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Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672713/imprinting-of-repeated-influenza-a-h3-exposures-on-antibody-quantity-and-antibody-quality-implications-on-seasonal-vaccine-strain-selection-and-vaccine-performance
#1
Martina Kosikova, Lei Li, Peter Radvak, Zhiping Ye, Xiu-Feng Wan, Hang Xie
Background: Reduced seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) was observed in individuals who received repeated annual vaccinations. Pre-existing influenza antibody levels were also found inversely correlated with post-vaccination titers. These reports suggest that pre-existing immunity may affect contemporary seasonal vaccine performance. Methods: Influenza A/H3 specific cross-reactivity of post-vaccination sera from humans with or without pre-existing immunity was assessed by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672699/less-severe-but-prolonged-course-of-acute-hepatitis-a-in-hiv-positive-patients-than-hiv-negative-patients-during-an-outbreak-a-multicenter-observational-study
#2
Yu-Lin Lee, Guan-Jhou Chen, Nan-Yu Chen, Bo-Huang Liou, Ning-Chi Wang, Yuan-Ti Lee, Chia-Jui Yang, Yu-Shan Huang, Hung-Jen Tang, Shie-Shian Huang, Yi-Chun Lin, Chien-Yu Cheng, Chen-Hsiang Lee, Tun-Chieh Chen, Ting-Shu Wu, Chun-Eng Liu, Po-Liang Lu, Chien-Ching Hung
Background: This multicenter retrospective cohort study aimed to compare the clinical presentations and evolution of acute hepatitis A (AHA) between HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative counterparts during the AHA outbreak. Methods: Information on demographics, clinical presentations, serial laboratory data, and abdominal imaging were collected from the medical records of the patients with AHA at the 14 designated hospitals for HIV care around Taiwan between May 2015 and May 2017...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672677/what-happens-next-depends-on-what-happened-first
#3
John Treanor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672676/a-trial-of-a-single-tablet-regimen-of-elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-and-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-for-the-initial-treatment-of-hiv-2-infection-in-a-resource-limited-setting-48-week-results-from-senegal-west-africa
#4
Selly Ba, Dana N Raugi, Robert A Smith, Fatima Sall, Khadim Faye, Stephen E Hawes, Papa Salif Sow, Moussa Seydi, Geoffrey S Gottlieb
Background: There is an urgent need for safe and effective ART for HIV-2 infection. We undertook the first clinical trial of a single-tablet-regimen containing elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (E/C/F/TDF) to assess its effectiveness in HIV-2-infected individuals in Senegal, West Africa. Methods: HIV-2-infected, ART-naïve adults with WHO stage 3-4 disease or CD4 counts below 750 cells/mm3 were eligible for this 48 week, open-label trial...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672671/adverse-events-associated-with-antibiotics-and-intravenous-therapies-for-post-lyme-disease-syndrome-in-a-commercially-insured-sample
#5
Kellie J Goodlet, Kathleen A Fairman
Background: Non-guideline endorsed post-treatment courses of antibiotics for post-Lyme disease syndrome (PLDS) have been linked to adverse patient outcomes, but these findings have yet to be validated in large systematic evaluations. Methods: A retrospective cohort analysis of medical and pharmacy claims derived from the Truven Health Market Scan® Commercial Claims and Encounters Database assessed 90-day incidence rates of adverse events (AEs) associated with PLDS treatments (PLDS-TX)...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672670/predicting-influenza-h3n2-vaccine-efficacy-from-evolution-of-the-dominant-epitope
#6
Melia E Bonomo, Michael W Deem
We predict vaccine efficacy with a measure of antigenic distance between influenza A(H3N2) and candidate vaccine viruses based on amino acid substitutions in the dominant epitopes. In 2016-2017, our model predicts 19% efficacy compared to 20% observed. This tool assists candidate vaccine selection by predicting human protection against circulating strains.
April 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672667/non-aids-comorbidity-in-people-living-with-hiv-compared-to-uninfected-individuals-ten-years-prior-to-hiv-diagnosis
#7
Andreas Ronit, Jan Gerstoft, Lars Nielsen, Rajesh Mohey, Lothar Wiese, Birgit Kvinesdal, Niels Obel, Magnus G Ahlströhm
We evaluated the impact of non-HIV risk factors by assessing the prevalence of non-AIDS comorbidity up to 10 years prior to HIV diagnosis in a population-based cohort of PLWH and the background population. These data demonstrates a trend towards increased non-AIDS comorbidity prior to diagnosis with HIV.
April 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668936/biomarkers-of-sepsis-and-bloodstream-infections-the-role-of-procalcitonin-and-proadrenomedullin-with-emphasis-in-patients-with-cancer
#8
Hanine El Haddad, Anne-Marie Chaftari, Ray Hachem, Patrick Chaftari, Issam I Raad
Sepsis and bloodstream infections remain a leading cause of death in immunocompromised cancer patients. The management of these serious infections consist of empiric use of antimicrobial agents which are often overused. Procalcitonin and proadrenomedullin are biomarkers that have been extensively evaluated in the general populations with little emphasis in the immunocompromised cancer patient population where they may have promising roles in the management of febrile patients. In this review, we summarize the available evidence of the potential role of these available biomarkers in guiding antimicrobial therapy to optimize resource utilization in the general patient population...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668905/antimicrobial-stewardship-training-for-infectious-diseases-fellows-program-directors-identify-a-curriculum-need
#9
Vera P Luther, Rachel Shnekendorf, Lilian M Abbo, Sonali Advani, Wendy S Armstrong, Alice E Barsoumian, Cole B Beeler, Rachel Bystritsky, Kartikeya Cherabuddi, Seth Cohen, Keith W Hamilton, Dilek Ince, Julie Ann Justo, Ashleigh Logan, John B Lynch, Priya Nori, Christopher A Ohl, Payal K Patel, Paul S Pottinger, Brian S Schwartz, Conor Stack, Yuan Zhou
A needs assessment survey of Infectious Diseases (ID) training program directors identified gaps concerning comprehensive and structured educational resources for training and evaluating ID fellows in antimicrobial stewardship. An IDSA-sponsored antimicrobial stewardship core curriculum was subsequently developed to address that need.
April 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668900/burden-and-risk-factors-for-coronavirus-infections-in-infants-in-rural-nepal
#10
S M Iftekhar Uddin, Janet A Englund, Jane Kuypers, Helen Y Chu, Mark C Steinhoff, Subarna K Khatry, Steve C LeClerq, James M Tielsch, Luke C Mullany, Laxman Shrestha, Joanne Katz
Background: Knowledge of risk factors for symptomatic human coronavirus (HCoV) infections in children in community settings is limited. We estimated the disease burden and impact of birth-related, maternal, household and seasonal factors on HCoV infections among children from birth to six months old in rural Nepal. Methods: Prospective, active, weekly surveillance for acute respiratory illnesses (ARI) was conducted in infants over a period of 3 years during two consecutive, population-based randomized trials of maternal influenza immunization...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668884/statin-coadministration-increases-the-risk-of-daptomycin-associated-myopathy
#11
Ryan K Dare, Chad Tewell, Bryan Harris, Patty W Wright, Sara L Van Driest, Eric Farber-Eger, George E Nelson, Thomas R Talbot
Background: Daptomycin-associated myopathy has been identified in 2-14% of patients, and rhabdomyolysis is a known adverse effect. Although risk factors for daptomycin-associated myopathy are poorly defined, creatine phosphokinase (CPK) monitoring and temporary discontinuation of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, or "statins", has been recommended. Methods: We conducted a single-center, retrospective, matched case-control risk factor analysis in adult and pediatric patients from 2004-2015...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668861/continuous-invasion-by-respiratory-viruses-observed-in-rural-households-during-a-respiratory-syncytial-virus-seasonal-outbreak-in-coastal-kenya
#12
Patrick K Munywoki, Dorothy C Koech, Charles N Agoti, Patricia A Cane, Graham F Medley, D James Nokes
Background: Households are high intensity close-contact environments favorable for transmission of respiratory viruses, yet little is known for low-income settings. Methods: Active surveillance was completed on 47 households in rural coastal Kenya over six months during a respiratory syncytial virus(RSV) season. Nasopharyngeal swabs(NPS) were taken from 483 household members twice-weekly irrespective of symptoms. NPS from 6 households were screened for 15 respiratory viruses by molecular diagnostics and the remainder only for the most frequent viruses observed: rhinovirus (RV), human coronaviruses(hCoV; comprising 229E, OC43 and NL63), adenovirus(AdV) and RSV(A and B)...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668856/seroprevalence-of-herpes-simplex-virus-types-1-and-2-among-pregnant-women-and-sexually-active-non-pregnant-women-in-the-united-states
#13
Monica E Patton, Kyle Bernstein, Gui Liu, Akbar Zaidi, Lauri E Markowitz
Background: Neonatal herpes is a rare, devastating consequence of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or 2 (HSV-2) infection during pregnancy. The risk of neonatal infection is higher among pregnant women seronegative for HSV-1 or HSV-2 who acquire their first HSV infection near delivery. Methods: We estimated HSV-1 and HSV-2 seroprevalence among pregnant women aged 20-39 years in 1999-2014, assessed HSV seroprevalence changes between 1999-2006 and 2007-2014, and compared HSV seroprevalence between pregnant women and sexually active, non-pregnant women aged 20-39 years in 2007-2014 using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data...
April 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669039/effects-of-water-sanitation-handwashing-and-nutritional-interventions-on-child-enteric-protozoan-infections-in-rural-bangladesh-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Audrie Lin, Ayse Ercumen, Jade Benjamin-Chung, Benjamin F Arnold, Shimul Das, Rashidul Haque, Sania Ashraf, Sarker M Parvez, Leanne Unicomb, Mahbubur Rahman, Alan E Hubbard, Christine P Stewart, John M Colford, Stephen P Luby
Background: Enteric protozoan infections are associated with morbidity and mortality worldwide. We evaluated effects of individual and combined water, sanitation, handwashing (WSH), and nutritional interventions on protozoan infections in children. Methods: We randomized geographical clusters of pregnant women in rural Bangladesh into chlorinated drinking water, hygienic sanitation, handwashing, nutrition, combined WSH, combined nutrition plus WSH (N+WSH), or control arms...
April 13, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669001/expression-of-concern-relating-to-naucler-et-al
#15
Robert T Schooley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659764/ambulatory-quinolone-prescribing-moving-from-opportunity-to-implementation
#16
Nicholas J Mercuro, Rachel M Kenney, Odaliz-Abreu Lanfranco, Susan L Davis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659759/community-acquired-legionella-pneumonia-in-hiv-infected-adult-patients-a-matched-case-control-study
#17
Catia Cillóniz, Lucia Miguel-Escuder, María Luisa Pedro-Bonet, Vicenç Falcó, Yessica Lopez, Carolina García-Vidal, Albert Gabarrús, Asunción Moreno, Antoni Torres, José M Miró
We investigated whether the clinical presentations and outcomes (length of hospital stay [LOS], intensive care unit[ICU] admission, 30-day mortality) of Legionella pneumonia in HIV-infected patients were comparable to those without HIV infection.Clinical presentation and outcomes in HIV-infected patients with Legionella pneumonia did not differ from patients without HIV infection.
April 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659757/depression-and-anxiety-as-risk-factors-for-delayed-care-seeking-behavior-in-hiv-positive-individuals-in-south-africa
#18
Madhura S Rane, Ting Hong, Sabina Govere, Hilary Thulare, Mahomed-Yunus Moosa, Connie Celum, Paul K Drain
Background: Facility- and community-based efforts to improve HIV testing in sub-Saharan Africa may benefit from understanding how mental health influences HIV care-seeking behavior. Methods: We conducted a study among adults presenting for HIV testing in the Umlazi township of South Africa. Prior to testing, we measured depression using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and anxiety using Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) scale. We categorized patients as delayed presenters (presenting to clinic >3 months after first HIV positive test), late testers (presenting within 3 months of diagnosis with a CD4 count ≤200 cells per μl), or neither...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659753/patient-and-strain-characteristics-associated-with-clostridium-difficile-transmission-and-adverse-outcomes
#19
Jessica S H Martin, David W Eyre, Warren N Fawley, David Griffiths, Kerrie Davies, Damian P C Mawer, Timothy E A Peto, Derrick W Crook, A Sarah Walker, Mark H Wilcox
Background: No previous study has used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to investigate risk factors for C. difficile(CD) transmission between symptomatic cases, or assessed the impact of recent acquisition on patient outcome. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included consecutive diarrhoeal samples positive by cytotoxin assay in Leeds, UK(Aug10-Apr12). All samples underwent culture, ribotyping and WGS(Illumina). Sequenced isolates were compared using single nucleotide variants(SNVs)...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659748/burden-etiology-and-risk-factors-of-respiratory-virus-infections-among-symptomatic-preterm-infants-in-the-tropics-a-retrospective-single-center-cohort-study
#20
Kee Thai Yeo, Rowena de la Puerta, Nancy Wen Sim Tee, Koh Cheng Thoon, Victor S Rajadurai, Chee Fu Yung
Background: The burden of respiratory viral infections (RVIs) among preterm infants in the first few years of life, especially those living in the tropics with year-long transmissions of respiratory viruses, remains unknown. We aimed to describe the clinical epidemiology and associated risk factors for RVIs among symptomatic preterm infants ≤32 weeks up to two years of life. Methods: We performed a data linkage analysis of clinical and hospital laboratory databases for preterm infants born at KK Women's & Children's Hospital, Singapore, from 2005 - 2015...
April 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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