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Clinical Microbiology Reviews

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903986/correction-for-perry-a-decade-of-development-of-chromogenic-culture-media-for-clinical-microbiology-in-an-era-of-molecular-diagnostics
#1
John D Perry
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903985/molecular-tools-for-the-detection-and-deduction-of-azole-antifungal-drug-resistance-phenotypes-in-aspergillus-species
#2
REVIEW
Anna Dudakova, Birgit Spiess, Marut Tangwattanachuleeporn, Christoph Sasse, Dieter Buchheidt, Michael Weig, Uwe Groß, Oliver Bader
The incidence of azole resistance in Aspergillus species has increased over the past years, most importantly for Aspergillus fumigatus. This is partially attributable to the global spread of only a few resistance alleles through the environment. Secondary resistance is a significant clinical concern, as invasive aspergillosis with drug-susceptible strains is already difficult to treat, and exclusion of azole-based antifungals from prophylaxis or first-line treatment of invasive aspergillosis in high-risk patients would dramatically limit drug choices, thus increasing mortality rates for immunocompromised patients...
October 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855266/whole-genome-sequencing-of-bacterial-pathogens-the-future-of-nosocomial-outbreak-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Scott Quainoo, Jordy P M Coolen, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Martijn A Huynen, Willem J G Melchers, Willem van Schaik, Heiman F L Wertheim
Outbreaks of multidrug-resistant bacteria present a frequent threat to vulnerable patient populations in hospitals around the world. Intensive care unit (ICU) patients are particularly susceptible to nosocomial infections due to indwelling devices such as intravascular catheters, drains, and intratracheal tubes for mechanical ventilation. The increased vulnerability of infected ICU patients demonstrates the importance of effective outbreak management protocols to be in place. Understanding the transmission of pathogens via genotyping methods is an important tool for outbreak management...
October 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855265/the-role-of-baff-system-molecules-in-host-response-to-pathogens
#4
REVIEW
Jiro Sakai, Mustafa Akkoyunlu
The two ligands B cell-activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and the three receptors BAFF receptor (BAFF-R), transmembrane activator and calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI), and B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) are members of the "BAFF system molecules." BAFF system molecules are primarily involved in B cell homeostasis. The relevance of BAFF system molecules in host responses to microbial assaults has been investigated in clinical studies and in mice deficient for each of these molecules...
October 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814408/intrinsic-maturational-neonatal-immune-deficiencies-and-susceptibility-to-group-b-streptococcus-infection
#5
REVIEW
Michelle L Korir, Shannon D Manning, H Dele Davies
Although a normal member of the gastrointestinal and vaginal microbiota, group B Streptococcus (GBS) can also occasionally be the cause of highly invasive neonatal disease and is an emerging pathogen in both elderly and immunocompromised adults. Neonatal GBS infections are typically transmitted from mother to baby either in utero or during passage through the birth canal and can lead to pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis within the first few months of life. Compared to the adult immune system, the neonatal immune system has a number of deficiencies, making neonates more susceptible to infection...
October 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768707/impact-of-childhood-malnutrition-on-host-defense-and-infection
#6
REVIEW
Marwa K Ibrahim, Mara Zambruni, Christopher L Melby, Peter C Melby
The global impact of childhood malnutrition is staggering. The synergism between malnutrition and infection contributes substantially to childhood morbidity and mortality. Anthropometric indicators of malnutrition are associated with the increased risk and severity of infections caused by many pathogens, including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, and helminths. Since childhood malnutrition commonly involves the inadequate intake of protein and calories, with superimposed micronutrient deficiencies, the causal factors involved in impaired host defense are usually not defined...
October 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724662/the-role-of-antibiotics-in-modulating-virulence-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#7
REVIEW
Elisabeth Hodille, Warren Rose, Binh An Diep, Sylvain Goutelle, Gerard Lina, Oana Dumitrescu
Staphylococcus aureus is often involved in severe infections, in which the effects of bacterial virulence factors have great importance. Antistaphylococcal regimens should take into account the different effects of antibacterial agents on the expression of virulence factors and on the host's immune response. A PubMed literature search was performed to select relevant articles on the effects of antibiotics on staphylococcal toxin production and on the host immune response. Information was sorted according to the methods used for data acquisition (bacterial strains, growth models, and antibiotic concentrations) and the assays used for readout generation...
October 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637681/two-tales-of-cytauxzoon-felis-infections-in-domestic-cats
#8
REVIEW
Jin-Lei Wang, Ting-Ting Li, Guo-Hua Liu, Xing-Quan Zhu, Chaoqun Yao
Cytauxzoonosis is an emerging infectious disease that affects wild felids as well as the domestic cat; it is caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Cytauxzoon. Cytauxzoonfelis is the species of major concern, whose transmission occurs via the bite of an infected tick. Cytauxzoonosis of the domestic cat has historically been considered uniformly fatal, with a short course of illness, and most domestic cats die within 9 to 15 days postinfection. However, increasing evidence of domestic cats surviving C...
October 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592405/current-and-emerging-topical-antibacterials-and-antiseptics-agents-action-and-resistance-patterns
#9
REVIEW
Deborah A Williamson, Glen P Carter, Benjamin P Howden
Bacterial skin infections represent some of the most common infectious diseases globally. Prevention and treatment of skin infections can involve application of a topical antimicrobial, which may be an antibiotic (such as mupirocin or fusidic acid) or an antiseptic (such as chlorhexidine or alcohol). However, there is limited evidence to support the widespread prophylactic or therapeutic use of topical agents. Challenges involved in the use of topical antimicrobials include increasing rates of bacterial resistance, local hypersensitivity reactions (particularly to older agents, such as bacitracin), and concerns about the indiscriminate use of antiseptics potentially coselecting for antibiotic resistance...
July 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539504/strategies-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-trichomonas-vaginalis-infections
#10
REVIEW
Kawthar Bouchemal, Christian Bories, Philippe M Loiseau
The last estimated annual incidence of Trichomonas vaginalis worldwide exceeds that of chlamydia and gonorrhea combined. This critical review updates the state of the art on advances in T. vaginalis diagnostics and strategies for treatment and prevention of trichomoniasis. In particular, new data on treatment outcomes for topical administration of formulations are reviewed and discussed.
July 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539503/mycoplasma-pneumoniae-from-the-respiratory-tract-and-beyond
#11
REVIEW
Ken B Waites, Li Xiao, Yang Liu, Mitchell F Balish, T Prescott Atkinson
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory tract infections in children as well as adults that can range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Over the past several years there has been much new information published concerning infections caused by this organism. New molecular-based tests for M. pneumoniae detection are now commercially available in the United States, and advances in molecular typing systems have enhanced understanding of the epidemiology of infections. More strains have had their entire genome sequences published, providing additional insights into pathogenic mechanisms...
July 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490579/bartonella-species-an-emerging-cause-of-blood-culture-negative-endocarditis
#12
REVIEW
Udoka Okaro, Anteneh Addisu, Beata Casanas, Burt Anderson
Since the reclassification of the genus Bartonella in 1993, the number of species has grown from 1 to 45 currently designated members. Likewise, the association of different Bartonella species with human disease continues to grow, as does the range of clinical presentations associated with these bacteria. Among these, blood-culture-negative endocarditis stands out as a common, often undiagnosed, clinical presentation of infection with several different Bartonella species. The limitations of laboratory tests resulting in this underdiagnosis of Bartonella endocarditis are discussed...
July 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490578/investigating-clinical-issues-by-genotyping-of-medically-important-fungi-why-and-how
#13
REVIEW
Alexandre Alanio, Marie Desnos-Ollivier, Dea Garcia-Hermoso, Stéphane Bretagne
Genotyping studies of medically important fungi have addressed elucidation of outbreaks, nosocomial transmissions, infection routes, and genotype-phenotype correlations, of which secondary resistance has been most intensively investigated. Two methods have emerged because of their high discriminatory power and reproducibility: multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and microsatellite length polymorphism (MLP) using short tandem repeat (STR) markers. MLST relies on single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the coding regions of housekeeping genes...
July 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446445/susceptibility-testing-of-medically-important-parasites
#14
REVIEW
Abebe Genetu Bayih, Anjan Debnath, Edward Mitre, Christopher D Huston, Benoît Laleu, Didier Leroy, Benjamin Blasco, Brice Campo, Timothy N C Wells, Paul A Willis, Peter Sjö, Wesley C Van Voorhis, Dylan R Pillai
In the last 2 decades, renewed attention to neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has spurred the development of antiparasitic agents, especially in light of emerging drug resistance. The need for new drugs has required in vitro screening methods using parasite culture. Furthermore, clinical laboratories sought to correlate in vitro susceptibility methods with treatment outcomes, most notably with malaria. Parasites with their various life cycles present greater complexity than bacteria, for which standardized susceptibility methods exist...
July 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404792/toxoplasma-effectors-targeting-host-signaling-and-transcription
#15
REVIEW
Mohamed-Ali Hakimi, Philipp Olias, L David Sibley
Early electron microscopy studies revealed the elaborate cellular features that define the unique adaptations of apicomplexan parasites. Among these were bulbous rhoptry (ROP) organelles and small, dense granules (GRAs), both of which are secreted during invasion of host cells. These early morphological studies were followed by the exploration of the cellular contents of these secretory organelles, revealing them to be comprised of highly divergent protein families with few conserved domains or predicted functions...
July 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356323/bacterial-and-fungal-endophthalmitis
#16
REVIEW
Marlene L Durand
Endophthalmitis is a severe eye infection that may result in permanent loss of useful vision in the affected eye. Most cases are exogenous and occur as a complication of cataract surgery, an intravitreal injection, or penetrating ocular trauma. Endogenous endophthalmitis results from hematogenous seeding of the eye by bacteria or fungi, but bacteremia or fungemia may be transient and patients may present without symptoms of systemic infection. Nearly all endophthalmitis patients present with decreased vision, and some also have eye pain...
July 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298472/clinical-manifestations-treatment-and-diagnosis-of-tropheryma-whipplei-infections
#17
REVIEW
Ruben A V Dolmans, C H Edwin Boel, Miangela M Lacle, Johannes G Kusters
Whipple's disease is a rare infectious disease that can be fatal if left untreated. The disease is caused by infection with Tropheryma whipplei, a bacterium that may be more common than was initially assumed. Most patients present with nonspecific symptoms, and as routine cultivation of the bacterium is not feasible, it is difficult to diagnose this infection. On the other hand, due to the generic symptoms, infection with this bacterium is actually quite often in the differential diagnosis. The gold standard for diagnosis used to be periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining of duodenal biopsy specimens, but PAS staining has a poor specificity and sensitivity...
April 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298471/bk-polyomavirus-clinical-aspects-immune-regulation-and-emerging-therapies
#18
REVIEW
George R Ambalathingal, Ross S Francis, Mark J Smyth, Corey Smith, Rajiv Khanna
BK polyomavirus (BKV) causes frequent infections during childhood and establishes persistent infections within renal tubular cells and the uroepithelium, with minimal clinical implications. However, reactivation of BKV in immunocompromised individuals following renal or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may cause serious complications, including BKV-associated nephropathy (BKVAN), ureteric stenosis, or hemorrhagic cystitis. Implementation of more potent immunosuppression and increased posttransplant surveillance has resulted in a higher incidence of BKVAN...
April 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275006/polymyxins-antibacterial-activity-susceptibility-testing-and-resistance-mechanisms-encoded-by-plasmids-or-chromosomes
#19
REVIEW
Laurent Poirel, Aurélie Jayol, Patrice Nordmann
SUMMARYPolymyxins are well-established antibiotics that have recently regained significant interest as a consequence of the increasing incidence of infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Colistin and polymyxin B are being seriously reconsidered as last-resort antibiotics in many areas where multidrug resistance is observed in clinical medicine. In parallel, the heavy use of polymyxins in veterinary medicine is currently being reconsidered due to increased reports of polymyxin-resistant bacteria...
April 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179378/the-human-immune-response-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#20
REVIEW
Clark D Russell, Stefan A Unger, Marc Walton, Jürgen Schwarze
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important etiological agent of respiratory infections, particularly in children. Much information regarding the immune response to RSV comes from animal models and in vitro studies. Here, we provide a comprehensive description of the human immune response to RSV infection, based on a systematic literature review of research on infected humans. There is an initial strong neutrophil response to RSV infection in humans, which is positively correlated with disease severity and mediated by interleukin-8 (IL-8)...
April 2017: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
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