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Brain Injury: [BI]

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901587/changes-in-functional-connectivity-of-the-brain-associated-with-a-history-of-sport-concussion-a-preliminary-investigation
#1
Nathan Churchill, Michael G Hutchison, General Leung, Simon Graham, Tom A Schweizer
OBJECTIVE: There is evidence of long-term clinical consequences associated with a history of sport concussion. However, there remains limited information about the underlying changes in brain function. The goal of this study was to identify brain regions where abnormal resting-state function is associated with chronic concussion, for athletes without persistent symptoms. METHODS: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was performed on a group of athletes with prior concussion (n = 22) and a group without documented injury (n = 21)...
November 30, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880060/neurogenic-pulmonary-oedema-complicating-traumatic-posterior-fossa-extradural-haematoma-case-report-and-review
#2
Ajay Hegde, G Lakshmi Prasad, Priyanka Kini
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary oedema is accumulation of fluid in the lung air spaces and interstitia. Neurogenic pulmonary oedema (NPE) is a potentially life-threatening condition which has been noted in head injury, subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) and others. Timely management is crucial to achieve good outcome; however, no specific guidelines have been defined. METHODS: A 33-year female involved in a motor vehicular accident had a GCS of 14/15 and CT scan showed a moderate-sized unilateral posterior fossa extradural haematoma (PFEDH)...
November 23, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880059/repetition-lag-memory-training-is-feasible-in-patients-with-chronic-stroke-including-those-with-memory-problems
#3
Vessela Stamenova, Janine M Jennings, Shaun P Cook, Fuqiang Gao, Lisa A S Walker, Andra M Smith, Patrick S R Davidson
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Repetition-lag memory training was developed to increase individuals' use of recollection as opposed to familiarity in recognition memory. The goals of this study were to examine the feasibility of repetition-lag training in patients with chronic stroke and to explore whether the training might show suggestions of transfer to non-trained tasks. RESEARCH DESIGN: Quasi-experimental. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Patients (n = 17) took part in six repetition-lag training sessions and their gains on the training and non-trained tasks were compared to those of age-matched healthy controls (n = 30)...
November 23, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880057/ankle-plantarflexor-spasticity-is-not-differentially-disabling-for-those-who-are-weak-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Gavin Williams, Megan Banky, Dean McKenzie, John Olver
PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: The main aim of this study was to determine whether the presence of distal lower-limb spasticity had a greater impact on mobility for those who had greater levels of muscle paresis following traumatic brain injury (TBI). RESEARCH DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional cohort study of convenience. Seventy-five people attending physiotherapy for mobility limitations following TBI participated in this study. All participants had sustained a moderate-severe TBI and were grouped according to the presence or absence of ankle plantarflexor spasticity for comparison...
November 23, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880054/elucidating-the-role-of-compression-waves-and-impact-duration-for-generating-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#5
Brandon P Lucke-Wold, Michael Phillips, Ryan C Turner, Aric F Logsdon, Kelly E Smith, Jason D Huber, Charles L Rosen, Jonathan D Regele
BACKGROUND: In total, 3.8 million concussions occur each year in the US leading to acute functional deficits, but the underlying histopathologic changes that occur are relatively unknown. In order to improve understanding of acute injury mechanisms, appropriately designed pre-clinical models must be utilized. METHODS: The clinical relevance of compression wave injury models revolves around the ability to produce consistent histopathologic deficits. Mild traumatic brain injuries activate similar neuroinflammatory cascades, cell death markers and increases in amyloid precursor protein in both humans and rodents...
November 23, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880052/functional-impact-of-different-muscle-localization-techniques-for-botulinum-neurotoxin-a-injections-in-clinical-routine-management-of-post-stroke-spasticity
#6
Kirsten E Zeuner, Arne Knutzen, Carina Kühl, Bettina Möller, Helge Hellriegel, Nils G Margraf, Günther Deuschl, Henning Stolze
BACKGROUND: Treatment options for spasticity include intramuscular botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT-A) injections. Both ultrasound (US) or electromyographic (EMG) guided BoNT-A injections are employed to isolate muscles. To date, most studies have included patients naïve to BoNT-A or following a prolonged wash out phase. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of US/EMG guided BoNT-A injections on function in outpatients with spasticity receiving an established re-injection regime...
November 23, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830945/kinematic-characteristics-of-reaching-in-children-with-hemiplegic-cerebral-palsy-a-comparative-study
#7
Emad A Aboelnasr, Fatma A Hegazy, Hoda A Altalway
BACKGROUND: Practitioners need more sensitive measures to quantify reaching movement for judgement of the treatment effects and reflecting the degrees of motor impairment in upper extremities. OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to differentiate between spastic and normal reaching using three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis and to quantify the interference of spasticity on reaching movement in children with congenital hemiplegic cerebral palsy. METHODS: Fifteen children with hemiplegic CP as a study group and 15 normal typically-developing (TD) children as a control group were studied...
November 10, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830942/postural-asymmetry-correlated-with-lateralization-of-cerebellar-perfusion-in-persons-with-chronic-stroke-a-role-of-crossed-cerebellar-diaschisis-in-left-side
#8
Cheng-Chiang Chang, Chih-Hung Ku, Shin-Tsu Chang
OBJECTIVE: Hemiplegia after stroke leads to impairment of the affected limbs and induces more weight on the non-paretic lower limb to form postural asymmetry. Studies of asymmetric cerebral functions have found similarly asymmetric functions in the cerebellum. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) is defined as reduced blood flow and hypometabolism in the cerebellar hemisphere contralateral to supratentorial cerebral pathology. No study explored the relationship between posture (standing balance) and CCD in those persons yet...
November 10, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830939/burden-of-usa-hospital-charges-for-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Jennifer R Marin, Matthew D Weaver, Rebekah C Mannix
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to estimate charges associated with USA hospital visits for traumatic brain injury (TBI), compare charges from 2006-2010 and evaluate factors associated with higher charges. METHODS: The Nationwide Emergency Department Sample database, 2006-2010, was used to estimate charges for emergency department visits and inpatient hospital stays associated with TBI and trends in charges over time were compared. Multivariable linear regression was used to evaluate factors associated with visit charges...
November 10, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830938/quantitative-electroencephalography-in-a-swine-model-of-blast-induced-brain-injury
#10
Chaoyang Chen, Chengpeng Zhou, John M Cavanaugh, Srinivasu Kallakuri, Alok Desai, Liying Zhang, Albert I King
OBJECTIVE: Electroencephalography (EEG) was used to examine brain activity abnormalities earlier after blast exposure using a swine model to develop a qEEG data analysis protocol. METHODS: Anaesthetized swine were exposed to 420-450 Kpa blast overpressure and survived for 3 days after blast. EEG recordings were performed at 15 minutes before the blast and 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 2 hours and 1, 2 and 3 days post-blast using surface recording electrodes and a Biopac 4-channel data acquisition system...
November 10, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819515/the-effect-of-sampling-bias-on-generalizability-in-intervention-trials-after-brain-injury
#11
Gabriela Markovic, Marie-Louise Schult, Aniko Bartfai
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: The first objective of this descriptive study was to explore the effect of strict inclusion and exclusion criteria on patient recruitment in cognitive rehabilitation; the second was to analyse the representativeness of study patients for all eligible stroke and traumatic brain injury patients referred to the department from September 2011 to November 2014. METHODS: The setting was multi-professional in- and outpatient brain injury rehabilitation in a university hospital...
November 7, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819514/differential-expression-of-micrornas-in-the-brains-of-mice-subjected-to-increasing-grade-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Raghavendar Chandran, Anuj Sharma, Manish Bhomia, Nagaraja S Balakathiresan, Barbara E Knollmann-Ritschel, Radha K Maheshwari
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of heterogeneity in mTBI on miRNA expression in mouse brain and to identify molecular pathways targeted by the modulated miRNAs. METHODS: A weight drop device was used to induce four increasing grades of mTBI. MiRNA expression was evaluated using TaqMan rodent miRNA arrays. Bioinformatics analysis was done using the DIANA miRPath tool and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. Histology of brain sections was evaluated using H&E staining...
November 7, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819497/assessing-the-validity-of-task-analysis-as-a-quantitative-tool-to-measure-the-efficacy-of-rehabilitation-in-brain-injury
#13
Diana Velikonja, Jill Oakes, Christine Brum, Muskaan Sachdeva
BACKGROUND: Inpatient rehabilitation with patients who have sustained an acquired brain injury (ABI), including traumatic brain injury (TBI), focuses on improving performance in activities of daily living (ADLs). Although not studied to date in patients with ABI/TBI, Task Analysis (TA) integrates assessment and the prompting/cueing levels required to complete various tasks, with the goal to achieve effective skill acquisition and rehabilitation planning. TA has demonstrated efficacy in teaching life skills in individuals with developmental disabilities and in this study is applied to teaching ADL skills in ABI/TBI rehabilitation...
November 7, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819490/neuropsychological-test-validity-in-veterans-presenting-with-subjective-complaints-of-very-severe-cognitive-symptoms-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Robert J Spencer, Brigid Waldron-Perrine, Lauren L Drag, Percival H Pangilinan, Bradley N Axelrod, Linas A Bieliauskas
OBJECTIVE: This study explored the utility of combining data from measures of performance validity and symptom validity among Veterans undergoing neuropsychological evaluation for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). BACKGROUND: Persistent cognitive impairments following mTBI are often reported by returning combat veterans. However, objectively-measured cognitive deficits are not common among individuals with mTBI, raising the question of whether negative impression management influences self-ratings...
November 7, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819489/does-progesterone-improve-outcome-in-diffuse-axonal-injury
#15
Zahra Soltani, Nader Shahrokhi, Saeed Karamouzian, Mohammad Khaksari, Behshad Mofid, Nouzar Nakhaee, Hamed Reihani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The benefits of progesterone have been demonstrated in the animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the results of clinical studies are conflicting. Considering the heterogenic nature of TBI, the effect of progesterone in patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI) was investigated in a clinical trial. METHODS: In this study, 48 patients with DAI and Glasgow Coma Scale of 3-12, admitted within 4 hours after injury, were randomly assigned to the progesterone or control group...
November 7, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819487/the-danger-zone-systematic-review-of-the-role-of-hmgb1-danger-signalling-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Taylor M Parker, Austin Huy Nguyen, Joshua R Rabang, Arun-Angelo Patil, Devendra K Agrawal
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are associated with complex inflammatory pathways that lead to the development of secondary injuries such as cerebral ischaemia, elevated intracranial pressure and cognitive deficits. The association between intracellular danger signalling involving nuclear chromatin-binding factor, high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and inflammatory pathways following TBI has not yet been fully understood. PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively review the available literature regarding the potential diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic use of HMGB1 in TBI...
November 7, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740867/neurological-impressions-on-the-organization-of-language-networks-in-the-human-brain
#17
Fabricio Ferreira de Oliveira, Sheilla de Medeiros Correia Marin, Paulo Henrique Ferreira Bertolucci
BACKGROUND: More than 95% of right-handed individuals, as well as almost 80% of left-handed individuals, have left hemisphere dominance for language. The perisylvian networks of the dominant hemisphere tend to be the most important language systems in human brains, usually connected by bidirectional fibres originated from the superior longitudinal fascicle/arcuate fascicle system and potentially modifiable by learning. Neuroplasticity mechanisms take place to preserve neural functions after brain injuries...
October 14, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740866/letter-to-the-editor
#18
Antonio Meola
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 14, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740864/impact-of-pre-injury-family-functioning-and-resources-on-self-reported-post-concussive-symptoms-and-functional-outcomes-in-persons-with-mild-tbi
#19
Jessica Lynn Temple, Margaret A Struchen, Monique R Pappadis
OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the contribution of pre-injury family functioning and resources on self-reported post-concussive symptoms and functional outcomes in persons with mild TBI (mTBI). DESIGN: Participants with uncomplicated or complicated mTBIs were recruited from consecutive admissions to the emergency department of a level 1 trauma centre. Patients completed baseline assessments within 2 weeks of injury and an outcomes assessment at 3 months post-injury...
October 14, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740859/executive-dysfunction-following-a-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-revealed-in-early-adolescence-with-locomotor-cognitive-dual-tasks
#20
Isabelle Cossette, Marie-Ève Gagné, Marie-Christine Ouellet, Philippe Fait, Isabelle Gagnon, Katia Sirois, Sophie Blanchet, Natalie Le Sage, Bradford J McFadyen
OBJECTIVE: To compare gait parameters between children in early adolescence (EA) with and without a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) during dual-task walking (DTW). METHODS: Children in EA with mTBI (n = 14; six girls) were compared to those without (n = 13; five girls) while walking in different combinations of obstacle avoidance and cognitive dual-tasks. Gait speed and fluidity and their related dual-task costs (DTC) were analysed along with foot clearance and proximity to the obstacle...
October 14, 2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
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