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British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764522/treatment-resistant-depression-and-peripheral-c-reactive-protein
#1
Samuel R Chamberlain, Jonathan Cavanagh, Peter de Boer, Valeria Mondelli, Declan N C Jones, Wayne C Drevets, Philip J Cowen, Neil A Harrison, Linda Pointon, Carmine M Pariante, Edward T Bullmore
BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a candidate biomarker for major depressive disorder (MDD), but it is unclear how peripheral CRP levels relate to the heterogeneous clinical phenotypes of the disorder.AimTo explore CRP in MDD and its phenotypic associations. METHOD: We recruited 102 treatment-resistant patients with MDD currently experiencing depression, 48 treatment-responsive patients with MDD not currently experiencing depression, 48 patients with depression who were not receiving medication and 54 healthy volunteers...
May 16, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761751/long-term-clinical-and-cost-effectiveness-of-collaborative-care-versus-usual-care-for-people-with-mental-physical-multimorbidity-cluster-randomised-trial
#2
Elizabeth M Camacho, Linda M Davies, Mark Hann, Nicola Small, Peter Bower, Carolyn Chew-Graham, Clare Baguely, Linda Gask, Chris M Dickens, Karina Lovell, Waquas Waheed, Chris J Gibbons, Peter Coventry
BACKGROUND: Collaborative care can support the treatment of depression in people with long-term conditions, but long-term benefits and costs are unknown.AimsTo explore the long-term (24-month) effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of collaborative care in people with mental-physical multimorbidity. METHOD: A cluster randomised trial compared collaborative care (integrated physical and mental healthcare) with usual care for depression alongside diabetes and/or coronary heart disease...
May 15, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745363/application-of-n-of-1-treatment-trials-in-schizophrenia-systematic-review
#3
Katie F M Marwick, Anna J Stevenson, Caitlin Davies, Stephen M Lawrie
BACKGROUND: Single patient or 'n-of-1' trials are a pragmatic method to achieve optimal, evidence-based treatments for individual patients. Such trials could be particularly valuable in chronic, heterogeneous, difficult to treat illnesses such as schizophrenia.AimsTo identify how often, and in what way, n-of-1 trials have been used in schizophrenia. METHOD: We performed a systematic search in the major electronic databases for studies adopting n-of-1 methodology in schizophrenia, published in English from the start of records until the end of January 2017...
May 10, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739481/ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-activity-and-pathological-worry-in-generalised-anxiety-disorder
#4
E Via, M A Fullana, X Goldberg, D Tinoco-González, I Martínez-Zalacaín, C Soriano-Mas, C G Davey, J M Menchón, B Straube, T Kircher, J Pujol, N Cardoner, B J Harrison
BACKGROUND: Pathological worry is a hallmark feature of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), associated with dysfunctional emotional processing. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is involved in the regulation of such processes, but the link between vmPFC emotional responses and pathological v. adaptive worry has not yet been examined.AimsTo study the association between worry and vmPFC activity evoked by the processing of learned safety and threat signals. METHOD: In total, 27 unmedicated patients with GAD and 56 healthy controls (HC) underwent a differential fear conditioning paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging...
May 9, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717691/probability-of-major-depression-diagnostic-classification-using-semi-structured-versus-fully-structured-diagnostic-interviews
#5
Brooke Levis, Andrea Benedetti, Kira E Riehm, Nazanin Saadat, Alexander W Levis, Marleine Azar, Danielle B Rice, Matthew J Chiovitti, Tatiana A Sanchez, Pim Cuijpers, Simon Gilbody, John P A Ioannidis, Lorie A Kloda, Dean McMillan, Scott B Patten, Ian Shrier, Russell J Steele, Roy C Ziegelstein, Dickens H Akena, Bruce Arroll, Liat Ayalon, Hamid R Baradaran, Murray Baron, Anna Beraldi, Charles H Bombardier, Peter Butterworth, Gregory Carter, Marcos H Chagas, Juliana C N Chan, Rushina Cholera, Neerja Chowdhary, Kerrie Clover, Yeates Conwell, Janneke M de Man-van Ginkel, Jaime Delgadillo, Jesse R Fann, Felix H Fischer, Benjamin Fischler, Daniel Fung, Bizu Gelaye, Felicity Goodyear-Smith, Catherine G Greeno, Brian J Hall, John Hambridge, Patricia A Harrison, Ulrich Hegerl, Leanne Hides, Stevan E Hobfoll, Marie Hudson, Thomas Hyphantis, Masatoshi Inagaki, Khalida Ismail, Nathalie Jetté, Mohammad E Khamseh, Kim M Kiely, Femke Lamers, Shen-Ing Liu, Manote Lotrakul, Sonia R Loureiro, Bernd Löwe, Laura Marsh, Anthony McGuire, Sherina Mohd Sidik, Tiago N Munhoz, Kumiko Muramatsu, Flávia L Osório, Vikram Patel, Brian W Pence, Philippe Persoons, Angelo Picardi, Alasdair G Rooney, Iná S Santos, Juwita Shaaban, Abbey Sidebottom, Adam Simning, Lesley Stafford, Sharon Sung, Pei Lin Lynnette Tan, Alyna Turner, Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis, Henk C van Weert, Paul A Vöhringer, Jennifer White, Mary A Whooley, Kirsty Winkley, Mitsuhiko Yamada, Yuying Zhang, Brett D Thombs
BACKGROUND: Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.AimsTo evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics...
May 2, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716670/baclofen-in-the-treatment-of-alcohol-dependence-with-or-without-liver-disease-multisite-randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#6
Kirsten C Morley, Andrew Baillie, Isabel Fraser, Ainsley Furneaux-Bate, Glenys Dore, Michael Roberts, Ahmed Abdalla, Nghi Phung, Paul S Haber
BACKGROUND: There are no available medications for the management of alcohol dependence for patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD).AimsTo conduct a multisite, double blind, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial of baclofen in the treatment of alcohol dependence, with or without liver disease (trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01711125). METHOD: Patients (n = 104) were randomised to placebo, baclofen 30 mg/day or 75 mg/day for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes included survival time to lapse (any drinking), relapse (≥5 drinks per day in men and ≥4 in women), and the composite outcome of drinks per drinking day, number of heavy drinking days, and percentage days abstinent...
May 2, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706139/enduring-effects-of-psychological-treatments-for-anxiety-disorders-meta-analysis-of-follow-up-studies
#7
Borwin Bandelow, Anne Sagebiel, Michael Belz, Yvonne Görlich, Sophie Michaelis, Dirk Wedekind
BACKGROUND: It is a widespread opinion that after treatment with psychotherapy, patients with anxiety disorders maintain their gains beyond the active treatment period, whereas patients treated with medication soon experience a relapse after treatment termination.AimsWe aimed to provide evidence on whether enduring effects of psychotherapy differ from control groups. METHOD: We searched 93 randomised controlled studies with 152 study arms of psychological treatment (cognitive-behavioural therapy or other psychotherapies) for panic disorder, generalised anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder that included follow-up assessments...
April 30, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697041/artistic-creativity-and-risk-for-schizophrenia-bipolar-disorder-and-unipolar-depression-a-swedish-population-based-case-control-study-and-sib-pair-analysis
#8
J H MacCabe, A Sariaslan, C Almqvist, P Lichtenstein, H Larsson, S Kyaga
BACKGROUND: Many studies have addressed the question of whether mental disorder is associated with creativity, but high-quality epidemiological evidence has been lacking.AimsTo test for an association between studying a creative subject at high school or university and later mental disorder. METHOD: In a case-control study using linked population-based registries in Sweden (N = 4 454 763), we tested for associations between tertiary education in an artistic field and hospital admission with schizophrenia (N = 20 333), bipolar disorder (N = 28 293) or unipolar depression (N = 148 365)...
April 26, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665873/impact-of-paternal-deployment-to-the-conflicts-in-iraq-and-afghanistan-and-paternal-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-on-the-children-of-military-fathers
#9
Nicola T Fear, Ruth V Reed, Sarah Rowe, Howard Burdett, David Pernet, Alyson Mahar, Amy C Iversen, Paul Ramchandani, Alan Stein, Simon Wessely
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the social and emotional well-being of children whose fathers have been deployed to the conflicts in Iraq/Afghanistan or who have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).AimsTo examine the emotional and behavioural well-being of children whose fathers are or have been in the UK armed forces, in particular the effects of paternal deployment to the conflicts in Iraq or Afghanistan and paternal PTSD. METHOD: Fathers who had taken part in a large tri-service cohort and had children aged 3-16 years were asked about the emotional and behavioural well-being of their child(ren) and assessed for symptoms of PTSD via online questionnaires and telephone interview...
April 18, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554984/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-the-akena-visual-depression-inventory-avidi-18-in-kampala-uganda-and-cape-town-south-africa
#10
Dickens Akena, John Joska, Dan J Stein
BACKGROUND: Visual scales may be particularly useful in screening for depression in patients with low literacy. However, few have been validated and none are in common use. Aim Modification and validation of a visual scale to screen for depression in low literacy settings. METHOD: We assessed the validity, reliability and factor loading of a 28-item visual depression inventory using pictorial items depicting depression signs and symptoms. We validated a revised scale comprised of 18 items known as the Akena Visual Depression Inventory (AViDI-18) against a structured diagnostic interview (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Inventory) in 343 patients in Kampala (Uganda) and Cape Town (South Africa)...
March 20, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786496/on-moral-psychiatry
#11
Kamaldeep Bhui
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786495/occupational-moral-injury-and-mental-health-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Victoria Williamson, Sharon A M Stevelink, Neil Greenberg
BACKGROUND: Many people confront potentially morally injurious experiences (PMIEs) in the course of their work which can violate deeply held moral values or beliefs, putting them at risk for psychological difficulties (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, etc.).AimsWe aimed to assess the effect of moral injury on mental health outcomes. METHOD: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between work-related PMIEs and mental health disorders...
June 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786494/failure-to-tackle-suicide-inequalities-across-europe
#13
Jayati Das-Munshi, Graham Thornicroft
SummaryIn this issue, Lorant et al. confirm a social gradient in risk of suicide, across 15 European countries, over a period of marked social change. Understanding contextual and life-course factors, and acknowledging under-funding for mental health and failures to implement national mental health policies, may provide the reasons for these disparities.Declaration of interestNone.
June 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786492/socioeconomic-inequalities-in-suicide-in-europe-the-widening-gap
#14
Vincent Lorant, Rianne de Gelder, Dharmi Kapadia, Carme Borrell, Ramune Kalediene, Katalin Kovács, Mall Leinsalu, Pekka Martikainen, Gwenn Menvielle, Enrique Regidor, Maica Rodríguez-Sanz, Bogdan Wojtyniak, Bjørn Heine Strand, Matthias Bopp, Johan P Mackenbach
BACKGROUND: Suicide has been decreasing over the past decade. However, we do not know whether socioeconomic inequality in suicide has been decreasing as well.AimsWe assessed recent trends in socioeconomic inequalities in suicide in 15 European populations. METHOD: The DEMETRIQ study collected and harmonised register-based data on suicide mortality follow-up of population censuses, from 1991 and 2001, in European populations aged 35-79. Absolute and relative inequalities of suicide according to education were computed on more than 300 million person-years...
June 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693540/don-t-forget-to-connect-with-patient-experience-conversations-on-trust-ties-and-surprise
#15
Kamaldeep Bhui
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693539/we-all-know-what-we-mean-by-treatment-resistant-depression-don-t-we
#16
Ian M Anderson
SummaryAlthough in common use, treatment-resistant depression is unhelpful both conceptually and practically. In this issue a new term, multiple-therapy-resistant major depressive disorder, is proposed; although it may be useful in guiding treatment options for patients with persisting depression, it should not be an automatic trigger for further, more invasive treatments.Declaration of interestsI.M.A. has been a consultant for pharmaceutical companies developing and marketing antidepressants and has been an author on publications that have used the term treatment-resistant depression...
May 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693538/-we-ve-had-enough-of-experts-the-enduring-charm-of-quackery
#17
Nick Ross
Broadcaster and journalist. FRCP (hon).
May 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693537/detail-dynamics-and-depth-useful-correctives-for-some-current-research-trends
#18
Barnaby Nelson, Jessica A Hartmann, Josef Parnas
SummarySeveral research trends in contemporary psychiatry would benefit from greater emphasis on detailed assessment, modelling dynamic change, and micro-level analysis. This may assist with clarifying nosological and pathoaetiological issues. We make this case by referring to three areas: psychopathology and nosology; prediction research; and 'big N' data sets.Declaration of interestNone.
May 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693535/neurodevelopmental-risk-copy-number-variants-in-adults-with-intellectual-disabilities-and-comorbid-psychiatric-disorders
#19
Johan H Thygesen, Kate Wolfe, Andrew McQuillin, Marina Viñas-Jornet, Neus Baena, Nathalie Brison, Greet D'Haenens, Susanna Esteba-Castillo, Elisabeth Gabau, Núria Ribas-Vidal, Anna Ruiz, Joris Vermeesch, Eddy Weyts, Ramon Novell, Griet Van Buggenhout, André Strydom, Nick Bass, Miriam Guitart, Annick Vogels
BACKGROUND: Copy number variants (CNVs) are established risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders. To date the study of CNVs in psychiatric illness has focused on single disorder populations. The role of CNVs in individuals with intellectual disabilities and psychiatric comorbidities are less well characterised.AimsTo determine the type and frequency of CNVs in adults with intellectual disabilities and comorbid psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A chromosomal microarray analysis of 599 adults recruited from intellectual disabilities psychiatry services at three European sites...
May 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622052/ketamine-as-the-anaesthetic-for-electroconvulsive-therapy-the-kanect-randomised-controlled-trial-corrigendum
#20
Gordon Fernie, James Currie, Jennifer S Perrin, Caroline A Stewart, Virginica Anderson, Daniel M Bennett, Steven Hay, Ian C Reid
SummaryThis notice describes a correction to the above mentioned paper.
May 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
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