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Clinical Microbiology Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30541872/tick-borne-flaviviruses-with-a-focus-on-powassan-virus
#1
REVIEW
Gábor Kemenesi, Krisztián Bányai
SUMMARYThe tick-borne pathogen Powassan virus is a rare cause of encephalitis in North America and the Russian Far East. The number of documented cases described since the discovery of Powassan virus in 1958 may be <150, although detection of cases has increased over the past decade. In the United States, the incidence of Powassan virus infections expanded from the estimated 1 case per year prior to 2005 to 10 cases per year during the subsequent decade. The increased detection rate may be associated with several factors, including enhanced surveillance, the availability of improved laboratory diagnostic methods, the expansion of the vector population, and, perhaps, altered human activities that lead to more exposure...
January 2019: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30541871/practical-guidance-for-clinical-microbiology-laboratories-viruses-causing-acute-respiratory-tract-infections
#2
Carmen L Charlton, Esther Babady, Christine C Ginocchio, Todd F Hatchette, Robert C Jerris, Yan Li, Mike Loeffelholz, Yvette S McCarter, Melissa B Miller, Susan Novak-Weekley, Audrey N Schuetz, Yi-Wei Tang, Ray Widen, Steven J Drews
SUMMARYRespiratory viral infections are associated with a wide range of acute syndromes and infectious disease processes in children and adults worldwide. Many viruses are implicated in these infections, and these viruses are spread largely via respiratory means between humans but also occasionally from animals to humans. This article is an American Society for Microbiology (ASM)-sponsored Practical Guidance for Clinical Microbiology (PGCM) document identifying best practices for diagnosis and characterization of viruses that cause acute respiratory infections and replaces the most recent prior version of the ASM-sponsored Cumitech 21 document, Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Respiratory Disease , published in 1986...
January 2019: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30487167/persistent-infection-and-long-term-carriage-of-typhoidal-and-nontyphoidal-salmonellae
#3
REVIEW
Ohad Gal-Mor
SUMMARYThe ability of pathogenic bacteria to affect higher organisms and cause disease is one of the most dramatic properties of microorganisms. Some pathogens can establish transient colonization only, but others are capable of infecting their host for many years or even for a lifetime. Long-term infection is called persistence, and this phenotype is fundamental for the biology of important human pathogens, including Helicobacter pylori , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , and Salmonella enterica Both typhoidal and nontyphoidal serovars of the species Salmonella enterica can cause persistent infection in humans; however, as these two Salmonella groups cause clinically distinct diseases, the characteristics of their persistent infections in humans differ significantly...
January 2019: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30487166/diagnosis-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#4
REVIEW
Bharat S Parekh, Chin-Yih Ou, Peter N Fonjungo, Mireille B Kalou, Erin Rottinghaus, Adrian Puren, Heather Alexander, Mackenzie Hurlston Cox, John N Nkengasong
SUMMARYHIV diagnostics have played a central role in the remarkable progress in identifying, staging, initiating, and monitoring infected individuals on life-saving antiretroviral therapy. They are also useful in surveillance and outbreak responses, allowing for assessment of disease burden and identification of vulnerable populations and transmission "hot spots," thus enabling planning, appropriate interventions, and allocation of appropriate funding. HIV diagnostics are critical in achieving epidemic control and require a hybrid of conventional laboratory-based diagnostic tests and new technologies, including point-of-care (POC) testing, to expand coverage, increase access, and positively impact patient management...
January 2019: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30487165/matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-for-the-rapid-detection-of-antimicrobial-resistance-mechanisms-and-beyond
#5
REVIEW
Marina Oviaño, Germán Bou
SUMMARYMatrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been successfully applied in recent years for first-line identification of pathogens in clinical microbiology because it is simple to use, rapid, and accurate and has economic benefits in hospital management. The range of clinical applications of MALDI-TOF MS for bacterial isolates is increasing constantly, from species identification to the two most promising applications in the near future: detection of antimicrobial resistance and strain typing for epidemiological studies...
January 2019: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209035/treatment-of-toxoplasmosis-historical-perspective-animal-models-and-current-clinical-practice
#6
REVIEW
Ildiko Rita Dunay, Kiran Gajurel, Reshika Dhakal, Oliver Liesenfeld, Jose G Montoya
SUMMARYPrimary Toxoplasma gondii infection is usually subclinical, but cervical lymphadenopathy or ocular disease can be present in some patients. Active infection is characterized by tachyzoites, while tissue cysts characterize latent disease. Infection in the fetus and in immunocompromised patients can cause devastating disease. The combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine (pyr-sulf), targeting the active stage of the infection, is the current gold standard for treating toxoplasmosis, but failure rates remain significant...
October 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30209034/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-molecular-characterization-evolution-and-epidemiology
#7
REVIEW
Sahreena Lakhundi, Kunyan Zhang
SUMMARY Staphylococcus aureus , a major human pathogen, has a collection of virulence factors and the ability to acquire resistance to most antibiotics. This ability is further augmented by constant emergence of new clones, making S. aureus a "superbug." Clinical use of methicillin has led to the appearance of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The past few decades have witnessed the existence of new MRSA clones. Unlike traditional MRSA residing in hospitals, the new clones can invade community settings and infect people without predisposing risk factors...
October 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30158301/recent-development-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-treatments-successes-pitfalls-and-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Fabiana Alves, Graeme Bilbe, Séverine Blesson, Vishal Goyal, Séverine Monnerat, Charles Mowbray, Gina Muthoni Ouattara, Bernard Pécoul, Suman Rijal, Joelle Rode, Alexandra Solomos, Nathalie Strub-Wourgaft, Monique Wasunna, Susan Wells, Eduard E Zijlstra, Byron Arana, Jorge Alvar
SUMMARYResearch in visceral leishmaniasis in the last decade has been focused on how better to use the existing medicines as monotherapy or in combination. Systematic research by geographical regions has shown that a universal treatment is far from today's reality. Substantial progress has been made in the elimination of kala-azar in South Asia, with a clear strategy on first- and second-line therapy options of single-dose liposomal amphotericin B and a combination of paromomycin and miltefosine, respectively, among other interventions...
October 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30158300/nonsuppurative-aseptic-meningoencephalomyelitis-associated-with-neurovirulent-astrovirus-infections-in-humans-and-animals
#9
REVIEW
Gábor Reuter, Péter Pankovics, Ákos Boros
SUMMARYAstroviruses are thought to be enteric pathogens. Since 2010, a certain group of astroviruses has increasingly been recognized, using up-to-date random amplification and high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods, as potential neurovirulent (Ni) pathogens of severe central nervous system (CNS) infections, causing encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, and meningoencephalomyelitis. To date, neurovirulent astrovirus cases or epidemics have been reported for humans and domesticated mammals, including mink, bovines, ovines, and swine...
October 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30158299/epidemiology-biology-and-impact-of-clonal-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infections-in-cystic-fibrosis
#10
REVIEW
Michael D Parkins, Ranjani Somayaji, Valerie J Waters
SUMMARYChronic lower airway infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in individuals suffering from the genetic disease cystic fibrosis (CF). Whereas it was long presumed that each patient independently acquired unique strains of P. aeruginosa present in their living environment, multiple studies have since demonstrated that shared strains of P. aeruginosa exist among individuals with CF. Many of these shared strains, often referred to as clonal or epidemic strains, can be transmitted from one CF individual to another, potentially reaching epidemic status...
October 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30158298/human-pathogenic-entomophthorales
#11
REVIEW
Raquel Vilela, Leonel Mendoza
SUMMARYThe pathogenic entomophthoralean fungi cause infection in insects and mammalian hosts. Basidiobolus and Conidiobolus species can be found in soil and insect, reptile, and amphibian droppings in tropical and subtropical areas. The life cycles of these fungi occur in these environments where infecting sticky conidia are developed. The infection is acquired by insect bite or contact with contaminated environments through open skin. Conidiobolus coronatus typically causes chronic rhinofacial disease in immunocompetent hosts, whereas some Conidiobolus species can be found in immunocompromised patients...
October 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30111577/perinatal-streptococcus-agalactiae-epidemiology-and-surveillance-targets
#12
REVIEW
Lucy L Furfaro, Barbara J Chang, Matthew S Payne
SUMMARY Streptococcus agalactiae , or group B streptococcus (GBS), is a major neonatal pathogen. Recent data have elucidated the global prevalence of maternal and neonatal colonization, but gaps still remain in the epidemiology of this species. A number of phenotypic and genotypic classifications can be used to identify the diversity of GBS strains, and some are more discriminatory than others. This review explores the main schemes used for GBS epidemiology and further details the targets for epidemiological surveillance...
October 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30068738/mobile-genetic-elements-associated-with-antimicrobial-resistance
#13
REVIEW
Sally R Partridge, Stephen M Kwong, Neville Firth, Slade O Jensen
SUMMARYStrains of bacteria resistant to antibiotics, particularly those that are multiresistant, are an increasing major health care problem around the world. It is now abundantly clear that both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria are able to meet the evolutionary challenge of combating antimicrobial chemotherapy, often by acquiring preexisting resistance determinants from the bacterial gene pool. This is achieved through the concerted activities of mobile genetic elements able to move within or between DNA molecules, which include insertion sequences, transposons, and gene cassettes/integrons, and those that are able to transfer between bacterial cells, such as plasmids and integrative conjugative elements...
October 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30068737/mechanisms-of-bacterial-tolerance-and-persistence-in-the-gastrointestinal-and-respiratory-environments
#14
REVIEW
R Trastoy, T Manso, L Fernández-García, L Blasco, A Ambroa, M L Pérez Del Molino, G Bou, R García-Contreras, T K Wood, M Tomás
SUMMARYPathogens that infect the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts are subjected to intense pressure due to the environmental conditions of the surroundings. This pressure has led to the development of mechanisms of bacterial tolerance or persistence which enable microorganisms to survive in these locations. In this review, we analyze the general stress response (RpoS mediated), reactive oxygen species (ROS) tolerance, energy metabolism, drug efflux pumps, SOS response, quorum sensing (QS) bacterial communication, (p)ppGpp signaling, and toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems of pathogens, such as Escherichia coli , Salmonella spp...
October 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021818/incipient-and-subclinical-tuberculosis-a-clinical-review-of-early-stages-and-progression-of-infection
#15
REVIEW
Paul K Drain, Kristina L Bajema, David Dowdy, Keertan Dheda, Kogieleum Naidoo, Samuel G Schumacher, Shuyi Ma, Erin Meermeier, David M Lewinsohn, David R Sherman
SUMMARYTuberculosis (TB) is the leading infectious cause of mortality worldwide, due in part to a limited understanding of its clinical pathogenic spectrum of infection and disease. Historically, scientific research, diagnostic testing, and drug treatment have focused on addressing one of two disease states: latent TB infection or active TB disease. Recent research has clearly demonstrated that human TB infection, from latent infection to active disease, exists within a continuous spectrum of metabolic bacterial activity and antagonistic immunological responses...
October 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29976554/virological-and-immunological-outcomes-of-coinfections
#16
REVIEW
Naveen Kumar, Shalini Sharma, Sanjay Barua, Bhupendra N Tripathi, Barry T Rouse
SUMMARYCoinfections involving viruses are being recognized to influence the disease pattern that occurs relative to that with single infection. Classically, we usually think of a clinical syndrome as the consequence of infection by a single virus that is isolated from clinical specimens. However, this biased laboratory approach omits detection of additional agents that could be contributing to the clinical outcome, including novel agents not usually considered pathogens. The presence of an additional agent may also interfere with the targeted isolation of a known virus...
October 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899011/proteus-spp-as-putative-gastrointestinal-pathogens
#17
REVIEW
Amy L Hamilton, Michael A Kamm, Siew C Ng, Mark Morrison
Proteus species, members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, are usually considered commensals in the gut and are most commonly recognized clinically as a cause of urinary tract infections. However, the recent identification of Proteus spp. as potential pathogens in Crohn's disease recurrence after intestinal resection serves as a stimulus to examine their potential role as gut pathogens. Proteus species possess many virulence factors potentially relevant to gastrointestinal pathogenicity, including motility; adherence; the production of urease, hemolysins, and IgA proteases; and the ability to acquire antibiotic resistance...
July 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899010/a-molecular-window-into-the-biology-and-epidemiology-of-pneumocystis-spp
#18
REVIEW
Liang Ma, Ousmane H Cissé, Joseph A Kovacs
Pneumocystis , a unique atypical fungus with an elusive lifestyle, has had an important medical history. It came to prominence as an opportunistic pathogen that not only can cause life-threatening pneumonia in patients with HIV infection and other immunodeficiencies but also can colonize the lungs of healthy individuals from a very early age. The genus Pneumocystis includes a group of closely related but heterogeneous organisms that have a worldwide distribution, have been detected in multiple mammalian species, are highly host species specific, inhabit the lungs almost exclusively, and have never convincingly been cultured in vitro , making Pneumocystis a fascinating but difficult-to-study organism...
July 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848775/the-cost-effectiveness-of-rapid-diagnostic-testing-for-the-diagnosis-of-bloodstream-infections-with-or-without-antimicrobial-stewardship
#19
REVIEW
Elina Eleftheria Pliakos, Nikolaos Andreatos, Fadi Shehadeh, Panayiotis D Ziakas, Eleftherios Mylonakis
Bloodstream infections are associated with considerable morbidity and health care costs. Molecular rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) are a promising complement to conventional laboratory methods for the diagnosis of bloodstream infections and may reduce the time to effective therapy among patients with bloodstream infections. The concurrent implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) may reinforce these benefits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectivenesses of competing strategies for the diagnosis of bloodstream infection alone or combined with an ASP...
July 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29848774/clinical-and-biological-features-of-cutibacterium-formerly-propionibacterium-avidum-an-underrecognized-microorganism
#20
REVIEW
Stéphane Corvec
The recent description of the genus Cutibacterium has altered the taxonomy of Propionibacterium species. These organisms still belong to the genera of the skin coryneform group, and the most-studied species remains Cutibacterium acnes . Cutibacterium avidum is also a known skin commensal. This underrecognized microorganism can, however, act as a pathogen after bacterial seeding and can be considered opportunistic, causing either superficial or deep/invasive infections. It can cause numerous infections, including but not limited to breast infections, skin abscesses, infective endocarditis, and device-related infections...
July 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
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