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Clinical Microbiology Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618576/options-and-limitations-in-clinical-investigation-of-bacterial-biofilms
#1
REVIEW
Maria Magana, Christina Sereti, Anastasios Ioannidis, Courtney A Mitchell, Anthony R Ball, Emmanouil Magiorkinis, Stylianos Chatzipanagiotou, Michael R Hamblin, Maria Hadjifrangiskou, George P Tegos
Bacteria can form single- and multispecies biofilms exhibiting diverse features based upon the microbial composition of their community and microenvironment. The study of bacterial biofilm development has received great interest in the past 20 years and is motivated by the elegant complexity characteristic of these multicellular communities and their role in infectious diseases. Biofilms can thrive on virtually any surface and can be beneficial or detrimental based upon the community's interplay and the surface...
July 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540434/antibiotic-hybrids-the-next-generation-of-agents-and-adjuvants-against-gram-negative-pathogens
#2
REVIEW
Ronald Domalaon, Temilolu Idowu, George G Zhanel, Frank Schweizer
The global incidence of drug-resistant Gram-negative bacillary infections has been increasing, and there is a dire need to develop novel strategies to overcome this problem. Intrinsic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria, such as their protective outer membrane and constitutively overexpressed efflux pumps, is a major survival weapon that renders them refractory to current antibiotics. Several potential avenues to overcome this problem have been at the heart of antibiotic drug discovery in the past few decades...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540433/understanding-clostridium-difficile-colonization
#3
REVIEW
Monique J T Crobach, Jonathan J Vernon, Vivian G Loo, Ling Yuan Kong, Séverine Péchiné, Mark H Wilcox, Ed J Kuijper
Clostridium difficile is the main causative agent of antibiotic-associated and health care-associated infective diarrhea. Recently, there has been growing interest in alternative sources of C. difficile other than patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and the hospital environment. Notably, the role of C. difficile -colonized patients as a possible source of transmission has received attention. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of the current understanding of C. difficile colonization...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490932/emerging-technologies-for-molecular-diagnosis-of-sepsis
#4
REVIEW
Mridu Sinha, Julietta Jupe, Hannah Mack, Todd P Coleman, Shelley M Lawrence, Stephanie I Fraley
Rapid and accurate profiling of infection-causing pathogens remains a significant challenge in modern health care. Despite advances in molecular diagnostic techniques, blood culture analysis remains the gold standard for diagnosing sepsis. However, this method is too slow and cumbersome to significantly influence the initial management of patients. The swift initiation of precise and targeted antibiotic therapies depends on the ability of a sepsis diagnostic test to capture clinically relevant organisms along with antimicrobial resistance within 1 to 3 h...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444953/staphylococcal-osteomyelitis-disease-progression-treatment-challenges-and-future-directions
#5
REVIEW
Nicola Kavanagh, Emily J Ryan, Amro Widaa, Gillian Sexton, Jerome Fennell, Sadhbh O'Rourke, Kevin C Cahill, Cathal J Kearney, Fergal J O'Brien, Steven W Kerrigan
Osteomyelitis is an inflammatory bone disease that is caused by an infecting microorganism and leads to progressive bone destruction and loss. The most common causative species are the usually commensal staphylococci, with Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis responsible for the majority of cases. Staphylococcal infections are becoming an increasing global concern, partially due to the resistance mechanisms developed by staphylococci to evade the host immune system and antibiotic treatment. In addition to the ability of staphylococci to withstand treatment, surgical intervention in an effort to remove necrotic and infected bone further exacerbates patient impairment...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444952/treatment-of-infections-caused-by-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-ampc-and-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#6
REVIEW
Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Belén Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Isabel Machuca, Alvaro Pascual
Therapy of invasive infections due to multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDR-E) is challenging, and some of the few active drugs are not available in many countries. For extended-spectrum β-lactamase and AmpC producers, carbapenems are the drugs of choice, but alternatives are needed because the rate of carbapenem resistance is rising. Potential active drugs include classic and newer β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, cephamycins, temocillin, aminoglycosides, tigecycline, fosfomycin, and, rarely, fluoroquinolones or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386235/an-update-on-host-pathogen-interplay-and-modulation-of-immune-responses-during-orientia-tsutsugamushi-infection
#7
REVIEW
Fabián E Díaz, Katia Abarca, Alexis M Kalergis
The obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi is the causative agent of scrub typhus in humans, a serious mite-borne disease present in a widespread area of endemicity, which affects an estimated 1 million people every year. This disease may exhibit a broad range of presentations, ranging from asymptomatic to fatal conditions, with the latter being due to disseminated endothelial infection and organ injury. Unique characteristics of the biology and host-pathogen interactions of O. tsutsugamushi , including the high antigenic diversity among strains and the highly variable, short-lived memory responses developed by the host, underlie difficulties faced in the pursuit of an effective vaccine, which is an imperative need...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386234/practice-guidelines-for-clinical-microbiology-laboratories-mycobacteria
#8
REVIEW
Betty A Forbes, Geraldine S Hall, Melissa B Miller, Susan M Novak, Marie-Claire Rowlinson, Max Salfinger, Akos Somoskövi, David M Warshauer, Michael L Wilson
Mycobacteria are the causative organisms for diseases such as tuberculosis (TB), leprosy, Buruli ulcer, and pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, to name the most important ones. In 2015, globally, almost 10 million people developed TB, and almost half a million patients suffered from its multidrug-resistant form. In 2016, a total of 9,287 new TB cases were reported in the United States. In 2015, there were 174,608 new case of leprosy worldwide. India, Brazil, and Indonesia reported the most leprosy cases...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237708/vaccine-and-therapeutic-options-to-control-chikungunya-virus
#9
REVIEW
Ann M Powers
Beginning in 2004, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) went from an endemic pathogen limited to Africa and Asia that caused periodic outbreaks to a global pathogen. Given that outbreaks caused by CHIKV have continued and expanded, serious consideration must be given to identifying potential options for vaccines and therapeutics. Currently, there are no licensed products in this realm, and control relies completely on the use of personal protective measures and integrated vector control, which are only minimally effective...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237707/buruli-ulcer-a-prototype-for-ecosystem-related-infection-caused-by-mycobacterium-ulcerans
#10
REVIEW
Dezemon Zingue, Amar Bouam, Roger B D Tian, Michel Drancourt
Buruli ulcer is a noncontagious disabling cutaneous and subcutaneous mycobacteriosis reported by 33 countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania, and South America. The causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans , derives from Mycobacterium marinum by genomic reduction and acquisition of a plasmid-borne, nonribosomal cytotoxin mycolactone, the major virulence factor. M. ulcerans -specific sequences have been readily detected in aquatic environments in food chains involving small mammals. Skin contamination combined with any type of puncture, including insect bites, is the most plausible route of transmission, and skin temperature of <30°C significantly correlates with the topography of lesions...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187397/the-spirochete-brachyspira-pilosicoli-enteric-pathogen-of-animals-and-humans
#11
REVIEW
David J Hampson
Brachyspira pilosicoli is a slow-growing anaerobic spirochete that colonizes the large intestine. Colonization occurs commonly in pigs and adult chickens, causing colitis/typhlitis, diarrhea, poor growth rates, and reduced production. Colonization of humans also is common in some populations (individuals living in village and peri-urban settings in developing countries, recent immigrants from developing countries, homosexual males, and HIV-positive patients), but the spirochete rarely is investigated as a potential human enteric pathogen...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187396/recombinant-endolysins-as-potential-therapeutics-against-antibiotic-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-current-status-of-research-and-novel-delivery-strategies
#12
REVIEW
Hamed Haddad Kashani, Mathias Schmelcher, Hamed Sabzalipoor, Elahe Seyed Hosseini, Rezvan Moniri
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common pathogens of humans and animals, where it frequently colonizes skin and mucosal membranes. It is of major clinical importance as a nosocomial pathogen and causative agent of a wide array of diseases. Multidrug-resistant strains have become increasingly prevalent and represent a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. For this reason, novel strategies to combat multidrug-resistant pathogens are urgently needed. Bacteriophage-derived enzymes, so-called endolysins, and other peptidoglycan hydrolases with the ability to disrupt cell walls represent possible alternatives to conventional antibiotics...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187395/new-approaches-and-therapeutic-options-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-a-dormant-state
#13
REVIEW
Santiago Caño-Muñiz, Richard Anthony, Stefan Niemann, Jan-Willem C Alffenaar
We are far away from the days when tuberculosis (TB) accounted for 1 in 4 deaths during the 19th century. However, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains are still the leading cause of morbidity and mortality by a single infectious disease, with 9.6 million cases and 1.5 million deaths reported. One-third of the world's population is estimated by the WHO to be infected with latent TB. During the last decade, several studies have aimed to define the characteristics of dormant bacteria in these latent infections...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187394/carrion-s-disease-the-sound-of-silence
#14
REVIEW
Cláudia Gomes, Joaquim Ruiz
Carrion's disease (CD) is a neglected biphasic vector-borne illness related to Bartonella bacilliformis . It is found in the Andean valleys and is transmitted mainly by members of the Lutzomyia genus but also by blood transfusions and from mother to child. The acute phase, Oroya fever, presents severe anemia and fever. The lethality is high in the absence of adequate treatment, despite the organism being susceptible to most antibiotics. Partial immunity is developed after infection by B. bacilliformis , resulting in high numbers of asymptomatic carriers...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142080/human-parechovirus-an-increasingly-recognized-cause-of-sepsis-like-illness-in-young-infants
#15
REVIEW
Laudi Olijve, Lance Jennings, Tony Walls
Human parechovirus (HPeV) is increasingly being recognized as a potentially severe viral infection in neonates and young infants. HPeV belongs to the family Picornaviridae and is currently divided into 19 genotypes. HPeV-1 is the most prevalent genotype and most commonly causes gastrointestinal and respiratory disease. HPeV-3 is clinically the most important genotype due to its association with severe disease in younger infants, which may partly be explained by its distinct virological properties. In young infants, the typical clinical presentation includes fever, severe irritability, and rash, often leading to descriptions of "hot, red, angry babies...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142079/laboratory-diagnosis-of-parasites-from-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#16
REVIEW
Lynne S Garcia, Michael Arrowood, Evelyne Kokoskin, Graeme P Paltridge, Dylan R Pillai, Gary W Procop, Norbert Ryan, Robyn Y Shimizu, Govinda Visvesvara
This Practical Guidance for Clinical Microbiology document on the laboratory diagnosis of parasites from the gastrointestinal tract provides practical information for the recovery and identification of relevant human parasites. The document is based on a comprehensive literature review and expert consensus on relevant diagnostic methods. However, it does not include didactic information on human parasite life cycles, organism morphology, clinical disease, pathogenesis, treatment, or epidemiology and prevention...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142078/candida-auris-a-review-of-the-literature
#17
REVIEW
Anna Jeffery-Smith, Surabhi K Taori, Silke Schelenz, Katie Jeffery, Elizabeth M Johnson, Andrew Borman, Rohini Manuel, Colin S Brown
The emerging pathogen Candida auris has been associated with nosocomial outbreaks on five continents. Genetic analysis indicates the simultaneous emergence of separate clades of this organism in different geographical locations. Invasive infection and colonization have been detected predominantly in patients in high-dependency settings and have garnered attention due to variable antifungal resistance profiles and transmission within units instituting a range of infection prevention and control measures. Issues with the identification of C...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142077/syndromic-panel-based-testing-in-clinical-microbiology
#18
REVIEW
Poornima Ramanan, Alexandra L Bryson, Matthew J Binnicker, Bobbi S Pritt, Robin Patel
The recent development of commercial panel-based molecular diagnostics for the rapid detection of pathogens in positive blood culture bottles, respiratory specimens, stool, and cerebrospinal fluid has resulted in a paradigm shift in clinical microbiology and clinical practice. This review focuses on U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved/cleared multiplex molecular panels with more than five targets designed to assist in the diagnosis of bloodstream, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal, or central nervous system infections...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092893/correction-for-quainoo-et-al-whole-genome-sequencing-of-bacterial-pathogens-the-future-of-nosocomial-outbreak-analysis
#19
Scott Quainoo, Jordy P M Coolen, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Martijn A Huynen, Willem J G Melchers, Willem van Schaik, Heiman F L Wertheim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903986/correction-for-perry-a-decade-of-development-of-chromogenic-culture-media-for-clinical-microbiology-in-an-era-of-molecular-diagnostics
#20
John D Perry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
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