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Endocrine Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323934/menopausal-hormone-therapy-and-type-2-diabetes-prevention-evidence-mechanisms-and-clinical-implications
#1
Franck Mauvais-Jarvis, JoAnn E Manson, John C Stevenson, Vivian A Fonseca
Type 2 diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in the US. Large randomized controlled trials suggest that menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in women. Still, the mechanisms and clinical implications of these associations are a matter of controversy. This review provides an up-to-date analysis and integration of epidemiological, clinical and basic studies, and proposes a mechanistic explanation for the effect of menopause and MHT on type 2 diabetes development and prevention...
March 8, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323944/from-pregnancy-to-preeclampsia-a-key-role-for-estrogens
#2
Nadia Berkane, Philippe Liere, Jean-Paul Oudinet, Alexandre Hertig, Guillaume Lefèvre, Nicola Pluchino, Michael Schumacher, Nathalie Chabbert-Buffet
Preeclampsia (PE) results of placental dysfunction and is one of the primary causes of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. During pregnancy, estrogen is produced primarily in the placenta by conversion of androgen precursors originating from maternal and fetal adrenal glands. These processes lead to increased plasma estrogen concentrations compared to non-pregnant women. Aberrant production of estrogens could play a key role in PE symptoms, since they are exclusively produced by the placenta and they promote angiogenesis and vasodilation...
March 3, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323921/emerging-roles-for-micrornas-in-diabetic-microvascular-disease-novel-targets-for-therapy
#3
Yu Zhang, Xinghui Sun, Basak Icli, Mark W Feinberg
Chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation and impaired microvascular function are critical hallmarks in the development of insulin resistance. Accordingly, insulin resistance is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating studies demonstrate that restoration of impaired function of the diabetic macro- and microvasculature may ameliorate a range of cardiovascular disease states and diabetes-associated complications. In this review, we focus on the emerging role of microRNAs, non-coding RNAs that fine-tune target gene expression and signaling pathways, in insulin-responsive tissues and cell types important for maintaining optimal vascular homeostasis and preventing the sequelae of diabetes-induced end organ injury...
February 17, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915504/centennial-celebration-endocrine-reviews-past-highlights-for-november-and-december
#4
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915503/in-memoriam-melvin-m-grumbach-1925-2016
#5
Walter L Miller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828722/genetics-of-combined-pituitary-hormone-deficiency-roadmap-into-the-genome-era
#6
Qing Fang, Akima S George, Michelle L Brinkmeier, Amanda H Mortensen, Peter Gergics, Leonard Y M Cheung, Alexandre Z Daly, Adnan Ajmal, María Ines Pérez Millán, A Bilge Ozel, Jacob O Kitzman, Ryan E Mills, Jun Z Li, Sally A Camper
The genetic basis for combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) is complex, involving 30 genes in a variety of syndromic and nonsyndromic presentations. Molecular diagnosis of this disorder is valuable for predicting disease progression, avoiding unnecessary surgery, and family planning. We expect that the application of high throughput sequencing will uncover additional contributing genes and eventually become a valuable tool for molecular diagnosis. For example, in the last 3 years, six new genes have been implicated in CPHD using whole-exome sequencing...
December 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763782/circadian-rhythm-and-sleep-disruption-causes-metabolic-consequences-and-countermeasures
#7
Gregory D M Potter, Debra J Skene, Josephine Arendt, Janet E Cade, Peter J Grant, Laura J Hardie
Circadian (∼24-hour) timing systems pervade all kingdoms of life and temporally optimize behavior and physiology in humans. Relatively recent changes to our environments, such as the introduction of artificial lighting, can disorganize the circadian system, from the level of the molecular clocks that regulate the timing of cellular activities to the level of synchronization between our daily cycles of behavior and the solar day. Sleep/wake cycles are intertwined with the circadian system, and global trends indicate that these, too, are increasingly subject to disruption...
December 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732058/vascular-biology-of-glucagon-receptor-superfamily-peptides-mechanistic-and-clinical-relevance
#8
Gemma Pujadas, Daniel J Drucker
Regulatory peptides produced in islet and gut endocrine cells, including glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), GLP-2, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, exert actions with considerable metabolic importance and translational relevance. Although the clinical development of GLP-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors has fostered research into how these hormones act on the normal and diseased heart, less is known about the actions of these peptides on blood vessels. Here we review the effects of these peptide hormones on normal blood vessels and highlight their vascular actions in the setting of experimental and clinical vascular injury...
December 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690531/premature-ovarian-insufficiency-new-perspectives-on-genetic-cause-and-phenotypic-spectrum
#9
Elena J Tucker, Sonia R Grover, Anne Bachelot, Philippe Touraine, Andrew H Sinclair
Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is one form of female infertility, defined by loss of ovarian activity before the age of 40 and characterized by amenorrhea (primary or secondary) with raised gonadotropins and low estradiol. POI affects up to one in 100 females, including one in 1000 before the age of 30. Substantial evidence suggests a genetic basis for POI; however, the majority of cases remain unexplained, indicating that genes likely to be associated with this condition are yet to be discovered. This review discusses the current knowledge of the genetic basis of POI...
December 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901588/reciprocal-crosstalk-between-autophagic-and-endocrine-signaling-in-metabolic-homeostasis
#10
Rohit A Sinha, Brijesh K Singh, Paul M Yen
Autophagy is a cellular quality control and energy-providing process that is under strict control by intra- and extra-cellular stimuli. Recently, there has been an exponential increase in autophagy research and its implications for mammalian physiology. Autophagy de-regulation now is being implicated in many human diseases and its modulation has shown promising results in several pre-clinical studies. However, despite its first discovery as a hormone-regulated process by de Duve in the early 1960's, endocrine regulation of autophagy still remains poorly understood...
November 30, 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849358/immune-modulation-of-brown-ing-adipose-tissue-in-obesity
#11
Susan M van den Berg, Andrea D van Dam, Patrick C N Rensen, Menno P J de Winther, Esther Lutgens
Obesity is associated with a variety of medical conditions such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases and is therefore responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates. Increasing energy expenditure by brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a current novel strategy to reduce the excessive energy stores in obesity. Brown adipocytes burn energy to generate heat and are mainly activated upon cold exposure. As prolonged cold exposure is not a realistic therapy, researchers worldwide are searching for novel ways to activate BAT and/or induce beiging of WAT...
November 16, 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749086/the-functional-and-clinical-significance-of-the-24-h-rhythm-of-circulating-glucocorticoids
#12
Henrik Oster, Etienne Challet, Volker Ott, Emanuela Arvat, E Ronald de Kloet, Derk-Jan Dijk, Stafford Lightman, Alexandros Vgontzas, Eve Van Cauter
Adrenal glucocorticoids are major modulators of multiple functions, including energy metabolism, stress responses, immunity, and cognition. The endogenous secretion of glucocorticoids is normally characterized by a prominent and robust circadian (around 24 hours) oscillation, with a daily peak around the time of the habitual sleep-wake transition and minimal levels in the evening and early part of the night. It has been long recognized that this 24-h rhythm partly reflects the activity of a master circadian pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus...
October 17, 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712100/centennial-celebration-endocrine-reviews-past-highlights-for-september-and-october
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712099/the-pathophysiologic-role-of-disrupted-circadian-and-neuroendocrine-rhythms-in-breast-carcinogenesis
#14
Lonnele J Ball, Oxana Palesh, Lance J Kriegsfeld
Most physiological processes in the brain and body exhibit daily (circadian) rhythms coordinated by an endogenous master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus that are essential for normal health and functioning. Exposure to sunlight during the day and darkness at night optimally entrains biological rhythms to promote homeostasis and human health. Unfortunately, a major consequence of the modern lifestyle is increased exposure to sun-free environments during the day and artificial lighting at night...
October 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588937/vitamin-d-mediated-hypercalcemia-mechanisms-diagnosis-and-treatment
#15
Peter J Tebben, Ravinder J Singh, Rajiv Kumar
Hypercalcemia occurs in up to 4% of the population in association with malignancy, primary hyperparathyroidism, ingestion of excessive calcium and/or vitamin D, ectopic production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], and impaired degradation of 1,25(OH)2D. The ingestion of excessive amounts of vitamin D3 (or vitamin D2) results in hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria due to the formation of supraphysiological amounts of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] that bind to the vitamin D receptor, albeit with lower affinity than the active form of the vitamin, 1,25(OH)2D, and the formation of 5,6-trans 25(OH)D, which binds to the vitamin D receptor more tightly than 25(OH)D...
October 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27459230/the-pathogenesis-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos-the-hypothesis-of-pcos-as-functional-ovarian-hyperandrogenism-revisited
#16
Robert L Rosenfield, David A Ehrmann
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was hypothesized to result from functional ovarian hyperandrogenism (FOH) due to dysregulation of androgen secretion in 1989-1995. Subsequent studies have supported and amplified this hypothesis. When defined as otherwise unexplained hyperandrogenic oligoanovulation, two-thirds of PCOS cases have functionally typical FOH, characterized by 17-hydroxyprogesterone hyperresponsiveness to gonadotropin stimulation. Two-thirds of the remaining PCOS have FOH detectable by testosterone elevation after suppression of adrenal androgen production...
October 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494791/centennial-celebration-endocrine-reviews-past-highlights-for-january-and-may
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27355317/a-track-record-on-shox-from-basic-research-to-complex-models-and-therapy
#18
Antonio Marchini, Tsutomu Ogata, Gudrun A Rappold
SHOX deficiency is the most frequent genetic growth disorder associated with isolated and syndromic forms of short stature. Caused by mutations in the homeobox gene SHOX, its varied clinical manifestations include isolated short stature, Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis, and Langer mesomelic dysplasia. In addition, SHOX deficiency contributes to the skeletal features in Turner syndrome. Causative SHOX mutations have allowed downstream pathology to be linked to defined molecular lesions. Expression levels of SHOX are tightly regulated, and almost half of the pathogenic mutations have affected enhancers...
August 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27337111/the-multifaceted-haptoglobin-in-the-context-of-adipose-tissue-and-metabolism
#19
Margherita Maffei, Ilaria Barone, Gaia Scabia, Ferruccio Santini
Obesity is a low chronic inflammatory state because several inflammatory factors are increased in obese subjects, this having important implications for the onset of obesity-associated complications. The source of most of these inflammatory molecules is white adipose tissue (WAT), which upon excessive weight gain, becomes infiltrated with macrophages and lymphocytes and undergoes important changes in its gene expression. Haptoglobin (Hp), a typical marker of inflammation in clinical practice, main carrier of free hemoglobin, and long known to be part of the hepatic acute phase response, perfectly sits in the intersection between obesity and inflammation: it is expressed by adipocytes and its abundance in WAT and in plasma positively relates to the degree of adiposity...
August 2016: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27309522/bone-disease-in-thalassemia-a-molecular-and-clinical-overview
#20
Phillip Wong, Peter J Fuller, Matthew T Gillespie, Frances Milat
Thalassemia bone disease is a common and severe complication of thalassemia-an inherited blood disorder due to mutations in the α or β hemoglobin gene. In its more severe form, severe anemia is present, and treatment with frequent red blood cell transfusion is necessary. Because the body has limited capacity to excrete iron, concomitant iron chelation is required to prevent the complications of iron overload. The effects of chronic anemia and iron overload can lead to multiple end-organ complications such as cardiomyopathy, increased risks of blood-borne diseases, and liver, pituitary, and bone disease...
August 2016: Endocrine Reviews
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