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Current Opinion in Critical Care

Jasmeet Soar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The optimal antiarrhythmic drug therapy (amiodarone or lidocaine) in the treatment of ventricular fibrillation/pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VF/pVT) cardiac arrest that is refractory to defibrillation is uncertain. This article reviews the evidence for and against these drugs, alternatives treatments for refractory VF/pVT and aims to define the role of antiarrhythmic drugs during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). RECENT FINDINGS: A large randomized controlled trial that compared amiodarone, lidocaine and saline 0...
March 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Christopher J R Gough, Jerry P Nolan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiac arrest mortality remains high, and the impact on outcome of most advanced life support interventions is unclear. The optimal method for managing the airway during cardiac arrest remains unknown. This review will summarize and critique recently published evidence comparing basic airway management with the use of more advanced airway interventions [insertion of supraglottic airway (SGA) devices and tracheal intubation]. RECENT FINDINGS: Systematic reviews generally document an association between advanced airway management and worse neurological outcome but they are subject to considerable bias...
March 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Thomas W L Scheeren, Jannis N Wicke, Jean-Louis Teboul
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review attempts to demonstrate the value of several forms of carbon dioxide (CO2) gaps in resuscitation of the critically ill patient as monitor for the adequacy of the circulation, as target for fluid resuscitation and also as predictor for outcome. RECENT FINDINGS: Fluid resuscitation is one of the key treatments in many intensive care patients. It remains a challenge in daily practice as both a shortage and an overload in intravascular volume are potentially harmful...
March 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Arnaldo Dubin, Elizabeth Henriquez, Glenn Hernández
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Microcirculatory alterations play a major role in the pathogenesis of shock. Monitoring tissue perfusion might be a relevant goal for shock resuscitation. The goal of this review was to revise the evidence supporting the monitoring of peripheral perfusion and microcirculation as goals of resuscitation. For this purpose, we mainly focused on skin perfusion and sublingual microcirculation. RECENT FINDINGS: Although there are controversies about the reproducibility of capillary refill time in monitoring peripheral perfusion, it is a sound physiological variable and suitable for the ICU settings...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Lee-Anne Chapple, Adam Deane
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastrointestinal dysmotility occurs frequently in the critically ill. Although the causes underlying dysmotility are multifactorial, both pain and its treatment with exogenous opioids are likely causative factors. The purpose of this review is to describe the effects of pain and opioids on gastrointestinal motility; outline the rationale for and evidence supporting the administration of opioid antagonists to improve dysmotility; and describe the potential influence opioids drugs have on the intestinal microbiome and infectious complications...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Stephen Honeybul, Kwok M Ho, Grant R Gillett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is little doubt that decompressive craniectomy can reduce mortality following malignant middle cerebral infarction or severe traumatic brain injury. However, the concern has always been that the reduction in mortality comes at the cost of an increase in the number of survivors with severe neurological disability. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been a number of large multicentre randomized trials investigating surgical efficacy of the procedure...
January 23, 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Athir Morad, Salia Farrokh, Alexander Papangelou
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pain management in neurocritical care is a subject often avoided because of concerns over the side-effects of analgesics and the potential to cause additional neurological injury with treatment. The sedation and hypercapnia caused by opioids have been feared to mask the neurological examination and contribute to elevations in intracranial pressure. Nevertheless, increasing attention to patient satisfaction has sparked a resurgence in pain management. As opioids have remained at the core of analgesic therapy, the increasing attention to pain has contributed to a growing epidemic of opioid dependence...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Stephen A McClave, Jayshil Patel, Neal Bhutiani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Maintaining gut barrier defenses, modulating immune responses, and supporting the role of commensal microbiota are major factors influencing outcome in critical illness. Of these, maintaining a commensal 'lifestyle' and preventing the emergence of a virulent pathobiome may be most important in reducing risk of infection and multiple organ failure. RECENT FINDINGS: The polymeric formulas utilized for enteral nutrition in the ICU are absorbed high in the gastrointestinal tract and may not reach the microbial burden in the cecum where their effect is most needed...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Marek A Mirski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Shane W English, Lauralyn McIntyre
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to highlight the role of hemoglobin in cerebral physiology and pathophysiology. We review the existing as well as recent evidence detailing the effects of red blood cell transfusion on cerebral oxygenation and clinical outcome. RECENT FINDINGS: Hemoglobin is a key component in oxygen delivery, and thus cerebral oxygenation. Higher hemoglobin levels and red blood cell transfusion are associated with higher cerebral oxygen delivery and decreased cerebral ischemic burden...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Martin D Rosenthal, Phil Carrott, Frederick A Moore
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review is to discuss the role of autophagy in the critically ill patient population. As the understanding of autophagy continues to expand and evolve, there are certain controversies surrounding whether intensivist should allow the benefit of autophagy to supersede gold standard of insulin therapy or early nutritional support. RECENT FINDINGS: The review is relevant as the current literature seems to support under-feeding patients, and perhaps the reason these studies were positive could be prescribed to the mechanisms of autophagy...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Divyanshu Dubey, Michel Toledano, Andrew McKeon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We describe clinical and diagnostic features of various autoimmune and viral encephalitis subtypes. RECENT FINDINGS: Population-based studies have demonstrated both autoimmune and viral causes have similar prevalence and incident rates. Repertoire of autoimmune biomarkers has considerably increased with discovery of many novel neural antibodies including glial fibrillary acidic proteinα-immunoglobulin G. Similarly, with use of next generation sequencing and DNA libraries, many viral causes are being detected which would have been categorized as encephalitis of unknown cause a decade ago...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Robert W Morton, Daniel A Traylor, Peter J M Weijs, Stuart M Phillips
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Skeletal muscle mass with aging, during critical care, and following critical care is a determinant of quality of life and survival. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms that underpin skeletal muscle atrophy and recommendations to offset skeletal muscle atrophy with aging and during, as well as following, critical care. RECENT FINDINGS: Anabolic resistance is responsible, in part, for skeletal muscle atrophy with aging, muscle disuse, and during disease states...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Rafael Badenes, Chiara Robba, Fabio S Taccone, Federico Bilotta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article revises the recent evidence on ICU admission criteria for acute neurological patients [traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, postoperative neurosurgical procedures and stroke]. RECENT FINDINGS: The appropriate utilization of ICU beds is essential, but it is complex and a challenge to attain. To date there are no widely accepted international guidelines for managing these acute brain-injured patients (stroke, TBI, postneurosurgery) in the ICU...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Kevan Akrami, Daniel A Sweeney
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in the understanding of the human microbiome outside of the ICU have led investigators to consider the role of the microbiome in critical illness. The picture that is being elucidated is one of dysbiosis occurring at multiple sites in the critically ill patient. This review describes the changes that occur in the various microbiomes of a critically ill patient, the implications of these changes and shows how advances in the understanding of dysbiosis may lead to microbiome-targeted therapies...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
François Beloncle, Alain Mercat
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite major improvement in ventilation strategies, hospital mortality and morbidity of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remain high. A lot of therapies have been shown to be ineffective for established ARDS. There is a growing interest in strategies aiming at avoiding development and progression of ARDS. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent advances in this field have explored identification of patients at high-risk, nonspecific measures to limit the risks of inflammation, infection and fluid overload, prevention strategies of ventilator-induced lung injury and patient self-inflicted lung injury, and pharmacological treatments...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Thomas Bein, Steffen Weber-Carstens, Christian Apfelbacher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the current research data on long-term outcome and health-related quality of life in survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and to compare these findings with those from non-ARDS patients surviving critical illness. RECENT FINDINGS: Between 6 months and 2 years after discharge from ICU, survivors of ARDS present with substantial impairments of the levels of body function (muscle strength, walking capacity and/or physical activity (physical SF-36 score)...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
John J Marini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe and put into context recent conceptual advances regarding the relationship of energy load and power to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). RECENT FINDINGS: Investigative emphasis regarding VILI has almost exclusively centered on the static characteristics of the individual tidal cycle - tidal volume, plateau pressure, positive end-expiratory pressure, and driving pressure. Although those static characteristics of the tidal cycle are undeniably important, the 'dynamic' characteristics of ventilation must not be ignored...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Lucy K Reiss, Andreas Schuppert, Stefan Uhlig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: ARDS is a severe pulmonary disease characterized by inflammation. However, inflammation-directed therapies have yet failed to improve the outcome in ARDS patients. One of the reasons may be the underestimated complexity of inflammation. Here, we summarize recent insights into the complex interrelations between inflammatory circuits. RECENT FINDINGS: Gene expression analysis from animal models or from patients with ARDS, sepsis or trauma show an enormous number of differentially expressed genes with highly significant overlaps between the various conditions...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Stefan Huber-Wagner, Karl-Georg Kanz, Marc Hanschen, Martijn van Griensven, Peter Biberthaler, Rolf Lefering
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on the relevant and recent studies on whole-body computed tomography (WBCT) imaging of severely injured patients. RECENT FINDINGS: The advantages of WBCT in time saving, diagnostic accuracy and even in survival have been proven in numerous studies. WBCT can also be beneficial in haemodynamically unstable major trauma patients. The CT scanner should be located close to the emergency department or even in the trauma room. The issue of radiation is still quite important, however, iterative as well as split-bolus protocols can nowadays reduce radiation significantly...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
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