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Current Opinion in Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30418197/the-role-of-optical-coherence-tomography-in-the-evaluation-of-compressive-optic-neuropathies
#1
Jonathan A Micieli, Nancy J Newman, Valérie Biousse
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging tool routinely used in ophthalmology that provides cross-sectional images of the retina. Compression of the anterior visual pathways results in progressive thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular ganglion cell complex (GCC) and this review will highlight the utility of OCT in evaluating patients with this condition. RECENT FINDINGS: The RNFL and macular GCC have been found to highly correlate with visual function in patients with compressive optic neuropathies...
November 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30418196/update-on-obstructive-sleep-apnea-for-neuro-ophthalmology
#2
Clare L Fraser
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is increasing in prevalence. The intermittent hypoxia of OSA has wide-ranging effects on a patient's general health outcomes. However, gold-standard investigations and treatment are expensive and a significant burden on patients. Therefore, OSA research remains focused on improving the means of diagnosing and treating OSA, in high-risk-associated conditions. This review is to provide an update on the advances in the field of OSA. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been recent debate about the best practice for diagnosis and treatment of OSA...
November 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239360/stroke-mimics-and-chameleons
#3
Solène Moulin, Didier Leys
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A stroke mimic is a situation in which a diagnosis of stroke at admission is not confirmed, and a stroke chameleon is a situation in which a stroke is revealed by clinical symptoms that are not usual in stroke. The objective of this review is to identify the most frequent clinical situations in which stroke mimics and chameleons are encountered and consequences for the patient. RECENT FINDINGS: The safety profile of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in patients who have stroke mimics is excellent, and intracranial hemorrhages are rare...
September 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30382950/stimulation-of-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptors-by-exogenous-and-endogenous-ligands-improves-outcome-of-brain-injury
#4
Anat Biegon, Sigal Liraz-Zaltsman, Esther Shohami
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The failure of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists as a treatment for human traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke, along with preclinical findings of a persistent hypofunctional state of these receptors after brain injury, resulted in a new focus on NMDAR agonists, specifically those acting via the glycine site of the NMDAR. This article reviews the recent literature on positive modulators of the glycine site as a new modality for improving cognitive function in central nervous system pathology, including traumatic and ischemic brain injuries, neuroinflammation, and neuropsychiatric disorders...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30382949/active-recovery-from-concussion
#5
John J Leddy, Charles G Wilber, Barry S Willer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent studies are challenging the utility of prolonged rest as treatment for concussion and postconcussion syndrome (PCS). The purpose of this paper is to review the evidence for active recovery from concussion and PCS. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging data identify the central role of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction in concussion pathophysiology. The exercise intolerance demonstrated by athletes after sport-related concussion may be related to abnormal ANS regulation of cerebral blood flow...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30379705/neuroimaging-advances-in-parkinson-s-disease-erratum
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30379704/new-molecular-targets-in-meningiomas-the-present-and-the-future
#7
Vyshak Alva Venur, Sandro Santagata, Eva Galanis, Priscilla K Brastianos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Meningiomas, the most common primary brain tumor, have historically been managed with surgery and radiation. Traditional chemotherapy has not been effective. Fortunately, recent advances in genetic sequencing have led to an improved understanding of the molecular drivers in meningioma. This article aims to discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of recently discovered genetic alterations in meningiomas. RECENT FINDINGS: Many of the recently discovered genetic alterations correlate with distinct clinical phenotypes...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30379703/neurotrauma-as-a-big-data-problem
#8
J Russell Huie, Carlos A Almeida, Adam R Ferguson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The field of neurotrauma research faces a reproducibility crisis. In response, research leaders in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI) are leveraging data curation and analytics methods to encourage transparency, and improve the rigor and reproducibility. Here we review the current challenges and opportunities that come from efforts to transform neurotrauma's big data to knowledge. RECENT FINDINGS: Three parallel movements are driving data-driven-discovery in neurotrauma...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30379702/mild-moderate-and-severe-terminology-implications-for-clinical-and-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Satoshi Yamamoto, Harvey S Levin, Donald S Prough
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: When describing clinical or experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI), the adjectives 'mild,' 'moderate' and 'severe' are misleading. 'Mild' clinical TBI frequently results in long-term disability. 'Severe' rodent TBI actually resembles mild or complicated mild clinical TBI. RECENT FINDINGS: Many mild TBI patients appear to have recovered completely but have postconcussive symptoms, deficits in cognitive and executive function and reduced cerebral blood flow...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30379701/protecting-and-repairing-the-brain-central-and-peripheral-strategies-define-the-new-rehabilitation-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Rajiv R Ratan, Nicholas D Schiff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30358641/proteomic-changes-in-traumatic-brain-injury-experimental-approaches
#11
James L Sowers, Ping Wu, Kangling Zhang, Douglas S DeWitt, Donald S Prough
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The underlying mechanisms responsible for chronic and progressive neurological damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are poorly understood, and therefore, current treatment options are limited. Proteomics is an emerging methodology to study changes to the TBI proteome in both patients and experimental models. RECENT FINDINGS: Although experimentally complex, mass spectrometry-based proteomics approaches are converging on a set of common methods...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320612/therapeutic-opportunities-and-pitfalls-in-the-treatment-of-axon-degeneration
#12
David J Simon, Trent A Watkins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review analyzes recent findings that suggest that axon degeneration is a druggable process in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and a subset of traumas. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging evidence reveals that axon degeneration is an active and regulated process in the early progression of some neurodegenerative diseases and acute traumas, which is orchestrated through a combination of axon-intrinsic and somatically derived signaling events...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300242/editorial-hot-topics-in-neuro-oncology
#13
Riccardo Soffietti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300241/is-whole-brain-radiotherapy-still-a-standard-treatment-for-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphomas
#14
Uwe Schlegel, Agnieszka Korfel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL), optimal therapy remains to be established, and the role of whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is a matter of debate. With radiation alone, transient responses and clinical improvement are frequent, but long-term disease control is exceptional. WBRT has been considered possible consolidation therapy after high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX)-based initial chemotherapy. This strategy has been questioned due to a high risk of delayed neurotoxicity after combined treatment...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300240/are-molecular-subgroups-of-medulloblastomas-really-prognostic
#15
Didier Frappaz, Cécile Faure-Conter, David Meyronet, Alice Levard-Bonneville, Pierre-Aurélien Beuriat, Marie P Sunyach, Marc Barritault
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Medulloblastoma is no more a unique disease. Clinical and biologic classification used so far are challenged by molecular classification(s). Following the consensus article that described four molecular groups of medulloblastoma in 2012, several articles in 2017 provided more relevant classifications that may impact on further clinical trial design. RECENT FINDINGS: Though wingless (WNT) and sonic hedgehog (SHH) are defined by the activation of their respective pathways, the age and type of activation define various subgroups with specific features and outcome...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300239/multiple-sclerosis-clinical-aspects
#16
Jiwon Oh, Angela Vidal-Jordana, Xavier Montalban
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, predominantly immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system, and one of the most common causes of neurological disability in young adults globally. This review will discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, disease course, and prognosis of multiple sclerosis and will focus on recent evidence and advances in these aspects of the disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple sclerosis is increasing in incidence and prevalence globally, even in traditionally low-prevalence regions of the world...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239359/role-of-amino-tracer-pet-for-decision-making-in-neuro-oncology
#17
Bogdana Suchorska, Nathalie L Albert, Jörg-Christian Tonn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To give an overview on the current development in PET imaging as an additional tool in brain tumor management. RECENT FINDINGS: The rising emphasis on molecular tumor characteristics both in primary and in metastatic brain disease leads to an increased demand for noninvasive 'molecular' grading as well as treatment planning and surveillance of therapy effects. Metabolic imaging using amino acid PET provides further insights into tumor metabolism; current novelties comprise the use of hybrid PET/MRI scanners as well as development of new tracers...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239358/current-and-future-tools-for-determination-and-monitoring-of-isocitrate-dehydrogenase-status-in-gliomas
#18
Alberto Picca, Anna L Di Stefano, Marc Sanson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hotspot mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (R132) or 2 (R172) genes affect 40% of diffuse gliomas, mostly grades II and III. The mutant enzyme produces high quantities of d-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG), which reshapes the epigenetic of the cell leading to gliomagenesis. For the clinician, the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation is a major biomarker with diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive consequences. With the development of specific inhibitors and vaccination, it appears also a potential actionable target...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30156572/myasthenia-gravis-from-autoantibodies-to-therapy
#19
Renato Mantegazza, Pia Bernasconi, Paola Cavalcante
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current article reviews the recent advances in the field of myasthenia gravis, which span from autoantibody profiling and pathogenic mechanisms to therapy innovation. The overview is highlighting specifically the data and the needs of targeted treatments in the light of precision medicine in myasthenia gravis. RECENT FINDINGS: Novel data published recently further increased our knowledge on myasthenia gravis. The use of cell-based assays has greatly improved autoantibody detection in myasthenia gravis patients, and the mechanisms of action of these antibodies have been described...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30153189/nerve-ultrasound-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-the-diagnosis-of-neuropathy
#20
H Stephan Goedee, W Ludo van der Pol, Jeroen Hendrikse, Leonard H van den Berg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the most relevant developments in the fields of nerve ultrasound and MRI in the diagnosis of treatable inflammatory neuropathies over the last 18 months. RECENT FINDINGS: MRI and nerve ultrasound can accurately identify potentially treatable neuropathies and thereby help to improve diagnosis. Advanced MRI techniques also show potential to dissect pathophysiology. The apparent mismatch between nerve function and morphology is not surprising and reflects different dimensions of the disease process in neuropathies...
October 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
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