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Endocrine Reviews

Michael R Rickels, R Paul Robertson
Pancreatic islet transplantation has become an established approach to β-cell replacement therapy for the treatment of insulin deficient diabetes. Recent progress in techniques for islet isolation, islet culture, and peri-transplant management of the islet transplant recipient have resulted in substantial improvements in metabolic and safety outcomes for patients. For patients requiring total or sub-total pancreatectomy for benign disease of the pancreas, isolation of islets from the diseased pancreas with intrahepatic transplantation of autologous islets can prevent or ameliorate post-surgical diabetes, and for patients previously experiencing painful recurrent acute or chronic pancreatitis, quality-of-life is substantially improved...
December 12, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
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December 12, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Mathis Grossmann, Margaret E Wierman, Peter Angus, David J Handelsman
The liver and the reproductive system interact in a multifaceted bidirectional fashion. Sex steroid signaling influences hepatic endobiotic and xenobiotic metabolism and contributes to the pathogenesis of functional and structural disorders of the liver. In turn, liver function impacts on the reproductive axis via modulating sex steroid metabolism and transport to tissues via sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). The liver senses the body's metabolic status and adapts its energy homeostasis in a sex-dependent fashion, a dimorphism signaled by the sex steroid milieu and possibly related to the metabolic costs of reproduction...
November 30, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Cesar Luiz Boguszewski, Margaret Cristina da Silva Boguszewski
Several components of the GH axis are involved in tumor progression and GH-induced intracellular signaling has been strongly associated with breast cancer susceptibility in genome-wide association studies. In the general population, high IGF-I levels and low IGFBP-3 levels within the normal range are associated with the development of common malignancies, and components of the GH-IGF signaling system exhibit correlations with clinical, histopathological and therapeutic parameters in cancer patients. Despite promising findings in preclinical studies, anti-cancer therapies targeting the GH-IGF signaling system have led to disappointing results in clinical trials...
November 30, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Diane M Duffy, CheMyong Ko, Misung Jo, Mats Brannstrom, Thomas E Curry
The midcycle surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) sets in motion interconnected networks of signaling cascades to bring about rupture of the follicle and release of the oocyte during ovulation. Many mediators of these LH-induced signaling cascades are associated with inflammation, leading to the postulate that ovulation is similar to an inflammatory response. First responders to the LH surge are granulosa and theca cells, which produce steroids, prostaglandins, chemokines, and cytokines, which are also mediators of inflammatory processes...
November 28, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Camilla Virili, Alessandro Antonelli, Maria Giulia Santaguida, Salvatore Benvenga, Marco Centanni
Levothyroxine, a largely prescribed drug with a narrow therapeutic index, is often a lifelong treatment. The therapeutic efficacy of thyroxine may be marred by behavioral, pharmacologic and pathologic issues acting as interfering factors. Despite a continuous search for an optimal thyroxine treatment, a significant number of patients fail to show a complete chemical and/or clinical response to this reference dose of thyroxine. Gastrointestinal malabsorption of oral thyroxine represents an emerging cause of refractory hypothyroidism and may be more frequent than previously reputed...
November 23, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Judith Gebauer, Claire Higham, Thorsten Langer, Christian Denzer, Georg Brabant
The number of patients surviving five or more years after initial cancer diagnosis has significantly increased over the last decades due to considerable improvements in the treatment of many cancer entities. A negative consequence of this is the emergence of long-term sequelae and endocrine disorders account for a high proportion of these. These late effects can occur decades after cancer treatment and affect up to 50% of childhood cancer survivors. Multiple predisposing factors for endocrine late effects have been identified; including radiation, gender and age at the time of diagnosis...
November 23, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Jeffrey S Flier
Insulin and leptin are critical metabolic hormones that play essential but distinct roles in regulating the physiologic switch between the fed and starved states. The discoveries of insulin and leptin, in 1922 and 1994 respectively, arose out of radically different scientific environments. Despite the dearth of scientific tools available in 1922, insulin's discovery rapidly launched a life-saving therapy for what we now know to be Type I diabetes, and continually enhanced insulin therapeutics are now effectively applied to both major forms of this increasingly prevalent disease...
October 23, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Roger Bouillon, Claudio Marcocci, Geert Carmeliet, Daniel Bikle, John H White, Bess Dawson-Hughes, Paul Lips, Craig F Munns, Marise Lazaretti-Castro, Andrea Giustina, John Bilezikian
The etiology of endemic rickets was discovered a century ago. Vitamin D is the precursor of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and other metabolites, including 1,25(OH)2D, the ligand for the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The effects of the vitamin D endocrine system on bone and its growth plate is primarily indirect and mediated by its effect on intestinal calcium transport and serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Rickets and osteomalacia can be prevented by daily supplements of 400 IU of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25OHD < 50 nmol/l) accelerates bone turnover, bone loss and osteoporotic fractures...
October 12, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Pratik B Sandesara, Salim S Virani, Sergio Fazio, Michael D Shapiro
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a well-established mediator of atherosclerosis and a key target for intervention for the primary and secondary prevention of ASCVD. However, despite significant reduction in LDL-C, patients continue to have recurrent ASCVD events. Hypertriglyceridemia maybe an important contributor of this residual risk. Observational and genetic epidemiological data strongly support a causal role of triglycerides and the cholesterol content within triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRL) and/or remnant cholesterol (RC) in the development of ASCVD...
October 11, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Paishiun N Hsieh, Liyan Fan, David R Sweet, Mukesh K Jain
Nutrient handling by higher organisms is a complex process that is regulated in a significant manner at the transcriptional level. Studies over the past 15 years highlight the critical importance of a family of transcriptional regulators termed the Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) in metabolism. Within an organ, distinct KLFs direct networks of metabolic gene targets to achieve specialized functions. This regulation is often orchestrated in concert with recruitment of tissue-specific transcriptional regulators, particularly members of the nuclear receptor family...
October 10, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Guy T'Sjoen, Jon Arcelus, Louis Gooren, Daniel T Klink, Vin Tangpricha
Gender affirming treatment for transgender people requires a multidisciplinary approach in which endocrinologists play a crucial role. The aim of this paper is to review recent data on hormonal treatment of this population and its effect on physical, psychological and mental health. The Endocrine Society guidelines for transgender women include estrogens in combination with androgen lowering medications. Feminizing treatment with estrogens and anti-androgens has desired physical changes, such as enhanced breast growth, reduction of facial and body hair growth and fat redistribution in a female pattern...
October 10, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Helen L Storr, Sumana Chatterjee, Louise A Metherell, Corinne Foley, Ron G Rosenfeld, Philippe F Backeljauw, Andrew Dauber, Martin O Savage, Vivian Hwa
GH insensitivity (GHI) presents in childhood with growth failure and in its severe form is associated with extreme short stature, dysmorphic and metabolic abnormalities. In recent years, the clinical, biochemical and genetic characteristics of GHI and other overlapping short stature syndromes have rapidly expanded. This can be attributed to advancing genetic techniques and a greater awareness of this group of disorders. We review this important spectrum of defects, which present with phenotypes at the milder end of the GHI continuum...
September 27, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Gidon J Bönhof, Christian Herder, Alexander Strom, Nikolaos Papanas, Michael Roden, Dan Ziegler
Diabetic neuropathy, with its major clinical sequels notably neuropathic pain, foot ulcers, and autonomic dysfunction, is associated with substantial morbidity, increased risk of mortality, and reduced quality of life. Despite its major clinical impact, diabetic neuropathy remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. Moreover, the evidence supporting a benefit for causal treatment is weak at least in patients with type 2 diabetes, and current pharmacotherapy is largely limited to symptomatic treatment options. Thus, a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology is mandatory for translation into new diagnostic and treatment approaches...
September 25, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Laura van Iersel, Karen E Brokke, Roger A H Adan, Lauren C M Bulthuis, Erica L T van den Akker, Hanneke M van Santen
The development of hypothalamic obesity (HO) following craniopharyngioma (CP) and other suprasellar tumors leads to reduced patient quality of life. No treatment algorithms are currently available for management of HO. Depending on which hypothalamic nuclei are destroyed, the pathophysiologic mechanisms and clinical symptoms that contribute to HO differ among patients. Here, we review the contribution of the hypothalamus to the pathophysiologic mechanisms and symptoms underlying CP-associated HO. In addition, we performed a systematic search of MEDLINE and Embase to identify all intervention studies for weight management in patients with CP or other suprasellar tumors published until September 2017...
September 20, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
José Cipolla-Neto, Fernanda Gaspar do Amaral
Melatonin is a ubiquitous molecule present in almost every live being from bacteria to humans. In vertebrates, besides being produced in peripheral tissues and acting as an autocrine and paracrine signal, melatonin is centrally synthetized by a neuroendocrine organ, the pineal gland. Independently of the considered species, pineal hormone melatonin is always produced during the night and its production and secretory episode duration are directly dependent on the length of the night. As its production is tightly linked to the light/dark cycle, melatonin main hormonal systemic integrative action is to coordinate behavioral and physiological adaptations to the environmental geophysical day and season...
December 1, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Ian R Reid, Paul A Baldock, Jillian Cornish
Leptin originates in adipocytes, including those in bone marrow, and circulates in concentrations 20 to 90 times higher than those in the cerebrospinal fluid. It has direct anabolic effects on osteoblasts and chondrocytes, but it also influences bone indirectly, via the hypothalamus and sympathetic nervous system, via changes in body weight, and via effects on the production of other hormones (e.g., pituitary). Leptin's role in bone physiology is determined by the balance of these conflicting effects. Reflecting this inconsistency, the leptin-deficient mouse has reduced length and bone mineral content of long bones but increased vertebral trabecular bone...
December 1, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Pouneh K Fazeli, Anne Klibanski
Anorexia nervosa is a psychiatric disease characterized by a low-weight state due to self-induced starvation. This disorder, which predominantly affects women, is associated with hormonal adaptations that minimize energy expenditure in the setting of low nutrient intake. These adaptations include GH resistance, functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, and nonthyroidal illness syndrome. Although these adaptations may be beneficial to short-term survival, they contribute to the significant and often persistent morbidity associated with this disorder, including bone loss, which affects >85% of women...
December 1, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Emmanuel Somm, François R Jornayvaz
Discovered 20 years ago, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)19, and its mouse ortholog FGF15, were the first members of a new subfamily of FGFs able to act as hormones. During fetal life, FGF15/19 is involved in organogenesis, affecting the development of the ear, eye, heart, and brain. At adulthood, FGF15/19 is mainly produced by the ileum, acting on the liver to repress hepatic bile acid synthesis and promote postprandial nutrient partitioning. In rodents, pharmacologic doses of FGF19 induce the same antiobesity and antidiabetic actions as FGF21, with these metabolic effects being partly mediated by the brain...
December 1, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Teresa M Seccia, Brasilina Caroccia, Elise P Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E Gomez-Sanchez, Gian Paolo Rossi
The identification of several germline and somatic ion channel mutations in aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) and detection of cell clusters that can be responsible for excess aldosterone production, as well as the isolation of autoantibodies activating the angiotensin II type 1 receptor, have rapidly advanced the understanding of the biology of primary aldosteronism (PA), particularly that of APA. Hence, the main purpose of this review is to discuss how discoveries of the last decade could affect histopathology analysis and clinical practice...
December 1, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
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