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Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477750/tackling-endocrine-resistance-in-er-positive-her2-negative-advanced-breast-cancer-a-tale-of-imprecision-medicine
#1
REVIEW
Alexios Matikas, Theodoros Foukakis, Jonas Bergh
The selection of patients with advanced breast cancer as appropriate for endocrine manipulation according to hormone receptor status is a successful strategy. Unfortunately, the emergence of resistance is inevitable and subsequent treatment is not well defined. Numerous mechanisms have been implicated in the development of resistance; central among them is the activation of compensatory signaling pathways. Despite the rationale that supports combining agents targeting these pathways with hormonal therapies in an attempt to delay or even reverse endocrine resistance, most clinical trials have failed to demonstrate improved outcomes...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477749/insights-into-dovetailing-gtd-and-cancers
#2
REVIEW
Revathy Nadhan, Jayashree V Vaman, Nirmala C, Satheesh Kumar Sengodan, Sreelatha Krishnakumar Hemalatha, Arathi Rajan, Geetu Rose Varghese, Neetha Rl, Amritha Krishna Bv, Ratheeshkumar Thankappan, Priya Srinivas
Gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD) encompass a group of placental tumors which mostly arise due to certain fertilization defects, resulting in the over-proliferation of trophoblasts. The major characteristic of this diseased state is that β-hCG rises up manifold than that is observed during pregnancy. The incidence of GTD when analyzed on a global scale, figures out that there is a greater risk in South-East Asia, the reason of which remains unclear. An insight into any possible correlation of GTD incidence with cancers, other than choriocarcinoma, is being attempted here...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477748/effects-of-prehabilitation-and-rehabilitation-including-a-home-based-component-on-physical-fitness-adherence-treatment-tolerance-and-recovery-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Elisabeth J Driessen, Marieke E Peeters, Bart C Bongers, Huub A Maas, Gerbern P Bootsma, Nico L van Meeteren, Maryska L Janssen-Heijnen
This systematic review aimed to examine physical fitness, adherence, treatment tolerance, and recovery for (p)rehabilitation including a home-based component for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PRISMA and Cochrane guidelines were followed. Studies describing (home-based) prehabilitation or rehabilitation in patients with NSCLC were included from four databases (January 2000-April 2016, N=11). Nine of ten rehabilitation studies and one prehabilitation study (437 NSCLC patients, mean age 59-72 years) showed significantly or clinically relevant improved physical fitness...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477747/perioperative-systemic-therapy-for-resectable-colorectal-peritoneal-metastases-sufficient-evidence-for-its-widespread-use-a-critical-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Koen P Rovers, Geert A Simkens, Cornelis J Punt, Susan van Dieren, Pieter J Tanis, Ignace H de Hingh
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Despite its widespread use, no randomised studies have investigated the value of perioperative systemic therapy as adjunct to cytoreduction and HIPEC for colorectal peritoneal metastases. This systematic review evaluated the available evidence, which consists of non-randomised studies only. METHODS: A systematic search identified studies that investigated the influence of neoadjuvant, adjuvant, or perioperative systemic therapy on overall survival (OS)...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477746/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-local-resection-or-transanal-endoscopic-microsurgery-versus-radical-resection-in-stage-i-rectal-cancer-a-real-standard
#5
REVIEW
Geneviève Veereman, Joan Vlayen, Jo Robays, Nicolas Fairon, Sabine Stordeur, Christian Rolfo, Didier Bielen, Alain Bols, Pieter Demetter, André D'hoore, Karin Haustermans, Alain Hendlisz, Arnaud Lemmers, Daniel Leonard, Freddy Penninckx, Eric Van Cutsem, Marc Peeters
Current guidelines recommend radical resection for stage I rectal cancer. However, since screening programs are being installed, an increasing number of cancers are being detected in early stages. Endoscopic resection is often performed at the time of diagnosis. This systematic review was undertaken to review the evidence on endoscopic approach vs. radical resection for stage I rectal cancer. Recommendations were issued based on the GRADE methodology and risk stratification used in clinical practice. A systematic search (until March 2015) identified 2 meta-analyses and 1 additional randomized trial...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477745/circulating-tumor-cells-and-coagulation-minireview
#6
REVIEW
Branislav Bystricky, James M Reuben, Michal Mego
Venous thromboembolic events in cancer patients signify poor prognosis. Prophylactic treatment of ambulatory patients with anticoagulants is currently not recommended. Circulating tumor cells, either directly or indirectly, are associated with prothrombotic state. In this review, we discuss various interactions of circulating tumor cells with the coagulation pathway in cancer patient.
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477744/multimodality-treatment-of-locally-advanced-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-oesophagus-a-comprehensive-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Francesco Montagnani, Lorenzo Fornaro, Paolo Frumento, Caterina Vivaldi, Alfredo Falcone, Luisa Fioretto
BACKGROUND: Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for oesophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC) but with poor results. Attempts to improve patient outcome have been made by introducing chemotherapy (CT), radiotherapy (RT), or both (CRT). However, randomized comparisons for all these strategies are not always available. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted an extensive literature search for studies comparing surgery with multimodality treatment (i.e. [neo-]adjuvant CT or RT or CRT or definitive CRT)...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477743/parp-inhibitors-alone-and-in-combination-with-other-biological-agents-in-homologous-recombination-deficient-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-from-the-basic-research-to-the-clinic
#8
REVIEW
Angiolo Gadducci, Maria Elena Guerrieri
Hereditary epithelial ovarian cancer [EOC] in germline BRCA mutation (gBRCAm) carriers has a distinct clinical behavior characterized by younger age, high- grade serous histology, advanced stage, visceral distribution of disease, high response to platinum and other non-platinum agents and better clinical outcome. Sporadic EOC with homologous recombination deficiency [HDR] but no gBRCAm has the same biological and clinical behavior as EOC in gBRCAm carriers ("BRCAness"phenotype). Biomarkers are in development to enable an accurate definition of molecular features of BRCAness phenotype, and trials are warranted to determine whether such HDR signature will predict sensitivity to PARP inhibitors in sporadic EOC...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477742/drug-resistance-in-pancreatic-cancer-impact-of-altered-energy-metabolism
#9
REVIEW
Cristoforo Grasso, Gerrit Jansen, Elisa Giovannetti
Pancreatic cancer is a highly deadly disease: almost all patients develop metastases and conventional treatments have little impact on survival. Therapeutically, this tumor is poorly responsive, largely due to drug resistance. Accumulating evidence suggest that this chemoresistance is intimately linked to specific metabolic aberrations of pancreatic cancer cells, notably an increased use of glucose and the amino acid glutamine fueling anabolic processes. Altered metabolism contributes also to modulation of apoptosis, angiogenesis and drug targets, conferring a resistant phenotype...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477741/the-impact-of-long-term-follow-up-care-for-childhood-cancer-survivors-a-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Christina Signorelli, Claire E Wakefield, Joanna E Fardell, W Hamish B Wallace, Eden G Robertson, Jordana K McLoone, Richard J Cohn
OBJECTIVES: Childhood cancer survivors are at risk of developing late treatment-related complications. In response, many hospitals worldwide have established follow-up clinics to monitor survivors as they age. However, there is limited evidence of the efficacy of these clinics in meeting the lifelong healthcare needs of survivors. In this review we collated evidence of the measurable impact of engagement in specialized survivorship care, on survivors' medical and psychosocial outcomes...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477740/palliative-systemic-therapy-for-recurrent-or-metastatic-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-how-far-have-we-achieved
#11
REVIEW
Victor Lee, Dora Kwong, To-Wai Leung, Ka-On Lam, Chi-Chung Tong, Anne Lee
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is endemic in Southern China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, North Africa and Alaska. About 30% of NPC patients develop recurrence or metastasis despite initial radical treatment. Palliative chemotherapy is the first-line treatment for inoperable recurrence or distant metastatic disease. However the standard first-line chemotherapeutic regimen is yet to be established until recently gemcitabine and cisplatin has been proven superior to traditional regimen with 5-FU and cisplatin shown in a phase III randomized-controlled trial...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477739/vincristine-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-in-children-with-cancer-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Mirjam E van de Velde, Gertjan L Kaspers, Floor C H Abbink, Abraham J Wilhelm, Johannes C F Ket, Marleen H van den Berg
Vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy (VIPN) is a dose-limiting side effect of vincristine (VCR) treatment in children, leading to diminished quality of life. Much remains unknown about the underlying mechanisms of VIPN. This review systematically summarizes the available literature concerning contributing factors of VIPN development in children. Studied factors include patient characteristics, VCR dose, administration method, pharmacokinetics, and genetic factors. Furthermore, this review reports on currently available tools to assess VIPN in children...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477738/management-of-adverse-events-during-treatment-of-gastrointestinal-cancers-with-epidermal-growth-factor-inhibitors
#13
REVIEW
Ralf-Dieter Hofheinz, Siegfried Segaert, María José Safont, Gaston Demonty, Hans Prenen
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is involved in development and progression of some gastrointestinal cancers, and is targeted by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) used to treat these conditions. Targeted agents are generally better tolerated than conventional chemotherapy, but have characteristic toxicities that can affect adherence, dosing, and outcomes. Skin conditions are the most common toxicities associated with EGFR inhibitors, particularly papulopustular rash...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477737/similar-but-not-the-same-differential-diagnosis-of-hlh-and-sepsis
#14
REVIEW
Rafał Machowicz, Gritta Janka, Wieslaw Wiktor-Jedrzejczak
Differential diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH; hemophagocytic syndrome) and sepsis is critically important because the life-saving aggressive immunosuppressive treatment, required in the effective HLH therapy, is absent in sepsis guidelines. Moreover, HLH may be complicated by sepsis. Hyperinflammation, present in both states, gives an overlapping clinical picture including fever and performance status deterioration. The aim of this review is to provide aid in this challenging diagnostic process...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427529/primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma
#15
REVIEW
Giovanni Citterio, Michele Reni, Gemma Gatta, Andrés José Maria Ferreri
Primary CNS lymphomas (PCNSL) represent a subgroup of malignancies with specific characteristics, aggressive course, and unsatisfactory outcome in contrast with other lymphomas comparable for tumour burden and/or histological type. Despite a high chemo- and radiosensitivity, remissions are frequently shortlasting, mainly because the blood brain-barrier limits the access of many drugs to the CNS. Moreover, survivor patients are at high risk of developing severe treatment-related toxicity, mainly disabling neurotoxicity, raising the question of how to balance therapy intensification with side-effects control...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427528/mechanisms-of-chemotherapy-induced-ovarian-damage-in-breast-cancer-patients
#16
REVIEW
Giovanni Codacci-Pisanelli, Lino Del Pup, Maria Del Grande, Fedro A Peccatori
Fertility preservation in breast cancer patients is an increasingly relevant topic. In the present paper we review available data on the mechanism of ovarian damage caused by anticancer agents currently used for the treatment of breast cancer. We also describe current methods to preserve fertility including oocytes or ovarian tissue freezing and administration of LH-RHa during chemotherapy. The aim of the paper is to provide clinical oncologists with an adequate knowledge of the subject to enable them to give a correct counselling to young women that must receive chemotherapy and want to increase their possibilities of maintaining fertility...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427527/venous-thromboembolism-in-radiation-therapy-cancer-patients-findings-from-the-riete-registry
#17
REVIEW
Jean-Baptiste Guy, Laurent Bertoletti, Nicolas Magné, Chloé Rancoule, Isabelle Mahé, Carme Font, Oscar Sanz, José Manuel Martín-Antorán, Federica Pace, Jerónimo Ramón Vela, Manuel Monreal
BACKGROUND: Cancer patients are at high risk of venous thromboembolism, particularly during cancer treatment. Conversely to chemotherapy, data on the epidemiology and clinical features of venous thromboembolism during radiation therapy are scarce. There is lack of evidence on the influence of radiation therapy (RT) on outcome in cancer patients with acute venous thromboembolism (VTE). METHODS: We used the RIETE (Registro Informatizado de Enfermedad ThromboEmbolica) database to assess the clinical characteristics and outcome of prospectively-collected consecutive patients with cancer-associated thrombosis occurred during the course of radiation therapy for cancer...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427526/potential-application-and-prevalence-of-the-cd30-ki-1-antigen-among-solid-tumors-a-focus-review-of-the-literature
#18
REVIEW
Garrett K Berger, Kevin Gee, Cassandra Votruba, Ali McBride, Faiz Anwer
BACKGROUND: CD30 (Ki-1) is a cell membrane protein derived from the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family. The CD30 antigen has been associated primarily with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (sALCL). Brentuximab vedotin (BV) is an antibody-drug conjugate targeting the CD30 antigen. FDA approval for BV includes relapsed and refractory HL and sALCL. The CD30 antigen also has been identified in many solid tumors, predominantly of germ cell origins and early clinical data is promising...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427525/precision-medicine-for-early-breast-cancer-radiotherapy-opening-up-new-horizons
#19
REVIEW
Jacques Bernier
So far most efforts put forth to test the value of predictive and prognostic tools in the field of breast radiotherapy remained globally disappointing, or at least below the convincing levels reached for systemic therapy. Nevertheless the addition of predictive tools to the clinical armament tends to prevail over the use of the sole prognostic factors, also in radiotherapy. A number of predictive assays, clinically validated or not, have recently elicited significant associations between molecular profiles and tumor biological aggressiveness and/or radiosensitivity levels...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427524/kallistatin-suppresses-cancer-development-by-multi-factorial-actions
#20
REVIEW
Julie Chao, Pengfei Li, Lee Chao
Kallistatin was first identified in human plasma as a tissue kallikrein-binding protein and a serine proteinase inhibitor. Kallistatin via its two structural elements regulates differential signaling cascades, and thus a wide spectrum of biological functions. Kallistatin's active site is essential for: inhibiting tissue kallikrein's activity; stimulating endothelial nitric oxide synthase and sirtuin 1 expression and activation; and modulating the synthesis of the microRNAs, miR-34a, miR-21 and miR-203. Kallistatin's heparin-binding site is crucial for antagonizing the signaling pathways of vascular endothelial growth factor, tumor necrosis factor-α, Wnt, transforming growth factor-β and epidermal growth factor...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
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