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Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522699/greater-frequency-of-fruit-and-vegetable-consumption-is-associated-with-lower-prevalence-of-peripheral-artery-disease
#1
Sean P Heffron, Caron B Rockman, Mark A Adelman, Eugenia Gianos, Yu Guo, Jin Feng Xu, Jeffrey S Berger
OBJECTIVE: Although fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption is associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease and stroke, its association with peripheral artery disease (PAD) is less certain. We, thus, sought to characterize F&V intake and investigate the association between F&V consumption and presence of PAD in a large community sample. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Self-referred participants at >20 000 US sites who completed medical and lifestyle questionnaires were evaluated by screening ankle brachial indices for PAD (ankle brachial index ≤0...
May 18, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522698/oligogalacturonic-acid-inhibits-vascular-calcification-by-two-mechanisms-inhibition-of-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-osteogenic-conversion-and-interaction-with-collagen
#2
Ahmed Hodroge, Eric Trécherel, Marjorie Cornu, Walaa Darwiche, Ali Mansour, Katia Ait-Mohand, Thomas Verissimo, Cathy Gomila, Carole Schembri, Sophie Da Nascimento, Redouan Elboutachfaiti, Agnès Boullier, Emmanuel Lorne, Josiane Courtois, Emmanuel Petit, Sylvestre Toumieux, José Kovensky, Pascal Sonnet, Ziad A Massy, Saïd Kamel, Claire Rossi, Jérôme Ausseil
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular diseases constitute the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Calcification of the vessel wall is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients having many diseases, including diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, and chronic kidney disease. Vascular calcification is actively regulated by inductive and inhibitory mechanisms (including vascular smooth muscle cell adaptation) and results from an active osteogenic process. During the calcification process, extracellular vesicles (also known as matrix vesicles) released by vascular smooth muscle cells interact with type I collagen and then act as nucleating foci for calcium crystallization...
May 18, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522697/circulating-microrna-125b-predicts-the-presence-and-progression-of-uremic-vascular-calcification
#3
Chia-Ter Chao, You-Pi Liu, Sheng-Fang Su, Hsiang-Yuan Yeh, Hsuan-Yu Chen, Pei-Jung Lee, Wan-Jiun Chen, Yee-Ming Lee, Jenq-Wen Huang, Chih-Kang Chiang, Kuan-Yu Hung, Huei-Wen Chen
OBJECTIVE: Vascular calcification (VC) is a major cause of mortality in patients with end-stage renal diseases. Biomarkers to predict the progression of VC early are in urgent demand. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We identified circulating, cell-free microRNAs as potential biomarkers using in vitro VC models in which both rat and human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells were treated with high levels of phosphate to mimic uremic hyperphosphatemia. Using an Affymetrix microRNA array, we found that miR-125b and miR-382 expression levels declined significantly as biomineralization progressed, but this decline was only observed for miR-125b in the culture medium...
May 18, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522696/apolipoprotein-a-i-mimetic-peptides-discordance-between-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-properties
#4
Michael Ditiatkovski, Jonatan Palsson, Jaye Chin-Dusting, Alan T Remaley, Dmitri Sviridov
OBJECTIVE: Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptides have antiatherogenic properties of high-density lipoprotein in vitro and have been shown to inhibit atherosclerosis in vivo. It is unclear, however, if each in vitro antiatherogenic property of these peptides translates to a corresponding activity in vivo, and if so, which of these contributes most to reduce atherosclerosis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: The effect of 7 apoA-I mimetic peptides, which were developed to selectively reproduce a specific component of the antiatherogenic properties of apoA-I, on the development of atherosclerosis was investigated in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet for 4 or 12 weeks...
May 18, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495931/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-drive-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#5
Elmar Pieterse, Nils Rother, Marjolein Garsen, Julia Hofstra, Simon Satchell, Markus Hoffmann, Markus Loeven, Hanneke Knaapen, Olivier van der Heijden, Jo Berden, Luuk Hilbrands, Johan van der Vlag
OBJECTIVE: An excessive release and impaired degradation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) leads to the continuous exposure of NETs to the endothelium in a variety of hematologic and autoimmune disorders, including lupus nephritis. This study aims to unravel the mechanisms through which NETs jeopardize vascular integrity. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Microvascular and macrovascular endothelial cells were exposed to NETs, and subsequent effects on endothelial integrity and function were determined in vitro and in vivo...
May 11, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495930/adamts13-retards-progression-of-diabetic-nephropathy-by-inhibiting-intrarenal-thrombosis-in-mice
#6
Nirav Dhanesha, Prakash Doddapattar, Mehul R Chorawala, Manasa K Nayak, Koichi Kokame, Janice M Staber, Steven R Lentz, Anil K Chauhan
OBJECTIVE: ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type I repeats-13) prevents microvascular thrombosis by cleaving prothrombogenic ultralarge von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers. Clinical studies have found association between reduced ADAMTS13-specific activity, ultralarge VWF multimers, and thrombotic angiopathy in patients with diabetic nephropathy. It remains unknown, however, whether ADAMTS13 deficiency or ultralarge VWF multimers have a causative effect in diabetic nephropathy...
May 11, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495929/tissue-factor-prothrombotic-activity-is-regulated-by-integrin-arf6-trafficking
#7
Andrea S Rothmeier, Patrizia Marchese, Florian Langer, Yuichi Kamikubo, Florence Schaffner, Joseph Cantor, Mark H Ginsberg, Zaverio M Ruggeri, Wolfram Ruf
OBJECTIVE: Coagulation initiation by tissue factor (TF) is regulated by cellular inhibitors, cell surface availability of procoagulant phosphatidylserine, and thiol-disulfide exchange. How these mechanisms contribute to keeping TF in a noncoagulant state and to generating prothrombotic TF remain incompletely understood. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Here, we study the activation of TF in primary macrophages by a combination of pharmacological, genetic, and biochemical approaches...
May 11, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473445/estrogen-receptor-control-of-atherosclerotic-calcification-and-smooth-muscle-cell-osteogenic-differentiation
#8
Lucinda S McRobb, Kristine C Y McGrath, Tania Tsatralis, Eleanore C Liong, Joanne T M Tan, Gillian Hughes, David J Handelsman, Alison K Heather
OBJECTIVE: Vascular calcification is associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. The objective of this work was to examine the ability of 17β-estradiol (E2) to stimulate calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in vivo, using aged apolipoprotein E-null mice with advanced atherosclerotic lesions, and subsequently to explore underlying mechanisms in vitro. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Silastic E2 capsules were implanted into male and female apolipoprotein E-null mice aged 34 weeks...
May 4, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473444/role-of-adipose-tissue-endothelial-adam17-in-age-related-coronary-microvascular-dysfunction
#9
Huijuan Dou, Attila Feher, Alec C Davila, Maritza J Romero, Vijay S Patel, Vinayak M Kamath, Monika Beck Gooz, R Daniel Rudic, Rudolf Lucas, David J Fulton, Neal L Weintraub, Zsolt Bagi
OBJECTIVE: A disintegrin and metalloproteinase ADAM17 (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF]-converting enzyme) regulates soluble TNF levels. We tested the hypothesis that aging-induced activation in adipose tissue (AT)-expressed ADAM17 contributes to the development of remote coronary microvascular dysfunction in obesity. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Coronary arterioles (CAs, ≈90 µm) from right atrial appendages and mediastinal AT were examined in patients (aged: 69±11 years, BMI: 30...
May 4, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473443/relationship-of-autoantibodies-to-mda-ldl-and-apob-immune-complexes-to-sex-ethnicity-subclinical-atherosclerosis-and-cardiovascular-events
#10
Anand Prasad, Paul Clopton, Colby Ayers, Amit Khera, James A de Lemos, Joseph L Witztum, Sotirios Tsimikas
OBJECTIVE: Modifications of lipid constituents within atherosclerotic lesions generate neoepitopes that activate innate and adaptive immune responses. We aimed to define the prevalence, distribution, and relationship of autoantibody titers of oxidized lipoproteins to subclinical atherosclerosis and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in different ethnic groups. APPROACH AND RESULTS: IgG and IgM autoantibodies to malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL) and apolipoprotein B-100-immune complexes were measured in 3509 individuals (1814 blacks, 1031 whites, 589 Hispanics, and 85 no race identifier) from the Dallas Heart Study with median 10...
May 4, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473442/janus-kinase-3-a-novel-regulator-for-smooth-muscle-proliferation-and-vascular-remodeling
#11
Yung-Chun Wang, Xiao-Bing Cui, Ya-Hui Chuang, Shi-You Chen
OBJECTIVE: Vascular remodeling because of smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation is a common process occurring in several vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, aortic aneurysm, post-transplant vasculopathy, restenosis after angioplasty, etc. The molecular mechanism underlying SMC proliferation, however, is not completely understood. The objective of this study is to determine the role and mechanism of Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) in vascular remodeling and SMC proliferation. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Platelet-derived growth factor-BB, an SMC mitogen, induces JAK3 expression and phosphorylation while stimulating SMC proliferation...
May 4, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473441/apolipoprotein-ciii-levels-and-incident-coronary-artery-disease-risk-the-epic-norfolk-prospective-population-study
#12
Julian C van Capelleveen, Sophie J Bernelot Moens, Xiaohong Yang, John J P Kastelein, Nicholas J Wareham, Aeilko H Zwinderman, Erick S G Stroes, Joseph L Witztum, G Kees Hovingh, Kay-Tee Khaw, S Matthijs Boekholdt, Sotirios Tsimikas
OBJECTIVE: Apolipoprotein CIII (apo CIII) is a key regulator of triglyceride metabolism. Elevated triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and apo CIII levels are causally linked to coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. The mechanism(s) through which apo CIII increases CAD risk remains largely unknown. The aim was to confirm the association between apo CIII plasma levels and CAD risk and to explore which lipoprotein subfractions contribute to this relationship between apo CIII and CAD risk. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Plasma apo CIII levels were measured in baseline samples from a nested case-control study in the prospective EPIC-Norfolk study...
May 4, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473440/deficiency-of-lrp1-in-mature-adipocytes-promotes-diet-induced-inflammation-and-atherosclerosis-brief-report
#13
Eddy S Konaniah, David G Kuhel, Joshua E Basford, Neal L Weintraub, David Y Hui
OBJECTIVE: Mice with adipocyte-specific inactivation of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) are resistant to diet-induced obesity and hyperglycemia because of compensatory thermogenic response by muscle. However, the physiological function of LRP1 in mature adipocytes and its role in cardiovascular disease modulation are unknown. This study compared perivascular adipose tissues (PVAT) from wild-type (adLrp1(+/+)) and adipocyte-specific LRP1 knockout (adLrp1(-/-)) mice in modulation of atherosclerosis progression...
June 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473439/implication-of-inflammation-and-epigenetic-readers-in-coronary-artery-remodeling-in-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#14
Jolyane Meloche, Marie-Claude Lampron, Valérie Nadeau, Mélanie Maltais, François Potus, Caroline Lambert, Eve Tremblay, Géraldine Vitry, Sandra Breuils-Bonnet, Olivier Boucherat, Eric Charbonneau, Steeve Provencher, Roxane Paulin, Sébastien Bonnet
OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a vascular disease not restricted to the lungs. Many signaling pathways described in PAH are also of importance in other vascular remodeling diseases, such as coronary artery disease (CAD). Intriguingly, CAD is 4× more prevalent in PAH compared with the global population, suggesting a link between these 2 diseases. Both PAH and CAD are associated with sustained inflammation and smooth muscle cell proliferation/apoptosis imbalance and we demonstrated in PAH that this phenotype is, in part, because of the miR-223/DNA damage/Poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase 1/miR-204 axis activation and subsequent bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) overexpression...
May 4, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473438/serotonin-signaling-through-the-5-ht1b-receptor-and-nadph-oxidase-1-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#15
Katie Y Hood, Kirsty M Mair, Adam P Harvey, Augusto C Montezano, Rhian M Touyz, Margaret R MacLean
OBJECTIVE: Serotonin can induce human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (hPASMC) proliferation through reactive oxygen species (ROS), influencing the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We hypothesize that in PASMCs, serotonin induces oxidative stress through NADPH-oxidase-derived ROS generation and reduced Nrf-2 (nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2) antioxidant systems, promoting vascular injury. APPROACH AND RESULTS: HPASMCs from controls and PAH patients, and PASMCs from Nox1(-)(/-) mice, were stimulated with serotonin in the absence/presence of inhibitors of Src kinase, the 5-HT1B receptor, and NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1)...
May 4, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473437/endothelial-myocyte-enhancer-factor-2c-inhibits-migration-of-smooth-muscle-cells-through-fenestrations-in-the-internal-elastic-lamina
#16
Yao Wei Lu, Anthony M Lowery, Li-Yan Sun, Harold A Singer, Guohao Dai, Alejandro P Adam, Peter A Vincent, John J Schwarz
OBJECTIVE: Laminar flow activates myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factors in vitro to induce expression of atheroprotective genes in the endothelium. Here we sought to establish the role of Mef2c in the vascular endothelium in vivo. APPROACH AND RESULTS: To study endothelial Mef2c, we generated endothelial-specific deletion of Mef2c using Tie2-Cre or Cdh5-Cre-ER(T2) and examined aortas and carotid arteries by en face immunofluorescence. We observed enhanced actin stress fiber formation in the Mef2c-deleted thoracic aortic endothelium (laminar flow region), similar to those observed in normal aortic inner curvature (disturbed flow region)...
May 4, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473436/dba-2j-haplotype-on-distal-chromosome-2-reduces-mertk-expression-restricts-efferocytosis-and-increases-susceptibility-to-atherosclerosis
#17
Yukako Kayashima, Natalia Makhanova, Nobuyo Maeda
OBJECTIVE: Arch atherosclerosis 4 (Aath4) is a quantitative trait locus for atherosclerotic plaque formation in the inner curve of the aortic arch previously identified in an F2 cross of Apoe(-/-) mice on DBA/2J and 129S6 backgrounds. Mertk, coding for a ligand-activated transmembrane tyrosine kinase, is a candidate gene within the same chromosomal region. Our objective was to determine whether strain differences in Mertk influence plaque formation. APPROACH AND RESULTS: To dissect the strain effects of Mertk on atherosclerosis, we first established a congenic mouse line (Aath4a(DBA/DBA) ) in which a 5' region of Aath4 of DBA/2J, including Mertk, was backcrossed onto a 129S6-Apoe(-/-) background...
May 4, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450299/circadian-control-of-inflammatory-processes-in-atherosclerosis-and-its-complications
#18
REVIEW
Sabine Steffens, Carla Winter, Maximilian J Schloss, Andres Hidalgo, Christian Weber, Oliver Soehnlein
Physiological cardiovascular functions show daily diurnal variations, which are synchronized by intrinsic molecular clocks and environment-driven cues. The clinical manifestation of cardiovascular disease also exhibits diurnal variation, with an increased incidence in the early morning. This coincides with circadian oscillations of circulating parameters, such as hormones and leukocyte counts. We are just at the beginning of understanding how circadian rhythms of immune functions are related to cardiovascular disease progression and outcome after an acute ischemic event...
April 27, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450298/molecular-imaging-of-atherothrombotic-diseases-seeing-is-believing
#19
REVIEW
Xiaowei Wang, Karlheinz Peter
Molecular imaging, with major advances in the development of both innovative targeted contrast agents/particles and radiotracers, as well as various imaging technologies, is a fascinating, rapidly growing field with many preclinical and clinical applications, particularly for personalized medicine. Thrombosis in either the venous or the arterial system, the latter typically caused by rupture of unstable atherosclerotic plaques, is a major determinant of mortality and morbidity in patients. However, imaging of the various thrombotic complications and the identification of plaques that are prone to rupture are at best indirect, mostly unreliable, or not available at all...
April 27, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450297/association-between-carotid-atherosclerotic-plaque-calcification-and-intraplaque-hemorrhage-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#20
Ruolan Lin, Shuo Chen, Gaifen Liu, Yunjing Xue, Xihai Zhao
OBJECTIVE: Carotid intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) is associated with cardiovascular events. Calcification, which frequently accompanies IPH, may play a role in IPH occurrence. In this study, we aimed to investigate the associations between calcification characteristics and IPH in carotid plaques. APPROACH AND RESULTS: One hundred seventeen patients with cerebrovascular symptoms and carotid plaques detected by ultrasound were recruited and underwent multicontrast magnetic resonance imaging...
April 27, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
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