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Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600175/overcoming-immunosuppression-in-bone-metastases
#1
REVIEW
Zachary Z Reinstein, Sahithi Pamarthy, Vinay Sagar, Ricardo Costa, Sarki A Abdulkadir, Francis J Giles, Benedito A Carneiro
Bone metastases are present in up to 70% of advanced prostate and breast cancers and occur at significant rates in a variety of other cancers. Bone metastases can be associated with significant morbidity. The establishment of bone metastasis activates several immunosuppressive mechanisms. Hence, understanding the tumor-bone microenvironment is crucial to inform the development of novel therapies. This review describes the current standard of care for patients with bone metastatic disease and novel treatment options targeting the microenvironment...
May 12, 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602171/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-on-the-proportion-of-patients-with-breast-cancer-who-develop-bone-metastases
#2
REVIEW
Jean-Jacques Body, Geoffrey Quinn, Susan Talbot, Emma Booth, Gaston Demonty, Aliki Taylor, Justyna Amelio
A systematic literature review was conducted to quantify populations of patients with primary breast cancer in whom bone metastases were detected at study start or during follow-up. Searches were performed in PubMed and EMBASE using terms related to breast cancer and bone metastases. Articles had to have been published 01/01/99-31/12/13, and to report data on the proportion of patients with bone metastases among patients with breast cancer. In total, 156 articles were included in the meta-analysis. A median of 12% of patients with stage I-III breast cancer developed bone metastases during a median follow-up of 60 months...
July 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602170/treatment-options-for-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-in-patients-with-liver-dysfunction-due-to-malignancy
#3
REVIEW
L Faugeras, A Dili, A Druez, B Krug, C Decoster, L D'Hondt
BACKGROUND: The survival of colorectal cancer patients is frequently determined by the extent of metastatic invasion to the liver; in cases of major involvement, therapeutic strategies are limited because the liver is necessary for drug metabolism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We have reviewed articles about the pharmacokinetic profiles of each drug used in colorectal cancer patients with hepatic dysfunction to determine which of these treatments are most feasible. RESULTS: Some drugs appear to be feasible options for patients with hepatic insufficiency...
July 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602169/toxicities-of-systemic-agents-in-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck-scchn-a-new-perspective-in-the-era-of-immunotherapy
#4
REVIEW
Nabil F Saba, Mayur D Mody, Elaine S Tan, Harpaul S Gill, Alessandra Rinaldo, Robert P Takes, Primož Strojan, Dana M Hartl, Jan B Vermorken, Missak Haigentz, Alfio Ferlito
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is a difficult to treat malignancy and represents the seventh most common cancer worldwide. Systemic therapy has a critical role in the treatment of locally advanced and recurrent/metastatic disease. Cytotoxic chemotherapy has been primarily used along with radiation and surgery, with cisplatin being the standard of care choice of therapy. When contraindications to cisplatin exist, other agents such as carboplatin, taxanes, 5-fluorouracil, and cetuximab are used...
July 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602168/melanoma-antigens-and-related-immunological-markers
#5
REVIEW
Jacob Pitcovski, Ehud Shahar, Elina Aizenshtein, Raphael Gorodetsky
Melanoma is a highly lethal cancer deriving from transformed dermal melanocytes. Early diagnosed primary melanoma may be curable, but the cure-rate of more advanced stages is limited, with high mortality rate. With the progression of the tumor, the melanocytes overexpress intracellular or cell-surface molecules, including ectopic normal and tumor-specific proteins. Some of these induce a specific immune response by T and B lymphocytes. Antibodies raised against melanoma antigens were proposed for differential disease diagnosis, staging, prognosis and evaluation of treatment efficiency...
July 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602167/mechanism-behind-the-anti-tumour-potential-of-saffron-crocus-sativus-l-the-molecular-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Sweta Patel, Maryam Sarwat, Tajdar H Khan
Cancer is a disorder which has noted a significant rise in incidence worldwide and continues to be the largest cause of mortality. It has a dramatic impact on human life expectancy and quality of life in spite of the increase in technology and the treatments available for cancer patients. These new therapeutic options being chemotherapy, radiotherapy, photolytic therapy and catalytic therapy are known to have many adverse reactions and also no better positive outcomes than before. Hence, research is now focused more on utilizing the vast repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge i...
July 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602166/mast-cells-in-breast-cancer-angiogenesis
#7
REVIEW
Anca Maria Cimpean, Roberto Tamma, Simona Ruggieri, Beatrice Nico, Alina Toma, Domenico Ribatti
Mast cells, accumulate in the stroma surrounding certain tumors and take part to the inflammatory reaction occurring at the periphery of the tumor. Mast cell-secreted angiogenic cytokines facilitate tumor vascularization not only by a direct effect but also by stimulating other inflammatory cells of the tumor microenvironment to release other angiogenic mediators. An increased number of mast cells have been demonstrated in angiogenesis associated with solid tumors, including breast cancer. Mast cells might act as a new target for the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer through the selective inhibition of angiogenesis, tissue remodeling and tumor promoting molecules, allowing the secretion of cytotoxic cytokines and preventing mast cell mediated immune-suppression...
July 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602165/aberrant-cancer-metabolism-in-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-cancer-metastasis-mechanisms-in-cancer-progression
#8
REVIEW
Run Huang, Xiangyun Zong
Cancer metastasis is a prominent feature of cancer cells, which is responsible for most cancer -associated mortality. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an essential role in the initiation and development of cancer metastasis. Studies have shown that EMT can induce cancer metastasis by promoting tumor malignances, reprograming cancer metabolism, and disrupting extracellular matrix. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that aberrant cancer metabolism can induce EMT through multiple pathological pathways...
July 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602164/second-line-chemotherapy-for-advanced-pancreatic-cancer-which-is-the-best-option
#9
REVIEW
Giuseppe Aprile, Francesca V Negri, Francesco Giuliani, Elisa De Carlo, Davide Melisi, Francesca Simionato, Nicola Silvestris, Oronzo Brunetti, Francesco Leone, Donatella Marino, Daniele Santini, Emanuela Dell'Aquila, Tea Zeppola, Marco Puzzoni, Mario Scartozzi
Despite recent biological insight and therapeutic advances, the prognosis of advanced pancreatic cancer still remains poor. For more than 15 years, gemcitabine monotherapy has been the cornerstone of first-line treatment. Recently, prospective randomized trials have shown that novel upfront combination regimens tested in prospective randomized trials have resulted in improved patients' outcome increasing the proportion of putative candidate to second-line therapy. There is no definite standard of care after disease progression...
July 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477750/tackling-endocrine-resistance-in-er-positive-her2-negative-advanced-breast-cancer-a-tale-of-imprecision-medicine
#10
REVIEW
Alexios Matikas, Theodoros Foukakis, Jonas Bergh
The selection of patients with advanced breast cancer as appropriate for endocrine manipulation according to hormone receptor status is a successful strategy. Unfortunately, the emergence of resistance is inevitable and subsequent treatment is not well defined. Numerous mechanisms have been implicated in the development of resistance; central among them is the activation of compensatory signaling pathways. Despite the rationale that supports combining agents targeting these pathways with hormonal therapies in an attempt to delay or even reverse endocrine resistance, most clinical trials have failed to demonstrate improved outcomes...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477749/insights-into-dovetailing-gtd-and-cancers
#11
REVIEW
Revathy Nadhan, Jayashree V Vaman, Nirmala C, Satheesh Kumar Sengodan, Sreelatha Krishnakumar Hemalatha, Arathi Rajan, Geetu Rose Varghese, Neetha Rl, Amritha Krishna Bv, Ratheeshkumar Thankappan, Priya Srinivas
Gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD) encompass a group of placental tumors which mostly arise due to certain fertilization defects, resulting in the over-proliferation of trophoblasts. The major characteristic of this diseased state is that β-hCG rises up manifold than that is observed during pregnancy. The incidence of GTD when analyzed on a global scale, figures out that there is a greater risk in South-East Asia, the reason of which remains unclear. An insight into any possible correlation of GTD incidence with cancers, other than choriocarcinoma, is being attempted here...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477748/effects-of-prehabilitation-and-rehabilitation-including-a-home-based-component-on-physical-fitness-adherence-treatment-tolerance-and-recovery-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Elisabeth J Driessen, Marieke E Peeters, Bart C Bongers, Huub A Maas, Gerbern P Bootsma, Nico L van Meeteren, Maryska L Janssen-Heijnen
This systematic review aimed to examine physical fitness, adherence, treatment tolerance, and recovery for (p)rehabilitation including a home-based component for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PRISMA and Cochrane guidelines were followed. Studies describing (home-based) prehabilitation or rehabilitation in patients with NSCLC were included from four databases (January 2000-April 2016, N=11). Nine of ten rehabilitation studies and one prehabilitation study (437 NSCLC patients, mean age 59-72 years) showed significantly or clinically relevant improved physical fitness...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477747/perioperative-systemic-therapy-for-resectable-colorectal-peritoneal-metastases-sufficient-evidence-for-its-widespread-use-a-critical-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Koen P Rovers, Geert A Simkens, Cornelis J Punt, Susan van Dieren, Pieter J Tanis, Ignace H de Hingh
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Despite its widespread use, no randomised studies have investigated the value of perioperative systemic therapy as adjunct to cytoreduction and HIPEC for colorectal peritoneal metastases. This systematic review evaluated the available evidence, which consists of non-randomised studies only. METHODS: A systematic search identified studies that investigated the influence of neoadjuvant, adjuvant, or perioperative systemic therapy on overall survival (OS)...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477746/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-local-resection-or-transanal-endoscopic-microsurgery-versus-radical-resection-in-stage-i-rectal-cancer-a-real-standard
#14
REVIEW
Geneviève Veereman, Joan Vlayen, Jo Robays, Nicolas Fairon, Sabine Stordeur, Christian Rolfo, Didier Bielen, Alain Bols, Pieter Demetter, André D'hoore, Karin Haustermans, Alain Hendlisz, Arnaud Lemmers, Daniel Leonard, Freddy Penninckx, Eric Van Cutsem, Marc Peeters
Current guidelines recommend radical resection for stage I rectal cancer. However, since screening programs are being installed, an increasing number of cancers are being detected in early stages. Endoscopic resection is often performed at the time of diagnosis. This systematic review was undertaken to review the evidence on endoscopic approach vs. radical resection for stage I rectal cancer. Recommendations were issued based on the GRADE methodology and risk stratification used in clinical practice. A systematic search (until March 2015) identified 2 meta-analyses and 1 additional randomized trial...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477745/circulating-tumor-cells-and-coagulation-minireview
#15
REVIEW
Branislav Bystricky, James M Reuben, Michal Mego
Venous thromboembolic events in cancer patients signify poor prognosis. Prophylactic treatment of ambulatory patients with anticoagulants is currently not recommended. Circulating tumor cells, either directly or indirectly, are associated with prothrombotic state. In this review, we discuss various interactions of circulating tumor cells with the coagulation pathway in cancer patient.
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477744/multimodality-treatment-of-locally-advanced-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-oesophagus-a-comprehensive-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Francesco Montagnani, Lorenzo Fornaro, Paolo Frumento, Caterina Vivaldi, Alfredo Falcone, Luisa Fioretto
BACKGROUND: Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for oesophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC) but with poor results. Attempts to improve patient outcome have been made by introducing chemotherapy (CT), radiotherapy (RT), or both (CRT). However, randomized comparisons for all these strategies are not always available. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted an extensive literature search for studies comparing surgery with multimodality treatment (i.e. [neo-]adjuvant CT or RT or CRT or definitive CRT)...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477743/parp-inhibitors-alone-and-in-combination-with-other-biological-agents-in-homologous-recombination-deficient-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-from-the-basic-research-to-the-clinic
#17
REVIEW
Angiolo Gadducci, Maria Elena Guerrieri
Hereditary epithelial ovarian cancer [EOC] in germline BRCA mutation (gBRCAm) carriers has a distinct clinical behavior characterized by younger age, high- grade serous histology, advanced stage, visceral distribution of disease, high response to platinum and other non-platinum agents and better clinical outcome. Sporadic EOC with homologous recombination deficiency [HDR] but no gBRCAm has the same biological and clinical behavior as EOC in gBRCAm carriers ("BRCAness"phenotype). Biomarkers are in development to enable an accurate definition of molecular features of BRCAness phenotype, and trials are warranted to determine whether such HDR signature will predict sensitivity to PARP inhibitors in sporadic EOC...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477742/drug-resistance-in-pancreatic-cancer-impact-of-altered-energy-metabolism
#18
REVIEW
Cristoforo Grasso, Gerrit Jansen, Elisa Giovannetti
Pancreatic cancer is a highly deadly disease: almost all patients develop metastases and conventional treatments have little impact on survival. Therapeutically, this tumor is poorly responsive, largely due to drug resistance. Accumulating evidence suggest that this chemoresistance is intimately linked to specific metabolic aberrations of pancreatic cancer cells, notably an increased use of glucose and the amino acid glutamine fueling anabolic processes. Altered metabolism contributes also to modulation of apoptosis, angiogenesis and drug targets, conferring a resistant phenotype...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477741/the-impact-of-long-term-follow-up-care-for-childhood-cancer-survivors-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Christina Signorelli, Claire E Wakefield, Joanna E Fardell, W Hamish B Wallace, Eden G Robertson, Jordana K McLoone, Richard J Cohn
OBJECTIVES: Childhood cancer survivors are at risk of developing late treatment-related complications. In response, many hospitals worldwide have established follow-up clinics to monitor survivors as they age. However, there is limited evidence of the efficacy of these clinics in meeting the lifelong healthcare needs of survivors. In this review we collated evidence of the measurable impact of engagement in specialized survivorship care, on survivors' medical and psychosocial outcomes...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477740/palliative-systemic-therapy-for-recurrent-or-metastatic-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-how-far-have-we-achieved
#20
REVIEW
Victor Lee, Dora Kwong, To-Wai Leung, Ka-On Lam, Chi-Chung Tong, Anne Lee
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is endemic in Southern China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, North Africa and Alaska. About 30% of NPC patients develop recurrence or metastasis despite initial radical treatment. Palliative chemotherapy is the first-line treatment for inoperable recurrence or distant metastatic disease. However the standard first-line chemotherapeutic regimen is yet to be established until recently gemcitabine and cisplatin has been proven superior to traditional regimen with 5-FU and cisplatin shown in a phase III randomized-controlled trial...
June 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
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