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Brain Injury: [BI]

Bridget M Smith, Rachael N Martinez, Charlesnika T Evans, Karen L Saban, Salva Balbale, Eric J Proescher, Kevin Stroupe, Timothy P Hogan
BACKGROUND: Veterans who experience traumatic brain injury (TBI) may have long-term needs placing a premium on well-coordinated care. This study aimed to (1) identify barriers to care coordination for Veterans with TBI; and (2) describe strategies used by VA polytrauma care team members to coordinate care for Veterans with TBI. METHODS: We utilised a mixed method design, including an online survey of VA polytrauma care team members (N = 236) and subsequent semi-structured interviews (N = 25)...
March 14, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Gilad Sorek, Sharon Shaklai, Shirley Meyer, Michal Katz-Leurer
INTRODUCTION: Adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI) present a range of physical and cognitive as well as cardiac autonomic control system (CACS) dysfunctions. AIM: To examine the CACS response to an executive task, a physical task and a combined physical and executive task, in adolescents with ABI and typically developed (TD) controls. METHODS: Included were two groups: The first group consisted of 17 adolescents (11-18 years) with ABI, during the in-patient or out-patient rehabilitation period...
March 13, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Elaine C Thompson, Jennifer Krizman, Travis White-Schwoch, Trent Nicol, Cynthia R LaBella, Nina Kraus
OBJECTIVE: Concussions can result in auditory processing deficits even in the absence of hearing loss. In children and adolescents, the extent to which these impairments have functional consequences for everyday listening, such as the ability to understand speech in noisy environments, is unknown. RESEARCH DESIGN: Case-control study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Forty youth comprised the participants: 20 had sustained a concussion and were recovering from their injury, and 20 controls had sustained non-concussive orthopaedic (e...
March 8, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
H M Austin, N Balendra, J E Langenderfer, K I Ustinova
OBJECTIVE: Walking requires precise coordination of bilateral lower extremity motions at all joints. This ability can be affected by traumatic brain injury (TBI). The study investigated inter-joint coordination of lower extremities during overground walking after TBI. METHODS: Ten individuals with post-injury ataxia, postural stability and gait abnormalities, as well as 10 sex- and age-matched control subjects were involved in the study. Participants walked at self-selected speed in three experimental conditions: normal walking without any additional task; walking with a narrow base of support, and walking while holding a cup full of water...
March 1, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Dan Zhao, Shanwei Tao, Dewei Zhang, Mengyang Qin, Yijun Bao, Anhua Wu
PURPOSE: Traumatic meningoencephalocele primarily occurs as a rare but complex complication of cranial base and orbital roof fractures. Traumatic intraorbital meningoencephalocele, which is rare and easily overlooked, can be life-threatening since cephalomeningitis occurs due to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage. It is obscure for the operative indications or standard surgical methods of traumatic meningoencephaloceles since the combined intricate craniofacial and basal fractures, brain injury, and CSF leak may exist...
February 27, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Joshua H Hill, Paul Bonner, M Shay O'Mara, Teresa Wood, Michael Lieber
OBJECTIVE: We postulate that in patients with blunt trauma on anticoagulant or antiplatelet agents, incidence and complication rate of delayed intracranial hemorrhage (DICH) after an initially negative head CT is low and routine repeat head CT is not warranted. DESIGN: A retrospective, observational study performed from 2008 to 2012. PATIENTS: A total of 338 patients with blunt trauma with pre-admission history of any anticoagulant use, who had an initially negative head CT, followed by a repeat CT within 48 hours...
February 27, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Adam C Raikes, Sydney Y Schaefer, Breanna E Studenka
OBJECTIVES: Long-term monitoring of concussion recovery requires time- and cost-effective methods. Physiologic complexity may be useful in evaluating visual-motor integration following concussion. The purpose of this study was to quantify the extent to which prior number of concussions influenced visual-motor tracking force complexity. METHODS: Thirty-five individuals with a self-reported concussion history (age: 20.92 ± 1.98) and 15 without (age: 20.92 ± 2...
February 27, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Emilio Portaccio, Azzurra Morrocchesi, Anna Maria Romoli, Bahia Hakiki, Maria Pia Taglioli, Elena Lippi, Martina Di Renzone, Antonello Grippo, Claudio Macchi
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prognostic utility of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) in rehabilitation of patients surviving from severe brain injury. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, all patients consecutively admitted to an Italian Intensive Rehabilitation Unit, with a diagnosis of unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) or minimally conscious state (MCS) due to acquired brain injury, underwent clinical evaluations using the Italian version of the CRS-R...
February 26, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Hsiao-Yean Chiu, Wei Li, Jiann-Her Lin, Yu-Kai Su, En-Yuan Lin, Pei-Shan Tsai
OBJECTIVES: To translate the Mental Fatigue Scale into a Chinese version (CMFS), to develop a more valid and precise CMFS by using an item response theory-based model, and to examine the reliability and validity of the CMFS. METHODS: One hundred and fifty adults having traumatic brain injury for at least 6 months were included. Each participant completed a battery of questionnaires (i.e. the Chinese version of the Chalder Fatigue Scale [ChCFS], Chinese version of the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale [CUDOS-Chinese], and CMFS)...
February 20, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Nicola J Starkey, Kelly Jones, Rosalind Case, Alice Theadom, Suzanne Barker-Collo, Valery Feigin
OBJECTIVE: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is common injury during childhood and adolescence but the long-term outcomes are poorly understood. This study examined post-concussive symptoms and behavioural outcomes in children and adolescents up to 24 months post-mTBI. METHOD: Parents of children aged 8-15 years with mTBI completed the BASC-2 and Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire at baseline, 1-, 6-, 12- and 24 months post-injury. An age-matched traumatic brain injury-free cohort was recruited and assessed at 12- and 24 months...
February 15, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Andrea Ciofalo, Marco De Vincentiis, Giannicola Iannella, Giampietro Zambetti, Paola Giacomello, Giancarlo Altissimi, Antonio Greco, Massimo Fusconi, Benedetta Pasquariello, Giuseppe Magliulo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate olfactory function and clinical-neurological characteristics in a group of patients with mild head trauma. METHODS: A total of 352 patients with MTBI underwent olfactory function evaluation. The site of head trauma, loss of consciousness <20 min, memory loss, subjective presence or absence of olfaction and other clinical, neurological and radiological aspects were evaluated and compared with the olfactory dysfunction. RESULTS: A total of 33...
February 15, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Chan Hee Koh, Savva Pronin, Mark Hughes
OBJECTIVES: Damage to critical brain regions causes deficits in important neurological functions. Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) has been shown to promote neuroplasticity and may ameliorate neurological deficits caused by disease or trauma. This systematic review identifies and evaluates preclinical studies of ChABC as a treatment for acute brain injury. METHODS: Four databases were searched for studies relating to ChABC and brain or brain injuries. Controlled studies in mammals with acute brain injuries treated with ChABC were included in meta-analyses of neurobehavioural outcomes...
February 13, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Alex P Di Battista, Shawn G Rhind, Andrew J Baker, Rakesh Jetly, Jeff D Debad, Doug Richards, Michael G Hutchison
OBJECTIVES: To characterise a panel of neuroinjury-related blood biomarkers after sport-related concussion (SRC). We hypothesised significant differences in biomarker profiles between athletes with SRC and healthy controls at both subacute and medical clearance time points. METHODS: Thirty-eight interuniversity athletes were recruited over two athletic seasons (n = 19 SRC; n = 19 healthy matched-control). High-sensitivity immunoassay was used to evaluate 11 blood analytes at both the subacute phase after SRC and at medical clearance...
February 8, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Ahadi Reza, Esmail Riahi, Abdolhadi Daneshi, Ehsan Golchini
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To assess the demographics, causes, treatment and outcome of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Tehran, Iran. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in a major trauma centre in south of Tehran using clinical data registry of 3818 traumatic patients who admitted to the hospital from 2009 to 2013. The main factors measured were the external cause of trauma, the type of TBI, and treatment outcome. MAIN OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: The highest rate of TBIs occurred in age categories 21‒30 (31...
February 6, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
E V Ritchie, C Emery, C T Debert
OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between acute serum cortisol following pediatric sport-related concussion (SRC) and clinical outcome measures of symptom burden and length to return to sport (RTS) Methods: Prospective observational study of ice hockey players ages 11-12 recruited prior to the hockey season. Players sustaining a SRC were assessed by a sports medicine physician completed a child Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-3 (childSCAT-3) and serum cortisol samples. RESULTS: Of 636 ice hockey players enrolled, 41 sustained a SRC...
February 5, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
George Fotakopoulos, Demosthenes Makris, Eleni Tsianaka, Polikceni Kotlia, Paulos Karakitsios, Charalabos Gatos, Alkiviadis Tzannis, Kostas Fountas
OBJECT: To identify the risk factors for post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) and to document the incidence of PTA after mild traumatic brain injuries. METHODS: This was a prospective study, affecting mild TBI (mTBI) (Glasgow Coma Scale 14-15) cases attending to the Emergency Department between January 2009 and April 2012 (40 months duration). Patients were divided into two groups (Group A: without PTA, and Group B: with PTA, and they were assessed according to the risk factors...
February 5, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Thomas Humphries, Rajiv Singh
OBJECTIVES: Olfactory disturbance (OD) is common after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Screening for OD can be performed by several different methods. While odour identification tools are considered more accurate, they are time consuming. The predominant method in clinical practice remains the use of a single odour. This study aimed to compare a brief single-odour identification tool (BSOIT) with a more detailed 12-odour assessment tool. MATERIALS/METHODS: One hundred seventy consecutive patients with TBI had their olfaction assessed using BSOIT and a 12-item tool at a single time point...
February 2, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Joseph J Fins, Megan S Wright
Drawing upon sources in neuroethics, civil rights, and disability rights law, we argue for the reintegration of people with severe brain injury back into the nexus of their families and communities consistent with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Disabled, both of which call for the maximal integration of people with disability into society. To this end, we offer a rights-based argument to address the care of people with severe brain injury. Instead of viewing the provision of rehabilitation as a reimbursement issue, which it surely is, we argue that it can be productively understood as a question of civil rights for a population generally segregated from the medical mainstream and from society itself...
February 2, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Laraine Winter, Helene J Moriarty, Thomas H Short
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often present with emotion dysregulation. Most TBI rehabilitation has addressed this impairment primarily in relation to anger, irritability and aggressiveness. Yet, emotion regulation (ER) may have broader ramifications for psychological well-being. The present study examined ER's association to several aspects of social connectedness. RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-sectional study Methods and procedures: 83 veterans with TBI who were outpatients at a VA medical rehabilitation service were interviewed in their homes...
February 2, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Daniel Cushman, John Hendrick, Masaru Teramoto, Benjamin Fogg, Sean Bradley, Colby Hansen
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the Balance Error Scoring System's (BESS) intraclass reliability in a cohort of patients with prolonged symptoms using variance component analysis and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). SETTING: Outpatient sports medicine/concussion clinic. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 241 paediatric and 102 adult patients with symptoms lasting longer than 10 days. INTERVENTIONS: BESS testing...
February 2, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
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