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Brain Injury: [BI]

R D Moore, V Sicard, D Pindus, L B Raine, E S Drollette, M R Scudder, S Decker, D Ellemberg, C H Hillman
Experimental research suggests that sport-related concussion can lead to persistent alterations in children's neurophysiology and cognition. However, the search for neuropsychological tests with a similar ability to detect long-term deficits continues. PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The current study assessed whether a target battery of neuropsychological measures of higher cognition and academic achievement would detect lingering deficits in children 2 years after injury. RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-sectional...
November 14, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Gordon Muir Giles, Jo Clark-Wilson, Doreen M Tasker, Ross Baxter, Mark Holloway, Stephanie Seymour
OBJECTIVE: The Adaptive Behaviour and Community Competency Scale was used to investigate the interrelationship of 22 basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL/IADL) in individuals with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). The relationship of self-awareness to task performance was also investigated. RESEARCH DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study. METHOD: The profiles of 100 community dwelling individuals were used to compare the degree to which independence in each ADL/IADL was associated with independence in every other ADL/IADL...
November 14, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Yanfei Shen, Xinmei Huang, Yongxia Hu, Weimin Zhang, Liquan Huang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the association between fluid balance (FB) and in-hospital mortality in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: Data were extracted from the online database Multi-parameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care III. Patients were divided into two groups according to the FB status at 48 hours after intensive care unit (ICU) admission: negative and positive 48-hour FB groups. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality...
November 13, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Ernest J Bobeff, Jan Fortuniak, Katarzyna Ł Bobeff, Karol Wiśniewski, Rafał Wójcik, Ludomir Stefańczyk, Dariusz J Jaskólski
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate correlation between the lateral ventricle ratio (LVR) and the risk of conservative treatment failure (CTF) among patients with acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) after non-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), we retrieved from the hospital database and performed a retrospective analysis of 1339 cases with TBI treated during the 2008-2016 period. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: 112 patients with ASDH, GCS≥ 9 and initial conservative treatment were enrolled...
November 10, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Bojana Šarkić, Jacinta M Douglas, Andrea Simpson
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To understand the effects of non-blast-related TBI on peripheral auditory function in adults, as measured through basic and advanced audiological assessments. BACKGROUND: Despite numerous studies demonstrating hearing loss post TBI there has been no systematic investigation of the prevalence, nature and severity of peripheral hearing loss. DATA IDENTIFICATION: An English-language systematic search using MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, PubMed and hand-searching of reference lists was conducted from 1 January 1990 to 31 October 2016...
November 10, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Matthew J Solomito, Hannah Reuman, David H Wang
OBJECTIVE: Provide a potential explanation for sex differences associated with concussions. RESEARCH DESIGN: Review of current literature from complementary disciplines to synthesize a theory to explains sex differences in individuals with concussion. METHODS: Systematic review focusing on sex-related differences in individuals with concussion. Articles published in peer-reviewed journals after 2000 were reviewed and discussed among the authors to determine common themes across the different disciplines represented in the literature review...
November 7, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Birgitta Langhammer, Johan K Stanghelle
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility and usability of the senior fitness test (SFT) in persons with acquired brain injury (ABI). METHODS: A pilot cohort design with a convenience sample of persons with ABI was used. RESULTS: Persons with ABIs (n = 47) were younger than their healthy counterparts (n = 172) were but performed significantly worse on sit to stand, 6-min walk test (6MWT) and 2.45-m up and go. This difference was accentuated in the age groups >60 years of age...
November 7, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
C E Dismuke-Greer, M Gebregziabher, A L Byers, D Taber, N Axon, K Yaffe, L E Egede
BACKGROUND: The U.S. Veterans Health Administration (VHA) provides depression treatment to veterans with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). VHA costs of comorbid TBI-depression were estimated by Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) status over 14 years. METHODS: VHA-USING veterans with TBI DIAGNOSED IN 2000-2010 were followed through FY2014. TBI severity was determined using the Department of Defense criteria. Depression was identified by the Elixhauser algorithm...
November 7, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
M J Minney, R M Roberts, J L Mathias, J Raftos, A Kochar
OBJECTIVE: To provide a qualitative examination of the service and support needs of children who have had a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), and their parents, in order to improve clinical services. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 9 children (8-12 years; M = 10.6 years, SD = 0.8) and their parents (n = 9) 29-55 days (M = 34 days; SD = 9.3) after presenting to an Australian Paediatric Emergency Department (PED) for mTBI. Children's post-concussive symptoms (PCS) were additionally measured using the Post-Concussive Symptom Inventory (PCSI)...
November 5, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Ye-Huan Wu, Qiu-Jin Yao, Yu Zhang, Ya Wang, Hui Wang, Yi Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Johns Hopkins Adapted Cognitive Exam (ACE) in neurological intensive care unit patients. DESIGN: The English version of the ACE was translated and adapted into Chinese. The cognitive function of 40 critically ill NICU patients was assessed using the Chinese version of the ACE and the Mini-mental state examination (MMSE) battery. Scores on the ACE and MMSE were analyzed, and the scale's content validity, construct validity, concurrent validity, internal consistency, inter-rater reliability, and test-retest reliability metrics were determined...
November 5, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
L C Frenette, S Tinawi, J A Correa, A Y Alturki, J LeBlanc, M Feyz, E de Guise
OBJECTIVES: The Montreal Cognitive Assessement (MoCA) is a brief and standardized cognitive screening tool that has been used with several clinical populations. The aim of this study was to screen the early cognitive status of patients following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) with the MoCA. METHODS: The MoCA was administered within the first 2 weeks post-injury to 42 patients with uncomplicated mTBI, 92 patients with complicated mTBI and 50 healthy controls...
November 2, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Elizaveta G Iazeva, Liudmila A Legostaeva, Alexey A Zimin, Dmitry V Sergeev, Maxim A Domashenko, Vladislav Y Samorukov, Dzhamilya G Yusupova, Julia V Ryabinkina, Natalia A Suponeva, Michael A Piradov, Yelena G Bodien, Joseph T Giacino
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to develop and validate a Russian adaptation of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We evaluated 58 patients with chronic disorders of consciousness (> 4 weeks post-injury, DOC) of various etiology and two patients in a locked-in state at different stages after coma. We tested sensitivity for changes over 1 week, reliability, criterion validity and diagnostic sensitivity of the Russian adaptation of the CRS-R in comparison with the Russian adaptations of Full Outline of UnResponsiveness Score (FOUR), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS)...
November 2, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Brian L Brooks, Trevor A Low, Vickie Plourde, Shane Virani, Zeanna Jadavji, Frank P MacMaster, Karen M Barlow, R Marc Lebel, Keith Owen Yeates
OBJECTIVES: The long-term effects of concussion in youth remain poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the association between history of concussion and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in youth. METHODS: A total of 53 children and adolescents with a history of concussion (n = 37) or orthopaedic injury (OI; n = 16) were considered. Measures included pseudo-continuous arterial spin labelling magnetic resonance imaging to quantify CBF, post-concussion symptoms, psychological symptoms, and cognitive testing...
October 31, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Mark Delargy, Rebecca O'Connor, Alison McCann, Irene Galligan, Heather Cronin, Dee Gray, Caoimhe O'Toole
Zolpidem has been used with mixed effects in patients presenting with Prolonged Disorders of Consciousness (PDOC). This single case report describes an interdisciplinary team (IDT) protocol combined with Zolpidem 10 mg in a single case of a patient in PDOC. 'Emily', a 44-year-old lady was admitted to a rehabilitation unit in Ireland one year post onset of subarachnoid haemorrhage. Standardized assessments diagnosed her as being in a minimally conscious state (MCS). An IDT protocol was devised to stimulate and record responses to sensory and pharmacological stimuli...
October 31, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Roy F Kohnen, Debby L Gerritsen, Odile M Smals, Jan C M Lavrijsen, Raymond T C M Koopmans
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) and psychotropic drug use (PDU) in patients below the age of 65 years with acquired brain injury (ABI) in long-term care. The objective of this study was to review the literature about the prevalence of NPS and PDU. METHODS: A systematic literature search of English, Dutch and German articles in Pubmed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL was performed with the use of MeSH and free-text terms...
October 29, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Conall O'Rourke, Mark A Linden, Maria Lohan
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and past abuse experienced by adult female offenders. METHODS: Twenty-nine female offenders from a UK women's prison and twenty-nine age and gender matched university controls were recruited. In addition to demographic data, the Brain Injury Screening Index was utilized alongside the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and the Abusive Behaviour Inventory. RESULTS: Approximately 79% (n = 21) of female offenders reported a history of TBI, with 38% (n = 8) reporting six or more injuries...
October 29, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Claire Williams, Rodger Llewellyn Wood, Holly Howe
OBJECTIVE: Aggressive behavior is a frequent legacy of traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study explores the question of how alexithymia, which is associated with deficits in social cognition and empathy, may predispose individuals to aggressive tendencies after head trauma. METHOD: A total of 47 individuals referred for routine neuropsychological assessment and advice on the management of long-term neuropsychological sequelae after TBI and 72 demographically matched controls completed the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ; self and proxy)...
October 29, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Suzanne Barker-Collo, Alice Theadom, Kelly Jones, Nicola Starkey, Michael Kahan, Valery Feigin
BACKGROUND: Emotional disorders are considered to contribute to persistent difficulties after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). Few studies have examined anxiety after mild TBI, and fewer have examined comorbid depression and anxiety and their trajectories over time. This study describes depression and anxiety across 48-months after mild TBI in adults (aged >15 years at injury). METHODS: Depression and anxiety were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in a sample of 341 adults with mild TBI within 2 weeks of injury and then at 6-, 12- and 48-months post-injury...
October 29, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Robert M Shavelle, Jordan C Brooks, David J Strauss
While much is known about long-term survival after traumatic brain injury, less is known about survival after anoxic/hypoxic brain injury. We previously compared the two and found no significant difference (hazard ratio [HR] 0.97, p=0.92) after controlling for age, sex, and severity of disability. The present study updates this, based on 1,802 patients with TBI and 380 with anoxic, aged 15 to 25, evaluated in 1986 or later, and who survived one year post injury. The anoxic group had higher mortality (HR = 1...
October 29, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
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