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Current Opinion in Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323645/pediatric-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Anusha K Yeshokumar, Sona Narula, Brenda Banwell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the epidemiologic factors involved in the pathogenesis of pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS), which have been the focus of numerous studies in the last several years. We also review the clinical features (including diagnostic evaluation and differential diagnosis) of, treatment approach to, and prognosis of pediatric MS. RECENT FINDINGS: Up to 10% of patients with MS have their initial demyelinating before the age of 18 years...
March 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323646/endothelial-cells-and-lymphatics-at-the-interface-between-the-immune-and-central-nervous-systems-implications-for-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Céline Meyer, Guillaume Martin-Blondel, Roland S Liblau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The central nervous system (CNS) has a unique relationship with the immune system. This review highlights the distinct roles of lymphatic vessels and endothelial cells in the interface between CNS and immune cells and invites to revisit the concept of CNS immune privilege. RECENT FINDINGS: T cells can follow several routes to penetrate the CNS parenchyma but may also benefit, together with antigen-loaded presenting cells, from the newly described lymphatic network to exit the CNS...
March 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306573/redefining-progressive-encephalomyelitis-with-rigidity-and-myoclonus-after-the-discovery-of-antibodies-to-glycine-receptors
#3
Sarah J Crisp, Bettina Balint, Angela Vincent
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the recent discovery of antibodies to glycine receptor (GlyR-Ab) and discusses the relationship between these antibodies and neurological disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the initial description in 2008 of antibodies to glycine receptors (GlyR-Abs) in a patient with progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM), these antibodies have been found in PERM and in some patients with a variety of stiff person spectrum (SPS) or related disorders...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306572/neuromyelitis-optica-and-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#4
Romain Marignier, Alvaro Cobo Calvo, Sandra Vukusic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The discovery of highly specific auto-antibodies directed against the water channel aquaporin 4 was a quantum leap in the definition, classification and management of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Herein, we propose an update on epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic advances in the field, underlining unmet needs. RECENT FINDINGS: Large-scale epidemiological studies have recently provided a more precise evaluation of NMO prevalence and a better stratification regarding ethnicity and sex...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306571/cns-syndromes-associated-with-antibodies-against-metabotropic-receptors
#5
Eric Lancaster
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Autoantibodies to Central nervous system (CNS) metabotropic receptors are associated with a growing family of autoimmune brain diseases, including encephalitis, basal ganglia encephalitis, Ophelia syndrome, and cerebellitis. The purpose of this review is to summarize the state of knowledge regarding the target receptors, the neurological autoimmune disorders, and the pathogenic mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Antibodies to the γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor are associate with limbic encephalitis and severe seizures, often with small cell lung cancers...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248698/extracranial-origin-of-headache
#6
Rami Burstein, Pamela Blake, Aaron Schain, Carlton Perry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent clinical and preclinical studies on extracranial pathophysiologies in migraine. It challenges the opinion-based notion that the headache phase of migraine occurs without input from peripheral nociceptors or is caused solely by activation of intracranial nociceptors supplying dural and cerebral vasculature. RECENT FINDINGS: Data that support a scenario by which migraine can originate extracranially include the perception of imploding headache that hurts outside the cranium, the existence of a network of sensory fibers that bifurcate from parent axons of intracranial meningeal nociceptors and reach extracranial tissues such as periosteum and pericranial muscles by crossing the calvarial bones through the sutures, the discovery of proinflammatory genes that are upregulated and anti-inflammatory genes that are down regulated in extracranial tissue of chronic migraine patients, and evidence that administration of OnabotulinumtoxinA to peripheral tissues outside the calvaria reduces frequency of migraine headache...
March 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248701/autoimmune-encephalitis-with-anti-leucine-rich-glioma-inactivated-1-or-anti-contactin-associated-protein-like-2-antibodies-formerly-called-voltage-gated-potassium-channel-complex-antibodies
#7
Anna E M Bastiaansen, Agnes van Sonderen, Maarten J Titulaer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Twenty years since the discovery of voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-related autoimmunity; it is currently known that the antibodies are not directed at the VGKC itself but to two closely associated proteins, anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2). Antibodies to LGI1 and Caspr2 give well-described clinical phenotypes. Anti-LGI1 encephalitis patients mostly have limbic symptoms, and anti-Caspr2 patients have variable syndromes with both central and peripheral symptoms...
February 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248700/myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibodies-how-clinically-useful-are-they
#8
Markus Reindl, Sven Jarius, Kevin Rostasy, Thomas Berger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Serum IgG autoantibodies against the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) are present in atypical demyelinating disorders such as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Whereas the role of aquaporin-4 antibodies as diagnostic markers for NMOSD is meanwhile well established, the role of MOG antibodies is less clear. RECENT FINDINGS: Initial studies suggested that MOG antibodies are associated with a more benign disease course than aquaporin-4antibodies...
February 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248699/co-occurrence-of-migraine-and-atopy-in-children-and-adolescents-myth-or-a-casual-relationship
#9
Aynur Özge, Derya Uluduz, Hayrunnisa Bolay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To clarify the causal relationship between migraine and atopic disorders in children and adolescents. RECENT FINDINGS: Migraine headache and atopic disorders including asthma are both common functional syndromes of childhood in which nature of the relationship is still debated. Attacks may induce in both disorders upon exposure to potential triggers in genetically susceptible individuals. Clinical phenotype manifests by temporary dysfunction of target tissue mediated by inflammation triggered by specific agents...
February 28, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240611/of-generators-networks-and-migraine-attacks
#10
Laura H Schulte, Arne May
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: One of the most discussed topics in migraine pathophysiology is where migraine attacks originate. Although recent evidence suggests central attack generating loci, there is an ongoing debate about the involved centres of the brain and brainstem. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent neuroimaging studies focussing on the preictal stage of migraine attacks suggest a predominant role of the hypothalamus and its functional connectivity shortly before the beginning of migraine headaches...
February 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240610/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-monoclonal-antibodies-for-migraine-prevention-comparisons-across-randomized-controlled-studies
#11
Dimos D Mitsikostas, Uwe Reuter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The results of phase 2 randomized controlled trials for the prevention of episodic and chronic migraine demonstrating the efficacy and safety of four mAbs targeting the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway [ALD403 (eptinezumab), AMG334 (erenumab), LY2951742 (galcanezumab) and TEV48125 (fremanezumab)] have been published recently, and phase 3 trials are in process. This development will change headache management fundamentally. We aim to summarize and compare the phase 2 data...
February 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240609/migraine-and-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-a-systematic-review
#12
Samaira Younis, Anders Hougaard, Mark B Vestergaard, Henrik B W Larsson, Messoud Ashina
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present an updated and streamlined overview of the metabolic and biochemical aspect of the migraine pathophysiology based on findings from phosphorous (P) and hydrogen (H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite of the variation in the methodology and quality of the MRS migraine studies over time, some results were consistent and reproducible. P-MRS studies suggested reduced availability of neuronal energy and implied a mitochondrial dysfunction in the migraine brain...
February 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234800/seizures-and-risk-of-epilepsy-in-autoimmune-and-other-inflammatory-encephalitis
#13
Marianna Spatola, Josep Dalmau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to assess the seizure manifestations and risk of epilepsy in encephalitis associated with antibodies against neuronal cell-surface (autoimmune encephalitis) or myelin-associated antigens, and to review several chronic epileptic disorders, including Rasmussen's encephalitis, fever-induced refractory epileptic syndromes (FIRES) and new-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE). RECENT FINDINGS: Seizures are a frequent manifestation of autoimmune encephalitis...
February 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234799/detecting-synaptic-autoantibodies-in-psychoses-need-for-more-sensitive-methods
#14
Joseph C Masdeu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schizophrenic psychosis affects near 1% of the population. It typically starts in the first three decades of life, leading most often to chronic disability: antipsychotic treatment is palliative, not curative. The neurobiological abnormalities underlying psychoses are likely to differ across patients, ranging from autosomal dominant genetic disease to substance abuse, but a decreased function of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor seems to be a common theme. Emerging evidence suggests that decreased NMDA receptor function may be caused by auto-antibodies against this receptor in some patients currently being diagnosed as having schizophrenia...
February 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234798/postviral-autoimmune-encephalitis-manifestations-in-children-and-adults
#15
Harald Prüss
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Autoimmune encephalitis is an increasingly recognized neuropsychiatric condition seen in patients of all ages. Herpes virus infections of the brain can antedate the development of pathogenic autoantibodies against N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and further neuronal surface proteins, leading to neuronal dysfunction and relapsing symptoms. This review will recapitulate the recent scientific progress, clinical manifestations in children and adults, therapeutic options, and etiological concepts on how autoimmunity develops...
February 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234797/autoimmune-encephalitis-in-children-clinical-phenomenology-therapeutics-and-emerging-challenges
#16
Russell C Dale, Mark P Gorman, Ming Lim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Auto-antibodies that bind to conformational extracellular epitopes of neuronal receptors or synaptic proteins have provided clinicians with essential biomarkers in acute neurology. This review summarizes the current status and challenges in the field. RECENT FINDINGS: In children, anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis remains the most identifiable autoimmune encephalitis, although many patients have a clinical syndrome of brain inflammation in which no antibodies are identified...
February 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234796/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-in-peripheral-blood-as-a-biomarker-for-migraine
#17
César Ramón, Eva Cernuda-Morollón, Julio Pascual
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is no available biomarker for any of the primary headaches, including migraine. As demonstrated in jugular blood, during a migraine attack, trigeminal activation releases several neuropeptides, very especially calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which gives rise to the typical throbbing migraine pain. Here, we review the current evidence for measurement of peripheral CGRP levels as a potential biomarker for trigemino-vascular activation in migraine. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies, including a limited number of migraine patients, have shown increased peripheral CGRP levels during migraine attacks...
February 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212177/neurocognitive-outcomes-for-acute-global-acquired-brain-injury-in-children
#18
Fenella J Kirkham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In children, acute global brain injury from traumatic brain injury (TBI) and nontraumatic coma has a substantial cost to the child, the family, and the society. There have historically been relatively few studies looking at long-term cognition and behavioural outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Long-term follow-up studies, population-based studies, and meta-analyses are now available for TBI in children as well as adults and suggest that there is a significant cognitive cost, particularly for processing speed, working memory, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in severe TBI...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212176/editorial
#19
Matthew C Walker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212175/advances-in-epilepsy-gene-discovery-and-implications-for-epilepsy-diagnosis-and-treatment
#20
Joseph D Symonds, Sameer M Zuberi, Michael R Johnson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epilepsy genetics is shifting from the academic pursuit of gene discovery to a clinical discipline based on molecular diagnosis and stratified medicine. We consider the latest developments in epilepsy genetics and review how gene discovery in epilepsy is influencing the clinical classification of epilepsy and informing new therapeutic approaches and drug discovery. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies highlighting the importance of mutation in GABA receptors, NMDA receptors, potassium channels, G-protein coupled receptors, mammalian target of rapamycin pathway and chromatin remodeling are discussed...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
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