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Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931245/late-onset-sepsis-in-preterm-infants-can-be-detected-preclinically-by-fecal-volatile-organic-compound-analysis-a-prospective-multicenter-cohort-study
#1
Daniel J C Berkhout, Britt J van Keulen, Hendrik J Niemarkt, Jet R Bessem, Willem P de Boode, Veerle Cossey, Neil Hoogenes, Christiaan V Hulzebos, Ellen Klaver, Peter Andriessen, Anton H van Kaam, Boris W Kramer, Richard A van Lingen, Aaron Schouten, Johannes B van Goudoever, Daniel C Vijlbrief, Mirjam M van Weissenbruch, Alfian N Wicaksono, James A Covington, Marc A Benninga, Nanne K H de Boer, Tim G J de Meij
Background: The intestinal microbiota has increasingly been considered to play a role in the etiology of late-onset sepsis (LOS). We hypothesize that early alterations in fecal volatile organic compounds (VOCs), reflecting intestinal microbiota composition and function, allow for discrimination between infants developing LOS and controls in a preclinical stage. Methods: In 9 neonatal intensive care units in the Netherlands and Belgium, fecal samples of preterm infants born at a gestational age ≤30 weeks were collected daily, up to the postnatal age of 28 days...
June 21, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920590/long-term-risk-of-hemorrhagic-stroke-in-patients-with-infective-endocarditis-a-danish-nationwide-cohort-study
#2
Christine F Klein, Sanne Gørtz, Jan Wohlfahrt, Tina N Munch, Mads Melbye, Henning Bundgaard, Kasper K Iversen
Background: The present study aimed to investigate the long-term risk of hemorrhagic stroke (HS) in patients with infective endocarditis (IE). Methods: Using a register-based nationwide cohort of 9 million Danes, we propensity score-matched patients with left-sided IE from 1977 to mid-2015 with IE-free individuals (1:10). Follow up started one year after the IE diagnosis. Hazard ratios (HRs) for HS in IE patients compared to the matched cohort were estimated using Cox regression...
June 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920584/the-north-south-divide-substance-use-risk-care-engagement-and-viral-suppression-among-hospitalized-hiv-infected-patients-in-11-u-s-cities
#3
Morgan M Philbin, Daniel J Feaster, Lauren Gooden, Rui Duan, Moupali Das, Petra Jacobs, Gregory M Lucas, D Scott Batey, Ank Nijhawan, Jeffrey M Jacobson, Raul Mandler, Eric Daar, Deborah K McMahon, Wendy S Armstrong, Carlos Del Rio, Lisa R Metsch
Regional variability in HIV care engagement remains underexplored. Multiple logistic models compared HIV-outcomes for participants from five Southern (n=557) and six Non-Southern sites (n=670). Southern participants had less viral suppression (aOR=0.59; 95%CI=0.43-0.82) and higher likelihood of CD4+<200 cells/µl; (aOR=1.49; 95%CI=1.14-1.94). HIV interventions and social safety net programs should be expanded.
June 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920580/insights-from-the-geographic-spread-of-the-lyme-disease-epidemic
#4
Taylor Eddens, Daniel J Kaplan, Alyce J M Anderson, Andrew J Nowalk, Brian T Campfield
Background: Lyme disease is the most common reportable zoonotic infection in the United States. Recent data suggests spread of the Ixodes tick vector and increasing incidence of Lyme disease in several states, including Pennsylvania. We sought to determine the clinical presentation and healthcare utilization patterns for pediatric Lyme disease in western Pennsylvania. Methods: The electronic medical records of all patients with an ICD9 diagnosis of Lyme disease between 2003-2013 at Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh were individually reviewed for cases meeting the 2011 CDC case definition for Lyme disease...
June 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917039/aetiological-characterization-of-the-cutaneous-ulcer-syndrome-in-papua-new-guinea-using-shotgun-metagenomics
#5
Marc Noguera-Julian, Camila González-Beiras, Mariona Parera, August Kapa, Roger Paredes, Oriol Mitjà
Background: Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue and Haemophilus ducreyi are causative agents of cutaneous ulcer (CU) in yaws endemic regions in the tropics. However, a significant proportion of CU patients remain PCR-negative for both bacterial agents. We aimed to identify potential additional aetiological agents of CU in a yaws-endemic region. Methods: This population-based cohort study included children in Lihir Island (Papua New Guinea) examined during a yaws eradication campaign in Oct 2013-Oct 2014...
June 16, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912305/decreasing-incidence-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-at-86-u-s-emergency-departments-2009-2014
#6
Ethan Morgan, Sam Hohmann, Jessica Ridgeway, Robert Daum, Michael Z David
Introduction: The incidence of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), for which HIV is a significant risk factor, in United States emergency departments (EDs) increased dramatically after 2000 with the emergence of CA-MRSA. Few studies have examined SSTI incidence among U.S. HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected patients after 2010. Methods: Data were obtained for patient encounters at all academic medical center EDs affiliated with the Vizient clinical data warehouse who had an SSTI-associated ICD-9 code between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2014...
June 15, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912335/cessation-of-cigarette-smoking-and-the-impact-on-cancer-incidence-in-hiv-positive-persons-the-d-a-d-study
#7
Leah Shepherd, Lene Ryom, Matthew Law, Kathy Petoumenos, Camilla Ingrid Hatleberg, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Caroline Sabin, Mark Bower, Fabrice Bonnet, Peter Reiss, Stephane de Wit, Christian Pradier, Rainer Weber, Wafaa El-Sadr, Jens Lundgren, Amanda Mocroft
Background: Cancers are a major source of morbidity and mortality for HIV-positive persons on combination antiretroviral therapy, while the clinical benefits of smoking cessation are not well established. Methods: Participants were followed from 1 January 2004 until first cancer diagnosis, death, or 1 February 2016. Smoking status was defined as ex (<1,1-2,2-3,3-5,>5 years since stopping), current, and never smokers. Outcomes considered were any cancer, lung cancer, other smoking-related excluding lung and smoking-unrelated cancers...
June 14, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912307/immediate-vs-deferred-switching-from-a-boosted-protease-inhibitor-pi-r-based-regimen-to-a-dolutegravir-dtg-based-regimen-in-virologically-suppressed-patients-with-high-cardiovascular-risk-or-age-%C3%A2-50-years-final-96-weeks-results-of-neat-022-study
#8
José M Gatell, Lambert Assoumou, Graeme Moyle, Laura Waters, Margaret Johnson, Pere Domingo, Julie Fox, Esteban Martinez, Hans-Jürgen Stellbrink, Giovanni Guaraldi, Mar Masia, Mark Gompels, Stephane De Wit, Eric Florence, Stefan Esser, François Raffi, Christoph Stephan, Juergen Rockstroh, Andrea Giacomelli, Jaime Vera, José Ignacio Bernardino, Alan Winston, Maria Saumoy, Julien Gras, Christine Katlama, Anton L Pozniak
Background: Both immediate or deferred switching from a PI/r to DTG may improve lipid profile. Methods: NEAT022 is a European, open label, randomized, trial. HIV-infected adults ≥ 50 years or with a Framingham score ≥10% were eligible if HIV RNA < 50 copies/mL. Patients were randomized to switch the PI/r to DTG immediately (DTG-I) or to deferred switch at week 48 (DTG-D) . Week 96 end-points were: proportion of patients with HIV RNA < 50 copies/ml, percentage change of lipid fractions and adverse events...
June 14, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905769/serologic-follow-up-of-middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-cases-and-contacts-abu-dhabi-united-arab-emirates
#9
Farida Ismail Al Hosani, Lindsay Kim, Ahmed Khudhair, Huong Pham, Mariam Al Mulla, Zyad Al Bandar, Krishna Pradeep, Kheir Abou Elkheir, Stefan Weber, Mary Khoury, George Donnelly, Naima Younis, Feda El Saleh, Muna Abdalla, Hala Imambaccus, Lia M Haynes, Natalie J Thornburg, Jennifer L Harcourt, Congrong Miao, Azaibi Tamin, Aron J Hall, Elizabeth S Russell, Aaron M Harris, Craig Kiebler, Roger A Mir, Kimberly Pringle, Negar N Alami, Glen R Abedi, Susan I Gerber
Background: Although there is evidence of person-to-person transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in household and healthcare settings, more data are needed to describe and better understand the risk factors and transmission routes in both settings, as well as the extent that disease severity affects transmission. Methods: A sero-epidemiological investigation was conducted among Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) case-patients and their household contacts to investigate transmission risk in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates...
June 13, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901775/early-infectious-diseases-specialty-intervention-is-associated-with-shorter-hospital-stays-and-lower-readmission-rates-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#10
Steven Schmitt, Ann T MacIntyre, Susan C Bleasdale, J Trees Ritter, Sandra B Nelson, Elie F Berbari, Steven D Burdette, Angela Hewlett, Matthew Miles, Philip A Robinson, Javeed Siddiqui, Robin Trotman, Lawrence Martinelli, Gary Zeitlin, Andrés Rodriguez, Mark W Smith, Daniel P McQuillen
Background: Intervention by infectious diseases (ID) physicians improves outcomes for inpatients in Medicare, but patients with other insurance types could fare differently. We assessed whether ID involvement leads to better outcomes among privately insured patients under age 65 hospitalized with common infections. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of administrative claims data from community hospital and post-discharge ambulatory care. Patients were privately insured individuals under 65 years old with an acute-care stay in 2014 for selected infections, classed as having early (by day 3) or late (after day 3) ID intervention, or none...
June 13, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29901695/depressive-symptoms-and-engagement-in-hiv-care-following-art-initiation
#11
Angela M Bengtson, Brian W Pence, Matthew J Mimiaga, Bradley N Gaynes, Richard Moore, Katerina Christopoulos, Conall O'Cleirigh, David Grelotti, Sonia Napravnik, Heidi Crane, Michael Mugavero
Background: The effect of depressive symptoms over time on progression through the HIV treatment cascade is complex and poorly characterized. Methods: We included participants from the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinic Systems Cohort who were ART-naïve, had at least one viral load and HIV appointment measure after ART initiation, and had a depressive symptom measure within 6 months of ART initiation. Recent depressive symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and categorized using a validated cut-point (PHQ-9 > 10)...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893821/novel-orthobunyavirus-identified-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-a-ugandan-child-with-severe-encephalopathy
#12
Arthur W D Edridge, Martin Deijs, Ruth Namazzi, Cosimo Cristella, Maarten F Jebbink, Irma Maurer, Neeltje A Kootstra, Linda R Buluma, Job B M van Woensel, Menno D de Jong, Richard Idro, Michael Boele van Hensbroek, Lia van der Hoek
A Ugandan child with an unexplained encephalitis was investigated using viral metagenomics. Several sequences from all segments of a novel orthobunyavirus were found. The S-segment, used for typing, showed 41% amino acid diversity to its closest relative. The virus was named Ntwetwe virus, after the hometown of the patient.
June 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893812/the-concern-for-vancomycin-failure-in-the-treatment-of-pediatric-staphylococcus-aureus-disease
#13
Isaac P Thomsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893808/the-prevalence-of-trichomonas-vaginalis-infection-among-us-males-2013-2016
#14
Michael Daugherty, Kendall Glynn, Timothy Byler
Background: Trichomoniasis results from infection of the protozoan to the mucous membrane of the urethra or vagina. It has been estimated to have a higher incidence rate than both Gonorrhea and Chlamydia combined. Although females can experience both clinical symptoms and obstetrical complications, male infections are largely asymptomatic and often unreported. We aim to estimate the prevalence of trichomoniasis in US males utilizing the NHANES database. Methods: The NHANES database was queried for all men 18-59 years old during the years 2013-2016...
June 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893806/keystone-virus-isolated-from-a-florida-teenager-with-rash-and-subjective-fever-another-endemic-arbovirus-in-the-southeastern-united-states
#15
John A Lednicky, Sarah K White, Caroline J Stephenson, Kartikeya Cherabuddi, Julia C Loeb, Nissin Moussatche, Andrew Lednicky, J Glenn Morris
Keystone virus, a California-serogroup orthobunyavirus, was first isolated in 1964 from mosquitoes in Keystone, Florida. There are no reports of isolation from humans, despite studies suggesting that ~20% of persons living in the region are seropositive. We report virus isolation from a Florida teenager with a rash and fever.
June 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893805/vancomycin-monotherapy-may-be-insufficient-to-treat-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-coinfection-in-children-with-influenza-related-critical-illness
#16
Adrienne G Randolph, Ruifei Xu, Tanya Novak, Margaret M Newhams, Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg, Scott L Weiss, Ronald C Sanders, Neal J Thomas, Mark W Hall, Keiko M Tarquinio, Natalie Cvijanovich, Rainer G Gedeit, Edward J Truemper, Barry Markovitz, Mary E Hartman, Kate G Ackerman, John S Giuliano, Steven L Shein, Kristin Moffitt
Background: Respiratory coinfection with influenza virus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes life-threatening necrotizing pneumonia in children. Sporadic incidence precludes evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy. We assessed the clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill children with influenza-MRSA respiratory coinfection and evaluated antibiotic use. Methods: We prospectively enrolled children (<18 years) with influenza infection and acute respiratory failure across 34 pediatric intensive care units Nov 2008 to May 2016...
June 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893802/efficacy-of-ceftazidime-avibactam-salvage-therapy-in-patients-with-infections-caused-by-kpc-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae
#17
Mario Tumbarello, Enrico Maria Trecarichi, Alberto Corona, Francesco Giuseppe De Rosa, Matteo Bassetti, Cristina Mussini, Francesco Menichetti, Claudio Viscoli, Caterina Campoli, Mario Venditti, Andrea De Gasperi, Alessandra Mularoni, Carlo Tascini, Giustino Parruti, Carlo Pallotto, Simona Sica, Ercole Concia, Rosario Cultrera, Gennaro De Pascale, Alessandro Capone, Spinello Antinori, Silvia Corcione, Elda Righi, Angela Raffaella Losito, Margherita Digaetano, Francesco Amadori, Daniele Roberto Giacobbe, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Ernestina Mazza, Francesca Raffaelli, Teresa Spanu, Roberto Cauda, Pierluigi Viale
Background: Ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI) has been approved in Europe for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal and urinary-tract infections, as well as hospital-acquired pneumonia, and for Gram-negative infections with limited treatment options. CAZ-AVI displays in vitro activity against KPC-enzyme producers, but clinical-trial data on its efficacy in this setting are lacking. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 138 cases of infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing (KPC-Kp) in adults who received CAZ-AVI in compassionate-use programs in Italy...
June 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893798/a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial-of-fidaxomicin-for-prophylaxis-of-clostridium-difficile-associated-diarrhea-in-adults-undergoing-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#18
Kathleen M Mullane, Drew J Winston, Ajay Nooka, Michele I Morris, Patrick Stiff, Michael J Dugan, Henry Holland, Kevin Gregg, Javier A Adachi, Steven A Pergam, Barbara D Alexander, Erik R Dubberke, Natalya Broyde, Sherwood L Gorbach, Pamela S Sears
Background: Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is common during hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We evaluated fidaxomicin for prevention of CDAD in HSCT patients. Methods: In this double-blind study, subjects undergoing HSCT with fluoroquinolone prophylaxis stratified by transplant type (autologous/allogeneic) were randomized to once-daily oral fidaxomicin 200mg or matching placebo...
June 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893797/antibody-responses-to-influenza-a-h1n1pdm09-virus-after-pandemic-and-seasonal-influenza-vaccination-in-healthcare-workers-a-five-year-follow-up-study
#19
Mai-Chi Trieu, Åsne Jul-Larsen, Marianne Sævik, Anders Madsen, Jane Kristin Nøstbakken, Fan Zhou, Steinar Skrede, Rebecca Jane Cox
Background: The 2009 influenza pandemic was caused by A/H1N1pdm09 virus, which was subsequently included in the seasonal vaccine as the A/H1N1 strain up to 2016/17. This provided a unique opportunity to investigate the antibody response to H1N1pdm09 over time. Methods: Healthcare workers (HCWs) were immunized with the AS03-adjuvanted H1N1pdm09 vaccine in 2009 (N=250), and subsequently vaccinated with seasonal vaccines containing H1N1pdm09 for 4 seasons (repeated group), <4 seasons (occasional group), or received no further vaccinations (single group)...
June 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29889240/outcomes-of-patients-lost-to-follow-up-in-african-antiretroviral-therapy-programs-individual-patient-data-meta-analysis
#20
Frédérique Chammartin, Kathrin Zürcher, Olivia Keiser, Ralf Weigel, Kathryn Chu, Agnes N Kiragga, Cristina Ardura-Garcia, Nanina Anderegg, Christian Laurent, Morna Cornell, Hannock Tweya, Andreas D Haas, Brian D Rice, Elvin H Geng, Matthew P Fox, James R Hargreaves, Matthias Egger
Background: Low retention on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has emerged as a threat to the Joint United Nations Programme on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 targets. We examined outcomes of patients who started cART but were subsequently lost to follow-up (LTFU) in African treatment programs. Methods: This was a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis of studies that traced patients who were LTFU. Outcomes were analyzed using cumulative incidence functions and proportional hazards models for the competing risks of (i) death, (ii) alive but stopped cART, (iii) silent transfer to other clinics, and (iv) retention on cART...
June 8, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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