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Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916378/clinical-pharmacology-of-anti-angiogenic-drugs-in-oncology
#1
REVIEW
P Gougis, J Wassermann, J P Spano, N Keynan, C Funck-Brentano, J E Salem
Abnormal vasculature proliferation is one of the so-called hallmarks of cancer. Angiogenesis inhibitor therapies are one of the major breakthroughs in cancer treatment in the last two decades. Two types of anti-angiogenics have been approved: monoclonal antibodies and derivatives, which are injected and target the extracellular part of a receptor, and protein kinase inhibitors, which are orally taken small molecules targeting the intra-cellular Adenosine Triphosphate -pocket of different kinases. They have become an important part of some tumors' treatment, both in monotherapy or in combination...
September 1, 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893462/developing-drugs-in-cancer-related-bone-pain
#2
REVIEW
Maurizio Lucchesi, Gaetano Lanzetta, Andrea Antonuzzo, Antonio Rozzi, Iacopo Sardi, Claudio Favre, Carla Ida Ripamonti, Daniele Santini, Grazia Armento
INTRODUCTION: Cancer-related bone pain is a frequent and important key problem for metastatic patients that may reduce quality of life, with related limitations in daily activities and morbidity. Often traditional approach to pain may fail given the complex pathophysiology of this phenomenon. METHODS: The aim of this review is to describe promising therapies for cancer-related bone pain, from the pathophysiology to the clinical trials currently ongoing. Moreover, any new evidence for better approach to cancer-related bone pain with the traditional drugs is also considered...
August 25, 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917273/mechanisms-and-risk-factors-of-thrombosis-in-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Anna Falanga, Laura Russo, Viola Milesi, Alfonso Vignoli
The close relationship between cancer and thrombosis is known since more than a century. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) may be the first manifestation of an occult malignancy in an otherwise healthy individual. Cancer patients commonly present with abnormalities of laboratory coagulation tests, indicating an ongoing subclinical hypercoagulable condition. The results of laboratory tests demonstrate that a process of fibrin formation and removal parallels the development of malignancy, which is of particular interest since fibrin and other clotting products are important for both thrombogenesis and tumor progression...
October 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917272/towards-personalized-medicine-of-colorectal-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Mohammad Azhar Aziz, Zeyad Yousef, Ayman M Saleh, Sameer Mohammad, Bandar Al Knawy
Efforts in colorectal cancer (CRC) research aim to improve early detection and treatment for metastatic stages which could translate into better prognosis of this disease. One of the major challenges that hinder these efforts is the heterogeneous nature of CRC and involvement of diverse molecular pathways. New large-scale 'omics' technologies are making it possible to generate, analyze and interpret biological data from molecular determinants of CRC. The developments of sophisticated computational analyses would allow information from different omics platforms to be integrated, thus providing new insights into the biology of CRC...
October 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917271/cognitive-impairment-and-chemotherapy-a-brief-overview
#5
REVIEW
Milena Vitali, Carla Ida Ripamonti, Fausto Roila, Claudia Proto, Diego Signorelli, Martina Imbimbo, Giulia Corrao, Angela Brissa, Gallucci Rosaria, Filippo de Braud, Marina Chiara Garassino, Giuseppe Lo Russo
Patients with cancer are experiencing long-term survival following chemotherapy, but the treatment may also be associated with short and long-term toxicity, including the possibility of cognitive dysfunction. A literature overview indicated a significant association between chemotherapy and cognitive impairment but prospective longitudinal research is warranted to examine the degree and persisting nature of this decline. Although chemotherapeutic agents are unlikely to cross the blood-brain barrier, it has been alleged that the occurrence of neurotoxicity is linked to the pro-inflammatory cytokine pathways...
October 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917270/cancer-related-fatigue-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#6
REVIEW
E Nowe, Y Stöbel-Richter, A Sender, K Leuteritz, M Friedrich, K Geue
Adolescents and young adults with cancer (AYA) represent a specific age cohort dealing with the disease in a stage of life characterized by development, upheavals, and establishment. The aim of this study was to point out the state of research on how AYA are affected by cancer-related fatigue (CRF). RESULTS: Twelve articles were included. CRF was found to be higher in AYA than in either of the comparison groups, healthy peers and older cancer patients. Most included studies did not measure CRF with multidimensional, fatigue-specific instruments...
October 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917269/triplet-folfoxiri-versus-doublet-folfox-or-folfiri-backbone-chemotherapy-as-first-line-treatment-of-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Rui Pedro Marques, Gonçalo S Duarte, Carmelo Sterrantino, Helena Luna Pais, António Quintela, Ana Paula Martins, João Costa
Uncertainty exists regarding the comparative effectiveness of triplet chemotherapy (FOLFOXIRI) as backbone first-line chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) comparing triplet versus doublet chemotherapy (FOLFOX or FOLFIRI) as first-line therapy in mCRC. Methods and reporting followed PRISMA and SAMPL guidelines. Eight RCTs were included, comprising 1732 patients. In pooled analysis, FOLFOXIRI was associated with improvements in efficacy outcomes, notably with a 25% survival increase (95%CI: 10-37%)...
October 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917268/targeting-androgen-independent-pathways-new-chances-for-patients-with-prostate-cancer
#8
REVIEW
C Cattrini, E Zanardi, G Vallome, A Cavo, L Cerbone, A Di Meglio, C Fabbroni, M M Latocca, F Rizzo, C Messina, A Rubagotti, P Barboro, F Boccardo
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the mainstay treatment for advanced prostate cancer (PC). Most patients eventually progress to a condition known as castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), characterized by lack of response to ADT. Although new androgen receptor signaling (ARS) inhibitors and chemotherapeutic agents have been introduced to overcome resistance to ADT, many patients progress because of primary or acquired resistance to these agents. This comprehensive review aims at exploring the mechanisms of resistance and progression of PC, with specific focus on alterations which lead to the activation of androgen receptor (AR)-independent pathways of survival...
October 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917267/distance-delivered-physical-activity-interventions-for-childhood-cancer-survivors-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
David Mizrahi, Claire E Wakefield, Joanna E Fardell, Veronica F Quinn, Qishan Lim, Briana K Clifford, David Simar, Kirsten K Ness, Richard J Cohn
This review aimed to determine the feasibility of distance-delivered physical activity (PA) interventions in childhood cancer survivors (CCS), and assess the effect on PA levels, and physical, physiological and psychological outcomes. We searched electronic databases until May 2016, including studies following intensive treatment. Meta-analyses were conducted on randomized controlled trials. We calculated the effect of interventions on PA levels and physical, physiological and psychological health outcomes...
October 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917266/urinary-biomarkers-in-prostate-cancer-detection-and-monitoring-progression
#10
REVIEW
Duojia Wu, Jie Ni, Julia Beretov, Paul Cozzi, Mark Willcox, Valerie Wasinger, Bradley Walsh, Peter Graham, Yong Li
Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most common cancer in men and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in males in Australia. Although serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been the most widely used biomarker in CaP detection for decades, PSA screening has limitations such as low specificity and potential association with over-diagnosis. Current biomarkers used in the clinic are not useful for the early detection of CaP, or monitoring its progression, and have limited value in predicting response to treatment...
October 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917265/olaratumab-pdgfr-%C3%AE-inhibition-as-a-novel-tool-in-the-treatment-of-advanced-soft-tissue-sarcomas
#11
REVIEW
Bruno Vincenzi, Giuseppe Badalamenti, Andrea Napolitano, Mariella Spalato Ceruso, Francesco Pantano, Giovanni Grignani, Antonio Russo, Daniele Santini, Massimo Aglietta, Giuseppe Tonini
Advanced soft tissue sarcomas are aggressive cancers with limited therapeutic options. Recently, inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-α by the monoclonal antibody olaratumab showed promising clinical activity. If confirmed, this would be one of the first examples of targeted therapy effective in advanced soft tissue sarcomas therapy independently of the histologic subtype. Here, we reviewed the biology of the PDGF/PDGFR axis, particularly focusing on its role in cancer, and then we discussed on the effects of PDGFR-α inhibition in the therapy of advanced soft tissue sarcomas...
October 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807238/unravelling-the-complexity-of-signalling-networks-in-cancer-a-review-of-the-increasing-role-for-computational-modelling
#12
REVIEW
John Garland
Cancer induction is a highly complex process involving hundreds of different inducers but whose eventual outcome is the same. Clearly, it is essential to understand how signalling pathways and networks generated by these inducers interact to regulate cell behaviour and create the cancer phenotype. While enormous strides have been made in identifying key networking profiles, the amount of data generated far exceeds our ability to understand how it all "fits together". The number of potential interactions is astronomically large and requires novel approaches and extreme computation methods to dissect them out...
September 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807237/mitochondrial-dysfunctions-in-bladder-cancer-exploring-their-role-as-disease-markers-and-potential-therapeutic-targets
#13
REVIEW
Antonella Cormio, Francesca Sanguedolce, Clara Musicco, Vito Pesce, Giuseppe Calò, Pantaleo Bufo, Giuseppe Carrieri, Luigi Cormio
Bladder cancer (BC) is a major cause of mortality worldwide as it currently lacks fully reliable markers of disease outcome and effective molecular targets for therapy. Mitochondria play a key role in cell metabolism but the role of mitochondrial dysfunctions in BC has been scarcely investigated. In this review, we explored current evidence for the potential role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) alterations (point mutations and copy number) as disease markers in BC. Some germline mtDNA mutations detectable in blood could represent a non-invasive tool to predict the risk of developing BC...
September 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807236/overcoming-barriers-to-treating-iron-overload-in-patients-with-lower-risk-myelodysplastic-syndrome
#14
REVIEW
Amer M Zeidan, Vinod A Pullarkat, Rami S Komrokji
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) constitute a group of heterogeneous hematopoietic neoplasms characterized by ineffective erythropoiesis, anemia, and/or cytopenias. Supportive care for patients with MDS involves frequent red blood cell transfusions, which places patients with ongoing transfusional dependence (TD) at risk for iron overload (IO). Development of IO and tissue iron deposition can increase the risk of cardiac, hepatic, and endocrine toxicities, infection, and progression to acute myeloid leukemia...
September 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807235/stereotactic-ablative-radiation-therapy-in-renal-cell-carcinoma-from-oligometastatic-to-localized-disease
#15
REVIEW
Filippo Alongi, Stefano Arcangeli, Luca Triggiani, Rosario Mazzola, Michela Buglione di Monale E Bastia, Sergio Fersino, Anna Baiguini, Barbara Alicja Jereczek-Fossa, Stefano Maria Magrini
Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) has historically been considered a radioresistant cancer, and radiotherapy was usually delivered with a palliative goal. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) allows the delivery of high doses on small treatment volumes in a safe and effective way, thus opening the doors to new applicationsof radiotherapy both in the treatment of the primary and oligometastasic disease. Aim of the current review is to explore the state of art of SABR in the therapeutic approach to RCC.
September 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807234/third-generation-egfr-tkis-in-egfr-mutated-nsclc-where-are-we-now-and-where-are-we-going
#16
REVIEW
A Russo, T Franchina, G R R Ricciardi, V Smiroldo, M Picciotto, M Zanghì, C Rolfo, V Adamo
The therapeutic landscape of Non Small Lung Cancer (NSCLC) has been profoundly changed over the last decade with the clinical introduction of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and the discovery of EGFR activating mutations as the major predictive factor to these agents. Despite impressive clinical activity against EGFR-mutated NSCLCs, the benefit seen with 1st and 2nd generation EGFR TKIs is usually transient and virtually all patients become resistant. Several different mechanisms of acquired resistance have been reported to date, but the vast majority of patients develop a secondary exon 20 mutation in the ATP-binding site of EGFR, namely T790M...
September 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807233/overcoming-obstacles-in-the-design-of-cancer-anorexia-weight-loss-trials
#17
REVIEW
Jennifer G Le-Rademacher, Jeffrey Crawford, William J Evans, Aminah Jatoi
Most advanced cancer patients suffer loss of appetite (anorexia) and loss of weight. Despite the fact that cancer anorexia and weight loss are associated with a poor prognosis and detract from quality of life, no interventions have been demonstrated to palliate this syndrome in its entirety, particularly in patients with treatment-refractory malignancies. Recently, two registration trials - one with anamorelin and another with enobosarm - failed to reach their primary endpoints, thus raising questions. Were both these agents ineffective? Alternatively, did study design issues compromise the ability of these trials to identify effective agents? Thus, this review is timely insofar it serves as an introduction to study design, offers guidance on how to test promising agents for cancer anorexia/weight loss, and provides advice for overcoming trial design obstacles...
September 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807232/ovarian-cancer-novel-molecular-aspects-for-clinical-assessment
#18
REVIEW
Raffaele Palmirotta, Erica Silvestris, Stella D'Oronzo, Angela Cardascia, Franco Silvestris
Ovarian cancer is a very heterogeneous tumor which has been traditionally characterized according to the different histological subtypes and differentiation degree. In recent years, innovative molecular screening biotechnologies have allowed to identify further subtypes of this cancer based on gene expression profiles, mutational features, and epigenetic factors. These novel classification systems emphasizing the molecular signatures within the broad spectrum of ovarian cancer have not only allowed a more precise prognostic prediction, but also proper therapeutic strategies for specific subgroups of patients...
September 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807231/bartholin-gland-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Violante Di Donato, Assunta Casorelli, Erlisa Bardhi, Flaminia Vena, Marchetti Claudia, Ludovico Muzii, Pierluigi Benedetti Panici
INTRODUCTION: Bartholin gland carcinoma is an extremely rare condition. Because of its, phase III trials have not been carried out, there exists no unanimous consensus on treatment and guidelines are missing. METHODS: All studies reporting cases of Bartholin cancer were collected and screened for the evaluations. Baseline characteristics of studies were extracted and were queried in a database. RESULTS: A total number of 133 manuscripts collected were available for the review process, representing a total number of 275 reported cases...
September 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693804/reviewing-the-current-evidence-supporting-early-b-cells-as-the-cellular-origin-of-merkel-cell-carcinoma
#20
REVIEW
C M Sauer, A M Haugg, E Chteinberg, D Rennspiess, V Winnepenninckx, E-J Speel, J C Becker, A K Kurz, A Zur Hausen
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly malignant skin cancer characterized by early metastases and poor survival. Although MCC is a rare malignancy, its incidence is rapidly increasing in the U.S. and Europe. The discovery of the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) has enormously impacted our understanding of its etiopathogenesis and biology. MCCs are characterized by trilinear differentiation, comprising the expression of neuroendocrine, epithelial and B-lymphoid lineage markers. To date, it is generally accepted that the initial assumption of MCC originating from Merkel cells (MCs) is unlikely...
August 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
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