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Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427529/primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma
#1
REVIEW
Giovanni Citterio, Michele Reni, Gemma Gatta, Andrés José Maria Ferreri
Primary CNS lymphomas (PCNSL) represent a subgroup of malignancies with specific characteristics, aggressive course, and unsatisfactory outcome in contrast with other lymphomas comparable for tumour burden and/or histological type. Despite a high chemo- and radiosensitivity, remissions are frequently shortlasting, mainly because the blood brain-barrier limits the access of many drugs to the CNS. Moreover, survivor patients are at high risk of developing severe treatment-related toxicity, mainly disabling neurotoxicity, raising the question of how to balance therapy intensification with side-effects control...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427528/mechanisms-of-chemotherapy-induced-ovarian-damage-in-breast-cancer-patients
#2
REVIEW
Giovanni Codacci-Pisanelli, Lino Del Pup, Maria Del Grande, Fedro A Peccatori
Fertility preservation in breast cancer patients is an increasingly relevant topic. In the present paper we review available data on the mechanism of ovarian damage caused by anticancer agents currently used for the treatment of breast cancer. We also describe current methods to preserve fertility including oocytes or ovarian tissue freezing and administration of LH-RHa during chemotherapy. The aim of the paper is to provide clinical oncologists with an adequate knowledge of the subject to enable them to give a correct counselling to young women that must receive chemotherapy and want to increase their possibilities of maintaining fertility...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427527/venous-thromboembolism-in-radiation-therapy-cancer-patients-findings-from-the-riete-registry
#3
REVIEW
Jean-Baptiste Guy, Laurent Bertoletti, Nicolas Magné, Chloé Rancoule, Isabelle Mahé, Carme Font, Oscar Sanz, José Manuel Martín-Antorán, Federica Pace, Jerónimo Ramón Vela, Manuel Monreal
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients are at high risk of venous thromboembolism, particularly during cancer treatment. Conversely to chemotherapy, data on the epidemiology and clinical features of venous thromboembolism during radiation therapy are scarce. There is lack of evidence on the influence of radiation therapy (RT) on outcome in cancer patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE). METHODS: We used the RIETE (Registro Informatizado de Enfermedad ThromboEmbolica) database to assess the clinical characteristics and outcome of prospectively-collected consecutive patients with cancer-associated thrombosis occurred during the course of radiation therapy for cancer...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427526/potential-application-and-prevalence-of-the-cd30-ki-1-antigen-among-solid-tumors-a-focus-review-of-the-literature
#4
REVIEW
Garrett K Berger, Kevin Gee, Cassandra Votruba, Ali McBride, Faiz Anwer
BACKGROUND: CD30 (Ki-1) is a cell membrane protein derived from the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family. The CD30 antigen has been associated primarily with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (sALCL). Brentuximab vedotin (BV) is an antibody-drug conjugate targeting the CD30 antigen. FDA approval for BV includes relapsed and refractory HL and sALCL. The CD30 antigen also has been identified in many solid tumors, predominantly of germ cell origins and early clinical data is promising...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427525/precision-medicine-for-early-breast-cancer-radiotherapy-opening-up-new-horizons
#5
REVIEW
Jacques Bernier
So far most efforts put forth to test the value of predictive and prognostic tools in the field of breast radiotherapy remained globally disappointing, or at least below the convincing levels reached for systemic therapy. Nevertheless the addition of predictive tools to the clinical armament tends to prevail over the use of the sole prognostic factors, also in radiotherapy. A number of predictive assays, clinically validated or not, have recently elicited significant associations between molecular profiles and tumor biological aggressiveness and/or radiosensitivity levels...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427524/kallistatin-suppresses-cancer-development-by-multi-factorial-actions
#6
REVIEW
Julie Chao, Pengfei Li, Lee Chao
Kallistatin was first identified in human plasma as a tissue kallikrein-binding protein and a serine proteinase inhibitor. Kallistatin via its two structural elements regulates differential signaling cascades, and thus a wide spectrum of biological functions. Kallistatin's active site is essential for: inhibiting tissue kallikrein's activity; stimulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase and sirtuin 1 expression and activation; and modulating the synthesis of the microRNAs, miR-34a, miR-21 and miR-203. Kallistatin's heparin-binding site is crucial for antagonizing the signaling pathways of vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, Wnt, transforming growth factor-β and epidermal growth factor...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427523/combination-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-and-radiotherapy-review-of-the-literature
#7
REVIEW
Alessandro Sindoni, Fabio Minutoli, Giorgio Ascenti, Stefano Pergolizzi
Literature experiences in cancer treatment usually deal with either targeting the tumour cell or the immune system, which often fail to reach the curative purposes in many solid tumours. On the other hand, one mechanism of radiation-induced tumour control is the activation of the adaptive immune system by tumour antigen release following radiotherapy. So, combining radiation therapy with immune checkpoint blockade treatment at the same time may represent a way to stimulate the adaptive immune system, with further amplification of immune responses reached through systemic immune checkpoint blockade...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427522/the-role-of-anti-pd-1-and-anti-pd-l1-agents-in-the-treatment-of-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-the-future-is-now
#8
REVIEW
Luis Miguel Juárez-Salcedo, Jose Sandoval-Sus, Lubomir Sokol, Julio C Chavez, Samir Dalia
Immune checkpoints inhibitors have been incorporated into standard treatment protocols for advanced solid tumors. The aim of T-cell-based immune therapy in cancer has been to generate durable clinical benefits for patients, paired with enhanced side effect profiles. The beneficial antitumoral activity of programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) has been thoroughly demonstrated in certain metastatic malignancies (e.g. melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma); however, the therapeutic role in lymphoid cancers is complex...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427521/management-of-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-a-focus-on-radium-223-opinions-and-suggestions-from-an-expert-multidisciplinary-panel
#9
REVIEW
Sergio Baldari, Giuseppe Boni, Roberto Bortolus, Orazio Caffo, Giario Conti, Giuseppe De Vincentis, Fabio Monari, Giuseppe Procopio, Daniele Santini, Ettore Seregni, Riccardo Valdagni
Radium-223, a calcium mimetic bone-seeking radionuclide that selectively targets bone metastases with alpha particles, is approved for the treatment of men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and symptomatic bone metastases. In patients with mCRPC, treatment with radium-223 has been associated with survival benefit, regardless of prior docetaxel use, and also has a positive impact on symptomatic skeletal events and quality of life. Radium-223 is best suited for patients with symptomatic mCRPC and bone-predominant disease and no visceral metastases, and may lead to better outcomes when given early in the course of the disease...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427520/lymphoblastic-lymphoma
#10
REVIEW
Sergio Cortelazzo, Andrés Ferreri, Dieter Hoelzer, Maurilio Ponzoni
Lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) is a neoplasm of immature B cells committed to the B-(B-LBL) or T-cell lineage (T-LBL) that accounts for approximately 2% of all lymphomas. Although histological features are usually sufficient to distinguish lymphoblastic from mature B- or T-cell neoplasms, of greater importance for diagnosis is the characterization of immunophenotype by flow cytometry. LBL occurs more commonly in children than in adults, mostly in males. A bone marrow involvement <25% (or 20% according to WHO) formally distinguishes LBL from ALL...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427519/a-comprehensive-review-of-immunotherapies-in-prostate-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Manuel Caitano Maia, Aaron R Hansen
Prostate cancer is the second most common malignant neoplasm in men worldwide and the fifth cause of cancer-related death. Although multiple new agents have been approved for metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer over the last decade, it is still an incurable disease. New strategies to improve cancer control are needed and agents targeting the immune system have shown encouraging results in many tumor types. Despite being attractive for immunotherapies due to the expression of various tumor associated antigens, the microenvironment in prostate cancer is relatively immunosuppressive and may be responsible for the failures of various agents targeting the immune system in this disease...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427518/controversies-in-clinicopathological-characteristics-and-treatment-strategies-of-male-breast-cancer-a-review-of-the-literature
#12
REVIEW
Agnese Losurdo, Selene Rota, Giuseppe Gullo, Giovanna Masci, Rosalba Torrisi, Giulia Bottai, Monica Zuradelli, Wolfgang Gatzemeier, Armando Santoro
Male breast cancer (MaBC) is a rare disease, accounting for less than 1% of malignancies in men. For this reason, literature data on its clinicopathological characteristics are very heterogeneous and treatment strategies have mostly been extrapolated from the female counterpart. However, immunohistochemical peculiarities of MaBC have recently emerged, defining it as a distinct entity from female breast cancer (FBC), thus requiring a tailored clinical approach. MaBC appears to be more often hormone receptor positive than FBC, while data on HER2 status still remain inconclusive, indicating a possible higher incidence of HER2 alterations...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427517/interim-18-fdg-pet-ct-during-radiochemotherapy-in-the-management-of-pelvic-malignancies-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Mahila Ferrari, Laura Lavinia Travaini, Delia Ciardo, Cristina Garibaldi, Laura Gilardi, Robert Glynne-Jones, Chiara Maria Grana, Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa, Giulia Marvaso, Sara Ronchi, Maria Cristina Leonardi, Roberto Orecchia, Marta Cremonesi
(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT ((18)F-FDG-PET/CT) is widely applied in oncology for disease staging, assessment of therapy response, relapse diagnosis, follow-up and target volume delineation. In particular, it can detect early response during chemoradiotherapy (interim) because functional modifications usually precede morphological ones. This ability is crucial to the radiation oncologist for the management of patients, to avoid persisting with ineffective therapy - often leading toxicity - and to shift to potentially more effective alternatives...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427516/prognostic-and-predictive-biomarkers-in-neuroendocrine-tumours
#14
REVIEW
David L Chan, Stephen J Clarke, Connie I Diakos, Paul J Roach, Dale L Bailey, Simron Singh, Nick Pavlakis
Neuroendocrine tumours are extremely heterogeneous malignancies. Despite marked heterogeneity in clinical course and prognosis, few biomarkers exist to help predict prognosis and guide treatment. Many tumour-based biomarkers (Ki-67, mitotic count, genetic/epigenetic changes and microRNAs) exist, but only Ki-67 and mitotic count have strong evidence to support their routine use. Blood-based markers are easily repeatable, but currently established biomarkers (chromogranin A and urinary 5-HIAA) are difficult to measure accurately in practice...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427515/fgfr-a-promising-druggable-target-in-cancer-molecular-biology-and-new-drugs
#15
REVIEW
Rut Porta, Roberto Borea, Andreia Coelho, Shahanavaj Khan, António Araújo, Pablo Reclusa, Tindara Franchina, Nele Van Der Steen, Peter Van Dam, Jose Ferri, Rafael Sirera, Aung Naing, David Hong, Christian Rolfo
INTRODUCTION: The Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) family consists of Tyrosine Kinase Receptors (TKR) involved in several biological functions. Recently, alterations of FGFR have been reported to be important for progression and development of several cancers. In this setting, different studies are trying to evaluate the efficacy of different therapies targeting FGFR. AREAS COVERED: This review summarizes the current status of treatments targeting FGFR, focusing on the trials that are evaluating the FGFR profile as inclusion criteria: Multi-Target, Pan-FGFR Inhibitors and anti-FGF (Fibroblast Growth Factor)/FGFR Monoclonal Antibodies...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427514/triplet-versus-doublet-combination-regimens-for-the-treatment-of-relapsed-or-refractory-multiple-myeloma-a-meta-analysis-of-phase-iii-randomized-controlled-trials
#16
REVIEW
Zhiqiang Sun, Fang Zheng, Suwan Wu, Yanjuan Liu, Hehe Guo, Yichen Liu
During the past decades, several prospective trials had been conducted to assess the efficacy and toxicities of triplet versus doublet combination regimens for the treatment of relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM), but the results were controversial. We thus performed a systematic literature search to identify relevant trials. Summary hazard ratios (HRs), relative risks (RRs), and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated. A total of 3197 RRMM patients were included for analysis. The pooled results demonstrated that triplet combination therapies significantly improve OS (HR 0...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427513/polymerase-proofreading-domain-mutations-new-opportunities-for-immunotherapy-in-hypermutated-colorectal-cancer-beyond-mmr-deficiency
#17
REVIEW
Rémi Bourdais, Benoît Rousseau, Anaïs Pujals, Helene Boussion, Charlotte Joly, Aude Guillemin, Isabelle Baumgaertner, Cindy Neuzillet, Christophe Tournigand
Immune checkpoint inhibition is a new therapeutic strategy that has shown promising efficacy in many cancer types. Significant activity associated with mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency has been observed in hypermutated, microsatellite unstable (MSI) metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Beyond deficient-MMR tumors, somatic or germline DNA polymerase D1 (POLD1) or DNA polymerase E (POLE) alterations cause a hypermutated phenotype in CRC. This recently identified and rare subgroup of proficient-MMR tumors may also benefit from immunotherapy...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427512/impact-of-hyperglycemia-on-the-efficacy-of-chemotherapy-a-systematic-review-of-preclinical-studies
#18
REVIEW
Maaike C Gerards, Daphne L van der Velden, Joke W Baars, Dees P M Brandjes, Joost B L Hoekstra, Titia M Vriesendorp, Victor E A Gerdes
BACKGROUND: Antineoplastic agents can provoke hyperglycemia in cancer patients with and without diabetes mellitus. We systematically reviewed the impact of hyperglycemia on the efficacy of chemotherapy. METHODS: MEDLINE was searched for preclinical intervention studies which compared chemotherapy response in hyperglycemic and euglycemic conditions. RESULTS: Thirteen preclinical studies, including 23 cell lines and 2 animal experiments were identified...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427511/role-of-hypoxia-inducible-factors-hif-in-the-maintenance-of-stemness-and-malignancy-of-colorectal-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Ramakrishna Vadde, Sarojamma Vemula, Rajeswari Jinka, Neha Merchant, Pallaval Veera Bramhachari, Ganji Purnachandra Nagaraju
Hypoxia is a condition of insufficient tissue oxygenation, which is observed during normal development as well as tumorigenesis and its response at the cellular level is primarily mediated through hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs). HIFs have a significant role in the maintenance of stemness in both stem cells as well as in cancer stem cells (CSC) by acting as transcription factors. The CSCs are proposed to be the driving force of colon tumorigenesis and malignancy. These HIFs play a significant role in a wide range of diseases including colon cancer...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427510/central-nervous-system-gliomas
#20
REVIEW
Michele Reni, Elena Mazza, Silvia Zanon, Gemma Gatta, Charles J Vecht
Evidence-based practical guidelines on diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment on the most frequent adult brain tumours are delineated. In Europe, 27,000 new cases of malignant glial tumours and 1000 new cases of malignant ependymal tumours are diagnosed every year. The most common glial tumours are glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic glioma, comprising more than 50% and 10%, respectively, of the total gliomas. Prognosis of gliomas is generally poor. Environmental and genetic factors have been correlated with an increased risk of developing brain tumours...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
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