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British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30630553/role-of-childhood-adversities-and-environmental-sensitivity-in-the-development-of-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-in-war-exposed-syrian-refugee-children-and-adolescents
#1
Elie G Karam, John A Fayyad, Claudia Farhat, Michael Pluess, Youmna C Haddad, Caroline C Tabet, Lynn Farah, Ronald C Kessler
BACKGROUND: Increased post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) rates have been documented in children exposed to war. However, the contribution of childhood adversities and environmental sensitivity to children's responses to adversities and trauma are still far from settled.AimsTo evaluate the relative roles of war, childhood adversities and sensitivity in the genesis of PTSD. METHOD: Data on childhood adversities and sensitivity was collected from 549 Syrian refugee children in Lebanon...
January 11, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30621797/the-replicability-of-icd-11-complex-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-symptom-networks-in-adults
#2
Matthias Knefel, Thanos Karatzias, Menachem Ben-Ezra, Marylene Cloitre, Brigitte Lueger-Schuster, Andreas Maercker
BACKGROUND: The ICD-11 includes a new disorder, complex post-traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD). A network approach to CPTSD will enable investigation of the structure of the disorder at the symptom level, which may inform the development of treatments that target specific symptoms to accelerate clinical outcomes.AimsWe aimed to test whether similar networks of ICD-11 CPTSD replicate across culturally different samples and to investigate possible differences, using a network analysis. METHOD: We investigated the network models of four nationally representative, community-based cross-sectional samples drawn from Germany, Israel, the UK, and the USA (total N = 6417)...
January 9, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30606275/the-association-between-frontal-lobe-perfusion-and-depressive-symptoms-in-later-life
#3
Robert Briggs, Daniel Carey, Paul Claffey, Triona McNicholas, Louise Newman, Hugh Nolan, Sean P Kennelly, Rose Anne Kenny
BACKGROUND: Deficits in frontal lobe perfusion have been demonstrated in late-life depression; however, studies to date have generally involved small numbers, used neuroimaging rather than bedside testing and have not controlled for important covariates.AimsWe aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and frontal lobe perfusion during standing, in a large cohort of community-dwelling older people. METHOD: Participants aged ≥50 years underwent continuous measurement of orthostatic blood pressure by finometry, and frontal lobe perfusion by near-infrared spectroscopy...
January 4, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30604657/low-prevalence-of-substance-use-in-people-with-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#4
Claudia Vingerhoets, Mathilde J F van Oudenaren, Oswald J N Bloemen, Erik Boot, Esther D A van Duin, Laurens J M Evers, Ania M Fiksinski, Elemi J Breetvelt, Lisa D Palmer, Elfi Vergaelen, Annick Vogels, Carin Meijer, Jan Booij, Liewe de Haan, Ann Swillen, Jacob A S Vorstman, Anne S Bassett, Therese A M J van Amelsvoort
BACKGROUND: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), one of the most common recurrent copy number variant disorders, is associated with dopaminergic abnormalities and increased risk for psychotic disorders.AimsGiven the elevated prevalence of substance use and dopaminergic abnormalities in non-deleted patients with psychosis, we investigated the prevalence of substance use in 22q11DS, compared with that in non-deleted patients with psychosis and matched healthy controls. METHOD: This cross-sectional study involved 434 patients with 22q11DS, 265 non-deleted patients with psychosis and 134 healthy controls...
January 3, 2019: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30567612/a-population-based-study-of-the-frequency-and-predictors-of-induced-abortion-among-women-with-schizophrenia
#5
Hilary K Brown, Cindy-Lee Dennis, Paul Kurdyak, Simone N Vigod
BACKGROUND: Induced abortion is an indicator of access to, and quality of reproductive healthcare, but rates are relatively unknown in women with schizophrenia.AimsWe examined whether women with schizophrenia experience increased induced abortion compared with those without schizophrenia, and identified factors associated with induced abortion risk. METHOD: In a population-based, repeated cross-sectional study (2011-2013), we compared women with and without schizophrenia in Ontario, Canada on rates of induced abortions per 1000 women and per 1000 live births...
December 20, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30567608/effect-of-the-sirt1-gene-on-regional-cortical-grey-matter-density-in-the-han-chinese-population
#6
Shuquan Rao, Na Luo, Jing Sui, Qi Xu, Fuquan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Our previous genome-wide association study (CONVERGE sample) identified significant association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the SIRT1 gene and major depressive disorder (MDD) in Chinese populations.AimsTo investigate whether SNPs across the SIRT1 gene locus affect regional grey matter density in the Han Chinese population. METHOD: T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging was conducted on 92 healthy participants from Eastern China...
December 20, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30566398/augmentation-therapies-for-treatment-resistant-depression-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-corrigendum
#7
Rebecca Strawbridge, Ben Carter, Lindsey Marwood, Borwin Bandelow, Dimosthenis Tsapekos, Viktoriya L Nikolova, Rachael Taylor, Tim Mantingh, Valeria de Angel, Fiona Patrick, Anthony J Cleare, Allan H Young
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 19, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30562158/highlights-of-this-issue-december-2018-erratum
#8
Derek K Tracy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 18, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30560742/cultural-engagement-and-incident-depression-in-older-adults-evidence-from-the-english-longitudinal-study-of-ageing
#9
Daisy Fancourt, Urszula Tymoszuk
BACKGROUND: There is a recognised need for the identification of factors that might be protective against the development of depression in older adults. Over the past decade, there has been growing research demonstrating the effects of cultural engagement (which combines a number of protective factors including social interaction, cognitive stimulation and gentle physical activity) on the treatment of depression, but as yet not on its prevention.AimsTo explore whether cultural engagement in older adults is associated with a reduced risk of developing depression over the following decade...
December 18, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30523772/aiding-the-diagnosis-of-dissociative-identity-disorder-pattern-recognition-study-of-brain-biomarkers
#10
Antje A T S Reinders, Andre F Marquand, Yolanda R Schlumpf, Sima Chalavi, Eline M Vissia, Ellert R S Nijenhuis, Paola Dazzan, Lutz Jäncke, Dick J Veltman
BACKGROUND: A diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder (DID) is controversial and prone to under- and misdiagnosis. From the moment of seeking treatment for symptoms to the time of an accurate diagnosis of DID individuals received an average of four prior other diagnoses and spent 7 years, with reports of up to 12 years, in mental health services.AimTo investigate whether data-driven pattern recognition methodologies applied to structural brain images can provide biomarkers to aid DID diagnosis...
December 7, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30518438/it-is-ethical-to-diagnose-a-public-figure-one-has-not-personally-examined-corrigendum
#11
J Gartner, A Langford, A O'Brien
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 6, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516119/invited-commentary-on%C3%A2-continuity-of-care-in-the-community-for-people-with-severe-mental-illness-does-it-matter
#12
Frank Holloway
SummaryIn this issue, MacDonald et al have used data from the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust electronic patient record to investigate the relationship between service change, routine outcome data and 'continuity of care'. The period they have looked at was one of huge change in the configuration of services and the background to this is explored here.Declaration of interestF.H. was a clinical director of South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and its predecessor organisations from 1991 to 2010...
December 5, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30482255/effects-of-sahaj-samadhi-meditation-on-heart-rate-variability-and-depressive-symptoms-in-patients-with-late-life-depression
#13
Emily Ionson, Jayneel Limbachia, Soham Rej, Klajdi Puka, Ronnie I Newman, Stephen Wetmore, Amer M Burhan, Akshya Vasudev
BACKGROUND: Late-life depression (LLD) is a disabling disorder and antidepressants are ineffective in as many as 60% of cases. Converging evidence shows a strong correlation between LLD and subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease. There is a need for new, well-tolerated, non-pharmacological augmentation interventions that can treat depressive symptoms as well as improve heart rate variability (HRV), an important prognostic marker for development of subsequent cardiovascular disease...
November 28, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30477603/associations-of-adverse-childhood-experiences-and-social-support-with-self-injurious-behaviour-and-suicidality-in-adolescents
#14
Yuhui Wan, Ruoling Chen, Shuangshuang Ma, Danielle McFeeters, Ying Sun, Jiahu Hao, Fangbiao Tao
BACKGROUND: There is little investigation on the interaction effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and social support on non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in community adolescent populations, or gender differences in these effects.AimsTo examine the individual and interaction effects of ACEs and social support on NSSI, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt in adolescents, and explore gender differences. METHOD: A school-based health survey was conducted in three provinces in China between 2013-2014...
November 27, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30477594/altered-functional-connectivity-in-the-fear-network-of-firefighters-with-repeated-traumatic-stress
#15
Hyeonseok Jeong, Shinwon Park, Stephen R Dager, Soo Mee Lim, Suji L Lee, Haejin Hong, Jiyoung Ma, Eunji Ha, Young Sun Hong, Ilhyang Kang, Eun Hee Lee, Sujung Yoon, Jieun E Kim, Jungyoon Kim, In Kyoon Lyoo
BACKGROUND: Firefighters are routinely exposed to various traumatic events and often experience a range of trauma-related symptoms. Although these repeated traumatic exposures rarely progress to the development of post-traumatic stress disorder, firefighters are still considered to be a vulnerable population with regard to trauma.AimsTo investigate how the human brain responds to or compensates for the repeated experience of traumatic stress. METHOD: We included 98 healthy firefighters with repeated traumatic experiences but without any diagnosis of mental illness and 98 non-firefighter healthy individuals without any history of trauma...
November 27, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30472973/associations-between-schizophrenia-genetic-risk-anxiety-disorders-and-manic-hypomanic-episode-in-a-longitudinal-population-cohort-study
#16
Alexander Richards, John Horwood, Joseph Boden, Martin Kennedy, Ruth Sellers, Lucy Riglin, Sumit Mistry, Hannah Jones, Daniel J Smith, Stanley Zammit, Michael Owen, Michael C O'Donovan, Gordon T Harold
BACKGROUND: Studies involving clinically recruited samples show that genetic liability to schizophrenia overlaps with that for several psychiatric disorders including bipolar disorder, major depression and, in a population study, anxiety disorder and negative symptoms in adolescence.AimsWe examined whether, at a population level, association between schizophrenia liability and anxiety disorders continues into adulthood, for specific anxiety disorders and as a group. We explored in an epidemiologically based cohort the nature of adult psychopathology sharing liability to schizophrenia...
November 26, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30468136/economic-evaluation-of-mindfulness-group-therapy-for-patients-with-depression-anxiety-stress-and-adjustment-disorders-compared-with-treatment-as-usual
#17
Sanjib Saha, Johan Jarl, Ulf-G Gerdtham, Kristina Sundquist, Jan Sundquist
BACKGROUND: A randomised controlled trial found that a structured mindfulness group therapy (MGT) programme was as effective as treatment as usual (mostly cognitive-behavioural therapy) for patients with a diagnosis of depression, anxiety or stress and adjustment disorders in Sweden (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01476371).AimsTo perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of MGT compared with treatment as usual from both a healthcare and a societal perspective for the trial duration (8 weeks). METHOD: The costs from a healthcare perspective included treatment as usual, medication and costs for providing MGT...
November 23, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30457060/evidence-for-oestrogen-sensitivity-in-perinatal-depression-pharmacological-sex-hormone-manipulation-study
#18
Divya Mehta, Monika Rex-Haffner, Helle Bach Søndergaard, Anja Pinborg, Elisabeth B Binder, Vibe G Frokjaer
BACKGROUND: Enhanced sensitivity to oestrogen signalling may drive increased risk for depressive symptoms when exposed to peripartum sex-steroid hormone fluctuations.AimTesting if 116 pre-identified sex steroid-responsive transcripts that predicted perinatal depression (PND) translates to a pharmacological model of hormone-induced mood changes. METHOD: We generated longitudinal, genome-wide gene-expression and DNA-methylation data from 60 women exposed to a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) or placebo...
November 20, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30442213/psychiatrists-spirituality-and-religion
#19
Rob Poole, Christopher C H Cook, Robert Higgo
SummaryThe consensus within psychiatry is that patients' religion/spirituality are legitimate topics in assessment and treatment. Religion/spirituality can help people cope with mental illness, but their use as therapeutic tools is controversial. Despite the publication of position statements by national and international psychiatric organisations, there is no clarity over therapeutic boundaries.Declaration of interestR.P. and R.H. are atheists. C.C.H.C. is an ordained Anglican and a past Chair of the Royal College of Psychiatrists Spirituality and Psychiatry Special Interest Group...
November 16, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30442205/structural-changes-in-amygdala-nuclei-hippocampal-subfields-and-cortical-thickness-following-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-treatment-resistant-depression-longitudinal-analysis
#20
Gregor Gryglewski, Pia Baldinger-Melich, René Seiger, Godber Mathis Godbersen, Paul Michenthaler, Manfred Klöbl, Benjamin Spurny, Alexander Kautzky, Thomas Vanicek, Siegfried Kasper, Richard Frey, Rupert Lanzenberger
BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the treatment of choice for severe mental illness including treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Increases in volume of the hippocampus and amygdala following ECT have consistently been reported.AimsTo investigate neuroplastic changes after ECT in specific hippocampal subfields and amygdala nuclei using high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov - NCT02379767). METHOD: MRI scans were carried out in 14 patients (11 women, 46...
November 16, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
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