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Current Opinion in Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140815/neuroimaging-diagnostic-and-monitoring-approaches-in-ophthalmology
#1
Bart K Chwalisz, Marc A Bouffard, Sashank Prasad, Dean M Cestari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review new applications of optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology in neuro-ophthalmology. We also describe new technologies for visualizing the extracranial vessels in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis (GCA). RECENT FINDINGS: Newer OCT modalities are expanding the evaluation of the optic disc, and are being applied to a number of neurologic conditions such as demyelinating and neurodegenerative disease. Swept-source OCT and enhanced-depth imaging OCT are refining the fine-grained analysis of the optic nerve head in the diagnosis of papilledema and optic nerve drusen...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140814/visual-snow-syndrome-what-we-know-so-far
#2
Francesca Puledda, Christoph Schankin, Kathleen Digre, Peter J Goadsby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We provide an overview of the neurological condition known as visual snow syndrome. Patients affected by this chronic disorder suffer with a pan-field visual disturbance described as tiny flickering dots, which resemble the static noise of an untuned television. RECENT FINDINGS: The term 'visual snow' has only appeared in the medical literature very recently. The clinical features of the syndrome have now been reasonably described and the pathophysiology has begun to be explored...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120921/pregnancy-and-ischemic-stroke-a-practical-guide-to-management
#3
Mayte E van Alebeek, Roel de Heus, Anil M Tuladhar, Frank-Erik de Leeuw
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ischemic stroke during pregnancy or the puerperium is a devastating disease during a crucial period in life and warrants a specific approach. To date, current practice is mainly based on expert opinion because of a lack of randomized controlled trials and high-quality observational studies. The present review is intended as a practical guide to (acute) management of ischemic stroke during pregnancy and puerperium. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings showed that the incidence of stroke during pregnancy is rising...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120920/the-growing-clinical-spectrum-of-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy
#4
Marieke J H Wermer, Steven M Greenberg
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is diagnosed primarily as a cause of lobar intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) in elderly patients. With improving MRI techniques, however, the role of CAA in causing other symptoms has become clear. Recognizing the full clinical spectrum of CAA is important for diagnosis and treatment. In this review we summarize recent insights in clinical CAA features, MRI biomarkers, and management. RECENT FINDINGS: The rate of ICH recurrence in CAA is among the highest of all stroke subtypes...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120919/nystagmus
#5
Alexander A Tarnutzer, Dominik Straumann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The clinical and laboratory assessment of nystagmus in patients with neurologic disorders can provide crucial elements for a state-of-the-art differential diagnosis. An increasing number of publications in the fields of neuro-otology and neuro-ophthalmology have nystagmus in the center of interest, which makes frequent updates on the diagnostic and therapeutic relevance of these contributions indispensable. This review covers important clinical studies and studies in basic research relevant for the neurologist published from January 2016 to August 2017...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120918/tissue-is-more-important-than-time-insights-into-acute-ischemic-stroke-from-modern-brain-imaging
#6
Andrew Bivard, Mark Parsons
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The clinical practice of acute ischemic stroke treatment has undergone a major change over the last 5 years, as multimodal imaging becomes more accessible, and evidence mounts that individualized treatment is possible. Multimodal imaging performed before treatment provides invaluable information to treating clinicians, which includes confirmation of the diagnosis, and provides guidance on the appropriateness and the likely outcome of intravenous or endovascular treatment for individual patients (and their families)...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095749/genetics-of-vestibular-syndromes
#7
Pablo Roman-Naranjo, Alvaro Gallego-Martinez, Jose A Lopez Escamez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The increased availability of next generation sequencing has enabled a rapid progress in the discovery of genetic variants associated with vestibular disorders. We have summarized molecular genetics finding in vestibular syndromes during the last 18 months. RECENT FINDINGS: Genetic studies continue to shed light on the genetic background of vestibular disorders. Novel genes affecting brain development and otolith biogenesis have been associated with motion sickness...
November 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095748/central-control-of-eye-movements
#8
Jonathan J D Baird-Gunning, Christian J Lueck
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Eye-movement research continues to provide an excellent tool for understanding the central control of motor function, both in health and disease. This article reviews recent findings in relation to saccadic eye movements, particularly antisaccades and microsaccades, with particular emphasis on the control of inaction, something which has recently become topical. RECENT FINDINGS: Microsaccades are under the control of the cerebral cortex, particularly the frontal and parietal eye fields...
November 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084065/recent-advances-in-the-management-of-symptomatic-vertebral-artery-stenosis
#9
Anna M Drazyk, Hugh S Markus
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vertebrobasilar stenosis accounts for 20% of posterior circulation strokes and is associated with high risk of early stroke recurrence. We review data from randomized controlled trials examining whether stenting may reduce this risk, including the recently published Vertebral Artery Ischaemia Stenting Trial (VIST). RECENT FINDINGS: VIST and VAST (Vertebral Artery Stenting Trial), having recruited both intracranial and extracranial vertebral stenosis and showed a low rate of perioperative stroke for extracranial (0 and 2%, respectively), but a higher rate for intracranial stenosis (15 and 22%, respectively)...
October 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084064/new-insights-into-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-and-vascular-cognitive-impairment-from-mri
#10
Eric E Smith, Andrew E Beaudin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review recent MRI research that addresses two important challenges in cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) research: early diagnosis, and linking SVD with cognitive impairment. First, we review studies of MRI measurements of blood flow and blood-brain barrier integrity. Second, we review MRI studies identifying neuroimaging correlates of SVD-related cognitive dysfunction, focusing on brain connectivity and white matter microarchitecture. This research is placed in context through discussion of recent recommendations for management of incidentally discovered SVD, and neuroimaging biomarker use in clinical trials...
October 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084063/central-vertigo
#11
Jeong-Yoon Choi, Seung-Han Lee, Ji-Soo Kim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review considers recent advances in central vertigo in terms of clinical and laboratory features and pathophysiology. RECENT FINDINGS: Strokes presenting dizziness-vertigo are more likely to be associated with a misdiagnosis in the emergency setting. The risk of future strokes after discharge is higher in patients diagnosed with peripheral vertigo than in control patients. Strokes and transient ischemic attacks account for one-quarter of acute transient vestibular syndrome...
October 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084062/antiplatelet-therapy-after-stroke-should-it-differ-in-the-acute-and-chronic-phase-after-stroke
#12
Xinyi Leng, Thomas W Leung, K S Lawrence Wong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Reviewing existing evidence regarding well tolerated and effective antiplatelet treatment in patients with acute or chronic, noncardioembolic ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA). RECENT FINDINGS: For patients with high-risk stroke or TIA, for instance, minor stroke or high-risk TIA, or stroke of atherosclerotic origin with evidence suggesting risk of artery-to-artery embolism or with high-grade, symptomatic arterial stenosis, early initiated, short-term dual antiplatelet (e...
October 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076880/early-steps-toward-understanding-neuronal-communication
#13
Adam C Snyder, Matthew A Smith
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The computational power of the brain arises from the complex interactions between neurons. One straightforward method to quantify the strength of neuronal interactions is by measuring correlation and coherence. Efforts to measure correlation have been advancing rapidly of late, spurred by the development of advanced recording technologies enabling recording from many neurons and brain areas simultaneously. This review highlights recent results that provide clues into the principles of neural coordination, connections to cognitive and neurological phenomena, and key directions for future research...
October 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076879/managing-high-blood-pressure-during-acute-ischemic-stroke-and-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#14
Karen O Appiah, Jatinder S Minhas, Thompson G Robinson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Blood pressure (BP) elevations above premorbid levels are observed in at least 60% of acute ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients, within the first 24 h of symptom onset. A number of potential causes have been hypothesized, and high BP may be associated with poor stroke outcome. This review discusses management strategies of high BP in acute stroke, in the context of current guidelines. RECENT FINDINGS: Excessive BP elevation can impact acute stroke therapeutic strategies, particularly in modifying intervention safety and efficacy...
October 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028644/the-ageing-brain-cognitive-diseases-advances-and-promises
#15
Jean-Francois Demonet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938340/paediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-prognostic-insights-and-outlooks
#16
Alicia K Au, Robert S B Clark
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in children. Prognostication of outcome following TBI is challenging in this population and likely requires complex, multimodal models to achieve clinically relevant accuracy. This review highlights injury characteristics, physiological indicators, biomarkers and neuromonitoring modalities predictive of outcome that may be integrated for future development of sensitive and specific prognostic models...
September 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922238/primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-time-for-diagnostic-biomarkers-and-biotherapies
#17
Louis Royer-Perron, Khê Hoang-Xuan, Agusti Alentorn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare cancer with a somber prognosis in older patients, which it affects predominantly. Only in recent years have molecular alterations characterizing PCNSL been thoroughly described. This opens possibilities for the use of targeted therapies. Developments in imaging and biomarkers have also great potential to help clinicians faced with diagnostic and prognostic uncertainties. RECENT FINDINGS: Several biomarkers for PCNSL, such as different microRNAs, which could be tested in cerebrospinal fluid and vitreous fluid, and IL-10, which has been shown to have excellent sensitivity and specificity in the cerebrospinal fluid, have emerged in the last years...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914735/palliative-care-in-neuromuscular-diseases
#18
Marianne de Visser, David J Oliver
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Palliative care is an approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problem associated with life-threatening illness. Neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) are characterized by progressive muscle weakness, leading to pronounced and incapacitating physical disabilities. Most NMDs are not amenable to curative treatment and would thus qualify for palliative care. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a relentlessly progressive disease, which leads to death about 2 years after onset due to respiratory muscle weakness...
September 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906269/improving-diagnosis-and-management-of-primary-brain-tumors
#19
Jean-Yves Delattre
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906268/new-pet-markers-for-the-diagnosis-of-dementia
#20
Pierre Payoux, Anne Sophie Salabert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To present the new PET markers that could become in the coming years, relevant to advanced clinical approaches to dementia diagnosis, drug trials, and treatment strategies and discuss their advantages and limitations. RECENT FINDINGS: The most advanced new PET tracers are the markers of the amyloid plaques, the τ compounds and the tracers of the translocator protein as markers of neuroinflammation. The main advantages but also the weaknesses of each of these markers are discussed...
September 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
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