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Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders

Chi-Mo Lin, Guang-Uei Hung, Cheng-Yu Wei, Ray-Chang Tzeng, Pai-Yi Chiu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Language dysfunction is a crucial feature of brain disorders. This study investigated language dysfunction in patients with dementia with or without parkinsonism by using an informant-based simple questionnaire. METHODS: Language dysfunction in normal controls (NCs), and patients with Parkinson disease (PD), Parkinson disease dementia (PDD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), or Alzheimer disease (AD) were analyzed and compared. RESULTS: A total of 1,662 individuals were studied: 285 NCs, 157 PD patients, 161 PDD patients, 248 DLB patients, and 811 AD patients...
October 18, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Mona Michelet, Knut Engedal, Geir Selbæk, Anne Lund, Guro Hanevold Bjørkløf, Peter Otto Horndalsveen, Sverre Bergh
BACKGROUND/AIMS: A timely diagnosis of dementia is important, and the Cognitive Function Instrument (CFI) is a newly developed instrument to screen for cognitive decline. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and internal consistency of the Norwegian version of the CFI. METHODS: We included 265 participants with dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), and a reference group without subjective or assessed cognitive decline...
October 18, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Gunnar Lachmann, Insa Feinkohl, Friedrich Borchers, Thomas H Ottens, Hendrik M Nathoe, Anne-Mette Sauer, Jan M Dieleman, Finn M Radtke, Diederik van Dijk, Claudia Spies, Tobias Pischon
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Older people undergoing surgery are at risk of developing postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), but little is known of risk factors predisposing patients to POCD. Our objective was to estimate the risk of POCD associated with exposure to preoperative diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. METHODS: Original data from 3 randomised controlled trials (OCTOPUS, DECS, SuDoCo) were obtained for secondary analysis on diabetes, hypertension, baseline blood pressure, obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2), and BMI as risk factors for POCD in multiple logistic regression models...
October 16, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Brittany L Mason, Elena I Ivleva, Erin Van Enkevort, Alyson Nakamura, E Sherwood Brown
BACKGROUND: The effects of the glucocorticoid and progesterone receptor agonist megestrol on declarative memory, and the ability of phenytoin to block these effects, were assessed. METHODS: Healthy volunteers received each medication combination (placebo and megestrol, phenytoin and megestrol, and placebo and placebo) using a randomized, crossover design. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test assessed declarative memory. RESULTS: Megestrol was associated with a significant reduction in declarative memory (p = 0...
October 4, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Anthony Fourier, Maité Formaglio, Mathilde Sauvée, Armand Perret-Liaudet, Philippe Latour, Muriel Bost, Isabelle Quadrio
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of the study was to assess the theory of haploinsufficiency in C9ORF72 expansion carriers, the most frequent causative gene of frontotemporal dementia. METHODS: Plasmatic concentrations of C9orf72 protein were measured in 33 patients suspected of familial frontotemporal dementia using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: No difference was observed between C9ORF72 expansion carriers (21.2% of patients) and noncarriers (78...
September 27, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Frederikke Jeppesen Kragh, Marie Bruun, Esben Budtz-Jørgensen, Lena Elisabeth Hjermind, Robin Schubert, Ralf Reilmann, Jørgen Erik Nielsen, Steen Gregers Hasselbalch
BACKGROUND: This study examines the efficacy of using quantitative measurements of motor dysfunction, compared to clinical ratings, in Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 49 patients with a diagnosis of AD (n = 17), FTD (n = 19), or DLB (n = 13) were included and underwent cognitive testing, clinical motor evaluation, and quantitative motor tests: pronation/supination hand tapping, grasping and lifting, and finger and foot tapping...
September 26, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Michele Lauriola, Antonio Mangiacotti, Grazia D'Onofrio, Leandro Cascavilla, Francesco Paris, Filomena Ciccone, Monica Greco, Giulia Paroni, Davide Seripa, Antonio Greco
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic power of late-life depression (LLD) compared with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) for the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) within 4 years of follow-up. METHODS: We estimated the incidence of AD in 60 patients presenting with aMCI, 115 patients suffering of LLD treated with antidepressants with good compliance, and 66 healthy control (HC) patients, followed for 4 years. RESULTS: The risk to develop AD, within 4 years, was 68...
September 10, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Yejin Kim, Paul Rosenberg, Esther Oh
BACKGROUND: Molecular imaging of brain amyloid for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using positron emission tomography (PET) has been approved for use in clinical practice by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) since 2012. However, the clinical utility and diagnostic impact of amyloid PET imaging remain controversial. We conducted a review of the recent studies investigating clinical utility of amyloid PET imaging with focus on changes in diagnosis, diagnostic confidence, and patient management...
September 10, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Hajime Takechi, Yuriko Sugihara, Hitomi Matsumoto, Hiroko Yamada
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dementia cafés are becoming widespread as a new approach to dementia care, but their operational procedures and significance have not been adequately studied. METHODS: On-the-job training (OJT) for professionals planning to operate a dementia café in the future was conducted in a pioneering dementia café in Japan. The reports of OJT trainees' observations and learning were analyzed qualitatively. RESULTS: Reports could be summarized in up to 9 themes: 2 related to the atmosphere and significance of the café, 3 related to the guests, such as people with dementia and their families, and 4 related to the café staff...
September 4, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Charlotte R Stoner, Martin Orrell, Aimee Spector
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Independence and social engagement are important outcomes for people with dementia. The aim of this study was to conduct an in-depth psychometric assessment of the Engagement and Independence in Dementia Questionnaire (EID-Q), a measure of social independence. METHODS: This was an observational study at five NHS sites across England. Participants completed the EID-Q alongside additional measures. Psychometric analysis included internal consistency, test-retest reliability, convergent validity, and factor analyses...
September 4, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Helena Kisvetrová, David Školoudík, Roman Herzig, Martin Vališ, Božena Jurašková, Petra Krulová, Kateřina Langová, Jana Bermellová, Yukari Yamada
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study was to perform a psychometric validation of the Czech version of the Quality of Life - Alzheimer's Disease scale (QoL-AD) for patients with early-stage dementia. METHODS: The sample included 212 patient-proxy pairs. For convergent validity, the Czech version of the Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale (BADLS-CZ), the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were used. RESULTS: The reliability of the QoL-AD for patients and caregivers was good (Cronbach's α = 0...
2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Stefan Van der Stigchel, Jeroen de Bresser, Rutger Heinen, Huiberdina L Koek, Yael D Reijmer, Geert Jan Biessels, Esther van den Berg
Deficits in copying ("constructional apraxia") is generally defined as a multifaceted deficit. The exact neural correlates of the different types of copying errors are unknown. To assess whether the different categories of errors on the pentagon drawing relate to different neural correlates, we examined the pentagon drawings of the MMSE in persons with subjective cognitive complaints, mild cognitive impairment, or early dementia due to Alzheimer's disease. We adopted a qualitative scoring method for the pentagon copy test (QSPT) which categorizes different possible errors in copying rather than the dichotomous categories "correct" or "incorrect...
2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Marinda Henskens, Ilse M Nauta, Marieke C A van Eekeren, Erik J A Scherder
BACKGROUND/AIMS: There is no consensus regarding the optimal nonpharmacological intervention to slow down dementia-related decline. We examined whether physical stimulation interventions were effective in reducing cognitive, physical, mood, and behavioral decline in nursing home residents with dementia. METHODS: Eighty-seven nursing home residents with dementia were randomly assigned to 3 physical activity interventions: activities of daily living (ADL) training, multicomponent exercise training, or combined multicomponent exercise and ADL training...
2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Jiska Cohen-Mansfield
BACKGROUND: We examine the utility of individualizing activities for persons with dementia (PwD) on the basis of congruence with preferences. Previous studies demonstrated only limited evidence of individualization of activity content to improve response, tended not to consider group activities, or were inconclusive. METHODS: Participants were 90 PwD residing in a nursing home or attending a day center. After family and staff caregivers rated preferences for music, exercise, reading, brain games, and baking, group activities were conducted, and the impact on mood and engagement was monitored...
2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Lena Johansson, Silke Kern, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Anne Börjesson-Hansson, Lars Rosengren, Xinxin Guo, Ingmar Skoog
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Psychological stress has previously been associated with higher risk of developing late-life dementia, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study tested whether longstanding midlife stress is related to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers of late-life AD, such as tau protein and amyloid beta (Aβ). METHODS: The study included 79 nondemented females from the Prospective Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden, who responded to a standardized stress question at baseline (mean age 49 years) and underwent a lumbar puncture at follow-up 25 years later...
2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Yvonne A W Hartman, Esther G A Karssemeijer, Lisanne A M van Diepen, Marcel G M Olde Rikkert, Dick H J Thijssen
AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine physical activity and sedentary behaviour characteristics of ambulatory and community-dwelling patients with dementia compared to cognitively healthy age-, sex- and weight-matched controls. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we included community-dwelling dementia patients (n = 45, age 79.6 ± 5.9 years, Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] 22.8 ± 3.2) and matched controls (n = 49, age 80.0 ± 7.7 years, MMSE 29.0 ± 1...
2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Carme Carrion, Frans Folkvord, Dimitra Anastasiadou, Marta Aymerich
BACKGROUND: Cognitive therapy is a well-established intervention for treating elderly suffering from dementia. In particular, reality orientation and skills training seem to be effective interventions for reversing cognitive impairment among elderly, although findings are inconclusive. Therefore, a systematic update of the existing evidence of cognitive therapy for people suffering from dementia is needed. AIM: To review existing scientific evidence regarding the efficacy of cognitive therapies for elderly suffering from dementia...
2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Valeria Morichi, Massimiliano Fedecostante, Alessandro Morandi, Simona Gabriella Di Santo, Andrea Mazzone, Enrico Mossello, Mario Bo, Angelo Bianchetti, Renzo Rozzini, Ermellina Zanetti, Massimo Musicco, Alberto Ferrari, Nicola Ferrara, Marco Trabucchi, Antonio Cherubini, Giuseppe Bellelli
BACKGROUND: Delirium is a common geriatric syndrome. Few studies have been conducted in nursing home (NH) residents. The aim of this project was to perform a point prevalence study of delirium in Italian NHs. METHODS: Data collected in 71 NHs are presented. Inclusion criteria were age ≥65 years and native Italian speaker. Exclusion criteria were coma, aphasia, and end-of-life status. Sociodemographic and medical data were recorded. Delirium was assessed using the Assessment Test for Delirium and Cognitive Impairment (4-AT)...
2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
João Durães, Miguel Tábuas-Pereira, Rui Araújo, Diana Duro, Inês Baldeiras, Beatriz Santiago, Isabel Santana
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The head turning sign (HTS) is frequently noticed in clinical practice, but few studies have investigated its etiological and neuropsychological correlates. METHODS: The presence and frequency of the HTS was operationalized and prospectively evaluated in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and behavioral-variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples for AD biomarkers were collected...
2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Ying-Chih Cheng, Yu-Chen Huang, Hsing-Cheng Liu
BACKGROUND: The apolipoprotein E ɛ4 (APOE ɛ4) genotype is the major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, its effect on an individual's response to treatment is less well understood. Many studies have reported that the presence or absence of APOE ɛ4 may have influence on the therapeutic response for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs), but the results were inconsistent. This study performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the association between response of treatment with AChEIs and the APOE ɛ4 carrier status...
2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
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