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Antiviral Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504241/antiviral-drug-resistance-and-hepatitis-b-a-continuing-public-health-problem
#1
Margaret Littlejohn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497768/antibacterial-effects-of-antiretrovirals-potential-implications-for-microbiome-studies-in-hiv
#2
Mohaned Shilaih, Daniel C Angst, Alex Marzel, Sebastian Bonhoeffer, Huldrych F Günthard, Roger D Kouyos
BACKGROUND: Despite being used by more than 18 million people our understanding of the extent of effects of antiretrovirals on the human body and other organisms remains incomplete. In addition, the direct effect of antiretrovirals on the gut microbiota of HIV infected individuals has been largely overlooked in microbiome studies concerned with HIV infected individuals. METHODS: Here we tested 25 antiretrovirals on Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli using a broth microdilution assay to assess whether these drugs have an antibacterial effect...
May 12, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471350/antiviral-therapy-reduces-risk-of-haemorrhagic-stroke-in-patients-with-hcv-infection-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#3
Ming-Shyan Lin, Chang-Min Chung, Wey-Yil Lin, Kuo-Liang Wei, Jui Wang, Ying-Ying Lee, Jing-Hong Hu, Tao-Hsin Tung, Yu-Sheng Lin
BACKGROUND: The tendency for haemorrhagic stroke in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has emerged recently but the finding may be confounded by comorbidities. Proving the causality between HCV infection and haemorrhagic stroke is mandatory. Our study was designed to investigate the incidence of intracranial haemorrhage in HCV-infected patients with and without treatment. METHODS: In the 11-year and population-based retrospective study, we acquired data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database...
May 4, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447585/metabolic-profiles-of-individuals-switched-to-second-line-antiretroviral-therapy-after-failing-standard-first-line-therapy-for-treatment-of-hiv-1-infection-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Amanda H Yao, Cecilia L Moore, Poh Lian Lim, Jean-Michel Molina, Juan Sierra Madero, Stephen Kerr, Paddy Wg Mallon, Sean Emery, David A Cooper, Mark A Boyd
BACKGROUND: To investigate metabolic changes associated with second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) following virological failure of first-line ART. METHODS: SECOND-LINE was an open-label randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) with 2-3 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N(t)RTI-group) or raltegravir (RAL-group) Two hundred and ten participants had a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-scan at baseline, week 48 and 96...
April 27, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440785/impacts-of-hbv-rth55r-polymerase-substitution-on-viral-replication-and-rtm204i-v-resistance-to-nucleoside-nucleotide-antiviral-drugs
#5
Kuan-Hui Xiang, Cheng-Yu Zhao, Shuai Wang, Yao Li, Ming-Ze Su, Qiang-Yi Wang, Xi-Zhan Xu, Juan Deng, Hui Zhuang, Tong Li
BACKGROUND: High genetic variability at reverse transcriptase (RT) region of hepatitis B virus (HBV) could confer resistance to nucleos(t)ide analogues (NUCs). The aim of this study was to identify new RT amino acid (AA) substitutions related to NUCs resistance. METHODS: HBV RT sequences of genotype C from 501 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients were analyzed to identify potential RT substitutions related to NUCs resistance. In vitro studies without and with NUCs were performed in HepG2 cell line transfected by clones with RT harboring wild-type or substituted AA(s) of interest...
April 25, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436380/tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-monotherapy-is-superior-to-entecavir-adefovir-combination-therapy-in-patients-with-suboptimal-response-to-lamivudine-adefovir-therapy-for-nucleoside-resistant-hbv-a-96-week-prospective-multicenter-trial
#6
Sae Hwan Lee, Gab Jin Cheon, Hong Soo Kim, Sang Gyune Kim, Young Seok Kim, Soung Won Jeong, Jae Young Jang, Boo Sung Kim, Baek Gyu Jun, Young Don Kim, Dae Won Jun, Joo Hyun Sohn, Tae Yeob Kim, Byung Seok Lee
BACKGROUND: A complete virologic response is closely related to the long-term outcome of patients with chronic hepatitis B and prevention of emerging hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutations. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) monotherapy compared to entecavir-adefovir dipivoxil (ETV-ADV) combination therapy in patients with suboptimal responses to long-term lamivudine-adefovir dipivoxil (LAM-ADV) therapy for nucleoside analogue-resistant chronic hepatitis B...
April 24, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422043/real-world-efficacy-and-safety-of-ritonavir-boosted-paritaprevir-ombitasvir-dasabuvir-%C3%A2-ribavirin-for-hepatitis-c-genotype-1-final-results-of-the-rev1tal-study
#7
John Lubel, Simone Strasser, Katherine A Stuart, Gregory Dore, Alexander Thompson, Stephen Pianko, Steven Bollipo, Joanne L Mitchell, Vincenzo Fragomeli, Tracey Jones, Sarah Chivers, Paul Gow, David Iser, Miriam Levy, Edmund Tse, Alessia Gazzola, Wendy Cheng, Saroj Nazareth, Sam Galhenage, Amanda Wade, Martin Weltman, Alan Wigg, Gerry MacQuillan, Joe Sasadeusz, Jacob George, Amany Zekry, Stuart K Roberts
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist on the outcomes of ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir with ombitasvir and dasabuvir (PrOD) ± ribavirin in a real-world setting. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of PrOD-based therapy in hepatitis C genotype 1 patients with and without cirrhosis, and to explore pre-treatment factors predictive of sustained viral response (SVR) and serious adverse events (SAEs) on treatment. METHODS: 451 patients with hepatitis C genotype 1 treated in 20 centres across Australia were included...
April 19, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406093/antiviral-activity-of-nobiletin-against-chikungunya-virus-in-vitro
#8
Shih-Chao Lin, Mei-Chun Chen, Shiming Li, Chi-Chen Lin, Tony T Wang
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a highly contagious re-emerging virus, is transmitted by infected mosquitoes. CHIKV is prevalent in tropical countries and is continuing to creep farther north into temperate areas. CHIKV is responsible for induction of Chikungunya Fever (CF) and severe joint stiffness with the capability of developing into bilateral and systemic arthralgia or even encephalitis. Despite the high morbidity rate, no approved antiviral drug is available. Therefore, an anti-CHIKV therapy is necessary to control this disease...
April 13, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401876/dolutegravir-abacavir-lamivudine-versus-current-art-in-virally-suppressed-patients-striiving-a-48-week-randomized-non-inferiority-open-label-phase-iiib-study
#9
Benoît Trottier, Jordan E Lake, Ken Logue, Cynthia Brinson, Lizette Santiago, Clare Brennan, Justin A Koteff, Brian Wynne, Judy Hopking, Catherine Granier, Michael Aboud
BACKGROUND: Simplified dosing regimens are important for patients who face challenges in adhering to HIV-1 therapy. We investigated the safety and virologic efficacy of switching to once-daily abacavir/dolutegravir/lamivudine (ABC/DTG/3TC). METHODS: The STRIIVING study was a randomized, open-label, phase IIIb study in adults with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at enrolment (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT02105987). Subjects were randomly assigned to switch to ABC/DTG/3TC once daily for 48 weeks (early-switch group) or continue current ART for 24 weeks and then switch to ABC/DTG/3TC (late-switch group)...
April 12, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387654/ending-aids-as-a-public-health-threat-by-2030-scientific-developments-from-the-2016-interest-conference-in-yaound%C3%A3-cameroon
#10
Catherine A Hankins, Sinata Koulla-Shiro, Peter Kilmarx, Guido Ferrari, Mauro Schechter, Coumba Touré Kane, François Venter, Charles Ab Boucher, Anna-Laura Ross, Debrework Zewdie, Serge Paul Eholié, Elly Katabira
The underpinning theme of the 2016 INTEREST Conference held in Yaoundé, Cameroon, 3-6 May 2016 was ending AIDS as a public health threat by 2030. Focused primarily on HIV treatment, pathogenesis and prevention research in resource-limited settings, the conference attracted 369 active delegates from 34 countries, of which 22 were in Africa. Presentations on treatment optimization, acquired drug resistance, care of children and adolescents, laboratory monitoring and diagnostics, implementation challenges, HIV prevention, key populations, vaccine and cure, hepatitis C, mHealth, financing the HIV response and emerging pathogens, were accompanied by oral, mini-oral and poster presentations...
April 7, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367828/zidovudine-continuous-infusion-in-an-hiv-infected-pregnant-woman-with-a-phobia-of-swallowing-pills
#11
Matthijs van Luin, Gerjanne Ter Beest, Lia E Wijnberger, Caroline Ma Swanink, David M Burger, Jet H Gisolf
The authors report the difficulties of preventing mother to child transmission in a pregnant HIV-infected woman with a phobia of swallowing pills. After multiple attempts and just as many failures, the authors ended up with cART consisting of small tablets of nevirapine, lamivudine and a continuous intravenous infusion of zidovudine given via an elastomeric pump at home. This case demonstrates the difficulties that HIV-physicians can encounter in pregnant women who have difficulties in swallowing tablets. In exceptional circumstances, continuous infusion of zidovudine may be an option, even in an outpatient setting...
April 3, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362269/daclatasvir-plasma-concentration-assessment-in-hiv-hcv-coinfected-real-life-patients
#12
LETTER
Audrey Taton, Philippe Colson, Catherine Dhiver, Jean-Marie Ruiz, Sylvie Bregigeon, Christelle Tomei, Emmanuelle Ressiot, Amélie Menard, Isabelle Poizot-Martin, Isabelle Ravaux, Bruno Lacarelle, Caroline Solas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 31, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362268/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-due-to-john-cunningham-jc-virus-following-allogeneic-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation
#13
Wilson Lam, Zeyad Al-Shaibani, Deepali Kumar, Auro Viswabandya, Santhosh Thyagu, Fotios V Michelis, Jeffrey H Lipton, Hans A Messner, Uday Deotare
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is an uncommon infectious complication post allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT). We present a case report of a patient developing this complication with a review of the current literature. It also describes the first use of artesunate in a clinical case of PML with no beneficial effect.
March 31, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353446/decline-and-changing-profile-of-hepatitis-delta-among-injection-drug-users-in-spain
#14
Antonio Aguilera, Rocio Trastoy, Pablo Barreiro, José Javier Costa, Carmen de Mendoza, Jose M Peña, Vicente Soriano
BACKGROUND: Roughly 15 million people worldwide have hepatitis delta, the most severe form of chronic viral hepatitis that often leads to cirrhosis and liver cancer. Injection drug users (IDUs) are the largest HDV reservoir. Their resurgence in North America and Europe may represent a new opportunity for HDV widespread. METHODS: We examined all consecutive active IDUs seen for the first time and enrolled in detoxification programs at two clinics in Spain during two periods (1993-1996 and 2011-2014, respectively)...
March 29, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350300/impact-of-ccr5-integrase-and-protease-inhibitors-on-human-endothelial-cell-function-stress-inflammation-and-senescence
#15
Pauline Afonso, Martine Auclair, Martine Caron-Debarle, Jacqueline Capeau
BACKGROUND: Aging HIV-infected patients present an increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases, endothelial dysfunction being an early alteration. Some protease inhibitors (PI)s have been shown to experience risk of increased cardiovascular disease. We evaluated here the effects of CCR5 or integrase inhibitors as compared to PIs on endothelial functions in vitro. METHODS: Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) from adult and old non-HIV infected donors were treated for 15 days with the CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc, the integrase inhibitors dolutegravir or raltegravir or the ritonavir-boosted-PIs, darunavir (DRV/r) or atazanavir (ATV/r), all at Cmax concentrations...
March 28, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327462/neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-hiv-infected-youth-investigating-the-relationship-with-immune-activation
#16
Allison Ross Eckard, Julia C Rosebush, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Chanda C Graves, Ashley Alexander, Anita K Grover, S Thera Lee, Jakob G Habib, Joshua H Ruff, Ann Chahroudi, Grace A McComsey
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk of neurocognitive impairment compared to the general population. Studies suggest that, despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV infection causes immune activation which results in neural damage; however, few data exist in HIV-infected youth. METHODS: HIV-infected youth 8-26 years old on cART with virologic suppression were prospectively enrolled along with healthy controls. Neurocognitive performance was assessed by age-appropriate Wechsler Intelligence Scales...
March 22, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327461/muscle-strength-is-impaired-in-men-but-not-in-women-living-with-hiv-taking-antiretroviral-therapy
#17
Vitor Hf Oliveira, Susana L Wiechmann, Argéria Ms Narciso, Allison R Webel, Rafael Deminice
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that HIV Antiretroviral Therapy adverse effects may be sex-dependent, but data examing these sex differences in muscle strength is scarce. Our aim was to compare dynamic and isokinetic parameters of muscle strength between HIV-infected men and women to HIV-uninfected subjects. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, muscle strength was evaluated in 44 HIV-infected (20 men, 24 women) and 25 age-, race- and body mass index-matched HIV-uninfected subjects (11 men, 14 women)...
March 22, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300730/the-enrichment-of-hbv-immune-escape-mutations-during-nucleoside-nucleotide-analogue-therapy
#18
Menglin Shan, Zhen Shen, Hua Sun, Jianghua Zheng, Min Zhang
BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant HBV mutants frequently arise during nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) therapy, while the resistance mutations on polymerase also have consequent changes in the S protein. Besides, the enrichment of immune-escape mutations was negatively correlated with HBsAg clearance under NAs therapy. This study aims to characterize the variability of hepatitis B virus polymerase and surface antigen in patients with virologic breakthrough under nucleos(t)ide analogues therapy...
March 16, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291736/association-of-vitamin-d-related-genetic-variations-and-treatment-response-to-pegylated-interferon-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#19
Umaporn Limothai, Natthaya Chuaypen, Apichaya Khlaiphuengsin, Salyavit Chittmittraprap, Yong Poovorawan, Pisit Tangkijvanich
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D, a potent immune-modulator, has been linked to the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). This study was aimed at investigating the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in vitamin D-related genes and treatment response to pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) in patients with CHB. METHODS: A total 275 Thai patients (122 HBeAg-positive and 153 HBeAg-negative CHB) treated with 48-week PEG-IFN were recruited. Virological response (VR) at 48 weeks post treatment was defined as HBeAg seroconversion plus HBV DNA <2,000 IU/mL for HBeAg-positive CHB and HBV DNA <2,000 IU/mL for HBeAg-negative CHB...
March 14, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291735/cd4-cd8-ratio-comparison-between-cohorts-of-hiv-positive-asians-and-caucasians-upon-commencement-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#20
Kathy Petoumenos, Jun Yong Choi, Jennifer Hoy, Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul, Oon Tek Ng, Mark Boyd, Reena Rajasuriar, Matthew Law
BACKGROUND: In the era of effective antiretroviral treatment (ART) CD4:CD8 ratio is proposed as a potential marker for HIV-positive (HIV+) patients at increased risk for non-AIDS comorbidities. The current study aims to compare CD4:CD8 ratio between Asian and Caucasian HIV+ patients. METHODS: HIV+ patients from the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) and the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) meeting specific criteria were included. In these analyses Asian and Caucasian status were defined by cohort...
March 14, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
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