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Current Opinion in Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617719/guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-and-zika-virus-outbreaks
#1
Osvaldo J M Nascimento, Ivan R F da Silva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Arboviruses have been associated with central and peripheral nervous system injuries, in special the flaviviruses. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), transverse myelitis, meningoencephalitis, ophthalmological manifestations, and other neurological complications have been recently associated to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. In this review, we aim to analyze the epidemiological aspects, possible pathophysiology, and what we have learned about the clinical and laboratory findings, as well as treatment of patients with ZIKV-associated neurological complications...
June 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520598/imaging-plus-x-multimodal-models-of-neurodegenerative-disease
#2
Neil P Oxtoby, Daniel C Alexander
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article argues that the time is approaching for data-driven disease modelling to take centre stage in the study and management of neurodegenerative disease. The snowstorm of data now available to the clinician defies qualitative evaluation; the heterogeneity of data types complicates integration through traditional statistical methods; and the large datasets becoming available remain far from the big-data sizes necessary for fully data-driven machine-learning approaches...
June 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590986/functional-movement-disorders
#3
Anita Barbey, Selma Aybek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review highlights the clinical presentation of functional movement disorders (FMDs) and presents current evidence on bedside signs and paraclinical tests to differentiate them from other neurological disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: FMDs are diagnosed by the presence of positive clinical signs as emphasized in the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 classification criteria. Bedside signs are numerous, and a subset of them has been validated in controlled studies...
June 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582324/sleep-related-movement-disorders-and-disturbances-of-motor-control
#4
Panagiotis Bargiotas, Claudio L Bassetti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Review of the literature pertaining to clinical presentation, classification, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of sleep-related movement disorders and disturbances of motor control. RECENT FINDINGS: Sleep-related movement disorders and disturbances of motor control are typically characterized by positive motor symptoms and are often associated with sleep disturbances and consequent daytime symptoms (e.g. fatigue, sleepiness)...
June 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562381/respiratory-involvement-in-neuromuscular-disorders
#5
Matthias Boentert, Stephan Wenninger, Valeria A Sansone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In numerous neuromuscular disorders (NMDs), respiratory muscle weakness is present, and acute or chronic respiratory failure may evolve. Very often, respiratory involvement substantially adds to the burden of disease, impairs quality of life, or reduces life expectancy. This article summarizes new aspects of both diagnosis and management of respiratory muscle weakness in patients with NMDs. RECENT FINDINGS: Drugs like deflazacort, ataluren, eteplirsen, and nusinersen are now approved treatments for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Spinal Muscular Atrophy, and others are on their way in NMDs...
May 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548988/toward-precision-medicine-tailoring-interventional-strategies-based-on-noninvasive-brain-stimulation-for-motor-recovery-after-stroke
#6
Philipp J Koch, Friedhelm C Hummel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To support the recovery of disability and the reduced functional capacity influencing the independence of daily life after focal brain lesions like stroke, the application of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial electric stimulation has been found useful in the last decades. Still, a positive influence on the recovery seems to be restricted to specific subgroups of patients. Therefore, a closer look on individual parameters influencing the recovery course and the effect of NIBS is needed...
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537985/neuroimaging-in-parkinson-s-disease-focus-on-substantia-nigra-and-nigro-striatal-projection
#7
Daniela Frosini, Mirco Cosottini, Duccio Volterrani, Roberto Ceravolo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The diagnosis of Parkinson disease is based on clinical features; however, unmet need is an imaging signature for Parkinson disease and the early differential diagnosis with atypical parkinsonisms. A summary of the molecular imaging and MRI recent evidences for Parkinson disease diagnosis will be presented in this review. RECENT FINDINGS: The nigro-striatal dysfunction explored by dopamine transporter imaging is not a mandatory diagnostic criterion for Parkinson disease, recent evidence supported its utility as in-vivo proof of degenerative parkinsonisms, and there might be compensatory mechanisms leading to an early overestimation...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537993/measuring-compensation-in-neurodegeneration-using-mri
#8
Sarah Gregory, Jeffrey D Long, Sarah J Tabrizi, Geraint Rees
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite signs of cortical and subcortical loss, patients with prodromal and early-stage neurodegenerative disease are able to perform at a level comparable to the normal population. It is presumed that the onset of compensatory processes, that is changes in brain activation within a function-specific network or in the recruitment of a region outside of the task-network, underlies this maintenance of normal performance. However, in most studies to date, increased brain activity is not correlated with indices of both disease and performance and what appears to be compensation could simply be a symptom of neurodegeneration...
May 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509681/neuroimaging-as-a-tool-to-study-the-sources-of-phenotypic-heterogeneity-in-huntington-s-disease
#9
Clara Garcia-Gorro, Estela Camara, Ruth de Diego-Balaguer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by a triad of motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. There is great variability regarding the prominence and evolution of each type of clinical sign. One possible source of phenotypic heterogeneity could be the more prominent degeneration of specific brain circuits. The scope of this review is to highlight the most recent neuroimaging studies that have analysed the relationship between brain changes and motor, cognitive and psychiatric alterations in Huntington's disease...
May 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509682/new-neurosurgical-approaches-for-tremor-and-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Alfonso Fasano, Andres M Lozano, Esther Cubo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this review is to gather the newest advances in the surgical treatment of tremor and Parkinson's disease. We will briefly discuss the potential applications of the new technologies of deep brain stimulation (DBS), and we will focus on MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS). RECENT FINDINGS: Novel DBS devices are being progressively adopted, particularly electrodes allowing a longer stimulating surface (suitable for multiple targets stimulation) and current radial steering (to minimize side effects of stimulation)...
May 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402992/editorial-introducing-the-new-co-editors-in-chief-of-current-opinion-in-neurology
#11
David Eidelberg, Jean-Marc Léger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402991/widening-the-spectrum-of-inflammatory-disorders-of-the-central-nervous-system
#12
Francesc Graus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368867/immunomodulation-for-glioblastoma
#13
David A Reardon, Patrick Y Wen, Kai W Wucherpfennig, John H Sampson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immunotherapy has emerged as a cornerstone of modern oncology with regulatory approvals for a variety of immunotherapeutics being achieved for a spectrum of cancer indications. Nonetheless the role of these approaches for patients with glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and deadliest primary malignant brain neoplasm, remains unknown. In this review, we summarize the current status of clinical development for the major types of immunotherapeutics, including vaccines, cell-based therapies, and immune checkpoint modulators for GBM...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362719/imaging-markers-of-multiple-sclerosis-prognosis
#14
Céline Louapre, Benedetta Bodini, Catherine Lubetzki, Léorah Freeman, Bruno Stankoff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studies of large longitudinal cohorts of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have emphasized the prognostic value of conventional MRI markers, at least during early stages. Advanced imaging metrics derived from quantitative MRI and PET provide relevant information about microstructural damage within and outside visible lesions that may be more sensitive to predict long-term disability. Here, we summarize the most recent findings regarding the prognostic value of imaging markers throughout MS stages...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338498/challenge-of-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-therapy
#15
Alan J Thompson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Understanding the mechanisms underlying progression in multiple sclerosis (MS) and identifying appropriate therapeutic targets is a key challenge facing the MS community. This challenge has been championed internationally by organizations such as the Progressive MS Alliance, which has raised the profile of progressive MS and identified the key obstacles to treatment. This review will outline the considerable progress against these challenges. RECENT FINDINGS: New insights into mechanisms underlying progression have opened up potential therapeutic opportunities...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323646/endothelial-cells-and-lymphatics-at-the-interface-between-the-immune-and-central-nervous-systems-implications-for-multiple-sclerosis
#16
Céline Meyer, Guillaume Martin-Blondel, Roland S Liblau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The central nervous system (CNS) has a unique relationship with the immune system. This review highlights the distinct roles of lymphatic vessels and endothelial cells in the interface between CNS and immune cells and invites to revisit the concept of CNS immune privilege. RECENT FINDINGS: T cells can follow several routes to penetrate the CNS parenchyma but may also benefit, together with antigen-loaded presenting cells, from the newly described lymphatic network to exit the CNS...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323645/pediatric-multiple-sclerosis
#17
Anusha K Yeshokumar, Sona Narula, Brenda Banwell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the epidemiologic factors involved in the pathogenesis of pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS), which have been the focus of numerous studies in the last several years. We also review the clinical features (including diagnostic evaluation and differential diagnosis) of, treatment approach to, and prognosis of pediatric MS. RECENT FINDINGS: Up to 10% of patients with MS have their initial demyelinating before the age of 18 years...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306573/redefining-progressive-encephalomyelitis-with-rigidity-and-myoclonus-after-the-discovery-of-antibodies-to-glycine-receptors
#18
Sarah J Crisp, Bettina Balint, Angela Vincent
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the recent discovery of antibodies to glycine receptor (GlyR-Ab) and discusses the relationship between these antibodies and neurological disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the initial description in 2008 of antibodies to glycine receptors (GlyR-Abs) in a patient with progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM), these antibodies have been found in PERM and in some patients with a variety of stiff person spectrum (SPS) or related disorders...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306572/neuromyelitis-optica-and-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#19
Romain Marignier, Alvaro Cobo Calvo, Sandra Vukusic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The discovery of highly specific auto-antibodies directed against the water channel aquaporin 4 was a quantum leap in the definition, classification and management of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Herein, we propose an update on epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic advances in the field, underlining unmet needs. RECENT FINDINGS: Large-scale epidemiological studies have recently provided a more precise evaluation of NMO prevalence and a better stratification regarding ethnicity and sex...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306571/cns-syndromes-associated-with-antibodies-against-metabotropic-receptors
#20
Eric Lancaster
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Autoantibodies to Central nervous system (CNS) metabotropic receptors are associated with a growing family of autoimmune brain diseases, including encephalitis, basal ganglia encephalitis, Ophelia syndrome, and cerebellitis. The purpose of this review is to summarize the state of knowledge regarding the target receptors, the neurological autoimmune disorders, and the pathogenic mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Antibodies to the γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor are associate with limbic encephalitis and severe seizures, often with small cell lung cancers...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
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