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Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823655/the-immune-landscape-of-myelodysplastic-syndromes
#1
REVIEW
Claudio Fozza, Valeria Crobu, Maria Antonia Isoni, Fausto Dore
Even though the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is dominated by specific molecular defects involving hematopoietic precursors, also immune mechanisms seem to play a fundamental functional role. In this review we will first describe the clinical and laboratory autoimmune manifestations often detectable in MDS patients. We will then focus on studies addressing the possible influence of different immune cell subpopulations on the disease onset and evolution. We will finally consider therapeutic approaches based on immunomodulation, ranging from immunosuppressants to vaccination and transplantation strategies...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823654/aromatase-inhibitors-in-premenopause-great-expectations-fulfilled
#2
REVIEW
Rosalba Torrisi, Selene Rota, Agnese Losurdo, Monica Zuradelli, Giovanna Masci, Armando Santoro
Tamoxifen and GnRH analogues (GnRHa) represent the mainstay of endocrine manipulations in premenopausal women. The estrogen blockade obtained by aromatase inhibitors (AIs) plus GnRHa suppresses circulating estrogens more deeply than tamoxifen plus GnRHa. Retrospective and prospective evidence confirm a substantial activity for AIs and GnRHa in locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer. In early breast cancer inconsistent evidence emerged from 2 large randomized studies with anastrozole performing as tamoxifen in terms of DFS, but significantly worse as of OS while exemestane outperformed tamoxifen as of DFS particularly in very young and high-risk women...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823653/involvement-of-genetic-factors-and-lifestyle-on-the-occurrence-of-colorectal-and-gastric-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Olfa Baroudi, Amel Benammar-Elgaaied
Gastrointestinal cancers are diseases due to genetic and environmental factors. In this present work we are interested in the influence of environmental factors on the occurrence of gastrointestinal cancers in Tunisian population. We found that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism was associated with colorectal cancer (P<0.04) but not with gastric cancer. In addition, we have shown that alcohol is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer, but the consumption of cheese is protective. Furthermore, we studied tymidylate synthase gene involved in folate metabolism...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823652/current-evidence-for-cancer-stem-cells-in-gastrointestinal-tumors-and-future-research-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
Miriam López-Gómez, Enrique Casado, Marta Muñoz, Sonia Alcalá, Juan Moreno-Rubio, Gabriele D'Errico, Ana María Jiménez-Gordo, Silvia Salinas, Bruno Sainz
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a very heterogeneous subpopulation of "stem-like" cancer cells that have been identified in many cancers, including leukemias and solid tumors. It is believed that CSCs drive tumor growth, malignant behavior and are responsible for the initiation of metastatic spread. In addition, CSCs have been implicated in chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance. Current evidence supports the theory that CSCs share at least two main features of normal stem cells: self-renewal and differentiation, properties that contribute to tumor survival even in the presence of aggressive chemotherapy; however, the mechanism(s) governing the unique biology of CSCs remain unclear...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823651/first-line-antiangiogenics-for-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Benoît Rousseau, Emmanuelle Kempf, Gaelle Desamericq, Emilie Boissier, Marie Chaubet-Houdu, Charlotte Joly, Carolina Saldana, Helene Boussion, Cindy Neuzillet, Isabelle Macquin-Mavier, Stéphane Oudard, Laurent Salomon, Alexandre de la Taille, Christophe Tournigand
BACKGROUND: Sunitinib, pazopanib, sorafenib, axitinib and bevacizumab are the five recommended antiangiogenic agents in first-line therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Because these drugs underwent simultaneous clinical development, no direct efficacy and safety comparison was ever conducted, thus preventing optimal therapy choices. METHODS: We performed a traditional and network meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mRCC-recommended first-line antiangiogenic agents...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823650/osteoradionecrosis-and-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-an-overview
#6
REVIEW
Francesca De Felice, Daniela Musio, Vincenzo Tombolini
Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is an ongoing topic, especially about its definition, pathogenesis, staging system and management algorithm. But what about its real incidence in intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) era? This paper discusses the mandible in radiation therapy planning as organ at risk and reviews the literature for evidence of radiation damage, discussing likely dose constraints and the use of IMRT to reduce radiation dose to this structure. PubMed search was performed.
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823649/stromal-cox-2-signaling-are-correlated-with-colorectal-cancer-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Chen-Wei Su, Yuan Zhang, Ying-Ting Zhu
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and its product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) play a critical role in development and progression of colorectal cancer. Yet the detailed mechanistic pathways of COX-2 mediated signaling are still controversial and the role of COX-2 interaction in epithelial-stromal compartments on colorectal carcinogenesis is not well-understood either. In this review, we provide experimental evidence to support that (1) COX-2 signaling plays a major role in development and progression of colorectal cancer; (2) Stromal fibroblasts are a major source of COX-2 and PGE2; (3) Stromal-epithelial interaction mediated by COX-2 signaling promotes colorectal carcinogenesis and (4) Inhibition of stromal COX-2 signaling is necessary to control colorectal cancer...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823648/the-resistance-related-to-targeted-therapy-in-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma-why-has-not-the-target-been-hit-yet
#8
REVIEW
Giuseppe Bronte, Lorena Incorvaia, Sergio Rizzo, Francesco Passiglia, Antonio Galvano, Fabio Rizzo, Christian Rolfo, Daniele Fanale, Angela Listì, Clara Natoli, Viviana Bazan, Antonio Russo
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumor of the pleura with a poor prognosis. The most active first-line regimens are platinum compounds and pemetrexed. There is no standard second-line treatment in MPM. Advances in the understanding of tumor molecular biology have led to the development of several targeted treatments, which have been evaluated in clinical trials. Unfortunately none of the explored targeted treatments can currently be recommended as routine treatment in MPM. We reviewed the biological pathways involved in MPM, the clinical trials about targeted therapy, and possible related mechanisms of resistance...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823647/proposal-for-a-tailored-stratification-at-baseline-and-monitoring-of-cardiovascular-effects-during-follow-up-in-chronic-phase-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-patients-treated-with-nilotinib-frontline
#9
REVIEW
Massimo Breccia, Eleonora Arboscello, Andrea Bellodi, Gioia Colafigli, Matteo Molica, Micaela Bergamaschi, Fulvio Massaro, Luisa Quattrocchi, Matteo Sarocchi, Paolo Spallarossa, Giuliana Alimena
Nilotinib was approved for chronic myeloid leukemia patients in chronic phase or accelerated phase after resistance to imatinib or as frontline treatment. The drug, as other tyrosine kinase inhibitor has a specific safety profile with possible occurring metabolic side effects, such as increased glycaemia and cholesterol level, that may result, in predisposed patients, in an increased rate of cardiac and vascular disorders. The objectives of this paper were to focus on the optimal procedures to perform at diagnosis in order to identify patients at risk of possible events and the correct monitoring procedures in order to prevent and manage metabolic and cardiovascular adverse events...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823646/radioimmunotherapy-in-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-prediction-and-assessment-of-response
#10
REVIEW
Mahsa Eskian, MirHojjat Khorasanizadeh, Francoise Kraeber-Bodere, Nima Rezaei
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is one of the most common malignancies and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a novel modality for treating NHL which offers the combined use of monoclonal antibodies for specific targeting of malignant cells and radiation for killing these cells. Despite the promising results favoring RIT in several clinical studies in different target populations and NHL types, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for RIT agents is restricted to a limited number of indications and agents, maybe because of several ambiguities that still exist in the field...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823645/neuroblastoma-peripheral-neuroblastic-tumours
#11
REVIEW
Roberto Luksch, Maria Rita Castellani, Paola Collini, Bruno De Bernardi, Massimo Conte, Claudio Gambini, Lorenza Gandola, Alberto Garaventa, Davide Biasoni, Marta Podda, Angela Rita Sementa, Gemma Gatta, Gian Paolo Tonini
Peripheral neuroblastic tumours (PNTs), a family of tumours arising in the embryonal remnants of the sympathetic nervous system, account for 7-10% of all tumours in children. In two-thirds of cases, PNTs originate in the adrenal glands or the retroperitoneal ganglia. At least one third present metastases at onset, with bone and bone marrow being the most frequent metastatic sites. Disease extension, MYCN oncogene status and age are the most relevant prognostic factors, and their influence on outcome have been considered in the design of the recent treatment protocols...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823644/a-critical-review-of-treatment-modalities-for-blastic-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cell-neoplasm
#12
REVIEW
Umberto Falcone, Hassan Sibai, Uday Deotare
Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a clinically aggressive tumor derived from the precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. It is a rare disease presenting across all ages with either skin or both skin and bone marrow involvement often conferring a poor prognosis. Though localized radiation has been used before, acute leukemia based regimens, remains the treatment of choice for induction of remission. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant, either autologous or allogeneic, is further required for attaining sustained remissions...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823643/an-overview-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-related-thrombotic-complications
#13
REVIEW
Ugur Sahin, Pinar Ataca Atilla, Erden Atilla, Selami Kocak Toprak, Taner Demirer
Thrombotic episodes are far less common than bleeding complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, they lead to significant morbidity and mortality. These complications are classified into four groups, including venous thromboembolic events (VTE), catheter-induced thrombosis (CIT), transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy (TA-TMA) and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) or veno-occlusive disease (VOD). The frequency of VTE is increased among patients undergoing HSCT due to some acquired conditions including underlying malignancy, infections, administration of myeloablative conditioning regimens and/or total body irradiation, prolonged hospitalizations leading to immobility and presence of central venous catheters...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823642/atm-mutation-and-radiosensitivity-an-opportunity-in-the-therapy-of-mantle-cell-lymphoma
#14
REVIEW
Makhdum Ahmed, Lei Li, Chelsea Pinnix, Bouthaina Dabaja, Krystle Nomie, Laura Lam, Michael Wang
ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) is a DNA damage signaling-initiation kinase which has diverse function in responding to genotoxic stress to maintain its genomic integrity. Cells harboring loss-of-function ATM deficiencies demonstrate extreme radiosensitivity. The scope of radiotherapy has been considered very limited among patients with biallelic mutations or deletions of ATM due to its toxic effect on normal tissue. Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a highly chemo-refractory tumor with generally poor outcome, especially if the patients develop resistance to frontline drugs...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823641/adverse-neuropsychological-effects-associated-with-cumulative-doses-of-corticosteroids-to-treat-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-a-literature-review
#15
REVIEW
A J Pépin, A Cloutier-Bergeron, C Malboeuf-Hurtubise, M Achille, M Krajinovic, C Laverdière, S Lippé, S Marcoux, D Sinnett, S Sultan
Corticosteroids (CS) are an essential component of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatments (cALL). Although there is evidence that daily doses of CS can have neuropsychological effects, few studies have investigated the role of cumulative doses of CS in short- and long-term neuropsychological effects in cALL. The aims of this review were to identify the measures used for documenting adverse neuropsychological effects (ANEs) of CS treatment and to study the association between cumulative doses of CS and the presence of ANEs...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823640/impact-of-pet-ct-on-radiation-treatment-in-patients-with-esophageal-cancer-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Jing Lu, Xiang-Dong Sun, Xi Yang, Xin-Yu Tang, Qin Qin, Hong-Cheng Zhu, Hong-Yan Cheng, Xin-Chen Sun
PURPOSE: With the advances in radiotracers, positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is recognized as a useful adjunct to anatomic imaging with CT, MRI and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). The objective of this review was to comprehensively analyze the roles of PET/CT for the radiotherapy of esophageal cancer. METHODS: In this review, we focused on issues concerning the application of PET/CT in TNM staging, target volume delineation and response to therapy, both for the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823639/prostate-cancer-perspectives-after-chaarted-optimizing-treatment-sequence
#17
REVIEW
Sergio Vázquez Estévez, Urbano Anido Herranz, Ovidio Fernández Calvo, Francisco Javier Afonso Afonso, Lucía Santomé Couto, Martín Lázaro Quintela, Luis León Mateos, Sonia Maciá Escalante
Prostate cancer is the most frequent cancer amongst men. Until recently, only two therapeutic options, initial androgen-deprivation therapy in patients without castration-resistant prostate cancer, with addition of docetaxel when the disease becomes castration-resistant, were considered as standard. In the last years, new drugs (abiraterone, enzalutamide, Ra-223, Sipuleucel) have been developed for prostate cancer treatment with important advantages in safety and efficacy. Results from the recent Chaarted study, in patients that received docetaxel for the hormone sensitive disease, have contributed to change the initial treatment approach in metastatic prostate cancer, in order to adapt the best sequence for each patient...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823638/molecular-characteristics-of-biliary-tract-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Davendra P S Sohal, Shiva Shrotriya, Mohamed Abazeed, Michael Cruise, Alok Khorana
Biliary tract cancers (intrahepatic, perihilar and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and gallbladder and cystic duct cancers) are uncommon but highly lethal malignancies. Clinical presentation is often late, precluding curative surgical resection in most cases. For advanced disease, therapeutic options are limited to systemic chemotherapy, with suboptimal outcomes. An understanding of the molecular characteristics of biliary tract cancers may allow the clinical development of therapies targeting actionable alterations with the ultimate goal of improving clinical outcomes...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823637/migration-of-dendritic-cells-to-the-lymph-nodes-and-its-enhancement-to-drive-anti-tumor-responses
#19
REVIEW
Narges Seyfizadeh, Ravikumar Muthuswamy, Duane A Mitchell, Stefan Nierkens, Nayer Seyfizadeh
Better prognoses associated with increased T cell infiltration of tumors, as seen with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies and immune checkpoint inhibitors, portray the importance and potential of the immune system in controlling tumors. This has rejuvenated the field of cancer immunotherapy leading to an increasing number of immunotherapies developed for cancer patients. Dendritic Cells (DCs) vaccines represent an appealing option for cancer immunotherapy since DCs have the ability to circumvent tolerance to tumors by its adjuvant properties and to induce memory T cells that can become persistent after initial tumor clearance to engage potential metastatic tumors...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823636/infertility-risk-and-teratogenicity-of-molecularly-targeted-anticancer-therapy-a-challenging-issue
#20
REVIEW
Elena Lorenzi, Matteo Simonelli, Armando Santoro
The growing population of young cancer survivors and a trend toward postponing pregnancy until later in life are shifting areas of focus toward understanding treatment induced sequelae, particularly the effects of cancer and/or treatment on fertility. Whereas the fertility risk of cytotoxic agents for both men and women is well-recognized, the fertility risks and teratogenic potential associated with molecular targeted therapies are not established. We summarize available preclinical and clinical data on the impact of new molecular targeted agents on fertility in both sexes, and their potential teratogenic effects, providing recommendations for clinicians, where possible...
November 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
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