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Antiviral Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134945/drug-drug-interaction-potential-of-the-hepatitis-b-and-hepatitis-d-virus-entry-inhibitor-myrcludex-b-assessed-in-vitro
#1
Antje Blank, Katrin Meier, Stephan Urban, Walter Emil Haefeli, Johanna Weiss
BACKGROUND: Myrcludex B is a first-in-class virus entry inhibitor for patients with chronic hepatitis B or B/D infections. In patients it will be co-administered with drugs needed for the disease or comorbidities. We aimed to define the risk of drug-drug interactions by characterizing the influence of myrcludex B on relevant drug transporting and metabolizing enzymes in vitro. METHODS: Inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), and the organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B1 and 1B3 (OATP1B1/SLCO1B1 and OATP1B3/SLCO1B3) was measured in cells over-expressing the respective transporter using fluorogenic substrates...
November 14, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116050/real-world-evidence-for-nucleoside-nucleotide-analogues-in-a-5-year-multicentre-study-of-antiviral-naive-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-in-china-52-week-results
#2
Jidong Jia, Hong Tang, Qin Ning, Jiaji Jiang, Xiaoguang Dou, Mingxiang Zhang, Shuqin Zhang, Jia Shang, Wei Lu, Yinong Ye, Xin Wang, Mingshu Li, Jie Liu, Qingyan Bo, Wenzhong Tan
BACKGROUND: In China, the clinical management of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is complicated by the use of various nucleos(t)ide analogue (NUC) regimens in treatment-naïve patients, including NUCs with low genetic barriers to resistance, with/without add-on therapy and de novo NUC combinations. This longitudinal observational study therefore investigated the real-world clinical management and efficacy of NUC therapy in treatment-naïve CHB patients in China. METHODS: Treatment-naïve CHB patients initiated on NUC therapy were enrolled from 63 hospitals in tier-2 Chinese cities...
November 8, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063860/characterization-of-hcv-resistance-from-a-3-day-monotherapy-study-of-voxilaprevir-a-novel-pangenotypic-ns3-4a-protease-inhibitor
#3
Eric Lawitz, Jenny C Yang, Luisa M Stamm, James G Taylor, Guofeng Cheng, Diana M Brainard, Michael D Miller, Hongmei Mo, Hadas Dvory-Sobol
BACKGROUND: Voxilaprevir (VOX, GS-9857) is a pangenotypic hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor (PI) with potent antiviral activity against HCV genotypes (GTs) 1-6 and improved coverage of GT1 NS3 resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) associated with other HCV PIs. In a 3-day phase 1b monotherapy study in patients infected with HCV GT1a, 1b, 2, 3 and 4, VOX was well tolerated and resulted in maximal mean viral load reduction >3 log10 IU/ml at the 100 mg dose across all genotypes evaluated...
October 24, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063859/meticulous-plasma-isolation-is-essential-to-avoid-false-low-level-viraemia-in-roche-cobas-hiv-1-viral-load-assays
#4
Virginie Mortier, Leen Vancoillie, Kenny Dauwe, Delfien Staelens, Els Demecheleer, Marlies Schauvliege, Sylvie Dinakis, Tom Van Maerken, Géraldine Dessilly, Jean Ruelle, Chris Verhofstede
BACKGROUND: Pre-analytical sample processing is often overlooked as a potential cause of inaccurate assay results. Here we demonstrate how plasma, extracted from standard EDTA- containing blood collection tubes, may contain traces of blood cells consequently resulting in a false low-level HIV-1 viral load when using Roche Cobas HIV-1 assays. METHODS: The presence of human DNA in Roche Cobas 4800 RNA extracts and in RNA extracts from the Abbott HIV-1 RealTime assay was assessed by quantifying the human albumin gene by means of qPCR...
October 24, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022881/primary-hiv-infection-in-patients-with-acute-hepatitis-b-a-report-of-two-cases
#5
Francesca Binda, Elisa Monge, Francesco R Simonetti, Nadia Zanchetta, Massimo Galli, Laura Milazzo, Mario Corbellino, Spinello Antinori
We describe 2 patients admitted to our Institution with a diagnosis of sexually acquired acute hepatitis B who also had underlying hyper acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Both individuals reported high rates of condomless sex. Antiviral therapy active against Hepatitis B virus and HIV was started within days after diagnosis. Treatment was well tolerated and led to a rapid control of both infections and HBsAb seroconversion. The efficacy and safety of contemporary antiretroviral drug combinations suggest that treatment of acute HIV infection is feasible in patients with acute hepatitis B...
October 12, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021409/hiv-1-viral-load-and-resistance-in-genital-secretions-in-patients-taking-protease-inhibitor-based-second-line-therapy-in-africa
#6
Anne Hoppe, Marina Giuliano, Abbas Lugemwa, Jennifer A Thompson, Marco Floridia, Ann S Walker, Ismail Senoga, Mary C Abwola, Maria F Pirillo, Cissy M Kityo, Alejandro Arenas-Pinto, Nicholas I Paton
BACKGROUND: HIV is transmitted primarily through sexual intercourse, and the objective of this study was therefore to assess whether there is occult viral replication and resistance in genital secretions in patients on protease inhibitor (PI)-based second-line therapy. METHODS: HIV-infected adults taking ritonavir-boosted lopinavir with either two NRTIs, raltegravir, or as monotherapy for 96 weeks were enrolled at seven clinical sites in Uganda. Viral load (VL) was measured in cervico-vaginal secretions or semen and in a corresponding plasma sample...
October 11, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994661/vitamin-d-supplementation-decreases-immune-activation-and-exhaustion-in-hiv-1-infected-youth
#7
Allison Ross Eckard, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Julia C Rosebush, Seungeun Thera Lee, Jakob G Habib, Joshua H Ruff, Danielle Labbato, Julie E Daniels, Monika Uribe-Leitz, Vin Tangpricha, Ann Chahroudi, Grace A McComsey
BACKGROUND: Heightened immune activation and exhaustion drive HIV disease progression and co-morbidities. Vitamin D has pleiotropic immunomodulatory effects, but little is known about the effects of supplementation in HIV. Our study investigates changes in immune activation and exhaustion markers after 12 months of supplementation in virologically-suppressed HIV-infected youth with vitamin D insufficiency. METHODS: This is a randomized, active-control, double-blind trial investigating with 3 different vitamin D3 doses [18,000 (standard/active-control dose), 60,000 (moderate dose) and 120,000 IU/monthly (high dose)] in 8-26 year old HIV-infected youth on combination antiretroviral therapy with baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations ≤30 ng/mL...
October 10, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994660/pharmacokinetics-of-rilpivirine-and-24-week-outcomes-after-switching-from-efavirenz-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-1-infected-adolescents
#8
Watsamon Jantarabenjakul, Suvaporn Anugulruengkitt, Naruporn Kasipong, Narukjaporn Thammajaruk, Jiratchaya Sophonphan, Torsak Bunupuradah, Tim R Cressey, Angela Colbers, David M Burger, Wanatpreeya Phongsamart, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Chitsanu Pancharoen
BACKGROUND: Rilpivirine (RPV), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor drug, could be a favorable drug for maintenance therapy in HIV-infected adolescents because it has few long-term side effects. However, data among adolescents switching from efavirenz (EFV) to RPV are limited. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety and efficacy of RPV in virologically-suppressed HIV-1-infected adolescents after switching from EFV. METHODS: Adolescents aged 12-18 years on EFV-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) were switched from EFV to RPV (25 mg, once daily)...
October 10, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994393/quantitative-measurement-of-hcv-core-antigen-for-management-of-interferon-free-therapy-in-hcv-infected-patients
#9
Mariusz Łucejko, Robert Flisiak
BACKGROUND: According to current recommendations diagnosis and management of HCV infection need detection and quantification of nucleic acids. In the era of direct acting antivirals (DAA) it is essential to develop inexpensive and simple method replacing polymerase chain reaction. Since there is no available data on HCV core antigen (HCVcAg) versus HCV RNA kinetics in the early phase of treatment with DAA, we carried out this study to evaluate possible application of HCVcAg quantitative measurement for management of HCV infection...
October 10, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935850/viro-immunological-response-of-drug-naive-hiv-1-infected-patients-starting-a-first-line-regimen-with-viraemia-500-000-copies-ml-in-clinical-practice
#10
Maria Mercedes Santoro, Domenico Di Carlo, Daniele Armenia, Mauro Zaccarelli, Carmela Pinnetti, Manuela Colafigli, Francesca Prati, Andrea Boschi, Anna Maria Degli Antoni, Filippo Lagi, Laura Sighinolfi, Cristina Gervasoni, Massimo Andreoni, Andrea Antinori, Cristina Mussini, Carlo Federico Perno, Vanni Borghi, Gaetana Sterrantino
BACKGROUND: Virological success (VS) and immunological reconstitution (IR) of antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1 infected patients with pre-therapy viral load (VL) >500,000 copies/mL was assessed after 12 months of treatment according to initial drug-class regimens. METHODS: An observational multicenter retrospective study was performed. VS was defined as the first VL <50 copies/mL from treatment start. IR was defined as an increase of at least 150 CD4+ T-lymphocytes from treatment start...
September 22, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933705/durability-of-antiretroviral-therapy-regimens-and-determinants-for-change-in-hiv-1-infected-patients-in-the-treat-asia-hiv-observational-database-tahod-lite
#11
Rosario Martinez-Vega, Nicole L De La Mata, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Penh Sun Ly, Kinh Van Nguyen, Tuti P Merati, Thi Thanh Pham, Man Po Lee, Jun Yong Choi, Jeremy L Ross, Oon Tek Ng
BACKGROUND: The durability of first line regimen is important to achieve long term treatment success for the management of HIV infection. Our analysis describes the duration of sequential ART regimens and identifies the determinants leading to treatment change in HIV-positive patients initiating in Asia. METHODS: All HIV-positive adult patients initiating first-line ART in 2003-2013, from eight clinical sites among seven countries in Asia. Patient follow-up was to May 2014...
September 21, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933704/the-association-between-serum-cytokine-and-chemokine-levels-and-antiviral-response-by-entecavir-treatment-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients
#12
Mio Kurihara, Masataka Tsuge, Eisuke Murakami, Nami Mori, Waka Ohishi, Takuro Uchida, Hatsue Fujino, Takashi Nakahara, Hiromi Abe-Chayama, Tomokazu Kawaoka, Daiki Miki, Akira Hiramatsu, Michio Imamura, Yoshiiku Kawakami, Hiroshi Aikata, Hidenori Ochi, Yizhou Zhang, Grace Naswa Makokha, C Nelson Hayes, Kazuaki Chayama
BACKGROUND: Although Nucleos(t)ide analogue therapy is thought to suppress chronic hepatitis B(CHB) via regulation of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, the mechanism is still unclear. In this study, serum cytokine/chemokine levels were measured in CHB patients treated with entecavir, and the association with antiviral response was analyzed. METHODS: Seventy-eight Japanese patients with CHB were enrolled, and serum cytokine/chemokine levels were measured at baseline and at 12, 24, and 48 weeks of entecavir treatment using the MULTIPLEX kit...
September 21, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933703/longitudinal-study-of-falls-among-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-women-the-role-of-cognition
#13
Anjali Sharma, Donald R Hoover, Qiuhu Shi, Susan Holman, Michael W Plankey, Phyllis C Tien, Kathleen M Weber, Michelle Floris-Moore, Hector H Bolivar, David E Vance, Elizabeth T Golub, Marcia McDonnell Holstad, Michael T Yin
BACKGROUND: Although fracture rates are higher in HIV+ than HIV- women, whether HIV infection increases risk of falls is unclear. We determined the longitudinal occurrence and risk factors for falls in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), and explored associations with cognitive complaints. METHODS: Recent (prior 6 months) self-reported falls were collected in 1816 (1250 HIV+; 566 HIV-) women over 24 months. Generalized estimating equation models using stepwise selection determined odds of any fall (vs...
September 21, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930079/epicardial-adipose-tissue-volume-and-cardiovascular-risk-indices-among-asymptomatic-women-with-and-without-hiv
#14
Suman Srinivasa, Michael T Lu, Kathleen V Fitch, Travis R Hallett, Timothy K O'Malley, Lauren A Stone, Amanda Martin, Alexandra J Coromilas, Tricia H Burdo, Virginia A Triant, Janet Lo, Sara E Looby, Tomas G Neilan, Markella V Zanni
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying the heightened myocardial infarction risk among HIV-infected women (versus non-HIV-infected women) remain unclear. Our objectives were to assess epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume and its associations among asymptomatic women with and without HIV. METHODS: Fifty-five HIV-infected and 27 non-HIV-infected women without known cardiovascular disease who underwent cardiac CT and metabolic/immune phenotyping were included. EAT volume derived from CT was compared among women with and without HIV, and within-group EAT associations were assessed...
September 20, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869418/a-meta-analysis-of-laninamivir-octanoate-for-treatment-and-prophylaxis-of-influenza
#15
Masayoshi Higashiguchi, Tomoshige Matsumoto, Takashi Fujii
BACKGROUND: Laninamivir octanoate is a recently developed inhaled neuraminidase inhibitor for treating influenza virus infection. We performed meta-analyses to clarify the efficacy of laninamivir octanoate on influenza treatment and prevention. METHODS: MEDLINE and CENTRAL were searched to identify eligible studies. The log median time to event ratios (logMRs) and log odds ratios (logORs) were combined with meta-analysis. RESULTS: Nine studies in treatment settings and three studies in prophylaxis settings were eligible for this meta-analysis...
September 4, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799920/3-year-efficacy-and-durability-of-simplification-to-single-tablet-regimens-a-comparison-between-co-formulated-efavirenz-emtricitabine-tenofovir-and-rilpivirine-emtricitabine-tenofovir
#16
Roberta Gagliardini, Alessandra Bandera, Mauro Zaccarelli, Gaetana Sterrantino, Alessandra Latini, Alessandro D'Avino, Giuseppe Lapadula, Andrea Antinori, Roberto Cauda, Andrea De Luca, Andrea Gori, Simona Di Giambenedetto, Massimiliano Fabbiani
BACKGROUND: Few data are available about efficacy and durability of simplification from multi-tablet antiretroviral regimens to co-formulated efavirenz(EFV)/emtricitabine(FTC)/tenofovir(TDF) versus rilpivirine(RPV)/emtricitabine/tenofovir in virologically-suppressed HIV-1-infected patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed HIV-infected patients with HIV-RNA<50copies/mL switching to co-formulated EFV/FTC/TDF or RPV/FTC/TDF at 5 Italian centers. Patients were followed from time of switch until regimen discontinuation or a maximum of 3-years follow-up...
August 11, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799919/virological-outcomes-of-evg-cobi-ftc-tdf-and-evg-cobi-ftc-taf-in-antiretroviral-naive-hiv-1-infected-participants-with-baseline-hiv-1-rna-%C3%A2-1-000-000-copies-ml-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-phase-3-clinical-trials
#17
LETTER
Paul Sax, Edwin DeJesus, David Wohl, Jennifer DeMorin, Damian McColl, David Piontkowsky, Calvin Cohen, Hui Wang, Kirsten White, Christian Callebaut, Martin Rhee, Moupali Das, Erin Quirk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799522/sustained-virological-response-by-direct-antiviral-agents-in-hcv-leads-to-an-early-and-significant-improvement-of-liver-fibrosis
#18
Marcello Persico, Valerio Rosato, Andrea Aglitti, Davide Precone, Mariano Corrado, Antonio De Luna, Filomena Morisco, Silvia Camera, Alessandro Federico, Marcello Dallio, Ernesto Claar, Nicola Caporaso, Mario Masarone
BACKGROUND: Direct Antiviral Agents (DAA) demonstrated high efficacy among HCV-infected patients in registered trials. Nevertheless, the impact of these therapies on liver stiffness measurement(LSM) and liver functionality in "real-life" is not well-known. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the SVR impact on LSM and clinical parameters of DAA-therapy on a real-life population of HCV patients with F3/F4 fibrosis. METHODS: 749 HCV genotype 1-4 patients with F3/F4 hepatitis undergoing antiviral therapy, were consecutively enrolled in four centers of Hepatology of Italy...
August 11, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731422/frailty-in-men-living-with-hiv-a-cross-sectional-comparison-of-three-frailty-instruments
#19
Hui-Ling Yeoh, Allen Cheng, Clovis Palmer, Suzanne M Crowe, Jennifer F Hoy
BACKGROUND: Potent antiretroviral treatment has resulted in near normal life expectancy for people living with HIV. Consequently, there is an increased focus on comorbidities, frailty and quality of life. METHODS: We assessed and compared the prevalence of frailty, associated factors and relationship with quality of life in older Australian men living with HIV in a cross-sectional study using three frailty measurements. The Frailty Phenotype, Frailty Index, and Edmonton Frail Scale were applied to 93 HIV-infected men aged over 50 years, on antiretroviral therapy...
July 21, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730994/baseline-and-post-treatment-hepatitis-c-ns5a-resistance-in-relapsed-patients-from-a-multicentric-real-life-cohort
#20
Philippe Halfon, Caroline Scholtès, Jacques Izopet, Sylvie Larrat, Pascale Trimoulet, Fabien Zoulim, Laurent Alric, Sophie Métivier, Vincent Leroy, Denis Ouzan, Victor de Lédinghen, Sofiane Mohamed, Guillaume Pénaranda, Hacène Khiri, Marie-Ange Thélu, Anne Plauzolles, Laurent Chiche, Marc Bourlière, Florence Abravanel
BACKGROUND: Recent data have suggested that failure to achieve sustained virological response with direct-acting antiviral therapy is usually due to relapse and is primarily associated with the emergence of resistance-associated substitutions. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and characterization of non-structural-5A resistance-associated substitutions in patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotypes 1, 3, and 4 treated by direct-acting antiviral therapy, including anti- non-structural-5A, and to characterize the preexisting resistance-associated substitutions in subjects treated with anti- non-structural-5A inhibitors...
July 21, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
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