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Clinical Microbiology Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30111577/perinatal-streptococcus-agalactiae-epidemiology-and-surveillance-targets
#1
REVIEW
Lucy L Furfaro, Barbara J Chang, Matthew S Payne
SUMMARY Streptococcus agalactiae , or group B streptococcus (GBS), is a major neonatal pathogen. Recent data have elucidated the global prevalence of maternal and neonatal colonization, but gaps still remain in the epidemiology of this species. A number of phenotypic and genotypic classifications can be used to identify the diversity of GBS strains, and some are more discriminatory than others. This review explores the main schemes used for GBS epidemiology and further details the targets for epidemiological surveillance...
October 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30068738/mobile-genetic-elements-associated-with-antimicrobial-resistance
#2
REVIEW
Sally R Partridge, Stephen M Kwong, Neville Firth, Slade O Jensen
SUMMARYStrains of bacteria resistant to antibiotics, particularly those that are multiresistant, are an increasing major health care problem around the world. It is now abundantly clear that both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria are able to meet the evolutionary challenge of combating antimicrobial chemotherapy, often by acquiring preexisting resistance determinants from the bacterial gene pool. This is achieved through the concerted activities of mobile genetic elements able to move within or between DNA molecules, which include insertion sequences, transposons, and gene cassettes/integrons, and those that are able to transfer between bacterial cells, such as plasmids and integrative conjugative elements...
October 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30068737/mechanisms-of-bacterial-tolerance-and-persistence-in-the-gastrointestinal-and-respiratory-environments
#3
REVIEW
R Trastoy, T Manso, L Fernández-García, L Blasco, A Ambroa, M L Pérez Del Molino, G Bou, R García-Contreras, T K Wood, M Tomás
SUMMARYPathogens that infect the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts are subjected to intense pressure due to the environmental conditions of the surroundings. This pressure has led to the development of mechanisms of bacterial tolerance or persistence which enable microorganisms to survive in these locations. In this review, we analyze the general stress response (RpoS mediated), reactive oxygen species (ROS) tolerance, energy metabolism, drug efflux pumps, SOS response, quorum sensing (QS) bacterial communication, (p)ppGpp signaling, and toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems of pathogens, such as Escherichia coli , Salmonella spp...
October 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021818/incipient-and-subclinical-tuberculosis-a-clinical-review-of-early-stages-and-progression-of-infection
#4
REVIEW
Paul K Drain, Kristina L Bajema, David Dowdy, Keertan Dheda, Kogieleum Naidoo, Samuel G Schumacher, Shuyi Ma, Erin Meermeier, David M Lewinsohn, David R Sherman
SUMMARYTuberculosis (TB) is the leading infectious cause of mortality worldwide, due in part to a limited understanding of its clinical pathogenic spectrum of infection and disease. Historically, scientific research, diagnostic testing, and drug treatment have focused on addressing one of two disease states: latent TB infection or active TB disease. Recent research has clearly demonstrated that human TB infection, from latent infection to active disease, exists within a continuous spectrum of metabolic bacterial activity and antagonistic immunological responses...
October 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29976554/virological-and-immunological-outcomes-of-coinfections
#5
REVIEW
Naveen Kumar, Shalini Sharma, Sanjay Barua, Bhupendra N Tripathi, Barry T Rouse
SUMMARYCoinfections involving viruses are being recognized to influence the disease pattern that occurs relative to that with single infection. Classically, we usually think of a clinical syndrome as the consequence of infection by a single virus that is isolated from clinical specimens. However, this biased laboratory approach omits detection of additional agents that could be contributing to the clinical outcome, including novel agents not usually considered pathogens. The presence of an additional agent may also interfere with the targeted isolation of a known virus...
October 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899011/proteus-spp-as-putative-gastrointestinal-pathogens
#6
REVIEW
Amy L Hamilton, Michael A Kamm, Siew C Ng, Mark Morrison
Proteus species, members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, are usually considered commensals in the gut and are most commonly recognized clinically as a cause of urinary tract infections. However, the recent identification of Proteus spp. as potential pathogens in Crohn's disease recurrence after intestinal resection serves as a stimulus to examine their potential role as gut pathogens. Proteus species possess many virulence factors potentially relevant to gastrointestinal pathogenicity, including motility; adherence; the production of urease, hemolysins, and IgA proteases; and the ability to acquire antibiotic resistance...
July 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899010/a-molecular-window-into-the-biology-and-epidemiology-of-pneumocystis-spp
#7
REVIEW
Liang Ma, Ousmane H Cissé, Joseph A Kovacs
Pneumocystis , a unique atypical fungus with an elusive lifestyle, has had an important medical history. It came to prominence as an opportunistic pathogen that not only can cause life-threatening pneumonia in patients with HIV infection and other immunodeficiencies but also can colonize the lungs of healthy individuals from a very early age. The genus Pneumocystis includes a group of closely related but heterogeneous organisms that have a worldwide distribution, have been detected in multiple mammalian species, are highly host species specific, inhabit the lungs almost exclusively, and have never convincingly been cultured in vitro , making Pneumocystis a fascinating but difficult-to-study organism...
July 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848775/the-cost-effectiveness-of-rapid-diagnostic-testing-for-the-diagnosis-of-bloodstream-infections-with-or-without-antimicrobial-stewardship
#8
REVIEW
Elina Eleftheria Pliakos, Nikolaos Andreatos, Fadi Shehadeh, Panayiotis D Ziakas, Eleftherios Mylonakis
Bloodstream infections are associated with considerable morbidity and health care costs. Molecular rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) are a promising complement to conventional laboratory methods for the diagnosis of bloodstream infections and may reduce the time to effective therapy among patients with bloodstream infections. The concurrent implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) may reinforce these benefits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectivenesses of competing strategies for the diagnosis of bloodstream infection alone or combined with an ASP...
July 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848774/clinical-and-biological-features-of-cutibacterium-formerly-propionibacterium-avidum-an-underrecognized-microorganism
#9
REVIEW
Stéphane Corvec
The recent description of the genus Cutibacterium has altered the taxonomy of Propionibacterium species. These organisms still belong to the genera of the skin coryneform group, and the most-studied species remains Cutibacterium acnes . Cutibacterium avidum is also a known skin commensal. This underrecognized microorganism can, however, act as a pathogen after bacterial seeding and can be considered opportunistic, causing either superficial or deep/invasive infections. It can cause numerous infections, including but not limited to breast infections, skin abscesses, infective endocarditis, and device-related infections...
July 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720490/implementing-a-quality-management-system-in-the-medical-microbiology-laboratory
#10
REVIEW
Roberta B Carey, Sanjib Bhattacharyya, Sue C Kehl, Larissa M Matukas, Michael A Pentella, Max Salfinger, Audrey N Schuetz
This document outlines a comprehensive practical approach to a laboratory quality management system (QMS) by describing how to operationalize the management and technical requirements described in the ISO 15189 international standard. It provides a crosswalk of the ISO requirements for quality and competence for medical laboratories to the 12 quality system essentials delineated by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The quality principles are organized under three main categories: quality infrastructure, laboratory operations, and quality assurance and continual improvement...
July 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618576/options-and-limitations-in-clinical-investigation-of-bacterial-biofilms
#11
REVIEW
Maria Magana, Christina Sereti, Anastasios Ioannidis, Courtney A Mitchell, Anthony R Ball, Emmanouil Magiorkinis, Stylianos Chatzipanagiotou, Michael R Hamblin, Maria Hadjifrangiskou, George P Tegos
Bacteria can form single- and multispecies biofilms exhibiting diverse features based upon the microbial composition of their community and microenvironment. The study of bacterial biofilm development has received great interest in the past 20 years and is motivated by the elegant complexity characteristic of these multicellular communities and their role in infectious diseases. Biofilms can thrive on virtually any surface and can be beneficial or detrimental based upon the community's interplay and the surface...
July 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540434/antibiotic-hybrids-the-next-generation-of-agents-and-adjuvants-against-gram-negative-pathogens
#12
REVIEW
Ronald Domalaon, Temilolu Idowu, George G Zhanel, Frank Schweizer
The global incidence of drug-resistant Gram-negative bacillary infections has been increasing, and there is a dire need to develop novel strategies to overcome this problem. Intrinsic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria, such as their protective outer membrane and constitutively overexpressed efflux pumps, is a major survival weapon that renders them refractory to current antibiotics. Several potential avenues to overcome this problem have been at the heart of antibiotic drug discovery in the past few decades...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540433/understanding-clostridium-difficile-colonization
#13
REVIEW
Monique J T Crobach, Jonathan J Vernon, Vivian G Loo, Ling Yuan Kong, Séverine Péchiné, Mark H Wilcox, Ed J Kuijper
Clostridium difficile is the main causative agent of antibiotic-associated and health care-associated infective diarrhea. Recently, there has been growing interest in alternative sources of C. difficile other than patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and the hospital environment. Notably, the role of C. difficile -colonized patients as a possible source of transmission has received attention. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of the current understanding of C. difficile colonization...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490932/emerging-technologies-for-molecular-diagnosis-of-sepsis
#14
REVIEW
Mridu Sinha, Julietta Jupe, Hannah Mack, Todd P Coleman, Shelley M Lawrence, Stephanie I Fraley
Rapid and accurate profiling of infection-causing pathogens remains a significant challenge in modern health care. Despite advances in molecular diagnostic techniques, blood culture analysis remains the gold standard for diagnosing sepsis. However, this method is too slow and cumbersome to significantly influence the initial management of patients. The swift initiation of precise and targeted antibiotic therapies depends on the ability of a sepsis diagnostic test to capture clinically relevant organisms along with antimicrobial resistance within 1 to 3 h...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444953/staphylococcal-osteomyelitis-disease-progression-treatment-challenges-and-future-directions
#15
REVIEW
Nicola Kavanagh, Emily J Ryan, Amro Widaa, Gillian Sexton, Jerome Fennell, Sadhbh O'Rourke, Kevin C Cahill, Cathal J Kearney, Fergal J O'Brien, Steven W Kerrigan
Osteomyelitis is an inflammatory bone disease that is caused by an infecting microorganism and leads to progressive bone destruction and loss. The most common causative species are the usually commensal staphylococci, with Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis responsible for the majority of cases. Staphylococcal infections are becoming an increasing global concern, partially due to the resistance mechanisms developed by staphylococci to evade the host immune system and antibiotic treatment. In addition to the ability of staphylococci to withstand treatment, surgical intervention in an effort to remove necrotic and infected bone further exacerbates patient impairment...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444952/treatment-of-infections-caused-by-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-ampc-and-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#16
REVIEW
Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Belén Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Isabel Machuca, Alvaro Pascual
Therapy of invasive infections due to multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDR-E) is challenging, and some of the few active drugs are not available in many countries. For extended-spectrum β-lactamase and AmpC producers, carbapenems are the drugs of choice, but alternatives are needed because the rate of carbapenem resistance is rising. Potential active drugs include classic and newer β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, cephamycins, temocillin, aminoglycosides, tigecycline, fosfomycin, and, rarely, fluoroquinolones or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386235/an-update-on-host-pathogen-interplay-and-modulation-of-immune-responses-during-orientia-tsutsugamushi-infection
#17
REVIEW
Fabián E Díaz, Katia Abarca, Alexis M Kalergis
The obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi is the causative agent of scrub typhus in humans, a serious mite-borne disease present in a widespread area of endemicity, which affects an estimated 1 million people every year. This disease may exhibit a broad range of presentations, ranging from asymptomatic to fatal conditions, with the latter being due to disseminated endothelial infection and organ injury. Unique characteristics of the biology and host-pathogen interactions of O. tsutsugamushi , including the high antigenic diversity among strains and the highly variable, short-lived memory responses developed by the host, underlie difficulties faced in the pursuit of an effective vaccine, which is an imperative need...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386234/practice-guidelines-for-clinical-microbiology-laboratories-mycobacteria
#18
REVIEW
Betty A Forbes, Geraldine S Hall, Melissa B Miller, Susan M Novak, Marie-Claire Rowlinson, Max Salfinger, Akos Somoskövi, David M Warshauer, Michael L Wilson
Mycobacteria are the causative organisms for diseases such as tuberculosis (TB), leprosy, Buruli ulcer, and pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, to name the most important ones. In 2015, globally, almost 10 million people developed TB, and almost half a million patients suffered from its multidrug-resistant form. In 2016, a total of 9,287 new TB cases were reported in the United States. In 2015, there were 174,608 new case of leprosy worldwide. India, Brazil, and Indonesia reported the most leprosy cases...
April 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237708/vaccine-and-therapeutic-options-to-control-chikungunya-virus
#19
REVIEW
Ann M Powers
Beginning in 2004, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) went from an endemic pathogen limited to Africa and Asia that caused periodic outbreaks to a global pathogen. Given that outbreaks caused by CHIKV have continued and expanded, serious consideration must be given to identifying potential options for vaccines and therapeutics. Currently, there are no licensed products in this realm, and control relies completely on the use of personal protective measures and integrated vector control, which are only minimally effective...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237707/buruli-ulcer-a-prototype-for-ecosystem-related-infection-caused-by-mycobacterium-ulcerans
#20
REVIEW
Dezemon Zingue, Amar Bouam, Roger B D Tian, Michel Drancourt
Buruli ulcer is a noncontagious disabling cutaneous and subcutaneous mycobacteriosis reported by 33 countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania, and South America. The causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans , derives from Mycobacterium marinum by genomic reduction and acquisition of a plasmid-borne, nonribosomal cytotoxin mycolactone, the major virulence factor. M. ulcerans -specific sequences have been readily detected in aquatic environments in food chains involving small mammals. Skin contamination combined with any type of puncture, including insect bites, is the most plausible route of transmission, and skin temperature of <30°C significantly correlates with the topography of lesions...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
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