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Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319538/-hidden-occupational-allergens-such-as-additives
#1
Santiago Quirce, Darío Antolín-Amérigo, Javier Domínguez-Ortega
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the development of innovative technologies, new agents are continually introduced to the workplace. Some of these agents can act as hidden allergens whenever they are not declared in the product labels or whenever their health hazards are unknown. This review article focuses on the identification and description of unusual and/or hidden allergens recently incriminated in occupational diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Occupational exposure is an important global health issue that can induce respiratory and cutaneous disorders, as well as life-threatening anaphylaxis...
January 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135515/association-between-allergic-and-nonallergic-rhinitis-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#2
Ming Zheng, Xiangdong Wang, Luo Zhang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Allergic rhinitis and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) are common disorders, which have been considered as potential risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This review summarizes the proposed underlying pathophysiological mechanisms to provide a better understanding of the relationship between these conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: In adults, allergic rhinitis and NAR may be considered as symptoms potentiating, rather than risk potentiating factors in the pathophysiology of OSA, whereas in children, these are considered to be independent predictors for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and failure of adeno-tonsillectomy, the recommended first-line therapy for children with OSA...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135514/prevalence-and-clinical-characteristics-of-local-allergic-rhinitis-to-house-dust-mites
#3
Yoo Seob Shin, Chang-Gyu Jung, Hae-Sim Park
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Local allergic rhinitis (LAR) is a recently classified subtype of rhinitis defined by a nasal allergic response in patients without systemic evidence of atopy. Recent studies have reported the prevalence, clinical course, culprit allergens, diagnostic methods and treatment outcomes of LAR. The purpose of this review is to summarize the most relevant and updated scientific evidence for LAR, especially focusing on its prevalence and clinical characteristics. RECENT FINDINGS: LAR is found in a significant proportion (3...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135513/collection-of-nasal-secretions-and-tears-and-their-use-in-allergology
#4
Sveva Castelli, Stefania Arasi, Ruby Pawankar, Paolo M Matricardi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The identification of immunological markers in nasal secretions and tears is becoming essential in the study of allergic diseases. The collection procedure of nasal and ocular secretions directly influences the results, thus it is of paramount importance to validate and standardize the sampling process. RECENT FINDINGS: Current techniques for nasal secretions sampling are mainly based on three principles: collection of spontaneous secretions, nasal washings, and absorption...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135485/update-on-questionnaires-for-assessing-adherence-to-inhaler-devices-in-respiratory-patients
#5
Vicente Plaza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It has been estimated that adherence to inhaled medications in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is around 50%. This low adherence rate increases morbidity and mortality of these disorders. The objective of this review was to update information on main questionnaires used in daily for assessing adherence to inhalers of patients with chronic respiratory diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: The test of the adherence to inhalers (TAI) is a recently developed and validated 12-item questionnaire to assess adherence to inhalers of aerosolized drugs in patients with asthma or COPD...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29257776/asthma-versus-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-the-dutch-versus-british-hypothesis-and-role-of-interleukin-5
#6
Jeffrey M Chambliss, Sanjiv Sur, Julia W Tripple
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma and COPD represent heterogeneous disorders with broad ranging impact on patients and health systems. This review focuses on evidence for early attempts at understanding their pathogenesis by the British and Dutch hypotheses. It also addresses the role of eosinophils, IL-5, and biologics targeting these pathways in asthma and COPD. RECENT FINDINGS: Among asthma and COPD patients, clusters exist based on phenotypic and biologic markers allowing for further understanding of endotypes...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189350/asthma-personalized-and-precision-medicine
#7
Giorgio W Canonica, Matteo Ferrando, Ilaria Baiardini, Francesca Puggioni, Francesca Racca, Giovanni Passalacqua, Enrico Heffler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we herein describe the progress in management of severe asthma, evolving from a 'blockbuster approach' to a more personalized approach targeted to the utilization of endotype-driven therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: Severe asthma characterization in phenotypes and endotypes, by means of specific biomarkers, have led to the dichotomization of the concepts of 'personalized medicine' and 'precision medicine', which are often used as synonyms, but actually have conceptual differences in meaning...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189349/role-of-epigenetics-and-dna-damage-in-asthma
#8
Adil S Zahiruddin, J Andrew Grant, Sanjiv Sur
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although asthma is a common disease worldwide, its pathogenesis remains to be fully elucidated. There is increasing evidence of the interaction between epigenetics, DNA-damage, and environmental allergens in the development of asthma. In this review, we will focus on the role of epigenetics and DNA-damage in asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: There is growing evidence of environmental allergens, particularly house dust mite, stimulating oxidative DNA damage in airway epithelial cells...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135486/drug-induced-anaphylaxis-is-it-an-epidemic
#9
Pedro Giavina-Bianchi, Marcelo V Aun, Jorge Kalil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review addresses the epidemiology, analyzes the current data and promotes global awareness of drug-induced anaphylaxis. RECENT FINDINGS: Anaphylaxis is a medical emergency that may cause death! In the last decade, studies have shown an increasing incidence and prevalence of anaphylaxis. SUMMARY: Drug-induced anaphylaxis fatalities have increased, and this syndrome remains underdiagnosed and undertreated.
February 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040210/anticholinergics-for-asthma-a-long-history
#10
Gustavo J Rodrigo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a fast overview about the introduction and development of anticholinergic drugs in Western medicine to their current indications particularly in asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: Although short-acting muscarinic antagonists have been positioned in the last 15 years for the treatment of adults and children with moderate-to-severe acute asthma in the emergency setting (reducing the risk of hospital admissions and improving lung function), a growing body of evidence has recently emerged that positions the long-acting muscarinic anticholinergic tiotropium bromide as add-on therapy to at least inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) maintenance therapy in adults, adolescents, and children with symptomatic asthma...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040209/inherited-and-acquired-clinical-phenotypes-associated-with-neuroendocrine-tumors
#11
Rory E Nicholaides, M Teresa de la Morena
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Overview of neuroendocrine neoplasms in the context of their associations with primary and secondary immunodeficiency states. RECENT FINDINGS: Malignancies of neuroendocrine origin are well known to be associated with hereditary syndromes, including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1, and tuberous sclerosis. This review includes the X-linked form of hyper-IgM syndrome (XHIGM), due to mutations in the CD40Ligand gene (CD40LG), as an additional inherited disorder with susceptibility to such malignancies, and discusses neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) arising in other immunocompromised states...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040208/an-update-on-gain-of-function-mutations-in-primary-immunodeficiency-diseases
#12
Rekha D Jhamnani, Sergio D Rosenzweig
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Most primary immunodeficiencies described since 1952 were associated with loss-of-function defects. With the advent and popularization of unbiased next-generation sequencing diagnostic approaches followed by functional validation techniques, many gain-of-function mutations leading to immunodeficiency have also been identified. This review highlights the updates on pathophysiology mechanisms and new therapeutic approaches involving primary immunodeficiencies because of gain-of-function mutations...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016385/a-history-into-genetic-and-epigenetic-evolution-of-food-tolerance-how-humanity-rapidly-evolved-by-drinking-milk-and-eating-wheat
#13
Carine Blanchard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Human exposure to wheat and milk is almost global worldwide. Yet the introduction of milk and wheat is very recent (5000-10 000 years) when compared to the human evolution. The last 4 decades have seen a rise in food allergy and food intolerance to milk and wheat. Often described as plurifactorial, the cause of allergic diseases is the result from an interplay between genetic predisposition and epigenetic in the context of environmental changes. RECENT FINDINGS: Genetic and epigenetic understanding and their contribution to allergy or other antigen-driven diseases have considerably advanced in the last few years...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968274/critical-appraisal-of-the-unmet-needs-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria-with-omalizumab-an-italian-perspective
#14
Riccardo Asero, Giorgio W Canonica, Antonio Cristaudo, Maria T Fierro, Giampiero Girolomoni, Angelo V Marzano, Eustachio Nettis, Patrizia Pepe, Paolo Pigatto, Oliviero Rossi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The humanized anti-IgE antibody omalizumab has been available for patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) in Italy since 2015. This review summarizes the unresolved issues and unmet therapeutic needs associated with omalizumab and discusses practical recommendations for its use in the management of CSU. RECENT FINDINGS: Although modern second-generation H1-antihistamines are the standard of care for patients with CSU, adjunctive treatments (including omalizumab) may be required for effective control of symptoms in many patients...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968273/approaches-to-the-removal-of-t-lymphocytes-to-minimize-graft-versus-host-disease-in-patients-with-primary-immunodeficiencies-who-do-not-have-a-matched-sibling-donor
#15
Mary A Slatter, Andrew R Gennery
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since the advent of T-lymphocyte depletion in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for primary immunodeficiency, survival following this procedure has remained poor compared to results when using matched sibling or matched unrelated donors, over the last 40 years. However, three new techniques are radically altering the approach to HSCT for those with no matched donor, particularly those with primary immunodeficiencies which are not severe combined immunodeficiency...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968272/preventing-new-sensitization-and-asthma-onset-by-allergen-immunotherapy-the-current-evidence
#16
Ulrich Wahn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Specific allergen immunotherapy is considered a key candidate for a successful preventive intervention in atopic diseases. The strong association of atopic manifestations such as rhinitis and asthma with atopic sensitizations (specific serum IgE) provide a rationale for early intervention in childhood and adolescence. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently, the documentation of the disease-modifying intervention effects is limited to the secondary prevention of asthma symptoms in children with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957824/the-role-of-regulatory-b-cells-in-allergen-immunotherapy
#17
Willem van de Veen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is currently the only curative treatment available for allergic diseases, and has been used in clinical practice for over a century. Induction and maintenance of immune tolerance to nonhazardous environmental and self-antigens is essential to maintain homeostasis and prevent chronic inflammation. Regulatory B (BREG) cells are immunoregulatory cells that protect against chronic inflammatory responses primarily through production of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10, transforming growth factor-β, and IL-35...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957823/nlrc4-inflammasomopathies
#18
Neil Romberg, Tiphanie P Vogel, Scott W Canna
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the review is to highlight developments in autoinflammatory diseases associated with gain-of-function mutations in the gene encoding NLR-family CARD-containing protein 4 (NLRC4), the NLRC4-inflammasomopathies. RECENT FINDINGS: Three years since the identification of the first autoinflammation with infantile enterocolitis (AIFEC) patients, there is an improved understanding of how the NLRC4 inflammasome and interleukin 18 (IL-18) contribute to gut inflammation in myeloid and also intestinal epithelial cells...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957822/comparing-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-in-pediatric-and-adult-patients
#19
Christian A Wysocki
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) has long been thought of primarily as a pediatric disease. However, this syndrome may occur secondary to underlying malignancies, infections, and autoimmune diseases, in adult patients. Here, we seek to highlight similarities and differences between pediatric and adult HLH, knowledge gaps, and areas of active research. RECENT FINDINGS: Malignancy is a more frequent driver of HLH in adults, present in nearly half...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938278/whole-exome-sequencing-in-inborn-errors-of-immunity-use-the-power-but-mind-the-limits
#20
Giorgia Bucciol, Erika Van Nieuwenhove, Leen Moens, Yuval Itan, Isabelle Meyts
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Next-generation sequencing, especially whole exome sequencing (WES), has revolutionized the molecular diagnosis of inborn errors of immunity. This review summarizes the generation and analysis of next-generation sequencing data. RECENT FINDINGS: The focus is on prioritizing strategies for unveiling the potential disease-causing variant. We also highlighted oversights and imperfections of WES and targeted panel sequencing, as well as the need for functional validation...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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