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British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302703/predictors-and-moderators-of-treatment-outcome-in-patients-receiving-multi-element-psychosocial-intervention-for-early-psychosis-results-from-the-get-up-pragmatic-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
Antonio Lasalvia, Chiara Bonetto, Jacopo Lenzi, Paola Rucci, Laura Iozzino, Massimo Cellini, Carla Comacchio, Doriana Cristofalo, Armando D'Agostino, Giovanni de Girolamo, Katia De Santi, Daniela Ghigi, Emanuela Leuci, Maurizio Miceli, Anna Meneghelli, Francesca Pileggi, Silvio Scarone, Paolo Santonastaso, Stefano Torresani, Sarah Tosato, Angela Veronese, Angelo Fioritti, Mirella Ruggeri
BackgroundThe GET UP multi-element psychosocial intervention proved to be superior to treatment as usual in improving outcomes in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP). However, to guide treatment decisions, information on which patients may benefit more from the intervention is warranted.AimsTo identify patients' characteristics associated with (a) a better treatment response regardless of treatment type (non-specific predictors), and (b) a better response to the specific treatment provided (moderators)...
March 16, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302702/predictive-accuracy-of-risk-scales-following-self-harm-multicentre-prospective-cohort-study
#2
Leah Quinlivan, Jayne Cooper, Declan Meehan, Damien Longson, John Potokar, Tom Hulme, Jennifer Marsden, Fiona Brand, Kezia Lange, Elena Riseborough, Lisa Page, Chris Metcalfe, Linda Davies, Rory O'Connor, Keith Hawton, David Gunnell, Nav Kapur
BackgroundScales are widely used in psychiatric assessments following self-harm. Robust evidence for their diagnostic use is lacking.AimsTo evaluate the performance of risk scales (Manchester Self-Harm Rule, ReACT Self-Harm Rule, SAD PERSONS scale, Modified SAD PERSONS scale, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale); and patient and clinician estimates of risk in identifying patients who repeat self-harm within 6 months.MethodA multisite prospective cohort study was conducted of adults aged 18 years and over referred to liaison psychiatry services following self-harm...
March 16, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302701/prevalence-of-antenatal-and-postnatal-anxiety-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
Cindy-Lee Dennis, Kobra Falah-Hassani, Rahman Shiri
BackgroundMaternal anxiety negatively influences child outcomes. Reliable estimates have not been established because of varying published prevalence rates.AimsTo establish summary estimates for the prevalence of maternal anxiety in the antenatal and postnatal periods.MethodWe searched multiple databases including MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO to identify studies published up to January 2016 with data on the prevalence of antenatal or postnatal anxiety. Data were extracted from published reports and any missing information was requested from investigators...
March 16, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302700/predicting-suicidal-behaviours-using-clinical-instruments-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-positive-predictive-values-for-risk-scales
#4
REVIEW
Gregory Carter, Allison Milner, Katie McGill, Jane Pirkis, Navneet Kapur, Matthew J Spittal
BackgroundPrediction of suicidal behaviour is an aspirational goal for clinicians and policy makers; with patients classified as 'high risk' to be preferentially allocated treatment. Clinical usefulness requires an adequate positive predictive value (PPV).AimsTo identify studies of predictive instruments and to calculate PPV estimates for suicidal behaviours.MethodA systematic review identified studies of predictive instruments. A series of meta-analyses produced pooled estimates of PPV for suicidal behaviours...
March 16, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302699/psychological-and-psychosocial-interventions-for-negative-symptoms-in-psychosis-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Danyael Lutgens, Genevieve Gariepy, Ashok Malla
BackgroundNegative symptoms observed in patients with psychotic disorders undermine quality of life and functioning. Antipsychotic medications have a limited impact. Psychological and psychosocial interventions, with medication, are recommended. However, evidence for the effectiveness of specific non-biological interventions warrants detailed examination.AimsTo conduct a meta-analytic and systematic review of the literature on the effectiveness of non-biological treatments for negative symptoms in psychotic disorders...
March 16, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302698/relationship-between-national-mental-health-expenditure-and-quality-of-care-in-longer-term-psychiatric-and-social-care-facilities-in-europe-cross-sectional-study
#6
Tatiana Taylor Salisbury, Helen Killaspy, Michael King
BackgroundIt is not known whether increased mental health expenditure is associated with better outcomes.AimsTo estimate the association between national mental health expenditure and (a) quality of longer-term mental healthcare, (b) service users' ratings of that care in eight European countries.MethodNational mental health expenditure (per cent of health budget spent on mental health) was calculated from international sources. Multilevel models were developed to assess associations with quality of care and service user experiences of care using ratings of 171 facility managers and 1429 service users...
March 16, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254962/ketamine-as-the-anaesthetic-for-electroconvulsive-therapy-the-kanect-randomised-controlled-trial
#7
Gordon Fernie, James Currie, Jennifer S Perrin, Caroline A Stewart, Virginica Anderson, Daniel M Bennett, Steven Hay, Ian C Reid
BackgroundKetamine has recently become an agent of interest as an acute treatment for severe depression and as the anaesthetic for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Subanaesthetic doses result in an acute reduction in depression severity while evidence is equivocal for this antidepressant effect with anaesthetic or adjuvant doses. Recent systematic reviews call for high-quality evidence from further randomised controlled trials (RCTs).AimsTo establish if ketamine as the anaesthetic for ECT results in fewer ECT treatments, improvements in depression severity ratings and less memory impairment than the standard anaesthetic...
March 2, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254961/impact-of-pre-admission-depression-on-mortality-following-myocardial-infarction
#8
Jens Sundbøll, Morten Schmidt, Kasper Adelborg, Lars Pedersen, Hans Erik Bøtker, Poul Videbech, Henrik Toft Sørensen
BackgroundThe prognostic impact of previous depression on myocardial infarction survival remains poorly understood.AimsTo examine the association between depression and all-cause mortality following myocardial infarction.MethodUsing Danish medical registries, we conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study. We included all patients with first-time myocardial infarction (1995-2014) and identified previous depression as either a depression diagnosis or use of antidepressants. We used Cox regression to compute adjusted mortality rate ratios (aMRRs) with 95% confidence intervals...
March 2, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254960/sexual-orientation-and-suicidal-behaviour-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
A Miranda-Mendizábal, P Castellví, O Parés-Badell, J Almenara, I Alonso, M J Blasco, A Cebrià, A Gabilondo, M Gili, C Lagares, J A Piqueras, M Roca, J Rodríguez-Marín, T Rodríguez, V Soto-Sanz, G Vilagut, J Alonso
BackgroundResearch suggests that lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adolescents have a higher risk of suicidal behaviours than their heterosexual peers, but little is known about specific risk factors.AimsTo assess sexual orientation as a risk factor for suicidal behaviours, and to identify other risk factors among LGB adolescents and young adults.MethodA systematic search was made of six databases up to June 2015, including a grey literature search. Population-based longitudinal studies considering non-clinical populations aged 12-26 years and assessing being LGB as a risk factor for suicidal behaviour compared with being heterosexual, or evaluating risk factors for suicidal behaviour within LGB populations, were included...
March 2, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254959/telephone-supported-computerised-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-reeact-2-large-scale-pragmatic-randomised-controlled-trial
#10
Simon Gilbody, Sally Brabyn, Karina Lovell, David Kessler, Thomas Devlin, Lucy Smith, Ricardo Araya, Michael Barkham, Peter Bower, Cindy Cooper, Sarah Knowles, Elizabeth Littlewood, David A Richards, Debbie Tallon, David White, Gillian Worthy
BackgroundComputerised cognitive-behavioural therapy (cCBT) for depression has the potential to be efficient therapy but engagement is poor in primary care trials.AimsWe tested the benefits of adding telephone support to cCBT.MethodWe compared telephone-facilitated cCBT (MoodGYM) (n = 187) to minimally supported cCBT (MoodGYM) (n = 182) in a pragmatic randomised trial (trial registration: ISRCTN55310481). Outcomes were depression severity (Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD)-7) and somatoform complaints (PHQ-15) at 4 and 12 months...
March 2, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254958/quetiapine-v-lithium-in-the-maintenance-phase-following-a-first-episode-of-mania-randomised-controlled-trial
#11
Michael Berk, Rothanthi Daglas, Orwa Dandash, Murat Yücel, Lisa Henry, Karen Hallam, Craig Macneil, Melissa Hasty, Christos Pantelis, Brendan P Murphy, Linda Kader, Saji Damodaran, Michael T H Wong, Philippe Conus, Aswin Ratheesh, Patrick D McGorry, Sue M Cotton
BackgroundLithium and quetiapine are considered standard maintenance agents for bipolar disorder yet it is unclear how their efficacy compares with each other.AimsTo investigate the differential effect of lithium and quetiapine on symptoms of depression, mania, general functioning, global illness severity and quality of life in patients with recently stabilised first-episode mania.MethodMaintenance trial of patients with first-episode mania stabilised on a combination of lithium and quetiapine, subsequently randomised to lithium or quetiapine monotherapy (up to 800 mg/day) and followed up for 1 year...
March 2, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209592/comparison-of-diagnostic-performance-of-two-question-screen-and-15-depression-screening-instruments-for-older-adults-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Kelvin K F Tsoi, Joyce Y C Chan, Hoyee W Hirai, Samuel Y S Wong
BackgroundScreening for depression in older adults is recommended.AimsTo evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the Two-Question Screen for older adults and compare it with other screening instruments for depression.MethodWe undertook a literature search for studies assessing the diagnostic performance of depression screening instruments in older adults. Combined diagnostic accuracy including sensitivity and specificity were the primary outcomes. Potential risks of bias and the quality of studies were also assessed...
February 16, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209591/psychosocial-therapies-for-the-adjunctive-treatment-of-bipolar-disorder-in-adults-network-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Mary Lou Chatterton, Emily Stockings, Michael Berk, Jan J Barendregt, Rob Carter, Cathrine Mihalopoulos
BackgroundFew trials have compared psychosocial therapies for people with bipolar affective disorder, and conventional meta-analyses provided limited comparisons between therapies.AimsTo combine evidence for the efficacy of psychosocial interventions used as adjunctive treatment of bipolar disorder in adults, using network meta-analysis (NMA).MethodSystematic review identified studies and NMA was used to pool data on relapse to mania or depression, medication adherence, and symptom scales for mania, depression and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)...
February 16, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153930/psychological-interventions-for-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-and-depression-in-young-survivors-of-mass-violence-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Nexhmedin Morina, Mina Malek, Angela Nickerson, Richard A Bryant
BACKGROUND: The majority of survivors of mass violence live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). AIMS: To synthesise empirical findings for psychological interventions for children and adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or depression in LMICs affected by mass violence. METHOD: Randomised controlled trials with children and adolescents with symptoms of PTSD and/or depression in LMICs were identified. Overall, 21 812 records were found through July 2016 in the Medline, PsycINFO and PILOTS databases; 21 met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed according to recommended guidelines...
February 2, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153928/association-between-mental-health-related-stigma-and-active-help-seeking-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
Nina Schnyder, Radoslaw Panczak, Nicola Groth, Frauke Schultze-Lutter
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders create high individual and societal costs and burden, partly because help-seeking is often delayed or completely avoided. Stigma related to mental disorders or mental health services is regarded as a main reason for insufficient help-seeking. AIMS: To estimate the impact of four stigma types (help-seeking attitudes and personal, self and perceived public stigma) on active help-seeking in the general population. METHOD: A systematic review of three electronic databases was followed by random effect meta-analyses according to the stigma types...
February 2, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153927/neuroplastic-changes-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-undergoing-cognitive-remediation-triple-blind-trial
#16
Ian S Ramsay, Tasha M Nienow, Matthew P Marggraf, Angus W MacDonald
BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have shown cognitive improvements following cognitive remediation, but the neuroplastic changes that support these processes are not fully understood. AIMS: To use a triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial to examine neural activation before and after cognitive remediation or a computer skills training (CST) placebo (trial registration: NCT00995553)). METHOD: Twenty-seven participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging before and after being randomised to either cognitive remediation intervention or CST...
February 2, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104739/relationship-between-prescribed-psychotropic-medications-and-co-ingested-alcohol-in-intentional-self-poisonings
#17
Kate M Chitty, Timothy Dobbins, Andrew H Dawson, Geoffrey K Isbister, Nicholas A Buckley
BACKGROUND: Acute alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for suicide, therefore investigating factors associated with alcohol-related self-harm warrant attention. AIMS: To investigate the influence of prescribed psychotropic medications on the odds of co-ingesting alcohol preceding or during intentional efforts to self-poison. METHOD: A cross-sectional analysis of consecutive hospital presentations following intentional self-poisoning was conducted...
January 19, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104738/feasibility-acceptability-and-clinical-utility-of-the-cultural-formulation-interview-mixed-methods-results-from-the-dsm-5-international-field-trial
#18
Roberto Lewis-Fernández, Neil Krishan Aggarwal, Peter C Lam, Hanga Galfalvy, Mitchell G Weiss, Laurence J Kirmayer, Vasudeo Paralikar, Smita N Deshpande, Esperanza Díaz, Andel V Nicasio, Marit Boiler, Renato D Alarcón, Hans Rohlof, Simon Groen, Rob C J van Dijk, Sushrut Jadhav, Sanjeev Sarmukaddam, David Ndetei, Monica Z Scalco, Kavoos Bassiri, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Hendry Ton, Joseph Westermeyer, Johann M Vega-Dienstmaier
BACKGROUND: There is a need for clinical tools to identify cultural issues in diagnostic assessment. AIMS: To assess the feasibility, acceptability and clinical utility of the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) in routine clinical practice. METHOD: Mixed-methods evaluation of field trial data from six countries. The CFI was administered to diagnostically diverse psychiatric out-patients during a diagnostic interview. In post-evaluation sessions, patients and clinicians completed debriefing qualitative interviews and Likert-scale questionnaires...
January 19, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104737/cerebral-blood-flow-alterations-specific-to-auditory-verbal-hallucinations-in-schizophrenia
#19
Chuanjun Zhuo, Jiajia Zhu, Wen Qin, Hongru Qu, Xiaolei Ma, Chunshui Yu
BACKGROUND: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) have been associated with deficits in auditory and speech-related networks. However, the resting-state cerebral blood flow (CBF) alterations specific to AVHs in schizophrenia remain unknown. AIMS: To explore AVH-related CBF alterations in individuals with schizophrenia. METHOD: In total, 35 individuals with schizophrenia with AVHs, 41 individuals with schizophrenia without AVHs and 50 controls underwent arterial spin labelling magnetic resonance imaging...
January 19, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104736/pharmacological-treatment-and-risk-of-psychiatric-hospital-admission-in-bipolar-disorder
#20
Erik Joas, Alina Karanti, Jie Song, Guy M Goodwin, Paul Lichtenstein, Mikael Landén
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have examined the efficacy of drugs to prevent relapse in patients with bipolar disorder, however, their design often limits generalisation to routine clinical practice. AIMS: To estimate the effectiveness of drugs used for maintenance treatment in bipolar disorder. METHOD: We used national registers to identify 35 022 individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder and information on lithium, valproate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, quetiapine and olanzapine treatment from 2006 to 2009...
January 19, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
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