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Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology

Jonathan Schaffir
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Valerie A Flores, Lubna Pal
Menopause occurring before the age of 40 harbors unique challenges as well as lifetime burden resulting from premature deprivation from ovarian hormones, primarily estrogen. Cessation of ovarian function before age 40 is considered premature (ovarian insufficiency), whereas if occurring before age 45, it is deemed "early." Early/premature menopause may be idiopathic, medically, or surgically induced. Regardless of the cause, for such women, menopausal hormone therapy is truly replacement and should continue until at least the average age of menopause...
July 5, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Marta Genovez, Rachel Vanderkruik, Elizabeth Lemon, Sona Dimidjian
Depression during pregnancy is a significant public health problem that is associated with adverse consequences for women and children. Despite the availability of treatment options, depression during pregnancy is often undertreated. Most pregnant women prefer nonpharmacological interventions over antidepressant medications. We review the evidence base for psychotherapeutic treatment approaches to depression during pregnancy. Treatments reviewed include interpersonal therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, behavioral activation, and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy...
June 30, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Lara Delamater, Nanette Santoro
Perimenopause, or the menopausal transition, represents a period of time during which newly arising symptoms can present complex management decisions for providers. Many women present to care with complaints of hot flashes, vaginal and sexual changes, altered mood and sleep, and changing bleeding patterns. The effect of these symptoms on quality of life, even before a woman enters menopause, can be significant. The appropriate evaluation and evidence-based management of women in this transition is reviewed in this article...
June 26, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Joann V Pinkerton
The goal of the 2017 North American Menopause Society Hormone Therapy (HT) Position Statement is to remove fear about HT and encourage individualized shared decision making, using best available evidence. Systemic HT is safe and effective for symptomatic menopausal women aged younger than 60 years and within 10 years of menopause. Special populations of early menopause, high risk for fracture, risk of breast or uterine cancer, and extended duration are discussed. With longer duration of use, periodic evaluation and reassessment of health risks are needed...
June 8, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Andrew M Kaunitz, Joann V Pinkerton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 8, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Cynthia A Stuenkel
Vasomotor symptoms are the most common manifestation of the menopause transition and postmenopausal phases of reproductive life. They interfere not only in quality of life, but also contribute to sleep and mood disturbances that potentially compromise home and work effectiveness. Treatment options include hormone therapy (HT), nonhormonal prescription drugs, mind body and behavior therapies, and over-the-counter preparations. Evidence confirms that HT is the most effective option. The initial reticence to prescribe HT immediately following publication of the Women's Health Initiative has been replaced by clear guidelines for confidently identifying women for whom this therapy will be safe...
May 31, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Joann V Pinkerton
The first approved tissue-selective estrogen complex is a pairing of conjugated estrogen combined with the selective estrogen-receptor modulator, bazedoxifene. Advantages include relief of menopausal symptoms without the increased chance of bleeding or breast tenderness unlike with traditional estrogen-progestin therapy, which is associated with both bleeding and breast tenderness. Tissue-selective estrogen complex effects on relief of vasomotor symptoms, prevention of bone loss, improvement in vaginal symptoms, lack of significant cardiovascular effects beyond the expected 2-fold increase in venous thrombosis, neutral effect on breast, and protective effects on the endometrium are discussed...
May 25, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Lisette Rodriguez-Cabezas, Crystal Clark
The perinatal period is a vulnerable time for the acute onset and recurrence of psychiatric illness. Primary care providers are opportunely positioned to intervene for women who present with mood decompensation, excessive anxiety, or psychosis during the perinatal period. Owing to increased screening efforts in obstetrical clinics and amount of contact during the perinatal period, obstetricians may be able to identify patients who need treatment before their symptoms become severe. In this article, we address imminent and emergent psychiatric symptoms in the perinatal period including management and risk reduction to help obstetrician/gynecologists treat and/or refer patients as clinically appropriate...
May 23, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Jan L Shifren
Genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) describes a collection of exam findings and bothersome symptoms associated with estrogen deficiency involving changes to the labia, introitus, clitoris, vagina, urethra, and bladder. Vulvovaginal atrophy is a component of GSM. GSM is a highly prevalent medical condition with adverse effects on the health and quality of life of midlife women. There are many effective treatment options, including nonhormonal lubricants and moisturizers, physical therapy, low-dose vaginal estrogen therapy, vaginal dehydroepiandrosterone, and oral ospemifene...
May 21, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Andrew M Kaunitz
Because clinical trial data assessing more than 10 years of hormone therapy (HT) use are not available, providing guidance to menopausal women regarding duration of systemic HT is controversial. However, clinicians routinely encounter this issue in practice. Using available evidence and clinical experience, this chapter provides guidance for clinicians who care for patients who may be candidates for extended use of systemic HT.
May 17, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Ekta Kapoor, Daniel Benrubi, Stephanie S Faubion
Gynecologic cancers are common in the United States and represent a significant health burden. Treatment of these cancers often causes premature cessation of ovarian function, with resultant symptoms that are often more severe than those associated with natural menopause. Hormone therapy is the most effective treatment for menopausal symptoms, but the decision-making process about its use can be complex for survivors of gynecologic cancer. In this review, we provide evidence-based recommendations about the use of hormone therapy after gynecologic cancer...
May 14, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Chrisandra Shufelt, Joann Manson
In the United States, nearly 10 million women are currently in the menopause transition and 2.25 million women are 51 years of age, which is the average age of menopause. Approximately 75% of these women will experience vasomotor symptoms such as hot flashes and night sweats. Menopause hormone therapy (HT) remains the most effective treatment for menopausal symptoms, but the decision to use HT is complex and requires balancing the benefits and risks for the individual patient. The decision also requires clinical judgment and shared decision making with the patient...
May 14, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Robert L Reid
Women and health care providers are often fearful of using hormone therapy to deal with distressing menopausal symptoms in circumstances where there is a perceived or real increased risk of breast cancer. This paper examines the evidence for and against hormone therapy use in 3 common clinical situations: the woman with a positive family history in a first-degree relative, the woman who has undergone risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy due to a known genetic mutation, and the woman in whom treatment of breast cancer has induced premature menopause...
May 10, 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
William M Callaghan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Ammon M Fager, Elizabeth Deans, Andra H James
The perioperative management of patients taking antithrombotic or antiplatelet medications is based on an assessment of the individual patient's risk for thrombosis or bleeding, the specific medication involved, and the nature of the planned procedure. This article describes specific strategies for whether and how these medications should be interrupted before gynecologic procedures, when they can be restarted following the procedure, and whether bridging therapy should be considered.
June 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Benjamin S Harris, Katherine C Bishop, Jeffrey A Kuller
Pulmonary embolism in pregnancy is a leading cause of maternal mortality. The clinical presentation is often nonspecific, making imaging essential for accurate diagnosis. After reviewing the literature on the radiologic diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in pregnancy, we concluded that both computed tomography pulmonary angiography and lung perfusion scintigraphy are sensitive with high positive predictive values in the presence of high clinical suspicion, but lung perfusion scintigraphy is recommended given lower maternal breast exposure to ionizing radiation and lower fetal contrast exposure...
June 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Andra H James
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
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