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Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109409/ecco-essential-requirements-for-quality-cancer-care-soft-tissue-sarcoma-in-adults-and-bone-sarcoma-a-critical-review
#1
REVIEW
Elisabeth Andritsch, Marc Beishon, Stefan Bielack, Sylvie Bonvalot, Paolo Casali, Mirjam Crul, Roberto Delgado- Bolton, Davide Maria Donati, Hassan Douis, Rick Haas, Pancras Hogendoorn, Olga Kozhaeva, Verna Lavender, Jozsef Lovey, Anastassia Negrouk, Philippe Pereira, Pierre Roca, Godelieve Rochette de Lempdes, Tiina Saarto, Bert van Berck, Gilles Vassal, Markus Wartenberg, Wendy Yared, Alberto Costa, Peter Naredi
BACKGROUND: ECCO essential requirements for quality cancer care (ERQCC) are checklists and explanations of organisation and actions that are necessary to give high-quality care to patients who have a specific tumour type. They are written by European experts representing all disciplines involved in cancer care. ERQCC papers give oncology teams, patients, policymakers and managers an overview of the elements needed in any healthcare system to provide high quality of care throughout the patient journey...
February 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109408/ecco-essential-requirements-for-quality-cancer-care-colorectal-cancer-a-critical-review
#2
REVIEW
Geerard Beets, David Sebag-Montefiore, Elisabeth Andritsch, Dirk Arnold, Marc Beishon, Mirjam Crul, Jan Willem Dekker, Roberto Delgado-Bolton, Jean-François Fléjou, Wolfgang Grisold, Geoffrey Henning, Andrea Laghi, Jozsef Lovey, Anastassia Negrouk, Philippe Pereira, Pierre Roca, Tiina Saarto, Thomas Seufferlein, Claire Taylor, Giampaolo Ugolini, Cornelis van de Velde, Bert van Herck, Wendy Yared, Alberto Costa, Peter Naredi
ECCO essential requirements for quality cancer care (ERQCC) are checklists and explanations of organisation and actions that are necessary to give high-quality care to patients who have a specific tumour type. They are written by European experts representing all disciplines involved in cancer care. ERQCC papers give oncology teams, patients, policymakers and managers an overview of the elements needed in any healthcare system to provide high quality of care throughout the patient journey. References are made to clinical guidelines and other resources where appropriate, and the focus is on care in Europe...
February 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109407/treatment-of-the-axilla-in-patients-with-primary-breast-cancer-and-low-burden-axillary-disease-limitations-of-the-evidence-from-randomised-controlled-trials
#3
REVIEW
J F R Robertson, P J J Herrod, J Matthew, L S Kilburn, C E Coles, I Bradbury
Invasive breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide. It is known to metastasise to the regional axillary lymph nodes but there has been debate over what is the best way to stage and treat the axilla in patients presenting with primary breast cancer. Multiple trials over the last two decades have led to a change in practice from routine axillary lymph node dissection to sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients who are clinically lymph node negative preoperatively. This has resulted in new questions regarding subsequent treatment of some patients...
February 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109406/salivary-biomarkers-in-the-diagnosis-of-breast-cancer-a-review
#4
REVIEW
Elisa Cançado Porto-Mascarenhas, Daniele Xavier Assad, Hélène Chardin, David Gozal, Graziela De Luca Canto, Ana Carolina Acevedo, Eliete Neves Silva Guerra
Salivary biomarkers could be helpful to characterize breast cancer. Therefore, this review was performed to evaluate the capability of salivary biological markers in the diagnosis and monitoring of breast cancer. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they assessed the potential diagnostic value or other discriminatory properties of biological markers in saliva of patients with breast cancer. The search was performed in six electronic databases (Cochrane, LILACS, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science)...
February 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109405/challenges-and-methodology-in-the-incorporation-of-biomarkers-in-cancer-clinical-trials
#5
REVIEW
Charlotte S Wilhelm-Benartzi, Shahrul Mt-Isa, Francesca Fiorentino, Robert Brown, Deborah Ashby
Biomarkers can be used to establish more homogeneous groups using the genetic makeup of the tumour to inform the selection of treatment for each individual patient. However, proper preclinical work and stringent validation are needed before taking forward biomarkers into confirmatory studies. Despite the challenges, incorporation of biomarkers into clinical trials could better target appropriate patients, and potentially be lifesaving. The authors conducted a systematic review to describe marker-based and adaptive design methodology for their integration in clinical trials, and to further describe the associated practical challenges...
February 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109404/how-could-breast-cancer-molecular-features-contribute-to-locoregional-treatment-decision-making
#6
REVIEW
Pelagia G Tsoutsou, Marie-Catherine Vozenin, André-Dante Durham, Jean Bourhis
Systemic treatments are tailored to breast cancer (BC) heterogeneity, which is not yet taken into account for radiotherapy (RT) personalization. The primary objective of this review is to summarize existing data suggesting BC subtypes and genetic assays are prognostic and predictive biomarkers useful for RT decision-making and to provide implications for their incorporation into future translational and clinical research. The evidence suggesting that BC subtypes also exhibit distinct "locoregional recurrence (LRR)" patterns is retrospective but consistent and validated in over fifteen studies...
February 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109403/total-antioxidant-capacity-in-beta-thalassemia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-case-control-studies
#7
REVIEW
Husseen Manafikhi, Gregor Drummen, Maura Palmery, Ilaria Peluso
Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), a biomarker measuring the antioxidant potential of body fluids, including redox synergistic interactions, is influenced by the presence of products of catabolism such as bilirubin (BR) and uric acid (UA). Hyperuricaemia and increased BR levels were observed in thalassemia. In order to evaluate the differences in TAC values between thalassemic patients and healthy subjects, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies. After the exclusion of data deemed unsuitable for meta-analysis inclusion and a study imputed of bias by Trim-and-fill analysis, mean difference (MD) and confidence intervals 95% (CI 95%) were calculated by the random effect model for beta-thalassemia major (BTM) (1351 subjects: 770 thalassemic and 581 controls, from 15 studies) and Trait (BTT) or Hemoglobin E (BTE) (475 subjects: 165 thalassemic and 310 controls, from 5 studies)...
February 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109402/frontline-treatment-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia-in-adults
#8
REVIEW
Gevorg Tamamyan, Tapan Kadia, Farhad Ravandi, Gautam Borthakur, Jorge Cortes, Elias Jabbour, Naval Daver, Maro Ohanian, Hagop Kantarjian, Marina Konopleva
Recent years have highlighted significant progress in understanding the underlying genetic and epigenetic signatures of acute myeloid leukemia(AML). Most importantly, novel chemotherapy and targeted strategies have led to improved outcomes in selected genetic subsets. AML is a remarkably heterogeneous disease, and individualized therapies for disease-specific characteristics (considering patients' age, cytogenetics, and mutations) could yield better outcomes. Compared with the historical 5-to 10-year survival rate of 10%, the survival of patients who undergo modern treatment approaches reaches up to 40-50%, and for specific subsets, the improvements are even more dramatic; for example, in acute promyelocytic leukemia, the use of all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide improved survival from 30 to 40% up to 80 to 90%...
February 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109401/melanoma-last-call-for-radiotherapy
#9
REVIEW
Sophie Espenel, Alexis Vallard, Chloé Rancoule, Max-Adrien Garcia, Jean-Baptiste Guy, Cyrus Chargari, Eric Deutsch, Nicolas Magné
Melanoma is traditionally considered to be a radioresistant tumor. However, radiotherapy and immunotherapy latest developments might upset this radiobiological dogma. Stereotactic radiotherapy allows high dose per fraction delivery, with high dose rate. More DNA lethal damages, less sublethal damages reparation, endothelial cell apoptosis, and finally clonogenic cell dysfunction are produced, resulting in improved local control. Radiotherapy can also enhance immune responses, inducing neoantigens formation, tumor antigen presentation, and cytokines release...
February 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109400/tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-gastrointestinal-tumors-controversies-and-future-clinical-implications
#10
REVIEW
Cinzia Solinas, Grazia Pusole, Laura Demurtas, Marco Puzzoni, Roberta Mascia, Gilberto Morgan, Riccardo Giampieri, Mario Scartozzi
Chronic inflammation following infections, autoimmune diseases or exposure to environmental irritants plays a crucial role in tumor development and influences the host immune response to neoplastic cells. The presence of an anti-tumor immune infiltrate is often associated with better outcomes in gastro-intestinal primary cancers, particularly in those with high microsatellite instability (MSI-H). Immunotherapeutic drugs inhibiting the PD-1 and PD-L1 pathway showed promising results in the treatment of these patients in the metastatic setting...
February 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109399/targeting-kras-mutated-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-history-of-failures-and-a-future-of-hope-for-a-diverse-entity
#11
REVIEW
Alexios Matikas, Dimitrios Mistriotis, Vasilios Georgoulias, Athanasios Kotsakis
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in both men and women. However, the discovery of several oncogenic driver mutations and the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors resulted in improved clinical outcomes for most patients. Although activating KRAS mutations are the most common recurring molecular events in lung adenocarcinoma, little progress has been made during the past decades with no new agents being approved for this indication. The elucidation of the underlying biology of this diverse patient subgroup offers great potential and renewed hope regarding the rational development, rigorous evaluation and subsequent approval of novel targeted agents and combinations which will effectively suppress compensatory escape routes and the emergence of resistance, issues that have plagued previous attempts...
February 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010901/clinical-relevance-of-colorectal-cancer-molecular-subtypes
#12
REVIEW
Nuria Rodriguez-Salas, Gema Dominguez, Rodrigo Barderas, Marta Mendiola, Xabier García-Albéniz, Juan Maurel, Jaime Feliu Batlle
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is characterized by alteration of critical pathways such TP53 inactivation, BRAF, PI3CA mutations, APC inactivation, KRAS, TGF-β, CTNNB mutations, disregulation of Epithelial to mesnechymal transition (EMT) genes, WNT signaling activation, MYC amplification, and others. Differences in these molecular events results in differences in phenotypic characteristics of CRC, that have been studied and classified by different models of molecular subtypes. It could have potential applications to prognosis, but also to therapeutical approaches of the CRC patients...
January 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010900/emergence-of-mir-34a-in-radiation-therapy
#13
REVIEW
Jerome Lacombe, Frederic Zenhausern
Expressions of many microRNAs (miRNAs) in response to ionizing radiation (IR) have already been investigated and some of them seem to play an important role in the tumor radioresistance, normal tissue radiotoxicity or as predictive biomarkers to radiation. miR-34a is an emerging miRNA in recent radiobiology studies. Here, we review this miR-34 family member by detailing its different roles in radiation response and we will discuss about the role that it can play in radiation treatment. Thus, we will show that IR regulates miR-34a by increasing its expression...
January 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010899/sparcl1-a-novel-player-in-cancer-biology
#14
REVIEW
Filippo Gagliardi, Ashwin Narayanan, Pietro Mortini
Matricellular proteins are secreted, nonstructural proteins, involved in the mediation of molecular interactions between cells and extracellular microenvironment. They include several, structurally unrelated, members and their homologs. Among these a particularly interesting one is SPARCL1 due to its potential interactions in tumor biology. SPARCL1 is a secreted glycoprotein, belonging to SPARC family of matricellular proteins. It is implicated in the regulation of cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation...
January 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010898/the-etiopathogenesis-of-diffuse-low-grade-gliomas
#15
REVIEW
Amélie Darlix, Catherine Gozé, Valérie Rigau, Luc Bauchet, Luc Taillandier, Hugues Duffau
The origins of diffuse low-grade gliomas (DLGG) are unknown. Beyond some limited data on their temporal and cellular origins, the mechanisms and risk factors involved are poorly known. First, based on strong relationships between DLGG development and the eloquence of brain regions frequently invaded by these tumors, we propose a "functional theory" to explain the origin of DLGG. Second, the biological pathways involved in DLGG genesis may differ according to tumor location (anatomo-molecular correlations). The cellular and molecular mechanisms of such "molecular theory" will be reviewed...
January 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010897/brentuximab-vedotin-for-treatment-of-non-hodgkin-lymphomas-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Garrett K Berger, Ali McBride, Stephanie Lawson, Kelsey Royball, Seongseok Yun, Kevin Gee, Irbaz Bin Riaz, Ahlam A Saleh, Soham Puvvada, Faiz Anwer
BACKGROUND: Brentuximab vedotin (BV) is an antibody-drug conjucate (ADC) comprising a CD30-directed antibody, conjugated to the microtubule-disrupting agent MMAE via a protease cleavable linker. BV is FDA approved for use in relapsed classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and relapsed systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (sALCL). There are multiple publications for its utility in other malignancies such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), mycosis fungoides (MF), Sézary syndrome (SS), T-cell lymphomas (TCL), primary mediastinal lymphoma (PMBL), and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD)...
January 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010896/new-perspectives-in-the-second-line-treatment-of-non-squamous-nsclc-patients-results-from-a-large-italian-lung-cancer-working-group
#17
REVIEW
Diego Cortinovis, Vanesa Gregorc, Maria Rita Migliorino, Maria Ida Abate, Anna Manzo, Umberto Malapelle, Alessandro Morabito
Lung cancer is still considered a big killer among cancer diseases, due to high incidence and mortality rates. The newer frontiers of therapeutic development regard the discovery of oncogene driven tumours: however, the majority of NSCLC patients are wild type and they cannot be treated with targeted based agents. The recent positive results obtained with immunotherapy and with the combination of angiogenesis inhibitors and docetaxel, changed the therapeutic scenario of the second line therapy of non squamous NSCLC without actionable mutations...
January 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010895/platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptors-pdgfrs-fusion-genes-involvement-in-hematological-malignancies
#18
REVIEW
Kwaku Appiah-Kubi, Ting Lan, Ying Wang, Hai Qian, Min Wu, Xiaoyuan Yao, Yan Wu, Yongchang Chen
PURPOSE: To investigate oncogenic platelet-derived growth factor receptor(PDGFR) fusion genes involvement in hematological malignancies, the advances in the PDGFR fusion genes diagnosis and development of PDGFR fusions inhibitors. METHODS: Literature search was done using terms "PDGFR and Fusion" or "PDGFR and Myeloid neoplasm" or 'PDGFR and Lymphoid neoplasm' or "PDGFR Fusion Diagnosis" or "PDGFR Fusion Targets" in databases including PubMed, ASCO.org, and Medscape...
January 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010894/metabolic-hijacking-a-survival-strategy-cancer-cells-exploit
#19
REVIEW
Megan I Mitchell, Anna-Mart Engelbrecht
The majority of human tumours are comprised of cancerous epithelial cells that coexist with a multitude of different cell types and extracellular matrix components creating the cancer microenvironment. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the most abundant mesenchymal cell types present within most human carcinomas. Recent evidence suggests that nutrient deprived epithelial cancer cells are able to survive these conditions, as a result of their ability to undergo extensive metabolic reprogramming and exploit the metabolic capacities of surrounding CAFs...
January 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931845/immuno-oncology-allying-forces-of-radio-and-immuno-therapy-to-enhance-cancer-cell-killing
#20
REVIEW
Jacques Bernier
Besides the local effects of ionizing radiation at the cellular and molecular levels in tumor tissues, the interactions of radiotherapy with the host's immune system are nowadays at the center of many investigations. In some cases, these interactions can be strong enough to immunize the patient against the tumor, leading to a rejection by the host of both the irradiated tumor and distant metastases. In this latter case, the rejection mechanism is called "abscopal effect". Over the last two decades, increasing attention has also been paid to the combination of various forms of immunotherapies with radiation, as an attempt to boost cancer cell killing mechanisms...
December 2016: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
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