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Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology

Venetia Bigley, Dawn Barge, Matthew Collin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dendritic cells are specialized antigen-presenting cells which link innate and adaptive immunity, through recognition and presentation of antigen to T cells. Although the importance of dendritic cells has been demonstrated in many animal models, their contribution to human immunity remains relatively unexplored in vivo.Given their central role in infection, autoimmunity, and malignancy, dendritic cell deficiency or dysfunction would be expected to have clinical consequences...
October 17, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Gabriela Barcenas-Morales, Peter Jandus, Rainer Döffinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Concise overview of the field of anticytokine autoantibodies with a focus on recent developments. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in particular in the analysis of autoantibodies to IFNγ, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IFN-1 are presented. The target epitope for anti-IFNγ autoantibodies has been found to have high homology to a protein from Aspergillus suggesting molecular mimicry as a mechanism of breaking self-tolerance...
October 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Stella Hartono, Amrita Bhagia, Avni Y Joshi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Norovirus infection is an emerging chronic infection in immunocompromised hosts. The aim of this review is to discuss the pathophysiology of Norovirus infection and explore mechanistic models for chronic infection/shedder state, especially in patients with immune deficiency diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic Norovirus infection is increasingly associated with enteropathy associated with both primary and secondary immune deficiency diseases. There is an ongoing debate in the immune deficiency community whether it is truly a causative agent for the enteropathy or it is an innocent bystander...
October 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Ulrich Wahn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Currently, dramatic changes in allergy treatment can be observed in many countries: The availability of monocomponent products with pharmaceutical quality for SLIT is likely to have a strong impact on all immunotherapy practices and the specialty in general. The market for patient-named products with allergenic mixtures can be expected to shrink. Allergists are concerned about the possibility that single-source products for immunotherapy might be insufficient to serve the needs of all 'polyallergic' patients...
October 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Emily M Mace
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Human natural killer (NK) cell development is poorly understood; however, we gain important insight from cases of human primary immunodeficiency that affect the generation of mature human NK cell subsets. In this review, monogenic primary immunodeficiencies that highlight critical requirements for human NK cell development are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Increased resolution in NK cell phenotyping has revealed NK cell deficiencies that affect the distribution of NK cell subsets found in peripheral blood...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Elena W Y Hsieh, Joseph D Hernandez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review gives an overview of the systems-immunology single-cell proteomic and transcriptomic approaches that can be applied to study primary immunodeficiency. It also introduces recent advances in multiparameter tissue imaging, which allows extensive immune phenotyping in disease-affected tissue. RECENT FINDINGS: Mass cytometry is a variation of flow cytometry that uses rare earth metal isotopes instead of fluorophores as tags bound to antibodies, allowing simultaneous measurement of over 40 parameters per single-cell...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Andrea Matucci, Francesca Nencini, Sara Pratesi, Enrico Maggi, Alessandra Vultaggio
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Biological agents have been a treatment option for many chronic immune-mediated diseases as well as oncological conditions. The issue of infusion reactions is of particular importance and at least in some cases related to the immunogenicity of these drugs with the production of antidrug antibodies. Infectious diseases are a well described side-effect of certain biological agents, even if, at least regarding the biological agents used for the treatment of allergic diseases and immune-mediated diseases, the risk has been reduced...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Joaquín Sastre, Marina Sastre-Ibañez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe recent insights into how molecular diagnosis can improve indication and selection of suitable allergens for specific immunotherapy and increase the safety of this therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: As specific allergen immunotherapy targets specific allergens, identification of the disease-eliciting allergen is a prerequisite for accurate prescription of treatment. In areas of complex sensitization to aeroallergens or in cases of hymenoptera venom allergy, the use of molecular diagnosis has demonstrated that it may lead to a change in indication and selection of allergens for immunotherapy in a large proportion of patients when compared with diagnosis based on skin prick testing and/or specific IgE determination with commercial extracts...
September 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Lyda Cuervo-Pardo, Alexei Gonzalez-Estrada, David M Lang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Physical urticaria/angioedema syndromes (PUAs) are commonly encountered. They are identified by a history of physical factors provoking cutaneous symptoms, and confirmed by provocation testing. Recent guidelines have recommended use of challenge procedures for diagnosis; however, their positive/negative likelihood ratios have not been established. RECENT FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review to determine the diagnostic utility of recommended office procedures for three common PUAs: dermatographia (DERMATO), cholinergic urticaria (CHOL), and delayed pressure urticaria/angioedema (DPUA)...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Thomas H Dohlman, Jessica B Ciralsky, Edward C Lai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dry eye disease (DED) is a complex, multifactorial condition that is challenging to diagnose and monitor clinically. To date, diagnosis has consisted largely of self-reported symptom questionnaires and a collection of clinical tests including vital dye staining, estimation of tear breakup time and Schirmer's testing, as no gold standard exists. As the dry eye field has made progress in understanding disease pathogenesis, new methods for assessment of this condition have been developed...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Brett P Bielory, Steven P Shah, Terrence P O'Brien, Victor L Perez, Leonard Bielory
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review provides an overview on the potential of different systemic and topical treatments in chronic forms of ocular allergy and dry eye disorder (DED). The impact on anterior surface of ocular inflammatory disorder encompasses an array of conditions, which are frequently underreported. This can contribute to underdiagnoses and ineffective management from healthcare providers such as an allergist and/or ophthalmologist who routinely provide care for these common disorders...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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October 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Ludger Klimek, Hans Jürgen Hoffmann, Alexa Kugler, Antonella Muraro, Peter W Hellings
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the impact of current European Union regulations on the availability of commercially available skin test allergens in European member states. RECENT FINDINGS: European Union legislations now define diagnostic allergens to be medicine requiring market authorization of every individual diagnostic allergen with obligations including clinical trials, application dossiers, a regular update of the dossiers, handling of variation processes and ongoing stability testing of the source material and periodic safety update reporting...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Abraham Solomon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Contact lens-induced papillary conjunctivitis (CLPC) is a common ocular allergic disease in contact lens wearers. In its more severe form, it can cause giant papillary conjunctivitis, resulting in contact lens intolerance and the need to discontinue the use of contact lenses. This review presents the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and management guidelines of this common disorder. RECENT FINDINGS: Different types of contact lenses are associated with differences in the severity of CLPC...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Daniel Munblit, Valérie Verhasselt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Allergy is a modern disease which does not seem to benefit from breast milk preventive effects. We propose that maternal milk composition has not adapted to the needs of allergy prevention because of the recent and rapid increase of allergy. Modulation of breast milk composition may be the best strategy to counteract allergy development. We will review recent advances in understanding of allergy physiopathology and how breast milk factors may be specifically appropriate to interfere with allergy development in early life...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Hela El Kafsi, Guy Gorochov, Martin Larsen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genetic evolution of multicellular organisms has occurred in response to environmental challenges, including competition for nutrients, climate change, physical and chemical stressors, and pathogens. However, fitness of an organism is dependent not only on defense efficacy, but also on the ability to take advantage of symbiotic organisms. Indeed, microbes not only encompass pathogenicity, but also enable efficient nutrient uptake from diets nondegradable by the host itself...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Gennaro D'Amato, Carolina Vitale, Maurizia Lanza, Antonio Molino, Maria D'Amato
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The rising trend in prevalence of allergic respiratory disease and bronchial asthma, observed over the last decades, can be explained by changes occurring in the environment, with increasing presence of biologic, such as allergens, and chemical atmospheric trigger factors able to stimulate the sensitization and symptoms of these diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Many studies have shown changes in production, dispersion, and allergen content of pollen and spores because of climate change with an increasing effect of aeroallergens on allergic patients...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Annice Heratizadeh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Atopic dermatitis is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease. In the presence of a complex genetic background, there is increasing evidence for the role of specific allergenic trigger factors in perpetuating skin inflammation in sensitized atopic dermatitis patients. In this review, clinical and in-vitro data so far published on allergen-induced adaptive immune responses in atopic dermatitis are summarized. RECENT FINDINGS: Emerging new data have been published particularly on adaptive immune responses to inhalant allergens in atopic dermatitis...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Maja A Hofmann, Felix Kiecker, Torsten Zuberbier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Allergic skin diseases include atopic dermatitis/eczema, contact dermatitis, and drug hypersensitivity. Allergic skin diseases have a high prevalence. Atopic dermatitis is one of the most common inflammatory skin diseases and similar for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Over a long period, allergic diseases have been regarded as immunoglobulin E-mediated T-helper-2 (Th2)-driven. But new cytokines and T cells have been discovered within the last years. In this systematic review, the focus is laid on interleukin-17 (IL-17) and the interleukin-20 (IL-20) family which appear to be fine-tuning the Th2-driven answer...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Margeaux Oliva, Yael Renert-Yuval, Emma Guttman-Yassky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To evaluate how the genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic profiles of allergic skin diseases, like atopic dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis, contribute to their understanding and promote their therapeutic development. RECENT FINDINGS: The '-omics' revolution has facilitated the quantification of inflammatory skin diseases at the molecular level, expanding our understanding of disease pathogenesis. It has also greatly expanded once-limited treatment options and improved the ability to define posttreatment improvements, beyond clinical scores...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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