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Clinical Microbiology Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903594/chronic-rhinosinusitis-and-the-evolving-understanding-of-microbial-ecology-in-chronic-inflammatory-mucosal-disease
#1
REVIEW
Michael Hoggard, Brett Wagner Mackenzie, Ravi Jain, Michael W Taylor, Kristi Biswas, Richard G Douglas
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) encompasses a heterogeneous group of debilitating chronic inflammatory sinonasal diseases. Despite considerable research, the etiology of CRS remains poorly understood, and debate on potential roles of microbial communities is unresolved. Modern culture-independent (molecular) techniques have vastly improved our understanding of the microbiology of the human body. Recent studies that better capture the full complexity of the microbial communities associated with CRS reintroduce the possible importance of the microbiota either as a direct driver of disease or as being potentially involved in its exacerbation...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903593/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-detection-and-new-options-for-prevention-and-treatment
#2
REVIEW
Cameron Griffiths, Steven J Drews, David J Marchant
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a significant cause of hospitalization of children in North America and one of the leading causes of death of infants less than 1 year of age worldwide, second only to malaria. Despite its global impact on human health, there are relatively few therapeutic options available to prevent or treat RSV infection. Paradoxically, there is a very large volume of information that is constantly being refined on RSV replication, the mechanisms of RSV-induced pathology, and community transmission...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856522/chromoblastomycosis
#3
REVIEW
Flavio Queiroz-Telles, Sybren de Hoog, Daniel Wagner C L Santos, Claudio Guedes Salgado, Vania Aparecida Vicente, Alexandro Bonifaz, Emmanuel Roilides, Liyan Xi, Conceição de Maria Pedrozo E Silva Azevedo, Moises Batista da Silva, Zoe Dorothea Pana, Arnaldo Lopes Colombo, Thomas J Walsh
Chromoblastomycosis (CBM), also known as chromomycosis, is one of the most prevalent implantation fungal infections, being the most common of the gamut of mycoses caused by melanized or brown-pigmented fungi. CBM is mainly a tropical or subtropical disease that may affect individuals with certain risk factors around the world. The following characteristics are associated with this disease: (i) traumatic inoculation by implantation from an environmental source, leading to an initial cutaneous lesion at the inoculation site; (ii) chronic and progressive cutaneous and subcutaneous tissular involvement associated with fibrotic and granulomatous reactions associated with microabscesses and often with tissue proliferation; (iii) a nonprotective T helper type 2 (Th2) immune response with ineffective humoral involvement; and (iv) the presence of muriform (sclerotic) cells embedded in the affected tissue...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856521/gleaning-insights-from-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-and-probiotic-studies-for-the-rational-design-of-combination-microbial-therapies
#4
REVIEW
Lauren E Hudson, Sarah E Anderson, Anita H Corbett, Tracey J Lamb
Beneficial microorganisms hold promise for the treatment of numerous gastrointestinal diseases. The transfer of whole microbiota via fecal transplantation has already been shown to ameliorate the severity of diseases such as Clostridium difficile infection, inflammatory bowel disease, and others. However, the exact mechanisms of fecal microbiota transplant efficacy and the particular strains conferring this benefit are still unclear. Rationally designed combinations of microbial preparations may enable more efficient and effective treatment approaches tailored to particular diseases...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856520/from-q-fever-to-coxiella-burnetii-infection-a-paradigm-change
#5
REVIEW
Carole Eldin, Cléa Mélenotte, Oleg Mediannikov, Eric Ghigo, Matthieu Million, Sophie Edouard, Jean-Louis Mege, Max Maurin, Didier Raoult
Coxiella burnetii is the agent of Q fever, or "query fever," a zoonosis first described in Australia in 1937. Since this first description, knowledge about this pathogen and its associated infections has increased dramatically. We review here all the progress made over the last 20 years on this topic. C. burnetii is classically a strict intracellular, Gram-negative bacterium. However, a major step in the characterization of this pathogen was achieved by the establishment of its axenic culture. C. burnetii infects a wide range of animals, from arthropods to humans...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806994/human-parvoviruses
#6
REVIEW
Jianming Qiu, Maria Söderlund-Venermo, Neal S Young
Parvovirus B19 (B19V) and human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), members of the large Parvoviridae family, are human pathogens responsible for a variety of diseases. For B19V in particular, host features determine disease manifestations. These viruses are prevalent worldwide and are culturable in vitro, and serological and molecular assays are available but require careful interpretation of results. Additional human parvoviruses, including HBoV2 to -4, human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), and human bufavirus (BuV) are also reviewed...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795306/clinical-laboratory-testing-in-the-era-of-directly-acting-antiviral-therapies-for-hepatitis-c
#7
REVIEW
Eleanor M Wilson, Elana S Rosenthal, Sarah Kattakuzhy, Lydia Tang, Shyam Kottilil
Directly acting antiviral (DAA) combination therapies for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are highly effective, but treatment decisions remain complex. Laboratory testing is important to evaluate a range of viral, host, and pharmacological factors when considering HCV treatment, and patients must be monitored during and after therapy for safety and to assess the viral response. In this review, we discuss the laboratory tests relevant for the treatment of HCV infection in the era of DAA therapy, grouped according to viral and host factors...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795305/carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-and-enterobacteriaceae-in-south-and-southeast-asia
#8
REVIEW
Li-Yang Hsu, Anucha Apisarnthanarak, Erum Khan, Nuntra Suwantarat, Abdul Ghafur, Paul Anantharajah Tambyah
Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, in particular the Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex and Enterobacteriaceae, are escalating global public health threats. We review the epidemiology and prevalence of these carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria among countries in South and Southeast Asia, where the rates of resistance are some of the highest in the world. These countries house more than a third of the world's population, and several are also major medical tourism destinations. There are significant data gaps, and the almost universal lack of comprehensive surveillance programs that include molecular epidemiologic testing has made it difficult to understand the origins and extent of the problem in depth...
January 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27608937/microbiome-changes-during-tuberculosis-and-antituberculous-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Bo-Young Hong, Nancy Paula Maulén, Alexander J Adami, Hector Granados, María Elvira Balcells, Jorge Cervantes
The critical role of commensal microbiota in the human body has been increasingly recognized, and our understanding of its implications in human health and disease has expanded rapidly. The lower respiratory tract contains diverse communities of microbes known as lung microbiota, which are present in healthy individuals and in individuals with respiratory diseases. The dysbiosis of the airway microbiota in pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) may play a role in the pathophysiological processes associated with TB disease...
October 2016: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559075/total-hiv-1-dna-a-marker-of-viral-reservoir-dynamics-with-clinical-implications
#10
REVIEW
Véronique Avettand-Fènoël, Laurent Hocqueloux, Jade Ghosn, Antoine Cheret, Pierre Frange, Adeline Melard, Jean-Paul Viard, Christine Rouzioux
HIV-1 DNA persists in infected cells despite combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), forming viral reservoirs. Recent trials of strategies targeting latent HIV reservoirs have rekindled hopes of curing HIV infection, and reliable markers are thus needed to evaluate viral reservoirs. Total HIV DNA quantification is simple, standardized, sensitive, and reproducible. Total HIV DNA load influences the course of the infection and is therefore clinically relevant. In particular, it is predictive of progression to AIDS and death, independently of HIV RNA load and the CD4 cell count...
October 2016: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559074/navigating-microbiological-food-safety-in-the-era-of-whole-genome-sequencing
#11
REVIEW
J Ronholm, Neda Nasheri, Nicholas Petronella, Franco Pagotto
The epidemiological investigation of a foodborne outbreak, including identification of related cases, source attribution, and development of intervention strategies, relies heavily on the ability to subtype the etiological agent at a high enough resolution to differentiate related from nonrelated cases. Historically, several different molecular subtyping methods have been used for this purpose; however, emerging techniques, such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based techniques, that use whole-genome sequencing (WGS) offer a resolution that was previously not possible...
October 2016: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464994/survival-of-the-fittest-how-bacterial-pathogens-utilize-bile-to-enhance-infection
#12
REVIEW
Jeticia R Sistrunk, Kourtney P Nickerson, Rachael B Chanin, David A Rasko, Christina S Faherty
Bacterial pathogens have coevolved with humans in order to efficiently infect, replicate within, and be transmitted to new hosts to ensure survival and a continual infection cycle. For enteric pathogens, the ability to adapt to numerous host factors under the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract is critical for establishing infection. One such host factor readily encountered by enteric bacteria is bile, an innately antimicrobial detergent-like compound essential for digestion and nutrient absorption...
October 2016: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413096/modulation-of-host-immunity-by-the-human-metapneumovirus
#13
REVIEW
Pablo F Céspedes, Christian E Palavecino, Alexis M Kalergis, Susan M Bueno
Globally, as a leading agent of acute respiratory tract infections in children <5 years of age and the elderly, the human metapneumovirus (HMPV) has gained considerable attention. As inferred from studies comparing vaccinated and experimentally infected mice, the acquired immune response elicited by this pathogen fails to efficiently clear the virus from the airways, which leads to an exaggerated inflammatory response and lung damage. Furthermore, after disease resolution, there is a poor development of T and B cell immunological memory, which is believed to promote reinfections and viral spread in the community...
October 2016: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413095/diagnosis-of-ebola-virus-disease-past-present-and-future
#14
REVIEW
M Jana Broadhurst, Tim J G Brooks, Nira R Pollock
Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola virus disease plays a critical role in outbreak response efforts; however, establishing safe and expeditious testing strategies for this high-biosafety-level pathogen in resource-poor environments remains extremely challenging. Since the discovery of Ebola virus in 1976 via traditional viral culture techniques and electron microscopy, diagnostic methodologies have trended toward faster, more accurate molecular assays. Importantly, technological advances have been paired with increasing efforts to support decentralized diagnostic testing capacity that can be deployed at or near the point of patient care...
October 2016: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413094/continuous-and-prolonged-intravenous-%C3%AE-lactam-dosing-implications-for-the-clinical-laboratory
#15
REVIEW
Mordechai Grupper, Joseph L Kuti, David P Nicolau
Beta-lactam antibiotics serve as a cornerstone in the management of bacterial infections because of their wide spectrum of activity and low toxicity. Since resistance rates among bacteria are continuously on the rise and the pipeline for new antibiotics does not meet this trend, an optimization of current beta-lactam treatment is needed. This review provides an overview of optimization through use of prolonged- and continuous-infusion dosing strategies compared with more traditional intermittent infusions. Included is an overview of the scientific basis for using these nontraditional prolonged- and continuous-infusion-based regimens, with a focus on major areas in which the clinical laboratory can support the clinical use of these regimens...
October 2016: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402659/asm-journals-eliminate-impact-factor-information-from-journal-websites
#16
EDITORIAL
Arturo Casadevall, Stefano Bertuzzi, Michael J Buchmeier, Roger J Davis, Harold Drake, Ferric C Fang, Jack Gilbert, Barbara M Goldman, Michael J Imperiale, Philip Matsumura, Alexander J McAdam, Marcela F Pasetti, Rozanne M Sandri-Goldin, Thomas Silhavy, Louis Rice, Jo-Anne H Young, Thomas Shenk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358491/xenotropic-murine-leukemia-virus-related-virus-xmrv-and-the-safety-of-the-blood-supply
#17
REVIEW
Andrew D Johnson, Claudia S Cohn
In 2006, a new virus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), was discovered in a cohort of U.S. men with prostate cancer. Soon after this initial finding, XMRV was also detected in samples from patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The blood community, which is highly sensitive to the threat of emerging infectious diseases since the HIV/AIDS crisis, recommended indefinite deferral of all blood donors with a history of CFS. As XMRV research progressed, conflicting results emerged regarding the importance of this virus in the pathophysiology of prostate cancer and/or CFS...
October 2016: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27281742/approved-antiviral-drugs-over-the-past-50-years
#18
REVIEW
Erik De Clercq, Guangdi Li
Since the first antiviral drug, idoxuridine, was approved in 1963, 90 antiviral drugs categorized into 13 functional groups have been formally approved for the treatment of the following 9 human infectious diseases: (i) HIV infections (protease inhibitors, integrase inhibitors, entry inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and acyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogues), (ii) hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections (lamivudine, interferons, nucleoside analogues, and acyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogues), (iii) hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections (ribavirin, interferons, NS3/4A protease inhibitors, NS5A inhibitors, and NS5B polymerase inhibitors), (iv) herpesvirus infections (5-substituted 2'-deoxyuridine analogues, entry inhibitors, nucleoside analogues, pyrophosphate analogues, and acyclic guanosine analogues), (v) influenza virus infections (ribavirin, matrix 2 protein inhibitors, RNA polymerase inhibitors, and neuraminidase inhibitors), (vi) human cytomegalovirus infections (acyclic guanosine analogues, acyclic nucleoside phosphonate analogues, pyrophosphate analogues, and oligonucleotides), (vii) varicella-zoster virus infections (acyclic guanosine analogues, nucleoside analogues, 5-substituted 2'-deoxyuridine analogues, and antibodies), (viii) respiratory syncytial virus infections (ribavirin and antibodies), and (ix) external anogenital warts caused by human papillomavirus infections (imiquimod, sinecatechins, and podofilox)...
July 2016: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27281741/emerging-role-of-zika-virus-in-adverse-fetal-and-neonatal-outcomes
#19
REVIEW
Alice Panchaud, Miloš Stojanov, Anne Ammerdorffer, Manon Vouga, David Baud
The rapid spread of the Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas and its potential association with thousands of suspected cases of microcephaly in Brazil and higher rates of Guillain-Barré syndrome meet the conditions for a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, as stated by the World Health Organization in February 2016. Two months later, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that the current available evidence supports the existence of a causal relationship between prenatal Zika virus infection and microcephaly and other serious brain anomalies...
July 2016: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27226089/prions-beyond-a-single-protein
#20
REVIEW
Alvin S Das, Wen-Quan Zou
Since the term protein was first coined in 1838 and protein was discovered to be the essential component of fibrin and albumin, all cellular proteins were presumed to play beneficial roles in plants and mammals. However, in 1967, Griffith proposed that proteins could be infectious pathogens and postulated their involvement in scrapie, a universally fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in goats and sheep. Nevertheless, this novel hypothesis had not been evidenced until 1982, when Prusiner and coworkers purified infectious particles from scrapie-infected hamster brains and demonstrated that they consisted of a specific protein that he called a "prion...
July 2016: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
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