Read by QxMD icon Read

Current Opinion in Neurology

Cindy V Ly, Timothy M Miller
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly fatal disease for which there is currently no effective therapy. The present review describes the current progress of existing molecular therapies in the clinical trial pipeline and highlights promising future antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) and viral therapeutic strategies for treating ALS. RECENT FINDINGS: The immense progress in the design of clinical trials and generation of ASO therapies directed towards superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) and chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) repeat expansion related disease have been propelled by fundamental work to identify the genetic underpinnings of familial ALS and develop relevant disease models...
July 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Nens van Alfen, Kaj Gijsbertse, Chris L de Korte
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on developments in muscle ultrasound as a noninvasive and accurate tool for the diagnosis and follow-up of neuromuscular disease. It discusses current muscle ultrasound applications with already proven clinical value, and highlights recent technical developments that may further advance muscle ultrasounds' diagnostic qualities. RECENT FINDINGS: The sensitivity and specificity of muscle ultrasound for detecting a neuromuscular disorder are high (90-95%), and quantitative ultrasound is well suited to monitor disease progression in several disorders...
July 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Benedikt Schoser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Bram De Wel, Kristl G Claeys
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We will give an overview of neuromuscular disorders that can be linked with malignant hyperthermia or malignant hyperthermia-like reactions, and suggest an appropriate approach to interpret the risks. RECENT FINDINGS: An increasing number of neuromuscular phenotypes have been linked to malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS). This is for an important part due to the highly variable phenotype associated with mutations in the ryanodine receptor 1 gene (RYR1), the gene most frequently associated with MHS...
July 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Peter Bede, Giorgia Querin, Pierre-François Pradat
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuroimaging in motor neuron disease (MND) has traditionally been seen as an academic tool with limited direct relevance to individualized patient care. This has changed radically in recent years as computational imaging has emerged as a viable clinical tool with true biomarker potential. This transition is not only fuelled by technological advances but also by important conceptual developments. RECENT FINDINGS: The natural history of MND is now evaluated by presymptomatic, postmortem and multi-timepoint longitudinal imaging studies...
May 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Gesine Respondek, Johannes Levin, Günter U Höglinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This update discusses novel aspects on clinicopathological concepts and therapeutic challenges in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy (MSA), arising from publications of the last 1.5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: The clinical criteria for diagnosis of PSP have been revised. Clinical variability of pathologically defined PSP and MSA makes the development of mature biomarkers for early diagnosis and biomarker-based trial design indispensable...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Andreas Hartmann, Yulia Worbe
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe recent advances regarding the disease spectrum in Tourette syndrome, offer new mechanistic insights into tic generation and provide clues for personalized treatments in this disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: Apart from tics, which define Tourette syndrome, comorbidities are the rule and not the exception. They significantly define clinical presentation, disease severity and quality of life. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of screening for depression, anxiety and autism spectrum disorders in Tourette syndrome...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Tommaso Schirinzi, Giuseppe Sciamanna, Nicola B Mercuri, Antonio Pisani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This survey takes into consideration the most recent advances in both human degenerative ataxias, disorders with a well established cerebellar origin, and discoveries from dystonia rodent models aimed at discussing the pathogenesis of dystonia. RECENT FINDINGS: One common recurrent term that emerges when describing dystonia is heterogeneity. Indeed, dystonia encompasses a wide group of 'hyperkinetic' movement disorders, with heterogeneous causes, classification, anatomical and physiological substrates...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Emmanuel Roze, Anthony E Lang, Marie Vidailhet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present study will highlight recent advances in the field of myoclonus-dystonia with a focus on clinical aspects, pathogenesis, and treatment. We will also discuss genetics, classification issues, and diagnostic criteria. RECENT FINDINGS: Myoclonus-dystonia is a clinical syndrome corresponding to the phenotype linked to SGCE, the main causative gene. Childhood-onset myoclonus that predominates over dystonia with prominent upper body involvement, an absence of truncal dystonia, associated anxiety or compulsivity, and a positive family history are helpful diagnostic clues...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Jan Kassubek
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: MRI has become a well established technical tool for parkinsonism both in the diagnostic work-up to differentiate between causes and to serve as a neurobiological marker. This review summarizes current developments in the advanced MRI-based assessment of brain structure and function in atypical parkinsonian syndromes and explores their potential in a clinical and neuroscientific setting. RECENT FINDINGS: Computer-based unbiased quantitative MRI analyses were demonstrated to guide in the discrimination of parkinsonian syndromes at single-patient level, with major contributions when combined with machine-learning techniques/support vector machine classification...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Massimo Filippi, Paolo Preziosa, Maria A Rocca
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent findings from the application of MRI in the diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected multiple sclerosis (MS), and to review the insights into disease pathophysiology and the utility of MRI for monitoring treatment response. RECENT FINDINGS: New evidence from the application of MRI in patients with clinically isolated syndromes has guided the 2017 revision of the McDonald criteria for MS diagnosis, which has simplified their clinical use while preserving accuracy...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Roberta Messina, Massimo Filippi, Peter J Goadsby
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary headaches, such as migraine and cluster headache, are one of the most common and disabling neurological diseases worldwide. Neuroimaging studies have changed the way we understand these diseases and have enriched our knowledge of the mechanisms of actions of currently available therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: The present review highlights the major findings reported in migraine and cluster headache neuroimaging over the last year. Widespread structural and functional abnormalities in cortical and subcortical areas involved in multisensory, including pain, processing have been shown in migraine and cluster headache patients during different phases of the disease...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Karl-Josef Langen, Norbert Galldiks
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to give an update on the emerging role of PET using radiolabelled amino acids in the diagnostic workup and management of patients with cerebral gliomas and brain metastases. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous studies have demonstrated the potential of PET using radiolabelled amino acids for differential diagnosis of brain tumours, delineation of tumour extent for treatment planning and biopsy guidance, differentiation between tumour progression and recurrence versus treatment-related changes, and for monitoring of therapy...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
David B Douglas, Jonathan L Muldermans, Max Wintermark
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an update on advanced neuroimaging techniques in traumatic brain injury (TBI). We will focus this review on recent literature published within the last 18 months and the advanced neuroimaging techniques of perfusion imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). RECENT FINDINGS: In the setting of a moderate or severe acute closed head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale <13), the most appropriate neuroimaging study is a noncontrast computed tomography (CT) scan...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Vittorio Rispoli, Sebastian R Schreglmann, Kailash P Bhatia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuroimaging in Parkinson's disease is an evolving field, providing in-vivo insights into the structural and biochemical changes of the condition, although its diagnosis remains clinical. Here, we aim to summarize the most relevant recent advances in neuroimaging in Parkinson's disease to assess the underlying disease process, identify a biomarker of disease progression and guide or monitor therapeutic interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: The clinical applications of imaging technology increasingly allow to quantify pigments (iron, neuromelanin) on MRI, proteins (tau), cell markers (phosphodiesterases, microglia) and neurotransmitter receptors (dopamine, serotonin, noradrenalin, cholin) via PET protocols, activity maps by resting-state and task-dependent functional MRI, as well as microstructural changes (free water) through diffusion-based assessments...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Franz Fazekas, Thomas Gattringer, Christian Enzinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Not unexpected from the variety of cerebrovascular disorders and their morphologic and clinical consequences the contributions of neuroimaging are also quite diverse and go with different approaches in different directions. By reviewing the recent advances in these various areas, we will attempt to highlight those contributions, which may be most meaningful both for the clinician and the researcher dealing with cerebrovascular disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: After long expectations of the utility of mismatch concepts, such patient selection has proven successful in extending the benefit of recanalization of acute ischaemic stroke by mechanical thrombectomy beyond 6 h and the importance of infarct size and collaterals has been documented...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Livia Parodi, Giulia Coarelli, Giovanni Stevanin, Alexis Brice, Alexandra Durr
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims at updating the clinical and genetic aspects of hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) and hereditary cerebellar ataxias (HCAs), focusing on the concept of spastic-ataxia phenotypic spectrum and on newly identified clinical overlaps with other neurological and nonneurological diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has allowed the discovery of new genes involved in HSPs and HCAs. They include new HCAs genes such as GRM1 (SCA44), FAT2 (SCA45), PLD3 (SCA46), SCYL1 (SCAR21), UBA5 (SCAR24) and XRCC1 (SCAR26) as well as CAPN1 (SPG76) and CPT1C (SPG73) in HSPs...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Meneka Kaur Sidhu, John S Duncan, Josemir W Sander
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epilepsy neuroimaging is important for detecting the seizure onset zone, predicting and preventing deficits from surgery and illuminating mechanisms of epileptogenesis. An aspiration is to integrate imaging and genetic biomarkers to enable personalized epilepsy treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: The ability to detect lesions, particularly focal cortical dysplasia and hippocampal sclerosis, is increased using ultra high-field imaging and postprocessing techniques such as automated volumetry, T2 relaxometry, voxel-based morphometry and surface-based techniques...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Eavan M McGovern, Emmanuel Roze, Timothy J Counihan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will discuss the expanding clinical spectrum of paroxysmal movement disorders and therapeutic options in light of emerging genotypic heterogeneity in these conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Paroxysmal movement disorders comprise a heterogeneous group of rare neurological conditions characterized by intermittent episodes of abnormal movement associated with various triggers. As the clinical and genotypic spectrum of these disorders evolves, so also has the range of therapeutic options...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Jennifer L Whitwell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to discuss the contribution of neuroimaging studies to our understanding of Alzheimer's disease. We now have the capability of measuring both tau and beta-amyloid (Aβ) proteins in the brain, which together with more traditional neuroimaging modalities, has led the field to focus on using neuroimaging to better characterize disease mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies have utilized tau and Aβ PET, as well as [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET, and structural and functional MRI, to investigate the following topics: phenotypic variability in Alzheimer's disease , including how neuroimaging findings are related to clinical phenotype and age; multimodality analyses to investigate the relationships between different neuroimaging modalities and what that teaches us about disease mechanisms; disease staging by assessing neuroimaging changes in the very earliest phases of the disease in cognitively normal individuals and individuals carrying an autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease mutation; and influence of other comorbidities and proteins to the disease process...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"