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Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318892/primary-mediastinal-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#1
REVIEW
Maurizio Martelli, Andrés Ferreri, Alice Di Rocco, Michela Ansuinelli, Peter W M Johnson
Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMLBCL) is a distinct clinical and biological disease from other types of DLBCL. It is more frequent in young female and constitutes 6%-10% of all DLBCL. PMLBCL is characterized by a diffuse proliferation of medium to large B-cells associated with sclerosis. Molecular analysis shows it to be a distinct entity from other DLBCL. Rituximab CHOP/MACOP-B-like regimens followed by mediastinal radiotherapy (RT) were associated with a 5-years PFS of 75%-85%. More intensive regimens, as DA-EPOCH-R without mediastinal RT, have shown very promising results, but this therapeutic advance needs to be confirmed in further prospective trials...
January 21, 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259301/effectiveness-of-antiangiogenic-drugs-in-glioblastoma-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#2
REVIEW
Giuseppe Lombardi, Ardi Pambuku, Luisa Bellu, Miriam Farina, Alessandro Della Puppa, Luca Denaro, Vittorina Zagonel
BACKGROUND: glioblastomas are highly vascularized tumors and various antiangiogenic drugs have been investigated in clinical trials showing unclear results. We performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis to clarify and evaluate their effectiveness in glioblastoma patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: we searched relevant published and unpublished randomized clinical trials analyzing antiangiogenic drugs versus chemotherapy in glioblastoma patients from January 2006 to January 2016 in MEDLINE, WEB of SCIENCE, ASCO, ESMO and SNO databases...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259300/immunotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-myeloma
#3
REVIEW
Sung-Hoon Jung, Hyun-Ju Lee, Manh-Cuong Vo, Hyeoung-Joon Kim, Je-Jung Lee
Immunotherapy has recently emerged as a promising treatment for multiple myeloma (MM). There are now several monoclonal antibodies that target specific surface antigens on myeloma cells or the checkpoints of immune and myeloma cells. Elotuzumab (targeting SLAMF7), daratumumab (targeting CD38), and pembrolizumab (targeting PD-1) have shown clinical activity in clinical studies with relapsed/refractory MM. Dendritic cell vaccination is a safe strategy that has shown some efficacy in a subset of myeloma patients and may become a crucial part of MM treatment when combined with immunomodulatory drugs or immune check-point blockade...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259299/regulatory-roles-of-brain-specific-angiogenesis-inhibitor-1-bai1-protein-in-inflammation-tumorigenesis-and-phagocytosis-a-brief-review
#4
REVIEW
Vivek Bhakta Mathema, Kesara Na-Bangchang
Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor (BAI) family of proteins are basically putative G-protein-coupled receptors with wide spectrum of cellular activities. These BAIs exhibit intricate and complex nature of modulatory activities that researchers are only now beginning to understand. Here we mainly focus on the regulatory activities of a prominent member of BAI family, BAI1, with respect to its role in inflammation, tumorigenesis and phagocytosis. The emerging knowledge on cell- and site-specific function of BAI1 makes it both versatile and promising candidate for studies relating to cancer and host immune response...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259298/the-cornerstone-k-ras-mutation-in-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-from-cell-signaling-network-target-genes-biological-processes-to-therapeutic-targeting
#5
REVIEW
Nicolas Jonckheere, Romain Vasseur, Isabelle Van Seuningen
RAS belongs to the super family of small G proteins and plays crucial roles in signal transduction from membrane receptors in the cell. Mutations of K-RAS oncogene lead to an accumulation of GTP-bound proteins that maintains an active conformation. In the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), one of the most deadly cancers in occidental countries, mutations of the K-RAS oncogene are nearly systematic (>90%). Moreover, K-RAS mutation is the earliest genetic alteration occurring during pancreatic carcinogenetic sequence...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259297/management-of-aromatase-inhibitor-induced-musculoskeletal-symptoms-in-postmenopausal-early-breast-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Kate Roberts, Kirsty Rickett, Ristan Greer, Natasha Woodward
Aromatase Inhibitors (AI) are widely used for the adjuvant treatment of hormone receptor positive breast cancers in the post-menopausal population. AI are often associated with significant joint and muscular symptoms; symptoms that are commonly referred to as aromatase inhibitor-associated musculoskeletal syndrome (AIMSS). AIMSS adversely impacts health-related quality of life of many patients, and reduces AI compliance. Although there are informal practice recommendations, the limited current level of evidence for management of AIMSS for breast cancer patients on aromatase inhibitors has made development of formal guidelines challenging, and remains an unmet need...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259296/critical-review-of-the-addition-of-tumor-treating-fields-ttfields-to-the-existing-standard-of-care-for-newly-diagnosed-glioblastoma-patients
#7
REVIEW
M Mehta, P Wen, R Nishikawa, D Reardon, K Peters
Since 2005, the standard of care for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) has consisted of maximal resection followed by radiotherapy plus daily temozolomide (TMZ), followed by maintenance TMZ. In patients selected for clinical trials, median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) with this regimen is 15-17 months and 6-7 months, respectively. There have been various, largely unsuccessful attempts to improve on this standard of care. With the FDA approval of the tumor-treating fields (TTFields) device, Optune, for recurrent GBM (2011), and the more recent EF-14 interim trial results and approval for newly diagnosed GBM patients, several questions have arisen...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259295/risk-assessment-in-paediatric-glioma-time-to-move-on-from-the-binary-classification
#8
REVIEW
A J Dodgshun, J R Hansford, M J Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Paediatric glioma encompasses a wide range of entities with highly variable prognoses. Gliomas are grouped by histopathological features into high- and low-grade glioma but this classification until recently has not taken into account many emerging risk factors in this disease. A comprehensive risk classification has not been published for paediatric glioma despite many risk factors being established in this disease. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was carried out identifying risk factors for paediatric low-grade and high-grade glioma...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259294/understanding-c-met-signalling-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-neck
#9
REVIEW
P Szturz, E Raymond, C Abitbol, S Albert, A de Gramont, S Faivre
c-MET is a membrane spanning receptor tyrosine kinase for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) also termed scatter factor. Transmitting signals from mesenchymal to epithelial cells, the HGF/c-MET axis mediates a range of biological processes that stimulate proliferation, motility, invasiveness, morphogenesis, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Aberrant c-MET signal transduction favours tumorigenesis with the acquisition of invasive and metastatic phenotypes. Biological functions of c-MET may strongly vary according to microenvironmental changes, which occur at different stages of tumorigenesis and include also HGF/c-MET activation in stromal cells...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259293/long-non-coding-rna-casc2-in-human-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Giuseppe Palmieri, Panagiotis Paliogiannis, Maria Cristina Sini, Antonella Manca, Grazia Palomba, Valentina Doneddu, Francesco Tanda, Maria Rosa Pascale, Antonio Cossu
Long non-coding RNAs cover large part of the non-coding information of the human DNA, which represents more than 90% of the whole genome. They constitute a wide and complex group of molecules with more than 200 nucleotides, which generally lack an open reading frame, and are involved in various ways in the pathophysiology of cancer. Their roles in the regulation of gene expression, imprinting, transcription, and post-translational processing have been described in several types of cancer. CASC2 was discovered in 2004 in patients with endometrial carcinoma as a potential tumor suppressor...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259292/what-is-the-role-of-postoperative-re-irradiation-in-recurrent-and-second-primary-squamous-cell-cancer-of-head-and-neck-a-literature-review-according-to-pico-criteria
#11
REVIEW
Anna Merlotti, Rosario Mazzola, Daniela Alterio, Filippo Alongi, Almalina Bacigalupo, Pierluigi Bonomo, Marta Maddalo, Elvio Grazioso Russi, Ester Orlandi
Re-irradiation has been increasingly offered as a potential effective treatment for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) loco-regional recurrence as well as second primary tumor in previously irradiated area. This review focused on the role of postoperative re-irradiation (POreRT) in terms of feasibility, toxicity and long-term outcomes in HNSCC patients. The key issue for the research was formulated in two questions according to the PICO (population, intervention, control, and outcomes) criteria. A total of 16 publications met the inclusion criteria for a total of 919 patients; in 522 patients POreRT was performed...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259291/epigenetic-control-of-gene-expression-potential-implications-for-cancer-treatment
#12
REVIEW
F Perri, F Longo, M Giuliano, F Sabbatino, G Favia, F Ionna, R Addeo, G Della Vittoria Scarpati, G Di Lorenzo, S Pisconti
Epigenetic changes are defined as inherited modifications that are not present in DNA sequence. Gene expression is regulated at various levels and not only in response to DNA modifications. Examples of epigenetic control are DNA methylation, histone deacetylation and mi-RNA expression. Methylation of several tumor suppressor gene promoters is responsible for their silencing and thus potentially sustain cancerogenesis. Similarly, histone deacetylation can lead to oncogene activation. mi-RNA are small (18-20 nucleotides) non-coding RNA fragments capable of inhibiting other m-RNA, ultimately altering the balance in oncogene and tumor suppressor gene expression...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259290/multimodal-treatment-of-resectable-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#13
REVIEW
Nicola Silvestris, Oronzo Brunetti, Enrico Vasile, Francesco Cellini, Ivana Cataldo, Valeria Pusceddu, Monica Cattaneo, Stefano Partelli, Mario Scartozzi, Giuseppe Aprile, Andrea Casadei Gardini, Alessio Giuseppe Morganti, Vincenzo Valentini, Aldo Scarpa, Massimo Falconi, Angela Calabrese, Vito Lorusso, Michele Reni, Stefano Cascinu
After a timing preoperative staging, treatment of resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) includes surgery and adjuvant therapies, the former representing the initial therapeutic option and the latter aiming to reduce the incidence of both distant metastases (chemotherapy) and locoregional failures (chemoradiotherapy). Herein, we provide a critical overview on the role of multimodal treatment in PDAC and on new opportunities related to current more active poli-chemotherapy regimens, targeted therapies, and the more recent immunotherapy approaches...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259289/proton-pump-inhibitors-in-cancer-patients-how-useful-they-are-a-review-of-the-most-common-indications-for-their-use
#14
REVIEW
Gianmauro Numico, Vittorio Fusco, Pierfrancesco Franco, Fausto Roila
Proton-Pump Inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly prescribed in the general population and in cancer patients. A supposed role in the prevention of gastric mucosal damage apparently justify their use in patients undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy, steroids and radiotherapy on the gastro-duodenal region. They are frequently given also to patients admitted to Intensive Care Units, for the prevention of stress-related gastric ulcers. The evidence about these use of gastroprotection is reviewed. In the majority of the cases the prescription of PPIs is not justified...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259288/biological-and-predictive-role-of-ercc1-polymorphisms-in-cancer
#15
REVIEW
V Formica, E Doldo, F R Antonetti, A Nardecchia, P Ferroni, S Riondino, C Morelli, H T Arkenau, F Guadagni, A Orlandi, M Roselli
Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) is a key component in DNA repair mechanisms and may influence the tumor DNA-targeting effect of the chemotherapeutic agent oxaliplatin. Germline ERCC1 polymorphisms may alter the protein expression and published data on their predictive and prognostic value have so far been contradictory. In the present article we review available evidence on the clinical role and utility of ERCC1 polymorphisms and, in the absence of a 'perfect' trial, what we call the 'sliding doors' trial, we present the data of ERCC1 genotyping in our local patient population...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259287/the-synergistic-effect-of-radiotherapy-and-immunotherapy-a-promising-but-not-simple-partnership
#16
REVIEW
Enrique Chajon, Joël Castelli, Hugo Marsiglia, Renaud De Crevoisier
Radiotherapy (RT) is one of the main components in the treatment of cancer. The better understanding of the immune mechanisms associated with tumor establishment and how RT affects inflammation and immunity has led to the development of novel treatment strategies. Several preclinical studies support the use of RT in combination with immunotherapy obtaining better local and systemic tumor control. Current ongoing studies will provide information about the optimal RT approach, but the development of reliable predictors of the response from the preclinical and the early phases of clinical studies is necessary to avoid discarding treatment strategies with significant clinical benefit...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259286/targeting-hif-2-%C3%AE-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-promising-therapeutic-strategy
#17
REVIEW
Olga Martínez-Sáez, Pablo Gajate Borau, Teresa Alonso-Gordoa, Javier Molina-Cerrillo, Enrique Grande
The loss of the Von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor (VHL) is a key oncogenic event in the vast majority of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). With the loss of the VHL protein (pVHL) function, the hypoxia inducible factor α (HIF-α) accumulates inside the tumor cell and dimerizes with HIF-β. The HIF-α/HIF-β complex transcriptionally activates hundreds of genes promoting the adaptation to hypoxia that is implicated in tumor development. There is growing evidence showing that HIF-2α subunit has a central role in ccRCC over HIF-1α...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259285/serum-and-tissue-markers-in-colorectal-cancer-state-of-art
#18
REVIEW
Massimiliano Berretta, Lara Alessandrini, Chiara De Divitiis, Guglielmo Nasti, Arben Lleshi, Raffaele Di Francia, Gaetano Facchini, Carla Cavaliere, Carlo Buonerba, Vincenzo Canzonieri
Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. It is the second leading cause of cancer death in Western Countries. In the last decade, the survival of patients with metastatic CRC has improved dramatically. Due to the advent of new drugs (irinotecan and oxaliplatin) and target therapies (i.e. bevacizumab, cetuximab, panitumab, aflibercept and regorafenib), the median overall survival has risen from about 12 mo in the mid nineties to 30 mo recently. Molecular studies have recently widened the opportunity for testing new possible markers, but actually, only few markers can be recommended for practical use in clinic...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259284/pembrolizumab-s-non-cross-resistance-mechanism-of-action-successfully-overthrown-ipilimumab
#19
REVIEW
Mohd Wahid, Naseem Akhter, Arshad Jawed, Sajad A Dar, Raju K Mandal, Mohtashim Lohani, Mohammed Y Areeshi, Saif Khan, Shafiul Haque
The incidences of melanomas are increasing by leaps and bounds across the globe despite early detection and intervention. The numbers of patients dying from metastatic melanoma have been continually increased over the past thirty years. It has been considered as one of the most therapy-resistant malignancies due to the cross-resistant mechanism developed by the metastatic cells. With time, many new therapies came and they failed miserably. Ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody that works to activate the immune system by targeting CTLA-4 proved to be a boon for advance melanoma very recently...
March 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109409/ecco-essential-requirements-for-quality-cancer-care-soft-tissue-sarcoma-in-adults-and-bone-sarcoma-a-critical-review
#20
REVIEW
Elisabeth Andritsch, Marc Beishon, Stefan Bielack, Sylvie Bonvalot, Paolo Casali, Mirjam Crul, Roberto Delgado- Bolton, Davide Maria Donati, Hassan Douis, Rick Haas, Pancras Hogendoorn, Olga Kozhaeva, Verna Lavender, Jozsef Lovey, Anastassia Negrouk, Philippe Pereira, Pierre Roca, Godelieve Rochette de Lempdes, Tiina Saarto, Bert van Berck, Gilles Vassal, Markus Wartenberg, Wendy Yared, Alberto Costa, Peter Naredi
BACKGROUND: ECCO essential requirements for quality cancer care (ERQCC) are checklists and explanations of organisation and actions that are necessary to give high-quality care to patients who have a specific tumour type. They are written by European experts representing all disciplines involved in cancer care. ERQCC papers give oncology teams, patients, policymakers and managers an overview of the elements needed in any healthcare system to provide high quality of care throughout the patient journey...
February 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
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