Wang, Kristine E Ensrud, Cora E Lewis, John T Farrar, David Cella, Raymond C Rosen, Marco Pahor, Jill P Crandall, Mark E Molitch, Susan M Resnick, Matthew Budoff, Emile R Mohler, Nanette K Wenger, Harvey Jay Cohen, Stanley Schrier, Tony M Keaveny, David Kopperdahl, David Lee, Denise Cifelli, Susan S Ellenberg
The Testosterone Trials (TTrials) were a coordinated set of seven placebo-controlled, double-blind trials in 788 men with a mean age of 72 years to determine the efficacy of increasing the testosterone levels of older men with low testosterone. Testosterone treatment increased the median testosterone level from unequivocally low at baseline to midnormal for young men after 3 months and maintained that level until month 12. In the Sexual Function Trial, testosterone increased sexual activity, sexual desire, and erectile function...
June 1, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Oren Froy, Marta Garaulet
Obesity is a major risk factor for the development of illnesses, such as insulin resistance and hypertension, and has become a serious public health problem. Mammals have developed a circadian clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) that responds to the environmental light-dark cycle. Clocks similar to the one located in the SCN are found in peripheral tissues, such as the kidney, liver, and adipose tissue. The circadian clock regulates metabolism and energy homeostasis in peripheral tissues by mediating activity and/or expression of key metabolic enzymes and transport systems...
June 1, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Carlos Simon, David W Greening, David Bolumar, Nuria Balaguer, Lois A Salamonsen, Felipe Vilella
Extensive evidence suggests that the release of membrane-enclosed compartments, more commonly known as extracellular vesicles (EVs), is a potent newly identified mechanism of cell-to-cell communication both in normal physiology and in pathological conditions. This review presents evidence about the formation and release of different EVs, their definitive markers and cargo content in reproductive physiological processes, and their capacity to convey information between cells through the transfer of functional protein and genetic information to alter phenotype and function of recipient cells associated with reproductive biology...
June 1, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Wangsheng Wang, Zi-Jiang Chen, Leslie Myatt, Kang Sun
Human parturition is a complex process involving interactions between the myometrium and signals derived from the placenta, fetal membranes, and fetus. Signals originating from fetal membranes are crucial components that trigger parturition, which is clearly illustrated by the labor-initiating consequence of membrane rupture. It has been recognized for a long time that among fetal tissues in late gestation the fetal membranes possess the highest capacity for cortisol regeneration by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1)...
June 1, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
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