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Antiviral Therapy

Paul Mel van Dam, Mark Wl van Geffen, Thomas Ra Havenith, Dirk Posthouwer
Triumeq is a single-tablet regimen for patients with HIV infection comprising dolutegravir, abacavir and lamivudine. Overdoses with Triumeq have not been reported previously. We present a case of a 26-year-old man who presented to our hospital after intentionally ingesting 30 tablets of Triumeq. An intoxication with Triumeq can lead to several side effects. An overdose of abacavir and lamivudine can cause mitochondrial toxicity and lactic acidosis. An intoxication with dolutegravir appears to be relatively harmless...
March 13, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Carmine Minichini, Mario Starace, Stefania De Pascalis, Margherita Macera, Laura Occhiello, Mara Caroprese, Martina Vitrone, Vincenzo Iovinella, Barbara Guerrera, Mario Masarone, Nicola Coppola
BACKGROUND: No data are available on the clinical presentation and virological pattern in the case of failure to IFN-free regimens in patients with genotype 3h. In this paper authors identified the virological and clinical characteristics of patients with genotype 3h treated with suboptimal or not indicated Interferon (IFN)-free regimens for the misclassification of HCV genotype METHODS: 87 consecutive patients with failure to an IFN-free regimen were re-tested for HCV genotype by HCV NS5B sequencing; the 26 patients identified as harboring HCV-3 were enrolled...
March 5, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Eve Todesco, Alessandra Mazzola, Sepideh Akhavan, Florence Abravanel, Thierry Poynard, Anne-Marie Roque-Afonso, Gilles Peytavin, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Yvon Calmus, Lucien Lecuyer, Romain Guillemain, Filomena Conti
Hepatitis E Virus can induce chronic infections in the case of immunosuppression, which are sometimes not cured with ribavirin. Furthermore, Sofosbuvir is a highly potent inhibitor of Hepatitis C virus polymerase and was shown to inhibit Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) genotype 3 replication in vitro.We report here the outcome of sofosbuvir/ribavirin therapy on a chronic HEV infection in a heart transplant recipient non responder to ribavirin. After 24 weeks, the regimen failed to cure the persistent HEV infection, highlighting the need of therapeutic options for HEV-infected immunosuppressed patients...
March 5, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Lucio Boglione, Simone Mornese Pinna, Tommaso Lupia, Giuseppe Cariti, Giovanni Di Perri
BACKGROUND: The novel available interferon (IFN)-free regimens significantly improved the sustained virological response (SVR) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), without important side-effects and with shorter duration of treatment. In a subset of patients, however, the treatment failure (TF) was due to the presence of resistance-associated substitutions (RAS) that lead to virological breakthrough (BT) or relapse. We analyzed in this case-series the role of RAS on the TF in cirrhotic patients with GT4, treated with a previous IFN-free regimen, and retreated with the combination of sofosbuvir (SOF)/velpatasvir (VEL) for 12 or 24 weeks, without ribavirin (RBV)...
February 14, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Satoru Hagiwara, Naoshi Nishida, Tomohiro Watanabe, Hiroshi Ida, Toshiharu Sakurai, Kazuomi Ueshima, Masahiro Takita, Yoriaki Komeda, Norihiro Nishijima, Yukio Osaki, Masatoshi Kudo
BACKGROUND: Although the efficacy of combination therapy with lamivudine or tenofovir and pegylated-interferon (Peg-IFN) has been reported in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), the long-term effect of the combination based on the observation of clinical course remains to be clarified. We previously reported the efficacy of combination therapy with entecavir (ETV) and Peg-IFN. Here, we investigated the long-term effect of this combination in patients with CHB. METHODS: We administered both ETV and Peg-IFN α-2a or -2b simultaneously to 26 patients with hepatitis B virus genotype C infection...
February 13, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Angela M Bengtson, Brian W Pence, Ellen F Eaton, Jessie K Edwards, Joseph J Eron, William C Mathews, Katie Mollan, Richard D Moore, Connall O'Cleirigh, Elvin Geng, Michael J Mugavero
BACKGROUND: Efavirenz has been a mainstay of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for over 15 years in the US. Its association with neuropsychiatric side effects may influence clinical prescribing and management. METHODS: We included HIV-infected adults enrolled in care at 7 sites across the US, who initiated combination ART between 1999 and 2015. We examined the proportion initiating and continuing on efavirenz, overall and by mental health status. Log binomial and Cox models were used to estimate associations between mental health, clinical, and sociodemographic characteristics and initiating or switching from efavirenz as first line ART...
February 9, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Erden Atilla, Didem Sahin, Pinar Ataca Atilla, Istar Dolapci, Alper Tekeli, Sinem Civriz Bozdag, Meltem Kurt Yuksel, Selami Kocak Toprak, Osman Ilhan, Onder Arslan, Muhit Ozcan, Gunhan Gurman, Pervin Topcuoglu
BACKGROUND: Community respiratory viruses (CRVs) are associated with upper respiratory viral infections (URI), pneumonia or life-threatening respiratory disease in patients with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Our aim is to demonstrate our URI experience related to CRVs after allo-HSCT. METHODS: From January 2013 to November 2015, 39 post allo-HSCT patients with acute URI symptoms were included to the study. We evaluated CRVs by multiplex PCR from nasopharyngeal wash and throat swabs...
February 9, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Paolo Bigliano, Andrea Calcagno, Anna Lucchini, Sabrina Audagnotto, Chiara Montrucchio, Letizia Marinaro, Chiara Alcantarini, Valeria Ghisetti, Giovanni Di Perri, Stefano Bonora
BACKGROUND: HIV late presenters are at high risk of Cytomegalovirus reactivation and end-organ disease. CMV viremia has been associated with poor survival but the effect of anti-CMV treatment has not been studied in this setting. METHODS: HIV-positive patients were included in a retrospective study if presenting with <350 CD4/uL and starting an antiretroviral treatment within 3 months of the diagnosis. Primary endpoint was 5-year survival according to the presence of CMV viremia (CMV-V), CMV end-organ disease (CMV-EOD) and anti-CMV treatment...
January 26, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Masatoki Sato, Koichi Hashimoto, Yukihiko Kawasaki, Mitsuaki Hosoya
BACKGROUND: Immune response after intravenous peramivir administration, which is approved for children with influenza infection in Japan, is unclear. METHODS: Kinetics of viral load and serum cytokine levels before and after peramivir therapy were analysed in 17 and 8 hospitalized children infected with influenza A and B, respectively. Additionally, haemadsorption inhibition (HI) titre was measured. The first day of hospital admission was defined as day 0. RESULTS: Serum interleukin (IL)-6 levels in influenza A-infected children significantly decreased after peramivir administration, unlike in those with influenza B where a decrease on day 1 was followed by an increase on day 2...
January 26, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Marion Fiorentino, Marie Suzan-Monti, Antoine Vilotitch, Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Rosemary Dray-Spira, France Lert, Bruno Spire
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to estimate the frequency of renunciation of healthcare among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in France, including healthcare unrelated to HIV, and to characterize associated socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors. METHODS: The cross-sectional ANRS-VESPA2 survey was conducted on adult PLHIV attending French hospitals in 2011. Correlates of healthcare renunciation in the 12 months before the survey were assessed through logistic modelling...
January 23, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Lars Peters, Amanda Mocroft, Daniel Grint, Santiago Moreno, Alexandra Calmy, Djordje Jevtovic, Helen Sambatakou, Karine Lacombe, Stephane De Wit, Jürgen Rockstroh, Jelena Smidt, Igor Karpov, Anna Grzeszczuk, Vesnadarjan Haziosmanovic, Magnus Gottfredsson, Roxana Radoi, Elena Kuzovatova, Chloe Orkin, Anna Lisa Ridolfo, Jose Zapirain, Jens Lundgren
BACKGROUND: According to guidelines all HIV/HBV co-infected patients should receive tenofovir-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We aimed to investigate uptake and outcomes of tenofovir-based cART among HIV/HBV patients in the EuroSIDA study. METHODS: All HBsAg+ patients followed up after 1 March 2002 were included. Changes in the proportion taking tenofovir-based cART over time were described. Poisson regression was used to investigate the relationship between tenofovir use and clinical events...
January 5, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Azizul Haque, Faruk Berat Akçeşme, Anudeep B Pant
The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic has recently emerged as public health threat due to its teratogenic nature and association with the serious neurological condition Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). To date, no approved antiviral therapeutics or vaccines are available to confront ZIKV. In order to develop effective anti-ZIKV vaccines, improved animal models and a better understanding of immunological correlates of protection against ZIKV are required. In this paper, we discuss the recent progress in developing vaccines against ZIKV and the hurdles to overcome in making efficacious anti-Zika vaccines...
January 4, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Cristina Gervasoni, Chiara Resnati, Tiziana Formenti, Alessandro Fossati, Davide Minisci, Paola Meraviglia, Dario Cattaneo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Teng-Yu Lee, Chi-Yi Chen, Hsueh-Chou Lia, Yu-Chung Hsu, Sheng-Shun Yang
BACKGROUND: Nucleoside/nucleotide analogue (NA) therapy could be life-saving in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with spontaneous severe acute exacerbation (SAE). We aimed to investigate the ultra-short virological responses to NA. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial in which CHB patients with spontaneous SAE were randomized to receive lamivudine (LVD) or entecavir (ETV) between July 2012 and April 2016 ( NCT01627223). The serum HBV viral loads on day 1 (baseline), 3, 5, 8, 15, 22, 29, 85 and 180 after initiating NA therapy were checked and analysed...
2018: Antiviral Therapy
Mohaned Shilaih, Daniel C Angst, Alex Marzel, Sebastian Bonhoeffer, Huldrych F Günthard, Roger D Kouyos
BACKGROUND: Despite being used by more than 18 million people our understanding of the extent of the effects of antiretrovirals on the human body and other organisms remains incomplete. In addition, the direct effect of antiretrovirals on the gut microbiota of HIV-infected individuals has been largely overlooked in microbiome studies concerned with HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: Here we tested 25 antiretrovirals on Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli using a broth microdilution assay to assess whether these drugs have an antibacterial effect...
2018: Antiviral Therapy
Jose M Trevejo, Mohammed Asmal, Johan Vingerhoets, Ramon Polo, Sarah Robertson, Ying Jiang, Tara L Kieffer, Lorant Leopold
BACKGROUND: JNJ-63623872 is a novel, non-nucleoside polymerase complex inhibitor with in vitro activity against influenza A virus, including pandemic 2009 H1N1, H7N9, H5N1 strains as well as neuraminidase-and amantadine-resistant strains. METHODS: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase 2a study. Healthy volunteers (N = 104) were inoculated with an influenza A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2) challenge virus. 72 received JNJ-63623872 and 32 placebo. JNJ-63623872 was dosed for 5 days once daily from 24 hours after viral inoculation at four dose levels: 100 mg, 400 mg, loading dose 900/600 mg and loading dose 1200/600 mg...
December 15, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
Laurent Ma Favié, Jean-Luc Murk, Adam Meijer, A Laura Nijstad, Erik M van Maarseveen, Maaike A Sikma
Favipiravir is a novel antiviral drug approved for influenza treatment in Japan. Little is known about favipiravir pharmacokinetics in critically ill patients. Here, we report a patient with influenza treated with favipiravir and undergoing continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) on the Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary hospital in the Netherlands. Pharmacokinetic analyses showed increased clearance and decreased plasma levels compared to healthy volunteers. CVVH has no clinically relevant contribution to total clearance...
November 29, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
Julian Falutz
The increased survival of treated people living with HIV (PLWH) represents a tremendous accomplishment. However, this has not been accompanied by uniform improvements in quality of life. Many PLWH prematurely develop age-related complications and traditional geriatric syndromes, including frailty. This is a potentially reversible state of vulnerability to adverse outcomes. Its operationalization remains challenging. The most commonly used tools, the frailty phenotype and the frailty index, have their advantages and limitations, but predict similar poor outcomes...
November 24, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
Charles S Venuto, Jihoon Lim, Susan Messing, Peter W Hunt, Grace A McComsey, Gene D Morse
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is associated with the downregulation of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Thus, we investigated the chronic inflammatory state associated with HIV-infection as a source of pharmacokinetic variability of atazanavir. We also explored the association of total bilirubin concentrations with markers of inflammation and endothelial activation. METHODS: Apparent oral clearance (CL/F) of atazanavir was estimated from plasma samples collected from participants in AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5202...
November 24, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
Amedeo De Nicolò, Lucio Boglione, Jessica Cusato, Giovanna Fatiguso, Fabio Favata, Sarah Allegra, Giuseppe Cariti, Giovanni Di Perri, Antonio D'Avolio
BACKGROUND: Recently, due to its high effectiveness and tolerability, the treatment of chronic hepatitis B with entecavir became a standard practice. However, limited knowledge is currently available about its pharmacokinetic behavior and intracellular disposition. Recently, our group reported an inverse correlation between entecavir plasma concentrations and the HBV DNA decay at the first and third month of treatment, respectively. ​: In this paper we investigated the disposition of entecavir in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and in plasma, in order to evaluate the relationship between intracellular penetration and response, in a cohort of naïve patients with HBeAg-negative CHB...
November 23, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
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