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Current Opinion in Neurology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548988/toward-precision-medicine-tailoring-interventional-strategies-based-on-noninvasive-brain-stimulation-for-motor-recovery-after-stroke
#1
Philipp J Koch, Friedhelm C Hummel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To support the recovery of disability and the reduced functional capacity influencing the independence of daily life after focal brain lesions like stroke, the application of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial electric stimulation has been found useful in the last decades. Still, a positive influence on the recovery seems to be restricted to specific subgroups of patients. Therefore, a closer look on individual parameters influencing the recovery course and the effect of NIBS is needed...
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537985/neuroimaging-in-parkinson-s-disease-focus-on-substantia-nigra-and-nigro-striatal-projection
#2
Daniela Frosini, Mirco Cosottini, Duccio Volterrani, Roberto Ceravolo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The diagnosis of Parkinson disease is based on clinical features; however, unmet need is an imaging signature for Parkinson disease and the early differential diagnosis with atypical parkinsonisms. A summary of the molecular imaging and MRI recent evidences for Parkinson disease diagnosis will be presented in this review. RECENT FINDINGS: The nigro-striatal dysfunction explored by dopamine transporter imaging is not a mandatory diagnostic criterion for Parkinson disease, recent evidence supported its utility as in-vivo proof of degenerative parkinsonisms, and there might be compensatory mechanisms leading to an early overestimation...
May 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537993/measuring-compensation-in-neurodegeneration-using-mri
#3
Sarah Gregory, Jeffrey D Long, Sarah J Tabrizi, Geraint Rees
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite signs of cortical and subcortical loss, patients with prodromal and early-stage neurodegenerative disease are able to perform at a level comparable to the normal population. It is presumed that the onset of compensatory processes, that is changes in brain activation within a function-specific network or in the recruitment of a region outside of the task-network, underlies this maintenance of normal performance. However, in most studies to date, increased brain activity is not correlated with indices of both disease and performance and what appears to be compensation could simply be a symptom of neurodegeneration...
May 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520598/imaging-plus-x-multimodal-models-of-neurodegenerative-disease
#4
Neil P Oxtoby, Daniel C Alexander
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article argues that the time is approaching for data-driven disease modelling to take centre stage in the study and management of neurodegenerative disease. The snowstorm of data now available to the clinician defies qualitative evaluation; the heterogeneity of data types complicates integration through traditional statistical methods; and the large datasets becoming available remain far from the big-data sizes necessary for fully data-driven machine-learning approaches...
May 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509681/neuroimaging-as-a-tool-to-study-the-sources-of-phenotypic-heterogeneity-in-huntington-s-disease
#5
Clara Garcia-Gorro, Estela Camara, Ruth de Diego-Balaguer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by a triad of motor, cognitive and psychiatric disturbances. There is great variability regarding the prominence and evolution of each type of clinical sign. One possible source of phenotypic heterogeneity could be the more prominent degeneration of specific brain circuits. The scope of this review is to highlight the most recent neuroimaging studies that have analysed the relationship between brain changes and motor, cognitive and psychiatric alterations in Huntington's disease...
May 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509682/new-neurosurgical-approaches-for-tremor-and-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Alfonso Fasano, Andres M Lozano, Esther Cubo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this review is to gather the newest advances in the surgical treatment of tremor and Parkinson's disease. We will briefly discuss the potential applications of the new technologies of deep brain stimulation (DBS), and we will focus on MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS). RECENT FINDINGS: Novel DBS devices are being progressively adopted, particularly electrodes allowing a longer stimulating surface (suitable for multiple targets stimulation) and current radial steering (to minimize side effects of stimulation)...
May 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402992/editorial-introducing-the-new-co-editors-in-chief-of-current-opinion-in-neurology
#7
David Eidelberg, Jean-Marc Léger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402991/widening-the-spectrum-of-inflammatory-disorders-of-the-central-nervous-system
#8
Francesc Graus
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368867/immunomodulation-for-glioblastoma
#9
David A Reardon, Patrick Y Wen, Kai W Wucherpfennig, John H Sampson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immunotherapy has emerged as a cornerstone of modern oncology with regulatory approvals for a variety of immunotherapeutics being achieved for a spectrum of cancer indications. Nonetheless the role of these approaches for patients with glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and deadliest primary malignant brain neoplasm, remains unknown. In this review, we summarize the current status of clinical development for the major types of immunotherapeutics, including vaccines, cell-based therapies, and immune checkpoint modulators for GBM...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362719/imaging-markers-of-multiple-sclerosis-prognosis
#10
Céline Louapre, Benedetta Bodini, Catherine Lubetzki, Léorah Freeman, Bruno Stankoff
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Studies of large longitudinal cohorts of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have emphasized the prognostic value of conventional MRI markers, at least during early stages. Advanced imaging metrics derived from quantitative MRI and PET provide relevant information about microstructural damage within and outside visible lesions that may be more sensitive to predict long-term disability. Here, we summarize the most recent findings regarding the prognostic value of imaging markers throughout MS stages...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338498/challenge-of-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-therapy
#11
Alan J Thompson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Understanding the mechanisms underlying progression in multiple sclerosis (MS) and identifying appropriate therapeutic targets is a key challenge facing the MS community. This challenge has been championed internationally by organizations such as the Progressive MS Alliance, which has raised the profile of progressive MS and identified the key obstacles to treatment. This review will outline the considerable progress against these challenges. RECENT FINDINGS: New insights into mechanisms underlying progression have opened up potential therapeutic opportunities...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323646/endothelial-cells-and-lymphatics-at-the-interface-between-the-immune-and-central-nervous-systems-implications-for-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Céline Meyer, Guillaume Martin-Blondel, Roland S Liblau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The central nervous system (CNS) has a unique relationship with the immune system. This review highlights the distinct roles of lymphatic vessels and endothelial cells in the interface between CNS and immune cells and invites to revisit the concept of CNS immune privilege. RECENT FINDINGS: T cells can follow several routes to penetrate the CNS parenchyma but may also benefit, together with antigen-loaded presenting cells, from the newly described lymphatic network to exit the CNS...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323645/pediatric-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Anusha K Yeshokumar, Sona Narula, Brenda Banwell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the epidemiologic factors involved in the pathogenesis of pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS), which have been the focus of numerous studies in the last several years. We also review the clinical features (including diagnostic evaluation and differential diagnosis) of, treatment approach to, and prognosis of pediatric MS. RECENT FINDINGS: Up to 10% of patients with MS have their initial demyelinating before the age of 18 years...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306573/redefining-progressive-encephalomyelitis-with-rigidity-and-myoclonus-after-the-discovery-of-antibodies-to-glycine-receptors
#14
Sarah J Crisp, Bettina Balint, Angela Vincent
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the recent discovery of antibodies to glycine receptor (GlyR-Ab) and discusses the relationship between these antibodies and neurological disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Since the initial description in 2008 of antibodies to glycine receptors (GlyR-Abs) in a patient with progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM), these antibodies have been found in PERM and in some patients with a variety of stiff person spectrum (SPS) or related disorders...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306572/neuromyelitis-optica-and-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders
#15
Romain Marignier, Alvaro Cobo Calvo, Sandra Vukusic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The discovery of highly specific auto-antibodies directed against the water channel aquaporin 4 was a quantum leap in the definition, classification and management of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Herein, we propose an update on epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic advances in the field, underlining unmet needs. RECENT FINDINGS: Large-scale epidemiological studies have recently provided a more precise evaluation of NMO prevalence and a better stratification regarding ethnicity and sex...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306571/cns-syndromes-associated-with-antibodies-against-metabotropic-receptors
#16
Eric Lancaster
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Autoantibodies to Central nervous system (CNS) metabotropic receptors are associated with a growing family of autoimmune brain diseases, including encephalitis, basal ganglia encephalitis, Ophelia syndrome, and cerebellitis. The purpose of this review is to summarize the state of knowledge regarding the target receptors, the neurological autoimmune disorders, and the pathogenic mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Antibodies to the γ-aminobutyric acid B receptor are associate with limbic encephalitis and severe seizures, often with small cell lung cancers...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248701/autoimmune-encephalitis-with-anti-leucine-rich-glioma-inactivated-1-or-anti-contactin-associated-protein-like-2-antibodies-formerly-called-voltage-gated-potassium-channel-complex-antibodies
#17
Anna E M Bastiaansen, Agnes van Sonderen, Maarten J Titulaer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Twenty years since the discovery of voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-related autoimmunity; it is currently known that the antibodies are not directed at the VGKC itself but to two closely associated proteins, anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (Caspr2). Antibodies to LGI1 and Caspr2 give well-described clinical phenotypes. Anti-LGI1 encephalitis patients mostly have limbic symptoms, and anti-Caspr2 patients have variable syndromes with both central and peripheral symptoms...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248700/myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibodies-how-clinically-useful-are-they
#18
Markus Reindl, Sven Jarius, Kevin Rostasy, Thomas Berger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Serum IgG autoantibodies against the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) are present in atypical demyelinating disorders such as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Whereas the role of aquaporin-4 antibodies as diagnostic markers for NMOSD is meanwhile well established, the role of MOG antibodies is less clear. RECENT FINDINGS: Initial studies suggested that MOG antibodies are associated with a more benign disease course than aquaporin-4antibodies...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248699/co-occurrence-of-migraine-and-atopy-in-children-and-adolescents-myth-or-a-casual-relationship
#19
Aynur Özge, Derya Uluduz, Hayrunnisa Bolay
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To clarify the causal relationship between migraine and atopic disorders in children and adolescents. RECENT FINDINGS: Migraine headache and atopic disorders including asthma are both common functional syndromes of childhood in which nature of the relationship is still debated. Attacks may induce in both disorders upon exposure to potential triggers in genetically susceptible individuals. Clinical phenotype manifests by temporary dysfunction of target tissue mediated by inflammation triggered by specific agents...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248698/extracranial-origin-of-headache
#20
Rami Burstein, Pamela Blake, Aaron Schain, Carlton Perry
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent clinical and preclinical studies on extracranial pathophysiologies in migraine. It challenges the opinion-based notion that the headache phase of migraine occurs without input from peripheral nociceptors or is caused solely by activation of intracranial nociceptors supplying dural and cerebral vasculature. RECENT FINDINGS: Data that support a scenario by which migraine can originate extracranially include the perception of imploding headache that hurts outside the cranium, the existence of a network of sensory fibers that bifurcate from parent axons of intracranial meningeal nociceptors and reach extracranial tissues such as periosteum and pericranial muscles by crossing the calvarial bones through the sutures, the discovery of proinflammatory genes that are upregulated and anti-inflammatory genes that are down regulated in extracranial tissue of chronic migraine patients, and evidence that administration of OnabotulinumtoxinA to peripheral tissues outside the calvaria reduces frequency of migraine headache...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
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