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Antiviral Therapy

Yik-Kei Chan, Rity Yk Wong, Margaret Ip, Nelson Ls Lee, Joyce Hs You
BACKGROUND: To describe direct medical costs of influenza in hospitalized elderly, with and without intensive care unit (ICU) admission, during the 2014-2015 season in Hong Kong. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in 110 inpatients aged ≥65 years with laboratory-confirmed influenza treated by antiviral therapy during season 2014-2015 in a tertiary hospital. Resource utilization of influenza-related diagnostic and laboratory tests, medications for influenza treatment, usage of general medical ward and ICU during the influenza-related length of hospital stay (IR-LOS) were collected...
October 14, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Mitch M Matoga, Mina C Hosseinipour, Evgenia Aga, Heather J Ribaudo, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, John Bartlett, Michael D Hughes
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an emerging concern for HIV-infected patients. Hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for CVD and a complication of protease-inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy, but little is known about its incidence and risk factors in treated patients in resource-limited settings (RLS). METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of ACTG A5230 trial in which HIV-infected adults from India, Malawi, Tanzania, Thailand and South Africa, with virologic relapse on first line therapy were initiated on lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy...
October 14, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Nicholas T Funderburg, Dihua Xu, Martin P Playford, Aditya A Joshi, Adriana Andrade, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Michael M Lederman, Nehal N Mehta
BACKGROUND: Persons infected with HIV often have altered lipid profiles that may be affected by antiretroviral therapies (ART). Traditional lipid measurements may be insufficient to assess cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in this population. METHODS: We report results from 39 ART-naïve participants in a substudy of A5248, a single-arm study of raltegravir (RAL), emtricitabine/tenofovir administration. Samples were collected at baseline, 12, 24, and 48 weeks after ART initiation...
October 14, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Patricia Pérez-Matute, José G Pichel, María Iñiguez, Emma Recio-Fernández, Laura Pérez-Martínez, Raquel Torrens, José Ramón Blanco, José Antonio Oteo
BACKGROUND: Any strategy designed to decrease the macrophage content in adipose tissue (AT) is of great value as a way to decrease inflammation in this fat depot and also as a way to prevent or treat obesity and associated disorders. Maraviroc (MVC), a CCR5 antagonist approved for the treatment of HIV-infected patients, has beneficial effects on metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of MVC on AT macrophage recruitment in a mouse model of obesity. The plausible underlying mechanisms of action were also investigated...
October 11, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Paul Randell, Akil Jackson, Ana Milinkovic, Marta Boffito, Graeme Moyle
BACKGROUND: We aimed to measure the effect of raltegravir (RAL) on insulin sensitivity and surrogates of CV risk in healthy HIV-seronegative volunteers compared to that of lopinavir/r (LPV/r), a positive control. METHODS: An open label, two phase crossover study in HIV-negative male subjects randomized 1:1 to receive either 2 weeks of LPV/r followed by a two week washout period and two weeks of RAL, or RAL initially followed by LPV/r. A hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp was performed prior to and following each 2-week dosing phase...
October 6, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Amandine Cournil, Arsène Hema, Sabrina Eymard-Duvernay, Laura Ciaffi, Stéphanie Badiou, Firmin N Kabore, Assane Diouf, Liliane Ayangma, Vincent Le Moing, Jacques Reynes, Sinata Koulla-Shiro, Eric Delaporte
BACKGROUND: To investigate change in renal function in African patients initiating second line ART including ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) with or without tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). METHODS: HIV-1 positive adults, failing standard first line ART were randomized to either TDF/FTC+LPV/r; ABC+ddI+LPV/r or TDF/FTC+DRV/r and followed until 18 months. Patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 60 ml/min/1,73m(2) at baseline were included in this analysis...
October 5, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Yohei Funatsu, Sadatomo Tasaka, Takahiro Asami, Ho Namkoong, Hiroshi Fujiwara, Osamu Iketani, Kazuma Yagi, Yoshifumi Kimizuka, Makoto Ishii, Tomoyasu Nishimura, Haruhiko Ogata, Satoshi Iwata, Tomoko Betsuyaku, Naoki Hasegawa
BACKGROUND: Some subtypes of influenza virus, such as H5N1 and H7N9, cause severe viral pneumonia, for which the intraluminal concentration of the anti-influenza agent in the airway is critical. However, the pharmacokinetics of peramivir, the only available injectable neuraminidase inhibitor formulation, in the airway epithelial lining fluid (ELF) remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine the time course of peramivir in the pharyngeal ELF, bronchial ELF, and plasma of healthy volunteers using bronchoscopic microsampling technique...
October 3, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Stefan Mauss, Florian Berger, Malte H Wehmeyer, Patrick Ingiliz, Dietrich Hueppe, Thomas Lutz, Karl G Simon, Knud Schewe, Juergen K Rockstroh, Axel Baumgarten, Stefan Christensen
HCV has complex interactions with human lipid metabolism leading to down regulation of cholesterol levels. Interferon therapy has been shown to decrease cholesterol even further. With the availability of second generation direct acting antiviral agents (DAA) the effect of suppressing and eliminating HCV on lipid metabolism warrants reevaluation. 
Methods: Prospective German multicenter cohort on HCV- and HIV/HCV-infected patients treated with direct antiviral agents (GECCO). Lipids were assessed at baseline, during and after therapy...
September 29, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Amedeo F Capetti, Giancarlo Orofino, Gaetana Sterrantino, Maria V Cossu, Giovanni Cenderello, Anna M Cattelan, Giuseppe V De Socio, Stefano Rusconi, Niccolò Riccardi, Gian M Baldin, Serena Cima, Fosca P Niero, Giuliano Rizzardini, Lolita Sasset
BACKGROUND: Dolutegravir plus darunavir provide high genetic barrier to HIV-1 resistance and fit for simple salvage regimens. METHODS: All HIV-1 infected subjects treated with dolutegravir plus boosted darunavir dual therapy between March 2011 and September 2015 were included in an observational cohort. Data were collected at baseline and at weeks 4, 12, 24 and 48. RESULTS: We enrolled 113 subjects. After week 24 one was lost at follow-up, one dropped out for grade 2 elevation of liver enzimes, one died from illicit drug abuse and one from cancer-related sepsis...
September 23, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Theodoros Kelesidis, Thuy Tien T Tran, Todd T Brown, Carlee Moser, Heather J Ribaudo, Michael P Dube, Otto O Yang, Grace A McComsey, James H Stein, Judith S Currier
BACKGROUND: The role of oxidized lipoproteins (high-density [HDLox] and low-density [LDLox]) and total lipoprotein particle (Lp) number and size in HIV-related cardiovascular disease (CVD) is unclear. The goal of this study was to evaluate changes of these biomarkers and their associations with rate of carotid intima media thickness progression over 3 years (ΔCIMT) in chronic HIV infection. METHODS: Prospective study of 234 HIV-infected antiretroviral treatment naïve participants without CVD who were randomized to receive tenofovir-emtricitabine plus atazanavir/ritonavir, darunavir/ ritonavir, or raltegravir (RAL) and achieved plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/ml by week 24 and thereafter...
September 23, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Hussien Ahmed, Ahmed Elgebaly, Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Ali Mohamed Hammad, Attia Attia, Ahmed Negida
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Michelle S Park, Corrilynn O Hileman, Abdus Sattar, Robert Gilkeson, Grace A McComsey
BACKGROUND: Chest imaging is performed for a variety of reasons in HIV-infected adults. There are limited data on the prevalence of incidental findings, progression of these findings over time and the relationship with inflammation in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated HIV-infected adults. METHODS: This study utilized data from a randomized clinical trial of rosuvastatin in HIV-infected adults on ART. Incidental findings were reported from chest computed tomography (CT) scans obtained for coronary artery calcium score at entry, week 48 and 96...
September 20, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Luther Gwaza, John Gordon, Jan Welink, Henrike Potthast, Hubert Leufkens, Matthias Stahl, Alfredo García-Arieta
BACKGROUND: The scaling up of access to antiretroviral therapy, particularly in low- to middle-income countries, was facilitated by the introduction and widespread use of generic antiretroviral medicines and fixed dose combinations. Generic medicines are approved by regulatory authorities based on the demonstration of bioequivalence with the innovator or reference product, as well as meeting quality standards. In clinical practice, however, it is not unusual for generics to be interchanged between each other...
September 20, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Eiichi Ogawa, Norihiro Furusyo, Masayuki Murata, Motohiro Shimizu, Kazuhiro Toyoda, Taeko Hotta, Takeshi Uchiumi, Jun Hayashi
BACKGROUND: On-treatment hepatitis C virus (HCV) kinetics play an invaluable role in evaluating the efficacy of interferon-based therapies. However, the importance of HCV RNA monitoring has not been well discussed concerning treatment with sofosbuvir (SOF)-based regimens, especially for the utility of the Abbott RealTime HCV (ART) assay. METHODS: This study consisted of 151 patients infected with HCV genotype 1 or 2, including patients with prior treatment-experience or cirrhosis...
September 15, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Suzanne Sheppard-Law, Iryna Zablotska-Manos, Melissa Kermeen, Susan Holdaway, Alice Lee, Amany Zekry, Gregory J Dore, Jacob George, Lisa Maher
BACKGROUND: Little is known about non-adherence to Hepatitis B virus (HBV) therapy. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between self-reported missed days of anti-viral therapy and HBV virological breakthrough and factors associated with virological breakthrough. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 211 HBV patients receiving oral anti-viral therapies was undertaken at three tertiary hospitals in Sydney, Australia. Associations between 0 to > 6 missed days in the last 30 days and virological breakthrough (defined as > 10-fold rise in serum HBV DNA above nadir or after achieving virological response in the last 12 months) were examined...
September 15, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Thomas Tesson, Mathieu Blot, Aurélie Fillion, Hama Djerad, Joséphine Cagnon-Chapalain, Aline Creuwels, Anne Waldner, Michel Duong, Marielle Buisson, Sophie Mahy, Pascal Chavanet, Lionel Piroth
BACKGROUND: First-line antiretroviral therapy (1(st) ART) is an important step in a patient's management and often considered a long-term therapy at treatment initiation. METHODS: To describe the duration of 1(st) ART and the factors associated with treatment modification in a recent real-life setting, antiretroviral-naïve patients who began their 1(st)ART in six French hospitals in 2009-2012 were included in a cohort. Clinical, immunological, virological and therapeutic data, as well as the reasons for therapeutic changes, if any, were retrospectively collected...
September 7, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Hussien Ahmed, Ahmed Elgebaly, Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Ali Mohamed Hammad, Attia Attia, Ahmed Negida
BACKGROUND: Ledipasvir and sofosbuvir are new direct-acting antiviral for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Ledipasvir inhibits the hepatitis C virus non-structural 5A protein, while sofosbuvir is a nucleotide polymerase inhibitor. Many studies evaluated the safety and efficacy of ledipasvir and sofosbuvir combination with and without Ribavirin for patients with chronic HCV genotype 1. METHODS: A computer literature search of PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of knowledge, and Cochrane CENTRAL has been conducted...
September 2, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Celia Oldenbuettel, Eva Wolf, Ayla Ritter, Sebastian Noe, Silke Heldwein, Rita Pascucci, Carmen Wiese, Ariane Von Krosigk, Eva Jaegel-Guedes, Hans Jaeger, Annamaria Balogh, Christine Koegl, Christoph D Spinner
BACKGROUND: The potential toxicity of long-term antiretroviral treatment (ART) requires ongoing investigation of novel strategies for treatment of HIV-infected patients. Monotherapy with the integrase inhibitor (INSTI) dolutegravir (DTG) may offer a favorable safety profile. Additionally, DTG has a high barrier of resistance, crucial for successful maintenance of virologic control. However, published data is sparse. METHODS: Retrospective, single-center cohort study...
September 2, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Hidenori Toyoda, Toshifumi Tada, Yoshihiko Tachi, Takanori Hirai, Satoshi Yasuda, Takashi Honda, Kazuhiko Hayashi, Masatoshi Ishigami, Hidemi Goto, Takashi Kumada
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis C can develop after sustained virologic response (SVR) to antiviral therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV), i.e., the eradication of HCV, and effective surveillance systems for HCC should be established for this population. We retrospectively evaluated the utility of three laboratory liver fibrosis indices (aspartate aminotransferase-platelet ratio index [APRI], FIB-4 index, and Forns index) for identifying patients at low risk of HCC development after SVR, for whom the termination of surveillance for HCC can be considered...
September 2, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
Nicolò Girometti, Nneka Nwokolo, Alan McOwan, Gary Whitlock
Few data exist on the benefits and acceptability of rapid initiation of antiretroviral treatment in acute HIV infection (AHI). We analyzed a large cohort of acutely infected HIV patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) to determine uptake, linkage into care and time to achieve viral suppression. 
Methods: Case-notes of all individuals diagnosed with AHI between May 2014 and October 2015 at 56 Dean Street, a sexual health clinic in London, UK were reviewed. AHI was defined through documentation of plasma HIV-RNA positivity only, plasma HIV-RNA and p24 antigen positivity with a negative HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test, or HIV EIA test switching from negative to positive within six weeks...
September 2, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
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