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British Journal of Ophthalmology

Nicole Carnt, Jeremy J Hoffman, Seema Verma, Scott Hau, Cherry F Radford, Darwin C Minassian, John K G Dart
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a chronic debilitating corneal infection principally affecting contact lens (CL) users. Studies were designed to test claims that the UK incidence may have increased in 2012-2014 and to evaluate potential causes. METHODS: Annualised incidence data were collected from January 1984 to December 2016. Case-control study subjects were recruited between 14 April 2011 and 05 June 2017. Reusable CL users with AK were recruited retrospectively and prospectively...
September 19, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Dipesh E Patel, Phillippa M Cumberland, Bronwen C Walters, Mario Cortina-Borja, Jugnoo S Rahi
AIMS: We compared feasibility, quality and outcomes of visual field (VF) testing in children with neuro-ophthalmic disease between the discontinued 'gold-standard' Goldmann and Octopus perimeters. METHODS: Children with neuro-ophthalmic disease, attending Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, were assessed using standardised protocols by one examiner in a single sitting, using Goldmann and Octopus kinetic perimetry. Outputs were classified to compare severity of loss and defect type...
September 19, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Jill Elizabeth Keeffe, Robert J Casson, Konrad Pesudovs, Hugh R Taylor, Maria Vittoria Cicinelli, Aditi Das, Seth R Flaxman, Jost B Jonas, John H Kempen, Janet Leasher, Hans Limburg, Kovin Naidoo, Alexander J Silvester, Gretchen A Stevens, Nina Tahhan, Tien Yin Wong, Serge Resnikoff, Rupert R A Bourne
BACKGROUND: To assess prevalence and causes of vision impairment in South-east Asia and Oceania regions from 1990 to 2015 and to forecast the figures for 2020. METHODS: Based on a systematic review of medical literature, prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity (PVA) <3/60 in the better eye), moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; PVA <6/18 but ≥3/60), mild vision impairment (PVA <6/12 but ≥6/18) and near vision impairment (>N5 or N8 in the presence of normal vision) were estimated for 1990, 2010, 2015 and 2020...
September 12, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Janet L Leasher, Tasanee Braithwaite, João M Furtado, Seth R Flaxman, Van Charles Lansingh, Juan Carlos Silva, Serge Resnikoff, Hugh R Taylor, Rupert R A Bourne
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness and vision impairment for distance and near in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) in 2015 and to forecast trends to 2020. METHODS: A meta-analysis from a global systematic review of 283 cross-sectional, population-representative studies from published and unpublished sources from 1980 to 2014 in the Global Vision Database included 17 published and 6 unpublished studies from LAC. RESULTS: In 2015, across LAC, age-standardised prevalence was 0...
September 12, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Rim Kahloun, Moncef Khairallah, Serge Resnikoff, Maria Vittoria Cicinelli, Seth R Flaxman, Aditi Das, Jost B Jonas, Jill E Keeffe, John H Kempen, Janet Leasher, Hans Limburg, Kovin Naidoo, Konrad Pesudovs, Alexander J Silvester, Nina Tahhan, Hugh R Taylor, Tien Yin Wong, Rupert R A Bourne
BACKGROUND: To assess the prevalence and causes of vision impairment in North Africa and the Middle East (NAME) from 1990 to 2015 and to forecast projections for 2020. METHODS: Based on a systematic review of medical literature, the prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity (PVA) <3/60 in the better eye), moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; PVA <6/18 but ≥3/60) and mild vision impairment (PVA <6/12 but ≥6/18) was estimated for 2015 and 2020...
September 12, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Shweta Agarwal, Geetha Iyer, Bhaskar Srinivasan, Saket Benurwar, Mamta Agarwal, Niveditha Narayanan, Meena Lakshmipathy, N Radhika, Rama Rajagopal, S Krishnakumar, Lily Therese K
PURPOSE: To report clinical profile and compare management options for Pythium keratitis. METHOD: Retrospective interventional study of 46 patients diagnosed as Pythium keratitis by PCR DNA sequencing from January 2014 to July 2017. Interventions were categorised into medical management (MM) (topical azithromycin and linezolid with oral azithromycin at presentation), surgery (S) (therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty, TPK), surgical adjunct (SA) (cryotherapy±alcohol with TPK) and medical adjunct (MA) (MM after TPK)...
September 11, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Somsanguan Ausayakhun, Michael Yen, Choeng Jirawison, Sakarin Ausayakhun, Preeyanuch Khunsongkiet, Prattana Leenasirimakul, Siripim Kamphaengkham, Blake M Snyder, David Heiden, Gary N Holland, Todd P Margolis, Jeremy D Keenan
AIMS: To determine if early dilated fundus examination for cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis leads to better visual outcomes in areas with limited HIV care, where patients may have long-standing retinitis before they are diagnosed with HIV. METHODS: Twenty-four eyes of 17 patients with CMV retinitis who were seen at an urban HIV clinic in Chiang Mai, Thailand, were included in this retrospective cohort study. Participants were divided into two groups based on the amount of time from the first documented CD4 count below 100 cells/mm3 to the first eye examination for CMV retinitis...
September 11, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Gregory P Van Stavern, Ling Bei, Ying-Bo Shui, Julie Huecker, Mae Gordon
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We wished to determine whether the pupillary light reaction can differentiate preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects from normal ageing controls. We performed a prospective study evaluating the pupillary light reaction in a cohort of well-characterised subjects with preclinical AD versus normal ageing controls. METHODS: We recruited 57 subjects from our institution's Memory and Aging Project, part of our Alzheimer's Disease Research Center...
September 11, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Chun-Mei Hsueh, Jing-Hwa Wey, Jong-Shiuan Yeh, Chien-Hua Wu, Tsan-Hon Liou, Kwang-Hwa Chang
BACKGROUND/AIM: To estimate the incidence and risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), including heart failure and ischaemic heart disease, among middle-aged people with a visual disability (VD). METHODS: We used a national health insurance research database to conduct a population-based cohort study from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2013. Patients with VD aged 35~65 years were recruited. For each VD patient, five age-matched, sex-matched and comorbidity-matched patients were randomly selected and recruited as controls...
September 10, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
David Heiden, NiNi Tun, Frank N Smithuis, Jeremy David Keenan, Catherine E Oldenburg, Gary N Holland, W Lawrence Drew
Patients with AIDS-related cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis receiving combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), but not specific anti-CMV therapy, consistently showed active retinitis for several months. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of CMV retinitis may have severe consequences. Patients first entering care with advanced HIV infection and vulnerability to reactivation of latent CMV infection should be screened immediately for CMV retinitis by dilated indirect ophthalmoscopy and treated with specific anti-CMV therapy without delay, in addition to cART...
September 8, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Qilin Wang, Juanjuan Wang, Xingyan Lin, Kwok Ho Lui, Suiting Chang, Rouxi Zhou, Dennis Shun-Chiu Lam
AIM: To establish a rabbit model of chronic ocular hypertension (OHT) by limbal buckling. METHODS: Eighteen New Zealand White rabbits were involved and divided into three groups. A latex encircling band of 20, 25 or 35 mm was implanted behind the limbus in the right eye of each animal. The intraocular pressure (IOP) was monitored for 8 weeks, after which optic nerve damage was evaluated by fundus photography, optical coherence tomography (OCT) retrograde labelling and histology...
September 8, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Maki Inoue-Yanagimachi, Noriko Himori, Kota Sato, Taiki Kokubun, Toshifumi Asano, Yukihiro Shiga, Satoru Tsuda, Hiroshi Kunikata, Toru Nakazawa
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We determined the relationship between tissue mean blur rate (MT) and mitochondrial dysfunction, represented by the mitochondrial/nuclear DNA (mtDNA/nDNA) ratio. We also investigated the usefulness of these biomarkers. METHODS: We assessed ocular blood flow in 123 eyes of 123 patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and 37 control eyes of 37 healthy subjects by measuring MT in the optic nerve head with laser speckle flowgraphy. We measured mtDNA and nDNA with PCR, calculated the mtDNA/nDNA ratio and compared this ratio with MT using Spearman's rank test...
September 6, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Alexander C Day, Mukesh Dhariwal, Michael S Keith, Frank Ender, Caridad Perez Vives, Cristiana Miglio, Lu Zou, David F Anderson
PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence and severity of preoperative and postoperative astigmatism in patients with cataract in the UK. SETTING: Data from 8 UK National Health Service ophthalmology clinics using MediSoft electronic medical records (EMRs). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Eyes from patients aged ≥65 years undergoing cataract surgery were analysed. For all eyes, preoperative (corneal) astigmatism was evaluated using the most recent keratometry measure within 2 years prior to surgery...
September 6, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Obinna Ugwuegbu, Atsuro Uchida, Rishi P Singh, Lucas Beven, Ming Hu, Stephanie Kaiser, Sunil K Srivastava, Justis P Ehlers
BACKGROUND: To quantitatively assess outer retinal layers in eyes with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) toxicity. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was performed to identify eyes with HCQ retinopathy/toxicity at Cleveland Clinic. A clinical diagnosis of HCQ retinopathy was made based on clinical and imaging features including the presence of parafoveal ellipsoid zone (EZ) loss on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and visual field defects. All participants underwent macular cube scan using the Cirrus HD-OCT (Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany)...
September 6, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Lindsay A McGrath, Adam Meeney, Zanna I Currie, Hardeep Singh Mudhar, Jennifer H Tan
AIMS: The aim is to study staged periocular basal cell carcinoma (BCC) excision in a tertiary oculoplastic referral centre in Sheffield, UK. In particular, we examined patients with close or positive margins and no tumour seen on re-excision to identify demographics and tumour characteristics in this population. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records of 437 cases of staged periocular BCC excisions over a 10-year period (2007-2017) was carried out. Patients had surgical excision with 3 mm clinically clear margins...
September 4, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Irmela Mantel, Marta Zola, Sophie De Massougnes, Ali Dirani, Ciara Bergin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To investigate the factors associated with macular atrophy (MA) growth rates in neovascular age-related macular degeneration treated with either ranibizumab or aflibercept. METHODS: We obtained data from two identical prospective studies using ranibizumab or aflibercept under observe-and-plan variable dosing regimens. We analysed eyes that presented MA within 2 years. After applying square root transformations to MA sizes, we calculated MA growth rate from baseline to the year 2 endpoint and used univariate and multivariate analyses to detect ocular and treatment factors associated with the MA growth rate...
August 30, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Hamid Ahmadieh, Ramin Nourinia, Ali Hafezi-Moghadam, Hamideh Sabbaghi, Shintaro Nakao, Souska Zandi, Mehdi Yaseri, Zahra Tofighi, Shadi Akbarian
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To compare the efficacy of combined intravitreal injection of bevacizumab and a Rho-kinase inhibitor, fasudil (intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB)/intravitreal fasudil (IVF)), with IVB alone for centre-involving diabetic macular oedema (DME). METHODS: In this prospective randomised clinical trial, 44 eyes with centre-involving DME were randomised into two groups. The combined group received three consecutive injections of IVB (1.25 mg) and IVF (50 µM/L) monthly, while the monotherapy group received only one IVB (1...
August 27, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Jaya B Kumar, Karen M Wai, Justin P Ehlers, Rishi P Singh, Aleksandra V Rachitskaya
AIMS: To investigate the relationship between subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT), visual acuity (VA), optical coherence tomography (OCT) features and total anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatments to determine whether SFCT serves as a prognostic factor in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: This is a retrospective case series of 62 consecutive treatment-naive patients with exudative AMD followed for 1 year and treated with treat-and-extend or pro re nata anti-VEGF protocols...
August 27, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Ana V Torbidoni, Claudia Sampor, Viviana E Laurent, Rosario Aschero, Saipriya Iyer, Jorge Rossi, Daniel Alderete, Daniel F Alonso, Irene Szijan, Guillermo L Chantada
Trilateral retinoblastoma (TRb) presents a management challenge, since intracranial tumours are seldom times resectable and quickly disseminate. However, there are no risk factors to predict the final outcome in each patient. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate minimal disseminated disease (MDD) in the bone marrow (BM) and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at diagnosis and during follow-up and reviewing its potential impact in the outcome of patients with TRb. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We evaluated MDD in five patients with TRb, detecting the mRNA of CRX and/or GD2 , in samples from BM and CSF, obtained at diagnosis, follow-up and relapse...
August 27, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Fehim Esen, Rabia Ergelen, Fatma Alibaz-Öner, Gülce Çelik, Haner Direskeneli, Haluk Kazokoğlu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Takayasu arteritis (TAK) is a chronic granulomatous vasculitis that can lead to ischaemic ocular complications. We aimed to document ocular complications, ocular blood flow and the association of them with systemic clinical findings in TAK. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We included 65 patients with TAK (60 female, 5 male, mean age: 41.8±12.9 years) and 30 healthy subjects (30 female, mean age: 39.0±7.5 years) in this study. All of the patients had a detailed rheumatological and ophthalmological evaluation...
August 27, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
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