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Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology

Loïc Sentilhes, Gilles Kayem, Robert Silver
The purpose of this review was to assist obstetricians and gynecologists in considering the most appropriate conservative treatment option to manage women with placenta accreta spectrum according to their individual need and local expertise of the heath care team. The issue is challenging, as the quality of evidence with regard to efficacy is poor, and is mainly based on retrospective studies with limited sample size.
September 15, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Daniela A Carusi
The placenta accreta spectrum has become an important contributor to severe maternal morbidity. The true incidence is difficult to ascertain, but likely falls near 1/1000 deliveries. This number seems to have increased along with the rate of risk factors. These include placenta previa, previous cesarean section, use of assisted reproductive technologies, uterine surgeries, and advanced maternal age. With increased uterine conservation, previous retained placenta or placenta accreta have become significant risk factors...
September 10, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Carolyn Haunschild, Amanda Yeaton-Massey, Deirdre J Lyell
Predelivery diagnosis of placenta accreta, increta, and percreta (from here referred to as placenta accreta, unless otherwise noted) has increasingly created opportunities to optimize antenatal management. Despite the increased frequency of placenta accreta today, occurring in as many as 1 in 533 to 1 in 272 deliveries, high-quality data are lacking for many aspects of antenatal management. This chapter will discuss antenatal management of, and risks faced by, women with suspected placenta accreta, a condition that most frequently requires a potentially morbid cesarean hysterectomy...
September 7, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Alireza A Shamshirsaz, Karin A Fox, Hadi Erfani, Michael A Belfort
Abnormal invasive placenta (AIP) causes significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. With the increasing incidence of cesarean delivery, this condition is dramatically more common in the last 20 years. Advances in grayscale and Doppler ultrasound have facilitated prenatal diagnosis of abnormal placentation to allow the development of multidisciplinary management plans. Outcomes are improved when delivery is accomplished in centers with multidisciplinary expertise and experience in the care of AIP...
September 6, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Kristin VAN Heertum, James Liu
Recommendations regarding menopausal hormone therapy continue to evolve as more studies are completed. Progestogens, indicated for endometrial protection in women on estrogen therapy who have an intact uterus, seem to confer greater health risks than estrogen alone. Thus, it is important for clinicians to be well informed when prescribing these medications. This review focuses on the different types and use of progestogens in women with an intact uterus using systemic menopausal hormone therapy.
September 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Jonathan Schaffir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Valerie A Flores, Lubna Pal
Menopause occurring before the age of 40 harbors unique challenges as well as lifetime burden resulting from premature deprivation from ovarian hormones, primarily estrogen. Cessation of ovarian function before age 40 is considered premature (ovarian insufficiency), whereas if occurring before age 45, it is deemed "early." Early/premature menopause may be idiopathic, medically, or surgically induced. Regardless of the cause, for such women, menopausal hormone therapy is truly replacement and should continue until at least the average age of menopause...
September 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Marta Genovez, Rachel Vanderkruik, Elizabeth Lemon, Sona Dimidjian
Depression during pregnancy is a significant public health problem that is associated with adverse consequences for women and children. Despite the availability of treatment options, depression during pregnancy is often undertreated. Most pregnant women prefer nonpharmacological interventions over antidepressant medications. We review the evidence base for psychotherapeutic treatment approaches to depression during pregnancy. Treatments reviewed include interpersonal therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, behavioral activation, and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy...
September 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Lara Delamater, Nanette Santoro
Perimenopause, or the menopausal transition, represents a period of time during which newly arising symptoms can present complex management decisions for providers. Many women present to care with complaints of hot flashes, vaginal and sexual changes, altered mood and sleep, and changing bleeding patterns. The effect of these symptoms on quality of life, even before a woman enters menopause, can be significant. The appropriate evaluation and evidence-based management of women in this transition is reviewed in this article...
September 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Joann V Pinkerton
The goal of the 2017 North American Menopause Society Hormone Therapy (HT) Position Statement is to remove fear about HT and encourage individualized shared decision making, using best available evidence. Systemic HT is safe and effective for symptomatic menopausal women aged younger than 60 years and within 10 years of menopause. Special populations of early menopause, high risk for fracture, risk of breast or uterine cancer, and extended duration are discussed. With longer duration of use, periodic evaluation and reassessment of health risks are needed...
September 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Andrew M Kaunitz, Joann V Pinkerton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Cynthia A Stuenkel
Vasomotor symptoms are the most common manifestation of the menopause transition and postmenopausal phases of reproductive life. They interfere not only in quality of life, but also contribute to sleep and mood disturbances that potentially compromise home and work effectiveness. Treatment options include hormone therapy (HT), nonhormonal prescription drugs, mind body and behavior therapies, and over-the-counter preparations. Evidence confirms that HT is the most effective option. The initial reticence to prescribe HT immediately following publication of the Women's Health Initiative has been replaced by clear guidelines for confidently identifying women for whom this therapy will be safe...
September 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Joann V Pinkerton
The first approved tissue-selective estrogen complex is a pairing of conjugated estrogen combined with the selective estrogen-receptor modulator, bazedoxifene. Advantages include relief of menopausal symptoms without the increased chance of bleeding or breast tenderness unlike with traditional estrogen-progestin therapy, which is associated with both bleeding and breast tenderness. Tissue-selective estrogen complex effects on relief of vasomotor symptoms, prevention of bone loss, improvement in vaginal symptoms, lack of significant cardiovascular effects beyond the expected 2-fold increase in venous thrombosis, neutral effect on breast, and protective effects on the endometrium are discussed...
September 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Lisette Rodriguez-Cabezas, Crystal Clark
The perinatal period is a vulnerable time for the acute onset and recurrence of psychiatric illness. Primary care providers are opportunely positioned to intervene for women who present with mood decompensation, excessive anxiety, or psychosis during the perinatal period. Owing to increased screening efforts in obstetrical clinics and amount of contact during the perinatal period, obstetricians may be able to identify patients who need treatment before their symptoms become severe. In this article, we address imminent and emergent psychiatric symptoms in the perinatal period including management and risk reduction to help obstetrician/gynecologists treat and/or refer patients as clinically appropriate...
September 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Jan L Shifren
Genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) describes a collection of exam findings and bothersome symptoms associated with estrogen deficiency involving changes to the labia, introitus, clitoris, vagina, urethra, and bladder. Vulvovaginal atrophy is a component of GSM. GSM is a highly prevalent medical condition with adverse effects on the health and quality of life of midlife women. There are many effective treatment options, including nonhormonal lubricants and moisturizers, physical therapy, low-dose vaginal estrogen therapy, vaginal dehydroepiandrosterone, and oral ospemifene...
September 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Andrew M Kaunitz
Because clinical trial data assessing more than 10 years of hormone therapy (HT) use are not available, providing guidance to menopausal women regarding duration of systemic HT is controversial. However, clinicians routinely encounter this issue in practice. Using available evidence and clinical experience, this chapter provides guidance for clinicians who care for patients who may be candidates for extended use of systemic HT.
September 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Ekta Kapoor, Daniel Benrubi, Stephanie S Faubion
Gynecologic cancers are common in the United States and represent a significant health burden. Treatment of these cancers often causes premature cessation of ovarian function, with resultant symptoms that are often more severe than those associated with natural menopause. Hormone therapy is the most effective treatment for menopausal symptoms, but the decision-making process about its use can be complex for survivors of gynecologic cancer. In this review, we provide evidence-based recommendations about the use of hormone therapy after gynecologic cancer...
September 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Chrisandra Shufelt, Joann Manson
In the United States, nearly 10 million women are currently in the menopause transition and 2.25 million women are 51 years of age, which is the average age of menopause. Approximately 75% of these women will experience vasomotor symptoms such as hot flashes and night sweats. Menopause hormone therapy (HT) remains the most effective treatment for menopausal symptoms, but the decision to use HT is complex and requires balancing the benefits and risks for the individual patient. The decision also requires clinical judgment and shared decision making with the patient...
September 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
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