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British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30236170/it-is-ethical-to-diagnose-a-public-figure-one-has-not-personally-examined
#1
John Gartner, Alex Langford, Aileen O'Brien
SummaryShould psychiatrists be able to speculate in the press or social media about their theories? John Gartner argues the risk to warn the public of concerns about public figures overrides the duty of confidentiality; whereas Alex Langford suggests this is beyond the ethical remit of psychiatric practice.Declaration of interestA.O'B is joint debates and analysis Editor of the British Journal of Psychiatry. J.G. is the founder of Duty To Warn, an association of mental health professionals who advocate the president's removal under the 25th Amendment on the grounds that he is psychologically unfit and dangerous...
September 21, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30232950/childhood-maltreatment-and-adult-medical-morbidity-in-mood-disorders-comparison-of-unipolar-depression-with-bipolar-disorder
#2
Georgina M Hosang, Helen L Fisher, Karen Hodgson, Barbara Maughan, Anne E Farmer
BACKGROUND: The medical burden in mood disorders is high; various factors are thought to drive this pattern. Little research has examined the role of childhood maltreatment and its effects on medical morbidity in adulthood among people with unipolar depression and bipolar disorder.AimsThis is the first study to explore the association between childhood maltreatment and medical morbidity in bipolar disorder and in unipolar depression, and examine whether the impact of abuse and neglect are distinct or combined...
September 20, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221619/brief-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-patients-in-the-community-with-schizophrenia-randomised-controlled-trial-in-beijing-china-expression-of-concern
#3
Zhi-Hua Guo, Zhan-Jiang Li, Yun Ma, Jing Sun, Jun-Hua Guo, Wen-Xiu Li, Zhi-Qiang Wang, Hui-Li Xu, Roger M K Ng, Douglas Turkington, David Kingdon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 17, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30139394/disorganisation-thought-disorder-and-socio-cognitive-functioning-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#4
Paulo de Sousa, William Sellwood, Martin Griffiths, Richard P Bentall
BACKGROUND: Poor social cognition is prevalent in schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Some authors argue that these effects are symptom-specific and that socio-cognitive difficulties (e.g. theory of mind) are strongly associated with thought disorder and symptoms of disorganisation.AimsThe current review tests the strength of this association. METHOD: We meta-analysed studies published between 1980 and 2016 that tested the association between social cognition and these symptoms in schizophrenia spectrum disorders...
August 24, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30132434/persistent-depressive-symptoms-and-cognitive-decline-in-older-adults
#5
Fanfan Zheng, Baoliang Zhong, Xiaoyu Song, Wuxiang Xie
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effect of persistent depressive symptoms on the trajectory of cognitive decline.AimsWe aimed to investigate the longitudinal association between the duration of depressive symptoms and subsequent cognitive decline over a 10-year follow-up period. METHOD: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing cohort is a prospective and nationally representative cohort of men and women living in England aged ≥50 years. We examined 7610 participants with two assessments of depressive symptoms at wave 1 (2002-2003) and wave 2 (2004-2005), cognitive data at wave 2 and at least one reassessment of cognitive function (wave 3 to wave 7, 2006-2007 to 2014-2015)...
August 22, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30131082/making-a-difference-ethnic-inequality-and-severe-mental-illness
#6
Kamaldeep Bhui, Kristoffer Halvorsrud, James Nazroo
SummaryIn this paper, we explore ethnic inequalities in severe mental illness and care experiences. We consider the barriers to progressive and cohesive action and propose ways of overcoming these. Clinical and policy leadership must bring together hidden patient voices, divergent professional narratives and quality research.Declaration of interestK.B. is Editor of the British Journal of Psychiatry, but has not played any role in the decision-making for this paper. K.B. leads and J.N. is a partner and K.H. a researcher in the Synergi Collaborative Centre...
August 22, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106358/electroconvulsive-therapy-and-later-stroke-in-patients-with-affective-disorders
#7
Maarten Pieter Rozing, Martin Balslev Jørgensen, Merete Osler
SummaryThe long-term effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on the risk of stroke are unknown. We examined the association between ECT and risk of incident or recurrent stroke. A cohort of 174 534 patients diagnosed with affective disorder between 2005 and 2016 in the Danish National Patient Registry were followed for stroke until November 2016. The association between ECT and stroke was analysed using Cox regression with multiple adjustment and propensity-score matching on sociodemographic and clinical variables...
August 14, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106357/moving-beyond-categories-and-dimensions-in-personality-pathology-assessment-and-diagnosis
#8
Steven K Huprich
It has been suggested that a dimensional model of personality pathology should be adopted for the development and refinement of personality disorder classification. In this article, the advantages and challenges of moving toward a dimensional model are briefly reviewed. However, it is suggested that although categories and dimensions are valuable frameworks for personality pathology diagnosis, an expansion beyond categories and dimensions is needed to improve the shortcoming seen in current diagnostic systems...
August 14, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30070183/changes-in-the-use-of-the-mental-health-act-1983-in-england-1984-85-to-2015-16
#9
Patrick Keown, Hannah Murphy, Dannielle McKenna, Iain McKinnon
BACKGROUND: Concerns have been raised about the increase in the use of involuntary detentions under the Mental Health Act in England over a number of years, and whether this merits consideration of legislative change.AimsTo investigate changes in the rate of detentions under Part II (civil) and Part III (forensic) sections of the Mental Health Act in England between 1984 and 2016. METHOD: Retrospective analysis of data on involuntary detentions from the National Archives and NHS Digital...
August 2, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30058517/association-between-a-national-primary-care-pay-for-performance-scheme-and-suicide-rates-in-england-spatial-cohort-study
#10
Christos Grigoroglou, Luke Munford, Roger T Webb, Nav Kapur, Tim Doran, Darren M Ashcroft, Evangelos Kontopantelis
BACKGROUND: Pay-for-performance policies aim to improve population health by incentivising improvements in quality of care.AimsTo assess the relationship between general practice performance on severe mental illness (SMI) and depression indicators under a national incentivisation scheme and suicide risk in England for the period 2006-2014. METHOD: Longitudinal spatial analysis for 32 844 small-area geographical units (lower super output areas, LSOAs), using population-structure adjusted numbers of suicide as the outcome variable...
July 30, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30058516/risk-factors-for-interpersonal-violence-an-umbrella-review-of-meta-analyses
#11
Seena Fazel, E Naomi Smith, Zheng Chang, John Richard Geddes
BACKGROUND: Interpersonal violence is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The strength and population effect of modifiable risk factors for interpersonal violence, and the quality of the research evidence is not known.AimsWe aimed to examine the strength and population effect of modifiable risk factors for interpersonal violence, and the quality and reproducibility of the research evidence. METHOD: We conducted an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses of risk factors for interpersonal violence...
July 30, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025547/cultural-engagement-and-cognitive-reserve-museum-attendance-and-dementia-incidence-over-a-10-year-period
#12
Daisy Fancourt, Andrew Steptoe, Dorina Cadar
SummaryTheories of cognitive reserve, disuse syndrome and stress have suggested that activities that are mentally engaging, enjoyable and socially interactive could be protective against the development of dementia. Using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, this study shows that for adults aged 50 and older visiting museums every few months or more was associated with a lower incidence rate of dementia over a 10-year follow-up period compared with less-frequent visiting. This association was independent of demographics, socioeconomic status, health-related variables including sensory impairment, depression, vascular conditions and other forms of community engagement...
July 20, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29991358/prolonged-exposure-therapy-and-supportive-counselling-for-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-adolescents-task-shifting-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Jaco Rossouw, Elna Yadin, Debra Alexander, Soraya Seedat
BACKGROUND: Empirical evidence on the effectiveness of evidence-based treatments for adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in low-resource settings is needed.AimsTo evaluate the comparative effectiveness of prolonged exposure and supportive counselling in adolescents with PTSD. METHOD: Sixty-three adolescents (13-18 years) with PTSD were randomly assigned to receive either of the interventions comprising 7-14 sessions of treatment (trial registration in the Pan African Clinical Trials Registry: PACTR201511001345372)...
July 11, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30160644/early-life-exposure-to-severe-famine-and-subsequent-risk-of-depressive-symptoms-in-late-adulthood-the-china-health-and-retirement-longitudinal-study
#14
Changwei Li, Toni Miles, Luqi Shen, Ye Shen, Tingting Liu, Mengxi Zhang, Shengxu Li, Cheng Huang
BACKGROUND: The Chinese Great Famine caused widespread starvation in 1959-1961. Its long-term association with depressive symptoms has not been studied.AimsTo estimate the burden of depressive symptoms and the association of famine exposure with depressive symptoms. METHOD: The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study is a nationwide representative survey of 17 708 Chinese adults aged ≥45. Propensity score matching and modified Poisson regression were used to evaluate the association between self-reported famine exposure in early life and depressive symptoms among the overall participants...
July 3, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29952277/predicting-antidepressant-response-by-monitoring-early-improvement-of-individual-symptoms-of-depression-individual-patient-data-meta-analysis
#15
Ymkje Anna de Vries, Annelieke M Roest, Elisabeth H Bos, Johannes G M Burgerhof, Hanna M van Loo, Peter de Jonge
BACKGROUND: Improvement in depression within the first 2 weeks of antidepressant treatment predicts good outcomes, but non-improvers can still respond or remit, whereas improvers often do not.AimsWe aimed to investigate whether early improvement of individual depressive symptoms better predicts response or remission. METHOD: We obtained individual patient data of 30 trials comprising 2184 placebo-treated and 6058 antidepressant-treated participants. Primary outcome was week 6 response; secondary outcomes were week 6 remission and week 12 response and remission...
June 28, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113294/impulsivity-attachment-and-relational-psychopathology
#16
By Kamaldeep Bhui
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113293/kaleidoscope
#17
Derek K Tracy, Dan W Joyce, Sukhwinder S Shergill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113291/neurotrophins-cytokines-oxidative-stress-mediators-and-mood-state-in-bipolar-disorder-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#18
Tobias Rowland, Benjamin I Perry, Rachel Upthegrove, Nicholas Barnes, Jayanta Chatterjee, Daniel Gallacher, Steven Marwaha
BACKGROUND: A reliable biomarker signature for bipolar disorder sensitive to illness phase would be of considerable clinical benefit. Among circulating blood-derived markers there has been a significant amount of research into inflammatory markers, neurotrophins and oxidative stress markers.AimsTo synthesise and interpret existing evidence of inflammatory markers, neurotrophins and oxidative stress markers in bipolar disorder focusing on the mood phase of illness. METHOD: Following PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses) guidelines, a systematic review was conducted for studies investigating peripheral biomarkers in bipolar disorder compared with healthy controls...
September 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113289/security-of-mind-20-years-of-attachment-theory-and-its-relevance-to-psychiatry
#19
Gwen Adshead
SummaryIn this editorial, I suggest that no psychiatrist should be without a working knowledge of attachment theory, and it is a capability that all trainees should cover in the proposed new curriculum. I have focused on three domains of research to argue that attachment theory is relevant to practicing psychiatrists.Declaration of interestNone.
September 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113288/fractional-anisotropy-of-the-uncinate-fasciculus-and-cingulum-in-bipolar-disorder-type-i-type-ii-unaffected-siblings-and-healthy-controls
#20
Sonya F Foley, Matthew Bracher-Smith, Katherine E Tansey, Judith R Harrison, Greg D Parker, Xavier Caseras
BACKGROUND: Fractional anisotropy in the uncinate fasciculus and the cingulum may be biomarkers for bipolar disorder and may even be distinctly affected in different subtypes of bipolar disorder, an area in need of further research.AimsThis study aims to establish if fractional anisotropy in the uncinate fasciculus and cingulum shows differences between healthy controls, patients with bipolar disorder type I (BD-I) and type II (BD-II), and their unaffected siblings. METHOD: Fractional anisotropy measures from the uncinate fasciculus, cingulum body and parahippocampal cingulum were compared with tractography methods in 40 healthy controls, 32 patients with BD-I, 34 patients with BD-II, 17 siblings of patients with BD-I and 14 siblings of patients with BD-II...
September 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
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