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Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648354/erratum-to-hypofractionated-radiotherapy-in-pancreatic-cancer-lessons-from-the-past-in-the-era-of-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-critical-reviews-in-oncology-hematology-103c-2016-49-61
#1
De Bari Berardino, Porta Laetitia, Mazzola Rosario, Alongi Filippo, Wagner Anna Dorothea, Schäfer Markus, Bourhis Jean, Ozsahin Mahmut
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600175/overcoming-immunosuppression-in-bone-metastases
#2
REVIEW
Zachary Z Reinstein, Sahithi Pamarthy, Vinay Sagar, Ricardo Costa, Sarki A Abdulkadir, Francis J Giles, Benedito A Carneiro
Bone metastases are present in up to 70% of advanced prostate and breast cancers and occur at significant rates in a variety of other cancers. Bone metastases can be associated with significant morbidity. The establishment of bone metastasis activates several immunosuppressive mechanisms. Hence, understanding the tumor-bone microenvironment is crucial to inform the development of novel therapies. This review describes the current standard of care for patients with bone metastatic disease and novel treatment options targeting the microenvironment...
May 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693804/reviewing-the-current-evidence-supporting-early-b-cells-as-the-cellular-origin-of-merkel-cell-carcinoma
#3
REVIEW
C M Sauer, A M Haugg, E Chteinberg, D Rennspiess, V Winnepenninckx, E-J Speel, J C Becker, A K Kurz, A Zur Hausen
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly malignant skin cancer characterized by early metastases and poor survival. Although MCC is a rare malignancy, its incidence is rapidly increasing in the U.S. and Europe. The discovery of the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) has enormously impacted our understanding of its etiopathogenesis and biology. MCCs are characterized by trilinear differentiation, comprising the expression of neuroendocrine, epithelial and B-lymphoid lineage markers. To date, it is generally accepted that the initial assumption of MCC originating from Merkel cells (MCs) is unlikely...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693803/the-see-saw-of-keap1-nrf2-pathway-in-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Poorti Pandey, Alok Kumar Singh, Mritunjai Singh, Mallika Tewari, Hari Shankar Shukla, Indrajeet Singh Gambhir
Keap1-Nrf2 pathway is continuously involved in the cytoprotection from oxidative stress generated due to various factors either extrinsic or intrinsic in origin. This role of Nrf2 in the response to oxidative stress is well established. Following oxidative insult, Nrf2 mediates the regulation of the inducible expression of cytoprotective genes. The level and functional capacity of Nrf2 is regulated at the post-transcriptional level, mainly through its association with an actin-associated protein, Keap1. Various studies reported that any discrepancy from their routine may lead to promotion of tumor as well...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693802/the-vicious-circle-of-treatment-induced-toxicities-in-locally-advanced-head-and-neck-cancer-and-the-impact-on-treatment-intensity
#5
REVIEW
Bossi Paolo, Cossu Rocca Maria, Corvò Renzo, Depenni Roberta, Guardamagna Vittorio, Marinangeli Franco, Miccichè Francesco, Trippa Fabio
The intensity of the available treatment approaches for locally-advanced head and neck cancer (HNC) is at the upper limit of tolerance of acute toxicities. Several factors including breakthrough cancer pain, mucositis, dysphagia, local and systemic infections, and nutritional problems are related to treatment intensity. Particularly, pain, as symptom directly associated with the disease or combined with other treatment-related factors, has a major impact on quality of life of HNC patients and ultimately can influence the efficacy of treatments in HNC...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693801/third-line-systemic-treatment-versus-best-supportive-care-for-advanced-metastatic-gastric-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Wing-Lok Chan, Kwok-Keung Yuen, Steven Wai-Kwan Siu, Ka-On Lam, Dora Lai-Wan Kwong
This review evaluated the efficacy, toxicities and quality of life of third-line systemic treatment (TLT) versus best supportive care (BSC) in metastatic gastric cancer patients after failing two lines of systemic treatment. Six studies were included, involving 890 participants (TLT: 587, BSC: 303, Asian: 679, 76.3%), median 53-61 years old, ECOG 0-1 with no major co-morbidities. Compared with BSC, TLT improved overall survival (HR 0.63; 95% CI 0.46-0.87, corresponding to an improvement in medial OS from 3...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693800/review-of-sequencing-platforms-and-their-applications-in-phaeochromocytoma-and-paragangliomas
#7
REVIEW
Suja Pillai, Vinod Gopalan, Alfred King-Yin Lam
Genetic testing is recommended for patients with phaeochromocytoma (PCC) and paraganglioma (PGL) because of their genetic heterogeneity and heritability. Due to the large number of susceptibility genes associated with PCC/PGL, next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology is ideally suited for carrying out genetic screening of these individuals. New generations of DNA sequencing technologies facilitate the development of comprehensive genetic testing in PCC/PGL at a lower cost. Whole-exome sequencing and targeted NGS are the preferred methods for screening of PCC/PGL, both having precise mutation detection methods and low costs...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693799/the-current-value-of-determining-the-mismatch-repair-status-of-colorectal-cancer-a-rationale-for-routine-testing
#8
REVIEW
E Ryan, K Sheahan, B Creavin, H M Mohan, D C Winter
Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is the third most prevalent cancer in men and women. Up to 15% of CRCs display microsatellite instability (MSI). MSI is reflective of a deficient mismatch repair (MMR) system and is most commonly caused by hypermethylation of the MLH1 promoter. However, it may also be due to autosomal dominant constitutional mutations in DNA MMR, termed Lynch Syndrome. MSI may be diagnosed via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or alternatively, immunohistochemistry (IHC) can identify MMR deficiency (dMMR)...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693798/brain-metastases-from-non-small-cell-lung-carcinoma-changing-concepts-for-improving-patients-outcome
#9
REVIEW
Chloé Rancoule, Alexis Vallard, Jean-Baptiste Guy, Sophie Espenel, Peng Diao, Cyrus Chargari, Nicolas Magné
The management of Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) brain metastases is challenging, as this frequent complication negatively impacts patients' quality of life, and can be a life-threatening event. Through a review of the literature, we discuss the main therapeutic options and the recent developments that improved (and complicated) the management of NSCLC brain metastases patients. Most current validated approaches are local with exclusive or combined surgery, whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) and stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT)...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693797/azacitidine-in-adult-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#10
REVIEW
Andre C Schuh, Hartmut Döhner, Lisa Pleyer, John F Seymour, Pierre Fenaux, Hervé Dombret
Azacitidine is recommended front-line treatment for older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who are not candidates for intensive treatment regimens, and was recently granted approval in the European Union for treatment of adult AML. Reviewed here is azacitidine experience in AML, including: mechanistic and pharmacokinetic data; safety and efficacy in controlled trials; treatment effects in AML subpopulations defined by disease characteristics; experience in unselected patients treated in the community setting; clinical outcomes relative to other approved AML therapies; and experience with azacitidine-based combination treatment regimens...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693796/regulatory-effects-of-berberine-on-micrornome-in-cancer-and-other-conditions
#11
REVIEW
Seyed Hasan Ayati, Badrieh Fazeli, Amir Abbas Momtazi-Borojeni, Arrigo F G Cicero, Matteo Pirro, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Berberine (BBR) is an isoquinoline alkaloid found in different plant families such as Berberidaceae, Ranunculaceae, and Papaveraceae. BBR is well-known for its anti-inflammatory, lipid-modifying, anticancer, anti-diabetic, antibacterial, antiparasitic and fungicide activities. Multiple pharmacological actions of BBR stem from different molecular targets of this phytochemical. MicroRNAs (miRs) are single-stranded, evolutionary conserved, small non-coding RNA molecules with a length of 19-23 nucleotides that are involved in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression through binding to the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of target mRNA...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693795/the-role-of-the-systemic-inflammatory-response-in-predicting-outcomes-in-patients-with-advanced-inoperable-cancer-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Ross D Dolan, Stephen T McSorley, Paul G Horgan, Barry Laird, Donald C McMillan
INTRODUCTION: Cancer remains a leading cause of death worldwide. While a curative intent is the aim of any surgical treatment many patients either present with or go onto develop disseminated disease requiring systemic anti-cancer therapy with a palliative intent. Given their limited life expectancy appropriate allocation of treatment is vital. It is recognised that systemic chemoradiotherapy may shorten the quality/quantity of life in patients with advanced cancer. It is against this background that the present systematic review and meta-analysis of the prognostic value of markers of the systemic inflammatory response in patients with advanced cancer was conducted...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693794/adiponectin-its-role-in-obesity-associated-colon-and-prostate-cancers
#13
REVIEW
Santoshi Muppala, Siva K P Konduru, Neha Merchant, Judy Ramsoondar, Carlos Karan Rampersad, Balney Rajitha, Vidya Mukund, Jyothsna Kancherla, Anthea Hammond, Tapan Kumar Barik, Mastan Mannarapu, Afroz Alam, Riyaz Basha, Pallaval Veera Bramhachari, Dheeraj Verma, Pinninti Santosh Sushma, Subasini Pattnaik, Ganji Purnachandra Nagaraju
Adipose tissue synthesizes many proteins and hormones collectively called adipokines, which are linked to a number of diseases, including cancer. Low levels of adiponectin are reported to be a risk factor for obesity-related cancers including colorectal and prostate cancers. Accordingly, obesity/lifestyle-related diseases, including certain cancers, may be treated by developing drugs that act specifically on adiponectin levels in circulation. Adiponectin may also serve as a clinical biomarker in obesity-related diseases...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693793/biomarkers-of-response-to-pd-1-pd-l1-inhibition
#14
REVIEW
Saman Maleki Vareki, Carmen Garrigós, Ignacio Duran
Immunotherapy is a promising treatment strategy for cancer that has recently shown unprecedented survival benefits in selected patients. A number of immunomodulatory agents that target immune system checkpoints such as the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), the programmed death-1 (PD-1) or its ligand (PD-L1), have received regulatory approval for the treatment of multiple cancers including malignant melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma, classical Hodgkin lymphoma, and recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693792/cholangiocarcinoma
#15
REVIEW
Michela Squadroni, Luca Tondulli, Gemma Gatta, Stefania Mosconi, Giordano Beretta, Roberto Labianca
Biliary tract cancer accounts for <1% of all cancers and affects chiefly an elderly population, with predominance in men. We distinguish cholangiocarcinoma (intrahepatic, hilar and distal) and gallbladder cancer, with different pathogenesis and prognosis. The treatment is based on surgery (whenever possible), radiotherapy in selected cases, and chemotherapy. The standard cytotoxic treatment for advanced/metastatic disease is represented by the combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin, whereas fluoropyrimidines are generally administered in second line setting...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693791/etv6-and-etv7-siblings-in-hematopoiesis-and-its-disruption-in-disease
#16
REVIEW
Parisa Rasighaemi, Alister C Ward
ETV6 (TEL1) and ETV7 (TEL2) are closely-related members of the ETS family of transcriptional regulators. Both ETV6 and ETV7 have been demonstrated to play key roles in hematopoiesis, particularly with regard to maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells and control of lineage-specific differentiation, with evidence of functional interactions between both proteins. ETV6 has been strongly implicated in the molecular etiology of a number of hematopoietic diseases, including as a tumor suppressor, an oncogenic fusion partner, and an important regulator of thrombopoiesis, but recent evidence has also identified ETV7 as a potential oncogene in certain malignancies...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693790/application-of-metabolomics-in-sarcoma-from-biomarkers-to-therapeutic-targets
#17
REVIEW
Li Min, Edwin Choy, Chongqi Tu, Francis Hornicek, Zhenfeng Duan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602171/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-on-the-proportion-of-patients-with-breast-cancer-who-develop-bone-metastases
#18
REVIEW
Jean-Jacques Body, Geoffrey Quinn, Susan Talbot, Emma Booth, Gaston Demonty, Aliki Taylor, Justyna Amelio
A systematic literature review was conducted to quantify populations of patients with primary breast cancer in whom bone metastases were detected at study start or during follow-up. Searches were performed in PubMed and EMBASE using terms related to breast cancer and bone metastases. Articles had to have been published 01/01/99-31/12/13, and to report data on the proportion of patients with bone metastases among patients with breast cancer. In total, 156 articles were included in the meta-analysis. A median of 12% of patients with stage I-III breast cancer developed bone metastases during a median follow-up of 60 months...
July 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602170/treatment-options-for-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-in-patients-with-liver-dysfunction-due-to-malignancy
#19
REVIEW
L Faugeras, A Dili, A Druez, B Krug, C Decoster, L D'Hondt
BACKGROUND: The survival of colorectal cancer patients is frequently determined by the extent of metastatic invasion to the liver; in cases of major involvement, therapeutic strategies are limited because the liver is necessary for drug metabolism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We have reviewed articles about the pharmacokinetic profiles of each drug used in colorectal cancer patients with hepatic dysfunction to determine which of these treatments are most feasible. RESULTS: Some drugs appear to be feasible options for patients with hepatic insufficiency...
July 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602169/toxicities-of-systemic-agents-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck-scchn-a-new-perspective-in-the-era-of-immunotherapy
#20
REVIEW
Nabil F Saba, Mayur D Mody, Elaine S Tan, Harpaul S Gill, Alessandra Rinaldo, Robert P Takes, Primož Strojan, Dana M Hartl, Jan B Vermorken, Missak Haigentz, Alfio Ferlito
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is a difficult to treat malignancy and represents the seventh most common cancer worldwide. Systemic therapy has a critical role in the treatment of locally advanced and recurrent/metastatic disease. Cytotoxic chemotherapy has been primarily used along with radiation and surgery, with cisplatin being the standard of care choice of therapy. When contraindications to cisplatin exist, other agents such as carboplatin, taxanes, 5-fluorouracil, and cetuximab are used...
July 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
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