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Current Opinion in Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212177/neurocognitive-outcomes-for-acute-global-acquired-brain-injury-in-children
#1
Fenella J Kirkham
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In children, acute global brain injury from traumatic brain injury (TBI) and nontraumatic coma has a substantial cost to the child, the family, and the society. There have historically been relatively few studies looking at long-term cognition and behavioural outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Long-term follow-up studies, population-based studies, and meta-analyses are now available for TBI in children as well as adults and suggest that there is a significant cognitive cost, particularly for processing speed, working memory, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in severe TBI...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212176/editorial
#2
Matthew C Walker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212175/advances-in-epilepsy-gene-discovery-and-implications-for-epilepsy-diagnosis-and-treatment
#3
Joseph D Symonds, Sameer M Zuberi, Michael R Johnson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epilepsy genetics is shifting from the academic pursuit of gene discovery to a clinical discipline based on molecular diagnosis and stratified medicine. We consider the latest developments in epilepsy genetics and review how gene discovery in epilepsy is influencing the clinical classification of epilepsy and informing new therapeutic approaches and drug discovery. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies highlighting the importance of mutation in GABA receptors, NMDA receptors, potassium channels, G-protein coupled receptors, mammalian target of rapamycin pathway and chromatin remodeling are discussed...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157720/depression-in-epilepsy
#4
Marco Mula
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review some aspects of the relationship between epilepsy and depression that have recently received increasing attention and may become major research topics in the near future. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological studies show that depression and suicide are, in some cases, premorbid symptoms preceding the onset of the epilepsy. Suicide is also three times more frequent in epilepsy than in the general population. Reliable screening instruments for depression and suicidality in patients with epilepsy are now available but data from real life clinical settings are needed to develop shared clinical pathways between neurology and psychiatry...
February 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141741/functional-visual-loss
#5
Shanil Dhanji, Mitchell Lawlor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Functional visual loss (FVL) is a syndrome in which subjective visual parameters are inconsistent with objective measures. Recent advances in understanding the pathophysiology and management of functional disorders and FVL will be explored. RECENT FINDINGS: FVL requires a positive diagnosis of normal function through clinical examination or visual electrophysiology. A substantial proportion of patients have an underlying organic illness that needs to be identified and treated...
January 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141740/preventing-cognitive-impairment-in-children-with-epilepsy
#6
Kees P J Braun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cognitive impairments are common in children with epilepsy. They may already be present before the onset of epilepsy or occur - and even progress - during its course. Many variables contribute to cognitive dysfunction. Those that can be targeted to prevent (further) cognitive impairment will be highlighted in this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Ideally, but not yet realistically, epileptogenesis is prevented to avert seizures and cognitive impairments in high-risk patients...
January 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141739/improving-cognitive-outcomes-for-pediatric-stroke
#7
Mardee Greenham, Vicki Anderson, Mark T Mackay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The past 20 years have seen a 35% increase in prevalence of pediatric stroke. Contrary to widely held views, children do not recover better than adults. This review explores the impact of pediatric stroke on cognitive domains, including intellectual and executive functions, memory and behavior, and the influence of age, lesion characteristics, and comorbidities on outcome. RECENT FINDINGS: Cognitive problems occur in up to half of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke survivors...
January 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141738/new-insights-into-the-mechanisms-of-the-ketogenic-diet
#8
Detlev Boison
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: High-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diets have been used for almost a century for the treatment of epilepsy. Used traditionally for the treatment of refractory pediatric epilepsies, in recent years the use of ketogenic diets has experienced a revival to include the treatment of adulthood epilepsies as well as conditions ranging from autism to chronic pain and cancer. Despite the ability of ketogenic diet therapy to suppress seizures refractory to antiepileptic drugs and reports of lasting seizure freedom, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood...
January 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118305/editorial
#9
Fenella J Kirkham
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118304/cerebellar-mutism-syndrome-cause-and-rehabilitation
#10
Coriene E Catsman-Berrevoets
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mutism of cerebellar origin may occur in the context of various causes but is most frequent in children after resection of a large midline cerebellar tumour. In this review, the endeavour to reach a consensus on name and definition of postoperative mutism of cerebellar origin and associated symptoms is highlighted. In addition, progress in understanding of cause and risk factors for the syndrome is discussed as well as the rehabilitation issues. RECENT FINDINGS: Consensus on the term cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS) has been reached...
January 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118303/outcomes-following-electrographic-seizures-and-electrographic-status-epilepticus-in-the-pediatric-and-neonatal-icus
#11
Elana F Pinchefsky, Cecil D Hahn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increasing recognition of electrographic seizures and electrographic status epilepticus in critically ill neonates and children has highlighted the importance of identifying their potential contributions to neurological outcomes to guide optimal management. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies in children and neonates have found an independent association between increasing seizure burden and worse short-term and long-term outcomes, even after adjusting for other important contributors to outcome such as seizure cause and illness severity...
January 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118302/a-forward-looking-review-of-seizure-prediction
#12
Dean R Freestone, Philippa J Karoly, Mark J Cook
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Seizure prediction has made important advances over the last decade, with the recent demonstration that prospective seizure prediction is possible, though there remain significant obstacles to broader application. In this review, we will describe insights gained from long-term trials, with the aim of identifying research goals for the next decade. RECENT FINDINGS: Unexpected results from these studies, including strong and highly individual relationships between spikes and seizures, diurnal patterns of seizure activity, and the coexistence of different seizure populations within individual patients exhibiting distinctive dynamics, have caused us to re-evaluate many prior assumptions in seizure prediction studies and suggest alternative strategies that could be employed in the search for algorithms providing greater clinical utility...
January 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118301/cognition-in-epilepsy-current-clinical-issues-of-interest
#13
Juri-Alexander Witt, Christoph Helmstaedter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an update and summary of recent neuropsychological findings in epilepsy focusing on three major clinical topics among the many developments in the field. We will critically outline the current state with regard to cognition in new-onset epilepsies, social cognition in epilepsy, and the long-term outcome of epilepsy surgery and the cognitive outcomes of superselective surgical procedures. RECENT FINDINGS: Current studies indicate that neuropsychological impairments are prevalent already at the onset of epilepsy and even before, social cognition (i...
January 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002136/symptomatic-carotid-stenosis-is-stenting-as-safe-and-effective-as-carotid-endarterectomy
#14
David Calvet, Jean-Louis Mas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Reviewing current evidence on carotid artery stenting (CAS) compared with carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in the prevention of ipsilateral stroke in patients with a symptomatic carotid stenosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Randomized clinical trials and registries have consistently shown that CAS is associated with a higher risk of procedural stroke or death and a lower risk of procedural myocardial infarction and local complications compared with CEA. Both procedures are equally effective to prevent late recurrent ipsilateral stroke and are associated with similar low risk of restenosis...
December 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002135/functional-dizziness-from-phobic-postural-vertigo-and-chronic-subjective-dizziness-to-persistent-postural-perceptual-dizziness
#15
Marianne Dieterich, Jeffrey P Staab
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Functional dizziness is the new term for somatoform or psychogenic dizziness. The aim of this study is to review arguments for the new nomenclature, clinical features, possible pathomechanisms, and comorbidities of functional dizziness. RECENT FINDINGS: The prevalence of functional dizziness as a primary cause of vestibular symptoms amounts to 10% in neuro-otology centers. Rates of psychiatric comorbidity in patients with structural vestibular syndromes are much higher with nearly 50% and with highest rates in patients with vestibular migraine, vestibular paroxysmia, and Ménière's disease...
December 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002134/neuroplasticity-and-amblyopia-vision-at-the-balance-point
#16
Vijay K Tailor, D Samuel Schwarzkopf, Annegret H Dahlmann-Noor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: New insights into triggers and brakes of plasticity in the visual system are being translated into new treatment approaches which may improve outcomes not only in children, but also in adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Visual experience-driven plasticity is greatest in early childhood, triggered by maturation of inhibitory interneurons which facilitate strengthening of synchronous synaptic connections, and inactivation of others. Normal binocular development leads to progressive refinement of monocular visual acuity, stereoacuity and fusion of images from both eyes...
December 20, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002123/functional-dizziness-from-phobic-postural-vertigo-and-chronic-subjective-dizziness-to-persistent-postural-perceptual-dizziness
#17
Marianne Dieterich, Jeffrey P Staab
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Functional dizziness is the new term for somatoform or psychogenic dizziness. The aim of this study is to review arguments for the new nomenclature, clinical features, possible pathomechanisms, and comorbidities of functional dizziness. RECENT FINDINGS: The prevalence of functional dizziness as a primary cause of vestibular symptoms amounts to 10% in neuro-otology centers. Rates of psychiatric comorbidity in patients with structural vestibular syndromes are much higher with nearly 50% and with highest rates in patients with vestibular migraine, vestibular paroxysmia, and Ménière's disease...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002122/neuroplasticity-and-amblyopia-vision-at-the-balance-point
#18
Vijay K Tailor, D Samuel Schwarzkopf, Annegret H Dahlmann-Noor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: New insights into triggers and brakes of plasticity in the visual system are being translated into new treatment approaches which may improve outcomes not only in children, but also in adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Visual experience-driven plasticity is greatest in early childhood, triggered by maturation of inhibitory interneurons which facilitate strengthening of synchronous synaptic connections, and inactivation of others. Normal binocular development leads to progressive refinement of monocular visual acuity, stereoacuity and fusion of images from both eyes...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002121/symptomatic-carotid-stenosis-is-stenting-as-safe-and-effective-as-carotid-endarterectomy
#19
David Calvet, Jean-Louis Mas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Reviewing current evidence on carotid artery stenting (CAS) compared with carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in the prevention of ipsilateral stroke in patients with a symptomatic carotid stenosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Randomized clinical trials and registries have consistently shown that CAS is associated with a higher risk of procedural stroke or death and a lower risk of procedural myocardial infarction and local complications compared with CEA. Both procedures are equally effective to prevent late recurrent ipsilateral stroke and are associated with similar low risk of restenosis...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984304/artificial-vision-principles-and-prospects
#20
Michael J Gilhooley, James Acheson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this article is to give an overview of the strategies and technologies currently under development to return vision to blind patients and will answer the question: What options exist for artificial vision in patients blind from retinal disease; how close are these to clinical practice? RECENT FINDINGS: Retinal approaches will be the focus of this review as they are most advanced in terms not only of development, but entry into the imagination of the general public; they are technologies patients ask about, but may be less familiar to practicing neurologists...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
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