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Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339254/an-assessment-of-potential-unintended-consequences-following-a-national-antimicrobial-stewardship-programme-in-england-an-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#1
Violeta Balinskaite, Sabine Bou-Antoun, Alan P Johnson, Alison Holmes, Paul Aylin
Background: The 'Quality Premium' (QP) introduced in England in 2015 aimed to financially reward local healthcare commissioners for targeted reductions in primary care antibiotic prescribing. We aimed to evaluate possible unintended clinical outcomes related to this QP. Methods: Using Clinical Practice Research Datalink and Hospital Episode Statistics datasets, we examined general practitioner (GP) consultations (visits) and emergency hospital admissions related to a series of pre-defined conditions of unintended consequences of reduced prescribing...
October 18, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339217/linezolid-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-infection-control-and-antimicrobial-stewardship-using-whole-genome-sequencing
#2
Lilian Abbo, Bhavarth S Shukla, Amber Giles, Laura Aragon, Adriana Jimenez, Jose F Camargo, Jacques Simkins, Kathleen Sposato, Truc T Tran, Lorena Diaz, Jinnethe Reyes, Rafael Rios, Lina P Carvajal, Javier Cardozo, Maribel Ruiz, Gemma Rosello, Armando Perez Cardona, Octavio Martinez, Giselle Guerra, Thiago Beduschi, Rodrigo Vianna, Cesar A Arias
Background: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are an important cause of healthcare-associated infections and are inherently resistant to many commonly used antibiotics. Linezolid is the only drug currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat vancomycin-resistant enterococci, however resistance to this antibiotic appears to be increasing. Although outbreaks of linezolid- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (LR-VRE) in solid organ transplant recipients remain uncommon, they represent a major challenge for infection control and hospital epidemiology...
October 18, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339190/the-impact-of-a-national-antimicrobial-stewardship-programme-on-antibiotic-prescribing-in-primary-care-an-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#3
Violeta Balinskaite, Alan P Johnson, Alison Holmes, Paul Aylin
Background: The Quality Premium was introduced in 2015 to financially reward local commissioners of healthcare in England for targeted reductions in antibiotic prescribing in primary care. Methods: We used a national antibiotic prescribing dataset from April 2013 till February 2017 to examine the number of antibiotic items prescribed, the total number of antibiotic items prescribed per STAR-PU (Specific Therapeutic Group Age-sex Related Prescribing Units), the number of broad-spectrum antibiotic items prescribed and broad-spectrum antibiotic items prescribed expressed as a percentage of the total number of antibiotic items...
October 18, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335135/diarrheal-etiology-and-impact-of-co-infections-on-rotavirus-vaccine-efficacy-estimates-in-a-clinical-trial-of-a-monovalent-human-bovine-116e-oral-rotavirus-vaccine-rotavac-india
#4
Ira Praharaj, James A Platts-Mills, Sunita Taneja, Kalpana Antony, Krista Yuhas, Jorge Flores, Iksung Cho, Nita Bhandari, R Revathy, Ashish Bavdekar, Temsunaro Rongsen-Chandola, Timothy McMurry, Eric R Houpt, Gagandeep Kang
Background: Rotavirus vaccine (RV) efficacy estimates in low-resource settings are lower than in developed countries. We detected co-infections in cases of severe rotavirus diarrhea in a RV efficacy trial to determine whether these negatively impacted RV efficacy estimates. Methods: We performed TaqMan Array Card assays for enteropathogens on stools from rotavirus EIA positive diarrhea episodes and all severe episodes (Vesikari score >= 11), from a phase III vaccine efficacy trial of Rotavac®, a monovalent human-bovine (116E) rotavirus vaccine, carried out across three sites in India...
October 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329044/infectious-diseases-physicians-improving-and-protecting-the-public-s-health-why-equitable-compensation-is-critical
#5
Matthew Zahn, Amesh A Adalja, Paul G Auwaerter, Paul J Edelson, Gail R Hansen, Noreen A Hynes, Amanda Jezek, Rodger D MacArthur, Yukari C Manabe, Colin McGoodwin, Jeffrey S Duchin
Infectious diseases (ID) physicians play a crucial role in public health in a variety of settings. Unfortunately, much of this work is undercompensated despite the proven efficacy of public health interventions such has hospital acquired infection (HAI) prevention, antimicrobial stewardship, disease surveillance, and outbreak response. The lack of compensation makes it difficult to attract the best and the brightest to the field of infectious diseases, threatening the future of the ID workforce. This paper examines compensation data for ID physicians compared to their value in population and public health settings and suggests policy recommendations to address the pay disparities between cognitive and procedural specialties which prevents more medical students and residents from entering the field...
October 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329042/integrated-co-located-telemedicine-based-treatment-approaches-for-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-management-in-opioid-use-disorder-patients-on-methadone
#6
Andrew H Talal, Phyllis Andrews, Anthony Mcleod, Yang Chen, Clewert Sylvester, Marianthi Markatou, Lawrence S Brown
Background and aims: Despite high hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence, opioid use disorder (OUD) patients on methadone rarely engage in HCV treatment. We investigated the effectiveness of HCV management via telemedicine in an opioid substitution therapy (OST) program. Methods: OUD patients on methadone underwent biweekly telemedicine sessions between a hepatologist and physician assistant during the entire HCV treatment course. All pretreatment labs (HCV RNA, genotype and noninvasive fibrosis assessments) were obtained onsite and direct acting antivirals were co-administered with methadone using modified directly observed therapy...
October 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335142/long-term-quality-of-life-in-adult-patients-surviving-purpura-fulminans-an-exposed-unexposed-multicenter-cohort-study
#7
Damien Contou, Florence Canoui-Poitrine, Rémi Coudroy, Sébastien Préau, Martin Cour, François Barbier, Nicolas Terzi, Guillaume Schnell, Arnaud Galbois, Lara Zafrani, Benjamin Zuber, Stephan Ehrmann, Elodie Gelisse, Delphine Colling, Matthieu Schmidt, Samir Jaber, Alexandre Conia, Romain Sonneville, Gwenhaël Colin, Laurent Guérin, Damien Roux, Sébastien Jochmans, Nancy Kentish-Barnes, Etienne Audureau, Richard Layese, Aline Alves, Rachida Ouedraogo, Christian Brun-Buisson, Armand Mekontso Dessap, Nicolas de Prost
Background: Long-term Health-related Quality of Life (HR-QOL) of patients surviving the acute phase of purpura fulminans (PF) has not been evaluated. Methods: A French multicenter exposed-unexposed cohort study enrolling patients admitted in 55 ICUs for a PF from 2010 to 2016. Adult patients surviving the acute phase of PF (exposed group) were matched 1:1 for age, SAPS II and gender with septic shock survivors (unexposed group). HR-QOL was assessed during a phone-interview using the SF-36 questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the Activity of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental ADL (IADL) scales...
October 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329038/maribavir-for-refractory-or-resistant-cytomegalovirus-infections-in-hematopoietic-cell-or-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-a-randomized-dose-ranging-double-blind-phase-2-study
#8
Genovefa A Papanicolaou, Fernanda P Silveira, Amelia A Langston, Marcus R Pereira, Robin K Avery, Marc Uknis, Anna Wijatyk, Jingyang Wu, Michael Boeckh, Francisco M Marty, Stephen Villano
Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections that are refractory or resistant (RR) to available antivirals ([val]ganciclovir, foscarnet, cidofovir) are associated with higher mortality in transplant patients. Maribavir is active against RR CMV strains. Methods: Hematopoietic-cell or solid-organ transplant recipients ≥12 years old with RR CMV infections and plasma CMV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ≥1000 copies/mL were randomized (1:1:1) to twice-daily dose-blinded maribavir 400, 800, or 1200 mg for up to 24 weeks...
October 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329030/maternal-measles-antibodies-and-their-influence-on-all-cause-mortality-following-measles-vaccination-an-alternative-to-measure-very-low-maternal-antibody-levels
#9
Gaby Smits, Christine Stabell Benn, Hilton Whittle, Rob van Binnendijk, Peter Aaby, Fiona van der Klis
It was previously shown by hemagglutination inhibition that measles-vaccination in the presence of maternal measles antibodies was associated with reduced all-cause mortality. We confirmed this serological association using a multiplexed immunoassay as a sensitive alternative and estimated a threshold concentration (28.7 mIU/ml), that correlates with lower all-cause mortality (p=0.02).
October 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329017/gut-dysbiosis-with-bacilli-dominance-and-accumulation-of-fermentation-products-precedes-late-onset-sepsis-in-preterm-infants
#10
S Graspeuntner, S Waschina, S Künzel, N Twisselmann, T K Rausch, K Cloppenborg-Schmidt, J Zimmermann, D Viemann, E Herting, W Göpel, J F Baines, C Kaleta, J Rupp, C Härtel, J Pagel
Background: Gut dysbiosis has been suggested as a major risk factor for the development of late-onset sepsis (LOS), a main cause of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. We aimed to assess specific signatures of the gut microbiome including metabolic profiles in preterm infants <34 weeks of gestation preceding LOS. Methods: In a single center cohort fecal samples of preterm infants were prospectively collected during the period of highest vulnerability for LOS (day 7, 14, 21 of life)...
October 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321334/reply-to-head-and-keynan
#11
Catia Cillóniz, José María Miro, Antoni Torres
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321332/similar-outcomes-of-legionella-pneumonia-in-treated-hiv-infection
#12
Breanne M Head, Yoav Keynan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321316/the-clinical-implications-of-pretreatment-drug-resistance-a-moving-target
#13
Robert W Shafer, Lisa M Frenkel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321314/impact-of-next-generation-sequencing-defined-hiv-pre-treatment-drug-resistance-on-virological-outcomes-in-the-anrs-12249-treatment-as-prevention-trial
#14
Anne Derache, Collins C Iwuji, Kathy Baisley, Siva Danaviah, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Vincent Calvez, Tulio de Oliveira, François Dabis, Kholoud Porter, Deenan Pillay
Background: Previous studies in HIV-positive individuals on thymidine analogue backbone antiretroviral therapy (ART) with either nevirapine or efavirenz have suggested poorer virological outcomes in the presence of pretreatment drug resistance (PDR). We assessed the impact of PDR on virological suppression (VS) [<50copies/mL] in individuals prescribed primarily tenofovir/emtricitabine/efavirenz in rural KwaZulu-Natal within a Treatment as Prevention trial. Methods: Among 1,557 HIV-positive individuals reporting no prior ART at study entry and provided plasma samples, 1,328 individuals with entry viral load (VL) >1,000 copies/mL had next generation sequencing (NGS) of the HIV pol gene with MiSeq technology...
October 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321306/use-of-prophylactic-antibiotics-in-aspiration-pneumonia
#15
Oguz Karabay, Meltem Karabay
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321305/severe-pertussis-infections-in-the-united-states-2011-2015
#16
Sarah A Mbayei, Amanda Faulkner, Christine Miner, Karen Edge, Victor Cruz, Sandra A Peña, Kathy Kudish, Joan Coleman, Eva Pradhan, Stepy Thomas, Stacey Martin, Tami H Skoff
Background: The incidence of pertussis in the United States has increased in recent years. While characteristics of severe pertussis infection have been described in infants, fewer data are available in older children and adults. In this analysis, we characterize pertussis infections in hospitalized patients of all ages. Methods: Cases of pertussis with cough onset from January 1, 2011 through December 31, 2015 from 7 U.S. Emerging Infections Program Network states were reviewed...
October 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321302/high-relative-frequency-of-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli-among-patients-with-reportable-enteric-pathogens-minnesota-2016-2017
#17
Aaron Beczkiewicz, Elizabeth Cebelinski, Marijke Decuir, Victoria Lappi, Xiong Wang, Kirk Smith, Dave Boxrud, Carlota Medus
Background: Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is increasingly recognized as an enteric pathogen as clinical laboratories transition to culture-independent diagnostic tests that detect EAEC. Epidemiological studies to date have focused on children <5 years old, and information on EAEC incidence, illness outcomes, and transmission avenues is limited. Methods: Enteric disease surveillance data in Minnesota were used to describe EAEC illnesses reported to the Minnesota Department of Health from September 2016 through August 2017...
October 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321296/reply-to-karabay-and-karabay
#18
Vlad Dragan, Yanliang Wei, Marion Elligsen, Jerome A Leis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321294/cross-sectional-whole-genome-sequencing-and-epidemiological-study-of-multidrug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-china
#19
Hairong Huang, Nan Ding, Tingting Yang, Cuidan Li, Xinmiao Jia, Guirong Wang, Jun Zhong, Ju Zhang, Guanglu Jiang, Shuqi Wang, Zhaojing Zong, Wei Jing, Yongliang Zhao, Shaofa Xu, Fei Chen
Background: The increase in MDR-TB severely hampers TB prevention and control in China, a country with the second highest MDR-TB burden globally. The first nationwide drug-resistant TB surveillance program provides an opportunity to comprehensively investigate the epidemiological/drug-resistance characteristics, potential drug-resistance mutations, and effective population changes of Chinese MDR-TB. Methods: We sequenced 357 MDR strains from 4,600 representative TB-positive sputum samples collected from the survey (70 counties in 31 provinces)...
October 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321317/why-making-a-diagnosis-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-should-matter-to-clinicians
#20
Angela R Branche
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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