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Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology

Roxanne C Oriel, Julie Wang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to describe effective management strategies in nursery or school based upon research findings. RECENT FINDINGS: The prevalence of food allergy and number of emergency department visits for food-related anaphylaxis are increasing in children and adolescents. As there is currently no cure, the most effective strategy to decrease allergic reactions is food allergen avoidance. However, allergic reactions are inevitable in both food allergic children as well as in first-time reactors...
March 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Alessandro Fiocchi, Lamia Dahdah, Vincenzo Fierro, Maria C Artesani, Rocco Valluzzi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The epidemiology of food allergy did inspire theories on the reasons for the recent surge of the disease. We offer here a reasoned review on the relationships between the trajectories of human development and the trend of the food allergy epidemics. RECENT FINDINGS: The exponential trend of the frequency of food allergy paralleled the explosive acceleration of the human development over the last few decades. Dietary factors have been indicated as responsible for these trends and targeted for potential preventive strategies...
March 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Susanna Esposito, Manuel E Soto-Martinez, Wojciech Feleszko, Marcus H Jones, Kun-Ling Shen, Urs B Schaad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of the mechanistic and clinical evidence for the use of nonspecific immunomodulators in paediatric respiratory tract infection (RTI) and wheezing/asthma prophylaxis. RECENT FINDINGS: Nonspecific immunomodulators have a long history of empirical use for the prevention of RTIs in vulnerable populations, such as children. The past decade has seen an increase in both the number and quality of studies providing mechanistic and clinical evidence for the prophylactic potential of nonspecific immunomodulators against both respiratory infections and wheezing/asthma in the paediatric population...
March 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Ioana Agache, Liliana Rogozea
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The precision medicine concept is both appealing and challenging. We review here the recent findings in the endotype-driven approach for major allergic diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Stratified medicine for different allergic diseases can identify patients who are more likely to benefit or experience an adverse reaction in response to a given therapy and anticipate their long-term outcome and vital risk. In addition, this approach potentially facilitates drug development and prevention strategies...
March 20, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Susan M Tarlo, Piero Maestrelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
David Fishwick, Steve Forman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The outcome for workers with occupational asthma is improved for those with an earlier diagnosis. Health surveillance at work is in principle designed to identify such cases, so that the risks to the individual worker, and coworkers, can be reduced. There is recent evidence to suggest that the uptake and quality of such surveillance could be improved. This review has assessed current approaches to health surveillance for occupational asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: The article covers a review of the utility of questionnaires, lung function testing, immunological investigations, and other tests, including exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophilia, and exhaled breath condensate specifically in the context of workplace-based health surveillance...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Louise Fleming
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma attacks are frequent in children with asthma and can lead to significant adverse outcomes including time off school, hospital admission and death. Identifying children at risk of an asthma attack affords the opportunity to prevent attacks and improve outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical features, patient behaviours and characteristics, physiological factors, environmental data and biomarkers are all associated with asthma attacks and can be used in asthma exacerbation prediction models...
February 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Ceyda Oksel, Adnan Custovic
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent evidence on the distinct atopic phenotypes and their relationship with childhood asthma. We start by considering definitions and phenotypic classification of atopy and then review evidence on its association with asthma in children. RECENT FINDINGS: It is now well recognized that both asthma and atopy are complex entities encompassing various different sub-groups that also differ in the way they interconnect...
January 31, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Elizabeth J Davidson, Ivana V Yang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epigenetic marks are emerging as mediators of genetics and the environment on complex disease phenotypes, including childhood asthma and allergy. RECENT FINDINGS: Epigenome-wide association studies over the past year have added to the growing body of evidence supporting significant associations of epigenetic regulation of gene expression and asthma and allergy. Studies in children have identified signatures of eosinophils in peripheral blood, Th2 cell transcription factors and cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and epithelial dysfunction in the respiratory epithelium...
January 31, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Maria José Rosa, Alison G Lee, Rosalind J Wright
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The objective of this review is to provide an update on our evolving understanding of the effects of stress in pregnancy and during early development on the onset of asthma-related phenotypes across childhood, adolescence, and into early adulthood. RECENT FINDINGS: Accumulating evidence over the past 2 decades has established that prenatal and early-life psychological stress and stress correlates (e.g., maternal anxiety or depression) increase the risk for childhood respiratory disorders...
January 23, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Santiago Quirce, Darío Antolín-Amérigo, Javier Domínguez-Ortega
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the development of innovative technologies, new agents are continually introduced to the workplace. Some of these agents can act as hidden allergens whenever they are not declared in the product labels or whenever their health hazards are unknown. This review article focuses on the identification and description of unusual and/or hidden allergens recently incriminated in occupational diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Occupational exposure is an important global health issue that can induce respiratory and cutaneous disorders, as well as life-threatening anaphylaxis...
January 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Allison J Burbank, David B Peden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exposure to air pollutants is linked with poor asthma control in children and represents a potentially modifiable risk factor for impaired lung function, rescue medication use, and increased asthma-related healthcare utilization. Identification of the most relevant pollutants to asthma as well as susceptibility factors and strategies to reduce exposure are needed to improve child health. RECENT FINDINGS: The current available literature supports the association between pollutants and negative asthma outcomes...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Jennifer W Leiding, Mark Ballow
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Since the 1990s with the advances in molecular biology, a number of genetic defects have been described. The International Union of Immunological Sciences has recently updated the classification of genetic defects associated with primary immune deficiencies that now number 354. With the ever-expanding list of new monogenic disorders and a better understanding of the immunobiology and function of these defective genes, new therapies have emerged particularly aimed at the autoimmune and inflammatory conditions that plague these patients...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Cullen M Dutmer, Haejin Kim, Daniel A Searing, Edward M Zoratti, Andrew H Liu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Children living in US inner cities experience disparate burdens of asthma, especially in severity, impairment, exacerbations, and morbidity. Investigations seeking to better understand the factors and mechanisms underlying asthma prevalence, severity, and exacerbation in children living in these communities can lead to interventions that can narrow asthma disparities and potentially benefit all children with asthma. This update will focus on recent (i.e. late 2016-2017) advances in the understanding of asthma in US inner city children...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Silpa D Krefft, Carlyne D Cool, Cecile S Rose
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exposure-related bronchiolitis is increasingly recognized as an important but challenging clinical diagnosis. Acute and chronic inhalational exposures are associated with variable clinical presentations and a spectrum of histopathologic abnormalities affecting the small airways. This review provides an overview of the histologic patterns and occupational settings for exposure-related bronchiolitis, along with recent advances in disease diagnosis and management. RECENT FINDINGS: The entire histopathologic spectrum of bronchiolitis (constrictive, obliterative, proliferative, lymphocytic, respiratory) has been reported in exposure-related bronchiolitis...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Levi B Richards, Anne H Neerincx, Job J M H van Bragt, Peter J Sterk, Elisabeth H D Bel, Anke H Maitland-van der Zee
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma features a high degree of heterogeneity in both pathophysiology and therapeutic response, resulting in many asthma patients being treated inadequately. Biomarkers indicative of underlying pathological processes could be used to identify disease subtypes, determine prognosis and to predict or monitor treatment response. However, the newly identified as well as more established biomarkers have different applications and limitations. RECENT FINDINGS: Conventional markers for type 2-high asthma, such as blood eosinophils, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide, serum IgE and periostin, feature limited sensitivity and specificity despite their significant correlations...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Anne E Wyman, Stella E Hines
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Occupational and environmental exposures to metals can result in multiple pulmonary conditions. This article will review recent epidemiologic and mechanistic studies that have enhanced our understanding of the association between particular lung diseases and exposure to specific metals. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have broadened our understanding of the mechanisms of lung diseases such as CBD in established industries and drawn attention to conditions that may arise from exposure to metals such as indium in developing technologies...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Jeffrey M Chambliss, Sanjiv Sur, Julia W Tripple
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma and COPD represent heterogeneous disorders with broad ranging impact on patients and health systems. This review focuses on evidence for early attempts at understanding their pathogenesis by the British and Dutch hypotheses. It also addresses the role of eosinophils, IL-5, and biologics targeting these pathways in asthma and COPD. RECENT FINDINGS: Among asthma and COPD patients, clusters exist based on phenotypic and biologic markers allowing for further understanding of endotypes...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Giorgio W Canonica, Matteo Ferrando, Ilaria Baiardini, Francesca Puggioni, Francesca Racca, Giovanni Passalacqua, Enrico Heffler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we herein describe the progress in management of severe asthma, evolving from a 'blockbuster approach' to a more personalized approach targeted to the utilization of endotype-driven therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Severe asthma characterization in phenotypes and endotypes, by means of specific biomarkers, have led to the dichotomization of the concepts of 'personalized medicine' and 'precision medicine', which are often used as synonyms, but actually have conceptual differences in meaning...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Adil S Zahiruddin, J Andrew Grant, Sanjiv Sur
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although asthma is a common disease worldwide, its pathogenesis remains to be fully elucidated. There is increasing evidence of the interaction between epigenetics, DNA-damage, and environmental allergens in the development of asthma. In this review, we will focus on the role of epigenetics and DNA-damage in asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: There is growing evidence of environmental allergens, particularly house dust mite, stimulating oxidative DNA damage in airway epithelial cells...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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