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Endocrine Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673039/a-reappraisal-of-testosterone-s-binding-in-circulation-physiological-and-clinical-implications
#1
Anna L Goldman, Shalender Bhasin, Frederick C W Wu, Meenakshi Krishna, Alvin M Matsumoto, Ravi Jasuja
In circulation, testosterone and other sex hormones are bound to binding proteins which play an important role in regulating their transport, distribution, metabolism, and biologic activity. According to the free hormone hypothesis, which has been debated extensively, only the unbound or free fraction is biologically active in target tissues. Consequently, accurate determination of the partitioning of testosterone between bound and free fractions is central to our understanding of how its delivery to the target tissues and biological activity are regulated, and, consequently, to the diagnosis and treatment of androgen disorders in men and women...
June 29, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651365/cathepsin-k-inhibitors-for-osteoporosis-biology-potential-clinical-utility-and-lessons-learned
#2
Matthew T Drake, Bart L Clarke, Merry Jo Oursler, Sundeep Khosla
Cathepsin K is a cysteine protease member of the cathepsin lysosomal protease family. While cathepsin K is highly expressed in osteoclasts, lower levels of cathepsin K are also found in a variety of other tissues. Secretion of cathepsin K from the osteoclast into the sealed osteoclast-bone cell interface results in efficient degradation of type I collagen. The absence of cathepsin K activity in humans results in pycnodysostosis, characterized by increased bone mineral density and fractures. Pharmacological cathepsin K inhibition leads to continuous increases in BMD for up to five years of treatment and improves bone strength at the spine and hip...
June 23, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633444/controversies-in-the-management-of-low-risk-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#3
Megan R Haymart, Nazanene H Esfandiari, Michael T Stang, Julia Ann Sosa
Controversy exists over optimal management of low-risk differentiated thyroid cancer. This controversy occurs in all aspects of management including surgery, use of radioactive iodine for remnant ablation, thyroid hormone supplementation, and long-term surveillance. Limited and conflicting data, treatment paradigm shifts, and differences in physician perceptions contribute to the controversy. This lack of physician consensus results in wide variation in patient care, with some patients at risk for over or undertreatment...
June 19, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582537/june-issue-of-endocrine-reviews
#4
Richard O'Grady
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582536/is-dihydrotestosterone-a-classic-hormone
#5
Bradley D Anawalt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472361/energy-metabolism-of-the-osteoblast-implications-for-osteoporosis
#6
Wen-Chih Lee, Anyonya R Guntur, Fanxin Long, Clifford J Rosen
Osteoblasts, the bone-forming cells of the remodeling unit, are essential for growth and maintenance of the skeleton. Clinical disorders of substrate availability (e.g., diabetes mellitus, anorexia nervosa, and aging) cause osteoblast dysfunction, ultimately leading to skeletal fragility and osteoporotic fractures. Conversely, anabolic treatments for osteoporosis enhance the work of the osteoblast by altering osteoblast metabolism. Emerging evidence supports glycolysis as the major metabolic pathway to meet ATP demand during osteoblast differentiation...
June 1, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472278/dihydrotestosterone-biochemistry-physiology-and-clinical-implications-of-elevated-blood-levels
#7
Ronald S Swerdloff, Robert E Dudley, Stephanie T Page, Christina Wang, Wael A Salameh
Benefits associated with lowered serum DHT levels after 5α-reductase inhibitor (5AR-I) therapy in men have contributed to a misconception that circulating DHT levels are an important stimulus for androgenic action in target tissues (e.g., prostate). Yet evidence from clinical studies indicates that intracellular concentrations of androgens (particularly in androgen-sensitive tissues) are essentially independent of circulating levels. To assess the clinical significance of modest elevations in serum DHT and the DHT/testosterone (T) ratio observed in response to common T replacement therapy, a comprehensive review of the published literature was performed to identify relevant data...
June 1, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368467/glucose-metabolism-abnormalities-in-cushing-syndrome-from-molecular-basis-to-clinical-management
#8
Carla Scaroni, Marialuisa Zilio, Michelangelo Foti, Marco Boscaro
An impaired glucose metabolism, which often leads to the onset of diabetes mellitus (DM), is a common complication of chronic exposure to exogenous and endogenous glucocorticoid (GC) excess and plays an important part in contributing to morbidity and mortality in patients with Cushing syndrome (CS). This article reviews the pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of changes in glucose metabolism associated with hypercortisolism, addressing both the pathophysiological aspects and the clinical and therapeutic implications...
June 1, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323934/menopausal-hormone-therapy-and-type-2-diabetes-prevention-evidence-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#9
Franck Mauvais-Jarvis, JoAnn E Manson, John C Stevenson, Vivian A Fonseca
Type 2 diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Large, randomized controlled trials suggest that menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in women. However, the mechanisms and clinical implications of this association are still a matter of controversy. This review provides an up-to-date analysis and integration of epidemiological, clinical, and basic studies, and proposes a mechanistic explanation for the effect of menopause and MHT on type 2 diabetes development and prevention...
June 1, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520942/emerging-roles-for-micrornas-in-diabetic-microvascular-disease-novel-targets-for-therapy
#10
Yu Zhang, Xinghui Sun, Basak Icli, Mark W Feinberg
Chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation and impaired microvascular function are critical hallmarks in the development of insulin resistance. Accordingly, insulin resistance is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating studies demonstrate that restoration of impaired function of the diabetic macro- and microvasculature may ameliorate a range of cardiovascular disease states and diabetes-associated complications. In this review, we focus on the emerging role of microRNAs (miRNAs), noncoding RNAs that fine-tune target gene expression and signaling pathways, in insulin-responsive tissues and cell types important for maintaining optimal vascular homeostasis and preventing the sequelae of diabetes-induced end organ injury...
April 1, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323944/from-pregnancy-to-preeclampsia-a-key-role-for-estrogens
#11
REVIEW
Nadia Berkane, Philippe Liere, Jean-Paul Oudinet, Alexandre Hertig, Guillaume Lefèvre, Nicola Pluchino, Michael Schumacher, Nathalie Chabbert-Buffet
Preeclampsia (PE) results in placental dysfunction and is one of the primary causes of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. During pregnancy, estrogen is produced primarily in the placenta by conversion of androgen precursors originating from maternal and fetal adrenal glands. These processes lead to increased plasma estrogen concentrations compared with levels in nonpregnant women. Aberrant production of estrogens could play a key role in PE symptoms because they are exclusively produced by the placenta and they promote angiogenesis and vasodilation...
April 1, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323921/emerging-roles-for-micrornas-in-diabetic-microvascular-disease-novel-targets-for-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Yu Zhang, Xinghui Sun, Basak Icli, Mark W Feinberg
Chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation and impaired microvascular function are critical hallmarks in the development of insulin resistance. Accordingly, insulin resistance is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating studies demonstrate that restoration of impaired function of the diabetic macro- and microvasculature may ameliorate a range of cardiovascular disease states and diabetes-associated complications. In this review, we focus on the emerging role of microRNAs (miRNAs), noncoding RNAs that fine-tune target gene expression and signaling pathways, in insulin-responsive tissues and cell types important for maintaining optimal vascular homeostasis and preventing the sequelae of diabetes-induced end organ injury...
April 1, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901588/reciprocal-crosstalk-between-autophagic-and-endocrine-signaling-in-metabolic-homeostasis
#13
Rohit A Sinha, Brijesh K Singh, Paul M Yen
Autophagy is a cellular quality control and energy-providing process that is under strict control by intra- and extracellular stimuli. Recently, there has been an exponential increase in autophagy research and its implications for mammalian physiology. Autophagy deregulation is now being implicated in many human diseases, and its modulation has shown promising results in several preclinical studies. However, despite the initial discovery of autophagy as a hormone-regulated process by De Duve in the early 1960s, endocrine regulation of autophagy still remains poorly understood...
February 1, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849358/immune-modulation-of-brown-ing-adipose-tissue-in-obesity
#14
Susan M van den Berg, Andrea D van Dam, Patrick C N Rensen, Menno P J de Winther, Esther Lutgens
Obesity is associated with a variety of medical conditions such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases and is therefore responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates. Increasing energy expenditure by brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a current novel strategy to reduce the excessive energy stores in obesity. Brown adipocytes burn energy to generate heat and are mainly activated upon cold exposure. As prolonged cold exposure is not a realistic therapy, researchers worldwide are searching for novel ways to activate BAT and/or induce beiging of white adipose tissue...
February 1, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749086/the-functional-and-clinical-significance-of-the-24-hour-rhythm-of-circulating-glucocorticoids
#15
Henrik Oster, Etienne Challet, Volker Ott, Emanuela Arvat, E Ronald de Kloet, Derk-Jan Dijk, Stafford Lightman, Alexandros Vgontzas, Eve Van Cauter
Adrenal glucocorticoids are major modulators of multiple functions, including energy metabolism, stress responses, immunity, and cognition. The endogenous secretion of glucocorticoids is normally characterized by a prominent and robust circadian (around 24 hours) oscillation, with a daily peak around the time of the habitual sleep-wake transition and minimal levels in the evening and early part of the night. It has long been recognized that this 24-hour rhythm partly reflects the activity of a master circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus...
February 1, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915504/centennial-celebration-endocrine-reviews-past-highlights-for-november-and-december
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915503/in-memoriam-melvin-m-grumbach-1925-2016
#17
Walter L Miller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828722/genetics-of-combined-pituitary-hormone-deficiency-roadmap-into-the-genome-era
#18
Qing Fang, Akima S George, Michelle L Brinkmeier, Amanda H Mortensen, Peter Gergics, Leonard Y M Cheung, Alexandre Z Daly, Adnan Ajmal, María Ines Pérez Millán, A Bilge Ozel, Jacob O Kitzman, Ryan E Mills, Jun Z Li, Sally A Camper
The genetic basis for combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) is complex, involving 30 genes in a variety of syndromic and nonsyndromic presentations. Molecular diagnosis of this disorder is valuable for predicting disease progression, avoiding unnecessary surgery, and family planning. We expect that the application of high throughput sequencing will uncover additional contributing genes and eventually become a valuable tool for molecular diagnosis. For example, in the last 3 years, six new genes have been implicated in CPHD using whole-exome sequencing...
December 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763782/circadian-rhythm-and-sleep-disruption-causes-metabolic-consequences-and-countermeasures
#19
Gregory D M Potter, Debra J Skene, Josephine Arendt, Janet E Cade, Peter J Grant, Laura J Hardie
Circadian (∼24-hour) timing systems pervade all kingdoms of life and temporally optimize behavior and physiology in humans. Relatively recent changes to our environments, such as the introduction of artificial lighting, can disorganize the circadian system, from the level of the molecular clocks that regulate the timing of cellular activities to the level of synchronization between our daily cycles of behavior and the solar day. Sleep/wake cycles are intertwined with the circadian system, and global trends indicate that these, too, are increasingly subject to disruption...
December 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732058/vascular-biology-of-glucagon-receptor-superfamily-peptides-mechanistic-and-clinical-relevance
#20
Gemma Pujadas, Daniel J Drucker
Regulatory peptides produced in islet and gut endocrine cells, including glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), GLP-2, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, exert actions with considerable metabolic importance and translational relevance. Although the clinical development of GLP-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors has fostered research into how these hormones act on the normal and diseased heart, less is known about the actions of these peptides on blood vessels. Here we review the effects of these peptide hormones on normal blood vessels and highlight their vascular actions in the setting of experimental and clinical vascular injury...
December 2016: Endocrine Reviews
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