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Brain Injury: [BI]

Fabricio Ferreira de Oliveira, Sheilla de Medeiros Correia Marin, Paulo Henrique Ferreira Bertolucci
BACKGROUND: More than 95% of right-handed individuals, as well as almost 80% of left-handed individuals, have left hemisphere dominance for language. The perisylvian networks of the dominant hemisphere tend to be the most important language systems in human brains, usually connected by bidirectional fibres originated from the superior longitudinal fascicle/arcuate fascicle system and potentially modifiable by learning. Neuroplasticity mechanisms take place to preserve neural functions after brain injuries...
October 14, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Antonio Meola
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Jessica Lynn Temple, Margaret A Struchen, Monique R Pappadis
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the contribution of pre-injury family functioning and resources on self-reported post-concussive symptoms and functional outcomes in persons with mild TBI (mTBI). DESIGN: Participants with uncomplicated or complicated mTBIs were recruited from consecutive admissions to the emergency department of a level 1 trauma centre. Patients completed baseline assessments within 2 weeks of injury and an outcomes assessment at 3 months post-injury...
October 14, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Isabelle Cossette, Marie-Ève Gagné, Marie-Christine Ouellet, Philippe Fait, Isabelle Gagnon, Katia Sirois, Sophie Blanchet, Natalie Le Sage, Bradford J McFadyen
OBJECTIVE: To compare gait parameters between children in early adolescence (EA) with and without a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) during dual-task walking (DTW). METHODS: Children in EA with mTBI (n = 14; six girls) were compared to those without (n = 13; five girls) while walking in different combinations of obstacle avoidance and cognitive dual-tasks. Gait speed and fluidity and their related dual-task costs (DTC) were analysed along with foot clearance and proximity to the obstacle...
October 14, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Philippe Azouvi, Idir Ghout, Eleonore Bayen, Emmanuelle Darnoux, Sylvie Azerad, Alexis Ruet, Claire Vallat-Azouvi, Pascale Pradat-Diehl, Philippe Aegerter, James Charanton, Claire Jourdan
OBJECTIVES: To assess predictors and indicators of disability and quality-of-life 4 years after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), using structural equation modelling (SEM). METHODS: The PariS-TBI study is a longitudinal multi-centre inception cohort study of 504 patients with severe TBI. Among 245 survivors, 147 patients were evaluated upon 4-year follow-up, and 85 completed the full assessment. Two outcome measures were analysed separately using SEM: the Glasgow Outcome Scale-extended (GOS-E), to measure disability, and the QOLIBRI, to assess quality-of-life...
October 14, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Stephen S Humble, Laura D Wilson, John W McKenna, Taylor C Leath, Yanna Song, Mario A Davidson, Jesse M Ehrenfeld, Oscar D Guillamondegui, Pratik P Pandharipande, Mayur B Patel
OBJECTIVE: To determine risk factors associated with tracheostomy placement after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and subsequent outcomes among those who did and did not receive a tracheostomy. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study compared adult trauma patients with severe TBI (n = 583) who did and did not receive tracheostomy. A multivariable logistic regression model assessed the associations between age, sex, race, insurance status, admission GCS, AIS (Head, Face, Chest) and tracheostomy placement...
October 14, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Audrey McKinlay, Mark Linden, Roberta DePompei, Catherine Aaro Jonsson, Vicki Anderson, Lucia Braga, Enrico Castelli, Peter de Koning, Carol A Hawley, Eric Hermans, Ingela Kristiansen, Alison Madden, Peter Rumney, Ron Savage, Beth Wicks
BACKGROUND: Providing appropriate rehabilitation services for Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) in childhood presents a number of challenges for caregivers, health and education professionals and the young person as they develop. PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To record the challenges and possible creative solutions generated by an international group of professionals to address the needs of children with ABI. Review of information: Recommendations were generated from children's special interest group meetings of the International Brain Injury Association (Turin, Italy, 2001; Stockholm, Sweden, 2003; Melbourne, Australia, 2005; Lisbon, Portugal, 2008) and through meetings of the International Paediatric Brain Injury Society (IPBIS), formed in 2009...
October 14, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Shadi Asadollahi, Ali Vafaei, Kamran Heidari
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To define the prognostic value of head computed tomography (CT) in patients suffering from SICH after 3 years of follow-up. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Between January 2011 and May 2012, consecutive patients with SICH who underwent brain CT scans within the first 12 hours of presentation were prospectively included. Independent predictors of 30-day mortality and unfavourable functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale = 4-6 and Barthel Index ≤ 60) at 36 months were identified by univariable and multivariable regression analysis...
September 28, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Therese M O'Neil-Pirozzi, Henry Hsu
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this pilot study was to explore feasibility and effects of participation in a computerized cognitive fitness exercise program by a group of adults with chronic moderate-to-severe cognitive impairments following an acquired brain injury (ABI). RESEARCH DESIGN: This study used a mixed methods design with a convenience sample of individuals forming two groups (+/- exercise). METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Following neurocognitive and satisfaction with life pre-testing of 14 participants, seven were enrolled in a 5-month, 5-days a week computerized cognitive exercise program...
September 28, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
J Faber, E A Wilde, G Hanten, L Ewing-Cobbs, M E Aitken, R Yallampalli, M C MacLeod, S H Mullins, Z D Chu, X Li, J V Hunter, L Noble-Haeusslein, H S Levin
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The long-term effects of TBI on verbal fluency and related structures, as well as the relation between cognition and structural integrity, were evaluated. It was hypothesized that the group with TBI would evidence poorer performance on cognitive measures and a decrease in structural integrity. RESEARCH DESIGN: Between a paediatric group with TBI and a group of typically-developing children, the long-term effects of traumatic brain injury were investigated in relation to both structural integrity and cognition...
September 28, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Jaakko W Långsjö, Kai Lehtimäki, Jyrki Ruohonen, Anne Sajanti, Satu Sandell, Hannu T Heikkilä, Antti Brander, Kari Saarinen, Lauri Herrala
BACKGROUND: Insufficient understanding of the mechanisms of consciousness can make unconsciousness a diagnostic challenge, directly effecting the treatment and the outcome of the patient. Consciousness is a product of brainstem arousal (wakefulness, the level of consciousness) and cortical information integration (awareness, the contents of consciousness). The thalamus serves as a critical hub in the arousal pathway. The nuclei within the internal medullary lamina, together with the associated thalamocortical connections, have been implicated as being especially important for human consciousness...
September 28, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Sarah Travers, Simon Martin, N Scott Litofsky
BACKGROUND: Anaemia in traumatic brain injury (TBI) is frequently encountered. Neurosurgical texts continue to recommend transfusion for hematocrit below 30%, despite clear evidence to do so. Transfusion should increase oxygen delivery to the brain, but it may also increase morbidity and mortality. METHODS: This study reviewed the relevant literature to better understand the risks of anaemia and benefits of correction of anaemia by transfusion. RESULTS: Of the 21 studies reviewed, eight found that anaemia was harmful to patients with TBI; five found no significant outcome; seven found transfusion was associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality; two found that transfusion lowered mortality and increased brain tissue oxygen levels; and ten found no correlation between transfusion and outcome...
September 28, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Graham Martin
OBJECTIVE: The physical events of the first 15 milliseconds of a traumatic brain injury are reviewed from computer simulations using finite element calculations and applied to observed pathology. METHODS: The impact creates two shock waves; one through the brain, another through the skull, both injure the brain separately. Two accelerations, anteroposterior and rotary, distort or stretch the brain, because of inertia. The two shockwaves are reflected many times within in the brain, from boundaries where the density or elasticity changes...
September 23, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Kaoruko Takada, Hironobu Sashika, Hidetaka Wakabayashi, Yoshio Hirayasu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the quality-of-life (QoL) and social participation of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) living in the community in Japan. METHODS: A mixed-methods study of 29 post-TBI patients and 12 family members was conducted. Objective scales were used to evaluate QoL (Short Form Health Survey SF-36), depression (Zung Self-rating Depression Scale) and psychosocial function (Sydney Psychosocial Reintegration Scale, 2(nd) edition). Subjective views of changes in social functioning, participation and suitability of family support were obtained by a semi-structured interview...
September 14, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Revital Gandelman-Marton, Aharon Arlazoroff, Zeevi Dvir
OBJECTIVE: Dizziness is a common complaint in patients following mild head or neck trauma, but neurological signs are usually rare or absent. The aim of the study was to compare postural control in patients with different types of head and neck trauma to healthy subjects. METHODS: Balance function was evaluated by computerized dynamic platform posturography (CDPP) in 57 dizzy patients with whiplash injury (n = 11), mild head trauma without loss of consciousness (HTNLC) (n = 23), whiplash injury and mild head trauma without loss of consciousness (WHTNLC) (n = 12) and mild head trauma with loss of consciousness (n = 11) and in 14 healthy subjects...
September 14, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Nicole Ditchman, Lindsay Sheehan, Sean Rafajko, Christopher Haak, Kelly Kazukauskas
OBJECTIVE: People with brain injury often experience significant challenges to social and community engagement following injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors impacting social integration for adults with brain injury using the International Classification and Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a conceptual model. METHODS: Adults with brain injury (n = 103) recruited through two US state brain injury associations participated in a survey study...
September 14, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Darren J Edwards, Rodger Wood
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: This study explored over-selectivity (executive dysfunction) using a standard unsupervised categorization task. Over-selectivity has been demonstrated using supervised categorization procedures (where training is given); however, little has been done in the way of unsupervised categorization (without training). METHODS AND PROCEDURE: A standard unsupervised categorization task was used to assess levels of over-selectivity in a traumatic brain injury (TBI) population...
September 14, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Arun Prasad Balasundaram, Josie Athens, Anthony G Schneiders, Paul McCrory, S John Sullivan
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To explore the change (trend) in post-concussion-like symptoms reported over time. RESEARCH DESIGN: Longitudinal study. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: University students aged 18-30 years self-reported their symptoms experienced on a daily basis. Each participant was contacted via a text message each day during one of three pre-defined time zones to complete the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 2 (SCAT2) post-concussion symptom scale on 7 consecutive days...
September 13, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Angela Philippus, David Mellick, Therese O'Neil-Pirozzi, Thomas Bergquist, Yelena Guller Bodien, Angelle M Sander, Laura E Dreer, Joseph Giacino, Thomas Novack
OBJECTIVES: To (1) identify demographic characteristics of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who attend religious services, (2) understand the relationship between attending religious services and psychosocial outcomes and (3) examine the independent contribution of religious service attendance to psychosocial outcomes while controlling for demographic characteristics, functional status and geographic location at 1, 5 and 10-years post injury. DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional cohort study using secondary data analysis of the TBI Model Systems (TBIMS) National Database (NDB)...
September 13, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
Joseph K Canner, Katherine Giuliano, Faiz Gani, Eric B Schneider
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the national 30-day re-admission rate after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in insured patients under age 65 and to examine factors that predict re-admission. METHODS: This study reviewed data on patients hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of TBI in the MarketScan(®) database from 2010-2012. Patients with substantial concurrent injury to non-head regions were excluded. This study identified all hospitalizations within 30 days after index discharge and compared characteristics of patients who were re-admitted vs those who were not...
September 2, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
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