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Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology

Michelle A H Sonneveld, Oscar H Franco, M Arfan Ikram, Albert Hofman, Maryam Kavousi, Moniek P M de Maat, Frank W G Leebeek
OBJECTIVE: Von Willebrand Factor (VWF) is a plasma protein that plays a major role in platelet adhesion and aggregation. Large VWF multimers are cleaved into smaller, less coagulant forms by the metalloprotease ADAMTS13 (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease with ThromboSpondin motif repeats 13). Previous studies have shown that high VWF and low ADAMTS13 levels are associated with cardiovascular disease, but whether these factors are associated with mortality is unclear. Our aim is to establish the association between VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) levels, ADAMTS13 activity, and mortality...
October 13, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Kerstin Kick, Katharina Nekolla, Markus Rehberg, Angelika M Vollmar, Stefan Zahler
OBJECTIVE: Cell-matrix interactions are crucial for regulating cellular activities, such as migration. This is of special importance for morphogenic processes, such as angiogenesis (the development of new blood vessels). Most of our understanding of cell migration relies on 2-dimensional (2D) experiments. However, the awareness that 3D settings might elicit different results has increased. Knowledge about endothelial cell (EC) behavior in 3D environments and the influence of matrix composition on EC migration, in particular, is still limited...
October 13, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Tsuyoshi Nishiguchi, Atsushi Tanaka, Akira Taruya, Hiroki Emori, Yuichi Ozaki, Makoto Orii, Yasutsugu Shiono, Kunihiro Shimamura, Takeyoshi Kameyama, Takashi Yamano, Tomoyuki Yamaguchi, Yoshiki Matsuo, Yasushi Ino, Takashi Kubo, Takeshi Hozumi, Yasushi Hayashi, Takashi Akasaka
OBJECTIVE: Early clinical presentation of ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction affects patient management. Although local inflammatory activities are involved in the onset of MI, little is known about their impact on early clinical presentation. This study aimed to investigate whether local inflammatory activities affect early clinical presentation. APPROACH AND RESULTS: This study comprised 94 and 17 patients with MI (STEMI, 69; non-STEMI, 25) and stable angina pectoris, respectively...
September 29, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Stefan Coassin, Salome Friedel, Anna Köttgen, Claudia Lamina, Florian Kronenberg
OBJECTIVE: A recent observational study with almost 2 million men reported an association between low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and worse kidney function. The causality of this association would be strongly supported if genetic variants associated with HDL cholesterol were also associated with kidney function. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We used 68 genetic variants (single-nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) associated with HDL cholesterol in genome-wide association studies including >188 000 subjects and tested their association with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using summary statistics from another genome-wide association studies of kidney function including ≤133 413 subjects...
September 29, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Zhongji Liao, Joseph M Cantor
OBJECTIVE: CD98 regulates integrin signaling and is critical for tumor cell proliferation. It is also expressed on endothelial cells (EC), but its role in angiogenesis is unclear. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We used specific genetic targeting and antibody blockade approaches to examine the function of CD98 in EC proliferation, blood vessel growth, and tumor angiogenesis. It is upregulated on angiogenic ECs, and EC-specific deletion of CD98 in mice inhibited tumor growth, retinal angiogenesis, and EC proliferation...
September 29, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Irena Odri Komazec, Anna Posod, Martin Schwienbacher, Maria Resch, Ulrike Pupp Peglow, Stefan Kiechl, Daniela Baumgartner, Ursula Kiechl-Kohlendorfer
OBJECTIVE: Preterm birth predisposes to the development of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. The aim of this study was to characterize elastic properties of the aorta at preschool age and test the hypothesis that prematurity is associated with decreased aortic distensibility and increased stiffness, both of which are predictors of increased cardiovascular risk. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In an observational study of 76 five- to seven-year-old children born at a gestational age <32 weeks and 79 term-born controls, elastic parameters of the ascending and descending abdominal aorta were determined noninvasively by means of M mode echocardiographic tracings and calculated using computerized wall contour analysis...
September 22, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Steve Varvel, Joseph P McConnell, Sotirios Tsimikas
OBJECTIVE: Elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a causal, independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and aortic stenosis. We aimed to define the prevalence and patient thresholds of elevated Lp(a) levels in the United States. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We analyzed Lp(a) levels in 532 359 subjects from 2 data sets: (1) in 531 144 subjects from a referral laboratory and (2) in 915 patients from a tertiary referral center. Lp(a) mass levels were measured by immunoturbidometric assays in both centers and expressed as mg/dL...
September 22, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Yan Ji, Zhen Weng, Philip Fish, Neha Goyal, Mao Luo, Samantha P Myears, Tammy L Strawn, Bysani Chandrasekar, Jianbo Wu, William P Fay
OBJECTIVE: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a serine protease inhibitor that promotes and inhibits cell migration, plays a complex and important role in adverse vascular remodeling. Little is known about the effects of pharmacological PAI-1 inhibitors, an emerging drug class, on migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs), crucial mediators of vascular remodeling. We investigated the effects of PAI-039 (tiplaxtinin), a specific PAI-1 inhibitor, on SMC and EC migration in vitro and vascular remodeling in vivo...
September 22, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Basil Schaheen, Emily A Downs, Vlad Serbulea, Camila C P Almenara, Michael Spinosa, Gang Su, Yunge Zhao, Prasad Srikakulapu, Cherié Butts, Coleen A McNamara, Norbert Leitinger, Gilbert R Upchurch, Akshaya K Meher, Gorav Ailawadi
OBJECTIVE: B-cell depletion therapy is widely used for treatment of cancers and autoimmune diseases. B cells are abundant in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA); however, it is unknown whether B-cell depletion therapy affects AAA growth. Using experimental models of murine AAA, we aim to examine the effect of B-cell depletion on AAA formation. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Wild-type or apolipoprotein E-knockout mice were treated with mouse monoclonal anti-CD20 or control antibodies and subjected to an elastase perfusion or angiotensin II infusion model to induce AAA, respectively...
September 15, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Wei-Wei Lu, Li-Xin Jia, Xian-Qiang Ni, Lei Zhao, Jin-Rui Chang, Jin-Sheng Zhang, Yue-Long Hou, Yi Zhu, You-Fei Guan, Yan-Rong Yu, Jie Du, Chao-Shu Tang, Yong-Fen Qi
OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Intermedin (IMD) is a regulator of oxidative stress. Here, we investigated whether IMD reduces AAA by inhibiting oxidative stress. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In angiotensin II-induced ApoE(-) (/-) mouse and CaCl2-induced C57BL/6J mouse model of AAA, IMD1- 53 significantly reduced the incidence of AAA and maximal aortic diameter. Ultrasonography, hematoxylin, and eosin staining and Verhoeff-van Gieson staining showed that IMD1- 53 significantly decreased the enlarged aortas and elastic lamina degradation induced by angiotensin II or CaCl2...
September 15, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Rocco Vergallo, Shiro Uemura, Tsunenari Soeda, Yoshiyasu Minami, Jin-Man Cho, Daniel S Ong, Aaron D Aguirre, Lei Gao, Luigi M Biasucci, Filippo Crea, Bo Yu, Hang Lee, Chong-Jin Kim, Ik-Kyung Jang
OBJECTIVE: Plaque rupture may be the local expression of a widespread coronary instability. This study aimed to investigate: (1) the prevalence and characteristics of nonculprit plaque rupture; (2) the pancoronary atherosclerotic phenotype in patients with and without nonculprit plaque rupture; and (3) the prevalence and predictors of multiple plaque ruptures. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Six hundred and seventy-five nonculprit plaques from 261 patients (34 acute myocardial infarction, 73 unstable angina pectoris, and 154 stable angina pectoris) were analyzed by 3-vessel optical coherence tomography...
September 15, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Huanhuan He, Julia J Mack, Esra Güç, Carmen M Warren, Mario Leonardo Squadrito, Witold W Kilarski, Caroline Baer, Ryan D Freshman, Austin I McDonald, Safiyyah Ziyad, Melody A Swartz, Michele De Palma, M Luisa Iruela-Arispe
OBJECTIVE: Perivascular cells, including pericytes, macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and other specialized cell types, like podocytes, participate in various aspects of vascular function. However, aside from the well-established roles of smooth muscle cells and pericytes, the contributions of other vascular-associated cells are poorly understood. Our goal was to ascertain the function of perivascular macrophages in adult tissues under nonpathological conditions. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We combined confocal microscopy, in vivo cell depletion, and in vitro assays to investigate the contribution of perivascular macrophages to vascular function...
September 15, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Ayesha A Baig, Elizabeth J Haining, Eva Geuss, Sarah Beck, Frauke Swieringa, Podchanart Wanitchakool, Michael K Schuhmann, David Stegner, Karl Kunzelmann, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Johan W M Heemskerk, Attila Braun, Bernhard Nieswandt
OBJECTIVE: It is known that both platelets and coagulation strongly influence infarct progression after ischemic stroke, but the mechanisms and their interplay are unknown. Our aim was to assess the contribution of the procoagulant platelet surface, and thus platelet-driven thrombin generation, to the progression of thromboinflammation in the ischemic brain. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We present the characterization of a novel platelet and megakaryocyte-specific TMEM16F (anoctamin 6) knockout mouse...
September 15, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Behnam Sabayan, Mark A van Buchem, Sigurdur Sigurdsson, Qian Zhang, Osorio Meirelles, Tamara B Harris, Vilmundur Gudnason, Andrew E Arai, Lenore J Launer
OBJECTIVE: Pathologies in the heart-brain axis might, independently or in combination, accelerate the process of brain parenchymal loss. We aimed to investigate the association of serum N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), as a marker of cardiac dysfunction, and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), as a marker of carotid atherosclerosis burden, with structural brain changes. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In the longitudinal population-based AGES-Reykjavik study, we included 2430 subjects (mean age, 74...
September 8, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Thorsten Derlin, Johannes Thiele, Desiree Weiberg, James T Thackeray, Klaus Püschel, Hans-Jürgen Wester, Lukas Aguirre Dávila, Axel Larena-Avellaneda, Günter Daum, Frank M Bengel, Udo Schumacher
OBJECTIVE: Intraplaque neovascularization contributes to the progression and rupture of atherosclerotic lesions. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) is strongly expressed by endothelial cells of tumor neovasculature and plays a major role in hypoxia-induced neovascularization in rodent models of benign diseases. We hypothesized that GCPII expression may play a role in intraplaque neovascularization and may represent a target for imaging of atherosclerotic lesions. The aim of this study was to determine frequency, pattern, and clinical correlates of vessel wall uptake of a (68)Ga-GCPII ligand for positron emission tomographic imaging...
September 8, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Gang Liu, Ming Ding, Stephanie E Chiuve, Eric B Rimm, Paul W Franks, James B Meigs, Frank B Hu, Qi Sun
OBJECTIVE: To examine select adipokines, including fatty acid-binding protein 4, retinol-binding protein 4, and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Plasma levels of fatty acid-binding protein 4, retinol-binding protein 4, and HMW adiponectin were measured in 950 men with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study...
September 8, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Masaki Imanishi, Yoichi Chiba, Noriko Tomita, Shinji Matsunaga, Toshitaka Nakagawa, Masaki Ueno, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Toshiaki Tamaki, Shuhei Tomita
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the role of smooth muscle cell-derived hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) in the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysms. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Control mice and smooth muscle cell-specific hypoxia-inducible factor-1α-deficient mice were infused with β-aminopropionitrile for 2 weeks and angiotensin II for 6 weeks to induce aortic aneurysm formation. Mutant mice experienced increased levels of aneurysm formation of the thoracic or abdominal aorta with more severe elastin disruption, compared with control mice...
August 25, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Rishi Puri, Steven E Nissen, Mingyuan Shao, Mohamed B Elshazly, Yu Kataoka, Samir R Kapadia, E Murat Tuzcu, Stephen J Nicholls
OBJECTIVES: Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDLC) levels reflect the full burden of cholesterol transported in atherogenic lipoproteins. Genetic studies suggest a causal association between elevated triglycerides (TGs)-rich lipoproteins and atherosclerosis. We evaluated associations between achieved non-HDLC and TG levels on changes in coronary atheroma volume. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Data were analyzed from 9 clinical trials involving 4957 patients with coronary disease undergoing serial intravascular ultrasonography to assess changes in percent atheroma volume (ΔPAV) and were evaluated against on-treatment non-HDLC and TG levels...
August 11, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Mark W Majesky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Marlene Rabinovitch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
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