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Current Opinion in Critical Care

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140964/whole-body-computed-tomography-in-severely-injured-patients
#1
Stefan Huber-Wagner, Karl-Georg Kanz, Marc Hanschen, Martijn van Griensven, Peter Biberthaler, Rolf Lefering
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on the relevant and recent studies on whole-body computed tomography (WBCT) imaging of severely injured patients. RECENT FINDINGS: The advantages of WBCT in time saving, diagnostic accuracy and even in survival have been proven in numerous studies. WBCT can also be beneficial in haemodynamically unstable major trauma patients. The CT scanner should be located close to the emergency department or even in the trauma room. The issue of radiation is still quite important, however, iterative as well as split-bolus protocols can nowadays reduce radiation significantly...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140963/when-the-momentum-has-gone-what-will-be-the-role-of-extracorporeal-lung-support-in-the-future
#2
Darryl Abrams, Matthew Bacchetta, Daniel Brodie
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There has been expanding interest in and use of extracorporeal support in respiratory failure concurrent with technological advances and predominantly observational data demonstrating improved outcomes. However, until there is more available data from rigorous, high-quality randomized studies, the future of extracorporeal support remains uncertain. RECENT FINDINGS: Outcomes for patients supported with extracorporeal devices continue to show favorable trends...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135617/lessons-to-learn-from-epidemiologic-studies-in-ards
#3
Bairbre A McNicholas, Grainne M Rooney, John G Laffey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent advances in our understanding of the epidemiology of ARDS has generated key insights into the incidence, risk factors, demographics, management and outcomes from this devastating clinical syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: ARDS occurs in 10% of all ICU patients, in 23% of all mechanically ventilated patients, with 5.5 cases per ICU bed each year. Although some regional variation exists regarding ARDS incidence, this may be less than previously thought...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135616/intermittent-extracorporeal-co2-removal-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients-a-fiction-or-an-option
#4
Francesco Alessandri, Francesco Pugliese, Luciana Mascia, Marco V Ranieri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Aim of this article is to review evidence recently generated on the application of extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requiring mechanical ventilation (invasive and non invasive) for hypercapnic respiratory failure. RECENT FINDINGS: To date, the paucity of evidences on ECCO2R to decrease the rate of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) failure and to wean hypercapnic patients from invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) precludes to systematically apply this technology to COPD patients...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016365/spleen-and-liver-injuries-when-to-operate
#5
Christine Gaarder, Iver A Gaski, Pål A Næss
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although nonoperative management (NOM) is the safest option in most patients with liver and splenic injuries or splenic injuries, some cases still need operative intervention. The aim of this review is to address the most recent literature and the evidence it provides for indications and timing of operative treatment for liver and spleen injuries. RECENT FINDINGS: There seems to be a decrease in publication rate on these topics over the last years, parallel to the acceptance of NOM as the 'gold standard', with little added to the existing body of evidence over the last 12-24 months...
October 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953555/acute-kidney-injury-and-electrolyte-disorders-in-the-critically-ill-patient-with-cancer
#6
Mitchell H Rosner, Giovambattista Capasso, Mark A Perazella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with cancer increasingly make up a significant proportion of patients receiving care in the intensive care unit (ICU). Acute kidney injury and cancer-associated electrolyte disorders are encountered in many of these patients and can significantly impact both short-term and long-term outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in chemotherapeutic regimens as well as in our understanding of cancer-associated kidney disease highlight the need for specialized knowledge of the unique causes and therapies required in this subset of critically ill patients...
September 26, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095714/current-trends-in-the-management-of-hemodynamically-unstable-pelvic-ring-injuries
#7
Philip F Stahel, Clay C Burlew, Ernest E Moore
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Complex traumatic pelvic ring disruptions are associated with a high mortality rate due to associated retroperitoneal hemorrhage, traumatic-hemorrhagic shock, and postinjury coagulopathy. The present review provides an update on current management strategies to improve survival rates form hemodynamically unstable pelvic ring injuries. RECENT FINDINGS: Recently published international consensus guidelines have attempted to standardize the classification of hemodynamically unstable pelvic ring injuries and provided classification-based management algorithms for acute resuscitation and pelvic ring stabilization...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059119/early-management-of-acute-cerebrovascular-accident
#8
Jody Manners, Alexis Steinberg, Lori Shutter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stroke is common and often presents as a neurologic emergency that requires rapid evaluation and treatment to minimize debilitation. Recent advances in therapy expanded time windows for intra-arterial thrombectomy in ischemic stroke, and surgical interventions for clot evacuation in large intracranial hemorrhage have recently proven feasible. This review discusses recent data regarding new therapeutic options in both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, notably in scenarios in which therapy was previously limited to supportive care...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059118/early-haemorrhage-control-and-management-of-trauma-induced-coagulopathy-the-importance-of-goal-directed-therapy
#9
Jakob Stensballe, Hanne H Henriksen, Pär I Johansson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to discuss the recent developments in trauma-induced coagulopathy and the evolvement of goal-directed therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Mortality from major trauma continues to be a worldwide problem, and massive haemorrhage remains a major cause in 40% of potentially preventable trauma deaths. Development of trauma-induced coagulopathy challenges 25-35% of the patients further increasing trauma mortality. The pathophysiology of coagulopathy in trauma reflects at least two distinct mechanisms: Acute traumatic coagulopathy, consisting of endogenous heparinization, activation of the protein C pathway, hyperfibrinolysis and platelet dysfunction, and resuscitation associated coagulopathy...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035926/damage-control-surgery-current-state-and-future-directions
#10
Daniel Benz, Zsolt J Balogh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Damage control surgery (DCS) represents a staged surgical approach to the treatment of critically injured trauma patients. Originally described in the context of hepatic trauma and postinjury-induced coagulopathy, the indications for DCS have expanded to the management of extra abdominal trauma and to the management of nontraumatic acute abdominal emergencies. Despite being an accepted treatment algorithm, DCS is based on a limited evidence with current concerns of the variability in practice indications, rates and adverse outcomes in poorly selected patient cohorts...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035925/acute-kidney-injury-in-trauma-patients
#11
Anatole Harrois, Nicolas Libert, Jacques Duranteau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review epidemiology and pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) in trauma patients and propose strategies that aim at preventing AKI after trauma. RECENT FINDINGS: AKI in trauma patients has been reported to be as frequent as 50% with an association to a prolonged length of stay and a raise in mortality. Among the specific risk factors encountered in trauma patients, hemorrhagic shock, rhabdomyolysis severity, age, and comorbidities are independently associated with AKI occurrence...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035924/rotational-therapy-in-thoracic-injuries-what-is-the-evidence
#12
Philipp Störmann, Ingo Marzi, Sebastian Wutzler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the current use of continuous lateral rotational therapy (CLRT) in patients with thoracic injuries and its impact on clinical course, complications and outcome. RECENT FINDINGS: Patient positioning is a key factor in the treatment of severe thoracic injuries and CLRT, and intermittent supine and prone position are basic options. There is a lack of randomized controlled studies for trauma patients with chest injury undergoing kinetic therapy as standard of care...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023316/septic-shock-resuscitation-in-the-first-hour
#13
Nicholas Simpson, Francois Lamontagne, Manu Shankar-Hari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed the recent advances in the initial approach to resuscitation of sepsis and septic shock patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Sepsis and septic shock are life-threatening emergencies. Two key interventions in the first hour include timely antibiotic therapy and resuscitation. Before any laboratory results, the need for resuscitation is considered if a patient with suspected infection has low blood pressure (BP) or impaired peripheral circulation found at clinical examination...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023315/biomarkers-of-drug-induced-kidney-injury
#14
Lynn Redahan, Patrick T Murray
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Drug-induced kidney injury (DIKI) is an important and potentially modifiable cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). The reliance on traditional markers of kidney injury to diagnose DIKI impedes early detection. Biomarkers of DIKI that facilitate early diagnosis and the identification of high-risk patients are essential to ameliorate the clinical burden of this complication. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent progress in this area supports the potential utility of several biomarkers for the diagnosis of DIKI, for the prediction of outcomes and also for monitoring responses to potential nephrotoxic or beneficial therapies...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023314/renal-dysfunction-and-cirrhosis
#15
François Durand, Jody C Olson, Mitra K Nadim
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) does not represent the predominant phenotype of acute kidney injury (AKI) in cirrhosis. Early recognition of HRS helps initiate appropriate therapy. The aims of this review are to present redefinition of AKI, to list new biomarkers, to report recent data on vasopressors in HRS and to propose criteria for simultaneous liver and kidney transplantation (SLKT). RECENT FINDINGS: Urine output, which was not part of the definition of AKI might be reconsidered as it has an independent prognostic value...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016366/acute-life-threatening-hypoxemia-during-mechanical-ventilation
#16
Thomas Piraino, Eddy Fan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe current evidence-based practice in the management of acute life-threatening hypoxemia in mechanically ventilated patients and some of the methods used to individualize the care of the patient. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with acute life-threatening hypoxemia will often meet criteria for severe ARDS, for which there are only a few treatment strategies that have been shown to improve survival outcomes. Recent findings have increased our knowledge of the physiological effects of spontaneous breathing and the application of PEEP...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984705/the-crashing-patient-hemodynamic-collapse
#17
Hitesh Gidwani, Hernando Gómez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Rapid restoration of tissue perfusion and oxygenation are the main goals in the resuscitation of a patient with circulatory collapse. This review will focus on providing an evidence based framework of the technological and conceptual advances in the evaluation and management of the patient with cardiovascular collapse. RECENT FINDINGS: The initial approach to the patient in cardiovascular collapse continues to be based on the Ventilate-Infuse-Pump rule...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953559/novel-concepts-for-damage-control-resuscitation-in-trauma
#18
Philbert Y Van, John B Holcomb, Martin A Schreiber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Traumatic injuries are a major cause of mortality worldwide. Damage control resuscitation or balanced transfusion of plasma, platelets, and red blood cells for the management of exsanguinating hemorrhage after trauma has become the standard of care. We review the literature regarding the use of alternatives to achieve the desired 1 : 1:1 ratio as availability of plasma and platelets can be problematic in some environments. RECENT FINDINGS: Liquid and freeze dried plasma (FDP) are logistically easier to use and may be superior to fresh frozen plasma...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953558/drug-induced-kidney-disease-in-the-icu-mechanisms-susceptibility-diagnosis-and-management-strategies
#19
Linda Awdishu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in the critically ill population, is multifactorial and associated with increased mortality. Drug-induced kidney injury is a significant contributor to the development of AKI. The purpose of this review is to provide updates in the epidemiology, susceptibility and management of drug-induced kidney disease (DIKD). RECENT FINDINGS: Recent changes in guidelines for the management of serious infections in the critically ill have resulted in an increased frequency of DIKD...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953557/real-time-measurement-of-glomerular-filtration-rate
#20
Richard Solomon, Stuart Goldstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Measurement of glomerular filtration rate is an essential tool for determining the health or dysfunction of the kidney. The glomerular filtration rate is a dynamic function that can change almost instantaneously in response to stressors. Despite its central role in nephrology, there are no techniques available to the clinician for monitoring glomerular filtration rate in real time. Recent advances in technology to measure fluorescent compounds through the skin are providing a new approach for real-time monitoring of glomerular filtration rate...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
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