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Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719396/preclinical-models-of-ovarian-cancer-pathogenesis-problems-and-implications-for-prevention
#1
Anthony N Karnezis, Kathleen R Cho
Preclinical models are relatively underutilized and underfunded resources for modeling the pathogenesis and prevention of ovarian cancers. Several reviews have detailed the numerous published models of ovarian cancer. In this review, we will provide an overview of experimental model systems, their strengths and limitations, and use selected models to illustrate how they can be used to address specific issues about ovarian cancer pathogenesis. We will then highlight some of the preclinical prevention studies performed to date and discuss experiments needed to address important unanswered questions about ovarian cancer prevention strategies...
July 17, 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742599/index
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742598/arterial-and-venous-doppler-in-evaluation-of-the-at-risk-fetus
#3
Sifa Turan, Ozhan M Turan
Our practice utilizes Doppler ultrasound as one of the most objective and effective methods to assess at-risk pregnancies. This review will discuss the application of arterial and venous Doppler techniques in assessing and managing various diseases and conditions for high-risk fetuses.
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742597/contemporary-modalities-to-image-the-fetal-brain
#4
Ivan Davila, Isabel Moscardo, Mayel Yepez, Magdalena Sanz Cortes
Fetal brain ultrasound remains as the mainstay for screening fetal intracranial anatomy. One of its main advantages is the availability of 3 dimensional and other ultrasound modalities for a better understanding of fetal neurodevelopment. Neurosonography is performed when findings, suggestive of an abnormality, are present on a screening ultrasound or if a high-risk situation of brain injury is present. This technique offers the use of complementary imaging planes, axial, coronal and sagittal, and the ability to image intracranial anatomy from the transabdominal and transvaginal approaches...
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742596/advances-in-fetal-cardiac-imaging
#5
Elena Sinkovskaya
This review presents a detailed discussion on recent trends in fetal cardiac imaging. Ultrasound technique which are most useful for clinical practice today and will likely change the approach to cardiac evaluation in the future are presented.
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742595/fetal-anatomic-imaging-between-11-and-14-weeks-gestation
#6
Ingrid Liff, Bryann Bromley
Fetal imaging between 11 and 14 weeks is a standard component of prenatal risk assessment for aneuploidy. Evaluating the fetus during this gestational age window provides the opportunity to reliably examine anatomic structures. Using a defined imaging protocol, approximately 50% of major abnormalities can be detected. Some abnormalities should almost always be detected, some may be detected on occasion and others are not currently detectable. Imagers must be familiar with embryologic patterns of development and natural history of anomalies...
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742594/cervical-evaluation-in-pregnancy-proper-measurement-evaluation-and-management
#7
Joseph R Wax, Angelina Cartin, Michael G Pinette
Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in developed nations. The heterogeneous causes of spontaneous preterm birth make prediction and prevention difficult. The primary importance of transvaginal cervical sonography and cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin lies in their high negative predictive values in assessing risk for preterm birth. Cervical length may be useful in identifying women who are candidates for cervical cerclage or progesterone therapy for preterm birth prevention...
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742593/prenatal-diagnosis-and-evaluation-of-abnormal-placentation
#8
Karin A Fox, Wesley Lee
Abnormalities in placental location or adherence can have important consequences on pregnancy outcome for both mother and fetus. Accurate antenatal detection is crucial for delivery timing and planning to help reduce perinatal risks for adverse events. We review the relevant literature and present a practical approach for the prenatal detection of abnormal placentation.
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742592/pregnancy-in-an-abnormal-location
#9
Ana Monteagudo, Julie A Romero, Ilan E Timor-Tritsch
Cesarean scar pregnancy and cervical pregnancy are 2 relatively rare types of abnormally implanted pregnancies. Both if unrecognized can result in significant morbidity to the patient. The most important issue regarding cesarean scar pregnancy and cervical pregnancy is to establish the diagnosis early in order for the patient to be adequately counseled and appropriate management carried out. For both of these conditions early detection and treatment can result in preservation of fertility.
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742591/sonographic-tips-for-evaluation-of-adnexal-masses-in-pregnancy
#10
Timothy P Canavan
Pregnancy is frequently a women's first contact with the health care system and often her first pelvic ultrasound examination. This first sonogram can reveal previously unknown adnexal pathology. Approximately 4% of pregnant women will have an adnexal mass detected by sonography and 1% to 2% of these masses will persist. It is estimated that up to 7% of these persistent masses will be malignant. Sonography plays an important role in differentiating benign from malignant adnexal masses and physiological from pathologic masses and should be used judiciously to complement evaluation and help guide treatment...
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742590/failed-intrauterine-pregnancy-what-is-a-failed-pregnancy-what-is-not
#11
Timothy P Canavan
Pregnancy failure is defined as a lack of sonographic evidence of current or expected viability. Technologic advances in ultrasound imaging continue to redefine diagnostic criteria of pregnancy failure or success. When evaluating a pregnancy, the first step is an assessment of maternal risk factors for failure. Imaging clues such as an empty gestational sac measuring ≥25 mm or an embryo ≥7 mm without cardiac activity are reliable signs of pregnancy failure, whereas embryonic growth <1 mm/d is not. Combinations of sonographic findings can be used for a more accurate prediction of pregnancy success or failure...
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742589/quality-and-safety-of-obstetric-practices-using-new-modalities-ultrasound-mr-and-ct
#12
Roxane Holt, Jacques S Abramowicz
Quality assurance (QA) and safety are important components of obstetric imaging. Quality involves accreditation of the imaging unit as well as equipment inspection for function and image quality. The personnel working in the unit must demonstrate qualifications to perform, evaluate, and interpret the studies. Standardizing the required elements of the examination helps assure that a quality examination has been performed. QA and safety as well as physician requirements and equipment QA programs in ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance will be discussed with an in depth look at ultrasound due to its more frequent use in pregnancy...
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742588/foreword
#13
Joan M Mastrobattista
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742587/contributors-advances-in-ultrasound-and-obstetrical-imaging
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742586/summary-of-future-developments
#15
Jessica R Zolton, Alan Decherney
Endometriosis is a chronic disease with the potential to cause devastating clinical manifestations such as infertility and chronic pelvic disease. Current treatment is limited to surgical intervention and pharmacologic therapy targeting estrogen and progesterone to suppress ectopic endometrial tissue proliferation. Undesired side effects and contraindications to the use of hormonal medications may reduce treatment options. As the pathogenesis of endometriosis continues to be investigated, new therapies will emerge...
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742585/genetics-of-endometriosis
#16
Kavitha Krishnamoorthy, Alan H Decherney
Endometriosis is a complex, puzzling disease in women of reproductive age. The exact cause of the disease is unknown; however, different genetic and environmental factors contribute to the evolution of the disorder. Further investigation has led to the discovery of inheritance as a complex genetic trait. Candidate genes were identified to isolate regions of genes that affect disease risk. Additional linkage studies have been performed to map specific genes along the entire genome. Recent advances to determine the genetic component of endometriosis include genome-wide association studies...
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742584/management-of-chronic-pelvic-pain
#17
Lauren A Bishop
The management of chronic pelvic pain poses a significant challenge to both physicians and patients. Patients should be evaluated for both gynecologic and nongynecologic conditions, and >1 source may be identified. Treatment involves medical as well as surgical options, and it is important to set realistic goals with patients. Treatment may not be curative, but should improve the patient's quality of life.
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742583/endometriosis-and-fertility-preservation
#18
Rebecca Barnett, Nicole Banks, Alan H Decherney
Endometriosis is common, affecting 5% to 10% of reproductive age women. Nearly half of women with surgical evidence of endometriosis fail to achieve spontaneous pregnancy. Surgical treatment of endometriosis can be detrimental to ovarian reserve. In the absence of surgical intervention, ovarian reserve may still be negatively impacted over time. Fertility preservation was developed for women requiring gonadotoxic treatments. Improved methods have led to greater consideration of offering these services to women with other disease processes that threaten ovarian reserve...
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742582/endometriosis-and-imaging
#19
Luis R Hoyos, Samuel Johnson, Elizabeth Puscheck
Endometriosis is a condition with variable location, size, and lesion composition which poses a diagnostic imaging challenge for the practicing gynecologist. Transvaginal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are the most frequent imaging techniques used for its evaluation, but transvaginal ultrasound should be the first-line approach, as it is often sufficient, followed by modified ultrasound techniques. Magnetic resonance imaging should be considered when a diagnosis has not been achieved by sonographic means or when the renal system needs to be concurrently evaluated...
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742581/fertility-and-endometriosis
#20
M Blake Evans, Alan H Decherney
Approximately 30% to 50% of women that have the diagnosis of endometriosis also struggle with infertility. Twenty five percent to 50% of women diagnosed with infertility also have endometriosis, but the endometriosis may not be severe enough to be the primary etiology of infertility. White women have been reported to be more likely than African American women to have endometriosis. In addition, risk factors for endometriosis include below average body mass index, smoking, and alcohol use. Below is a discussion regarding the various ways in which endometriosis decreases fecundity and also discusses potential outcomes of fertility treatments regarding endometriosis...
September 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
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