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Antiviral Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303483/uptake-of-tenofovir-based-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-hbv-coinfected-patients-in-the-eurosida-study
#1
Lars Peters, Amanda Mocroft, Daniel Grint, Santiago Moreno, Alexandra Calmy, Djordje Jevtovic, Helen Sambatakou, Karine Lacombe, Stephane De Wit, Jürgen Rockstroh, Jelena Smidt, Igor Karpov, Anna Grzeszczuk, Vesnadarjan Haziosmanovic, Magnus Gottfredsson, Roxana Radoi, Elena Kuzovatova, Chloe Orkin, Anna Lisa Ridolfo, Jose Zapirain, Jens Lundgren
BACKGROUND: According to guidelines all HIV/HBV co-infected patients should receive tenofovir-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We aimed to investigate uptake and outcomes of tenofovir-based cART among HIV/HBV patients in the EuroSIDA study. METHODS: All HBsAg+ patients followed up after 1 March 2002 were included. Changes in the proportion taking tenofovir-based cART over time were described. Poisson regression was used to investigate the relationship between tenofovir use and clinical events...
January 5, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300166/a-systematic-review-of-zika-virus-hurdles-toward-vaccine-development-and-the-way-forward
#2
Azizul Haque, Faruk Berat Akçeşme, Anudeep B Pant
The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic has recently emerged as public health threat due to its teratogenic nature and association with the serious neurological condition Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). To date, no approved antiviral therapeutics or vaccines are available to confront ZIKV. In order to develop effective anti-ZIKV vaccines, improved animal models and a better understanding of immunological correlates of protection against ZIKV are required. In this paper, we discuss the recent progress in developing vaccines against ZIKV and the hurdles to overcome in making efficacious anti-Zika vaccines...
January 4, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300165/the-relevance-of-drug-drug-interactions-in-clinical-practice-the-case-of-concomitant-boosted-protease-inhibitors-plus-alpha1-blocker-administration
#3
LETTER
Cristina Gervasoni, Chiara Resnati, Tiziana Formenti, Alessandro Fossati, Davide Minisci, Paola Meraviglia, Dario Cattaneo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244026/jnj-63623872-treatment-in-adult-volunteers-experimentally-inoculated-with-live-influenza-virus-a-phase-iia-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#4
Jose M Trevejo, Mohammed Asmal, Johan Vingerhoets, Ramon Polo, Sarah Robertson, Ying Jiang, Tara L Kieffer, Lorant Leopold
BACKGROUND: JNJ-63623872 is a novel, non-nucleoside polymerase complex inhibitor with in vitro activity against influenza A virus, including pandemic 2009 H1N1, H7N9, H5N1 strains as well as neuraminidase-and amantadine-resistant strains. METHODS: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase 2a study. Healthy volunteers (N = 104) were inoculated with an influenza A/Wisconsin/67/2005 (H3N2) challenge virus. 72 received JNJ-63623872 and 32 placebo. JNJ-63623872 was dosed for 5 days once daily from 24 hours after viral inoculation at four dose levels: 100 mg, 400 mg, loading dose 900/600 mg and loading dose 1200/600 mg...
December 15, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185991/pharmacokinetics-of-favipiravir-during-continuous-venovenous-haemofiltration-in-a-critically-ill-patient-with-influenza
#5
Laurent Ma Favié, Jean-Luc Murk, Adam Meijer, A Laura Nijstad, Erik M van Maarseveen, Maaike A Sikma
Favipiravir is a novel antiviral drug approved for influenza treatment in Japan. Little is known about favipiravir pharmacokinetics in critically ill patients. Here, we report a patient with influenza treated with favipiravir and undergoing continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) on the Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary hospital in the Netherlands. Pharmacokinetic analyses showed increased clearance and decreased plasma levels compared to healthy volunteers. CVVH has no clinically relevant contribution to total clearance...
November 29, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171838/frailty-is-thy-name%C3%A2-universal-evolving-challenges-of-managing-effectively-treated-older-people-living-with-hiv
#6
Julian Falutz
The increased survival of treated people living with HIV (PLWH) represents a tremendous accomplishment. However, this has not been accompanied by uniform improvements in quality of life. Many PLWH prematurely develop age-related complications and traditional geriatric syndromes, including frailty. This is a potentially reversible state of vulnerability to adverse outcomes. Its operationalization remains challenging. The most commonly used tools, the frailty phenotype and the frailty index, have their advantages and limitations, but predict similar poor outcomes...
November 24, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171837/inflammation-investigated-as-a-source-of-pharmacokinetic-variability-of-atazanavir-in-aids-clinical-trials-group-protocol-a5224s
#7
Charles S Venuto, Jihoon Lim, Susan Messing, Peter W Hunt, Grace A McComsey, Gene D Morse
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is associated with the downregulation of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Thus, we investigated the chronic inflammatory state associated with HIV-infection as a source of pharmacokinetic variability of atazanavir. We also explored the association of total bilirubin concentrations with markers of inflammation and endothelial activation. METHODS: Apparent oral clearance (CL/F) of atazanavir was estimated from plasma samples collected from participants in AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5202...
November 24, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168696/correlation-between-entecavir-penetration-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-and-hbv-dna-decay-during-treatment-of-hbeag-negative-chronic-hepatitis-b
#8
Amedeo De Nicolò, Lucio Boglione, Jessica Cusato, Giovanna Fatiguso, Fabio Favata, Sarah Allegra, Giuseppe Cariti, Giovanni Di Perri, Antonio D'Avolio
BACKGROUND: Recently, due to its high effectiveness and tolerability, the treatment of chronic hepatitis B with entecavir became a standard practice. However, limited knowledge is currently available about its pharmacokinetic behavior and intracellular disposition. Recently, our group reported an inverse correlation between entecavir plasma concentrations and the HBV DNA decay at the first and third month of treatment, respectively. ​: In this paper we investigated the disposition of entecavir in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and in plasma, in order to evaluate the relationship between intracellular penetration and response, in a cohort of naïve patients with HBeAg-negative CHB...
November 23, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168695/tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-as-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-in-women-with-osteoporosis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Rupa R Patel, Rachel Presti, Laura C Harrison, William G Powderly, Philip A Chan
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), using tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), can effectively prevent HIV acquisition. However, TDF can cause changes in bone mineral density (BMD). There is little information on the use of PrEP among patients with bone disease. We present a case report of a female with pre-existing osteoporosis who was prescribed PrEP. Over the course of nine months of consistent PrEP use, verified by dried blood spot testing, we report a lack of BMD changes on serial dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry scans in this patient...
November 23, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134945/drug-drug-interaction-potential-of-the-hepatitis-b-and-hepatitis-d-virus-entry-inhibitor-myrcludex-b-assessed-in-vitro
#10
Antje Blank, Katrin Meier, Stephan Urban, Walter Emil Haefeli, Johanna Weiss
BACKGROUND: Myrcludex B is a first-in-class virus entry inhibitor for patients with chronic hepatitis B or B/D infections. In patients it will be co-administered with drugs needed for the disease or comorbidities. We aimed to define the risk of drug-drug interactions by characterizing the influence of myrcludex B on relevant drug transporting and metabolizing enzymes in vitro. METHODS: Inhibition of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), and the organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B1 and 1B3 (OATP1B1/SLCO1B1 and OATP1B3/SLCO1B3) was measured in cells over-expressing the respective transporter using fluorogenic substrates...
November 14, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116050/real-world-evidence-for-nucleoside-nucleotide-analogues-in-a-5-year-multicentre-study-of-antiviral-naive-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-in-china-52-week-results
#11
Jidong Jia, Hong Tang, Qin Ning, Jiaji Jiang, Xiaoguang Dou, Mingxiang Zhang, Shuqin Zhang, Jia Shang, Wei Lu, Yinong Ye, Xin Wang, Mingshu Li, Jie Liu, Qingyan Bo, Wenzhong Tan
BACKGROUND: In China, the clinical management of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is complicated by the use of various nucleos(t)ide analogue (NUC) regimens in treatment-naïve patients, including NUCs with low genetic barriers to resistance, with/without add-on therapy and de novo NUC combinations. This longitudinal observational study therefore investigated the real-world clinical management and efficacy of NUC therapy in treatment-naïve CHB patients in China. METHODS: Treatment-naïve CHB patients initiated on NUC therapy were enrolled from 63 hospitals in tier-2 Chinese cities...
November 8, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063860/characterization-of-hcv-resistance-from-a-3-day-monotherapy-study-of-voxilaprevir-a-novel-pangenotypic-ns3-4a-protease-inhibitor
#12
Eric Lawitz, Jenny C Yang, Luisa M Stamm, James G Taylor, Guofeng Cheng, Diana M Brainard, Michael D Miller, Hongmei Mo, Hadas Dvory-Sobol
BACKGROUND: Voxilaprevir (VOX, GS-9857) is a pangenotypic hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor (PI) with potent antiviral activity against HCV genotypes (GTs) 1-6 and improved coverage of GT1 NS3 resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) associated with other HCV PIs. In a 3-day phase 1b monotherapy study in patients infected with HCV GT1a, 1b, 2, 3 and 4, VOX was well tolerated and resulted in maximal mean viral load reduction >3 log10 IU/ml at the 100 mg dose across all genotypes evaluated...
October 24, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063859/meticulous-plasma-isolation-is-essential-to-avoid-false-low-level-viraemia-in-roche-cobas-hiv-1-viral-load-assays
#13
Virginie Mortier, Leen Vancoillie, Kenny Dauwe, Delfien Staelens, Els Demecheleer, Marlies Schauvliege, Sylvie Dinakis, Tom Van Maerken, Géraldine Dessilly, Jean Ruelle, Chris Verhofstede
BACKGROUND: Pre-analytical sample processing is often overlooked as a potential cause of inaccurate assay results. Here we demonstrate how plasma, extracted from standard EDTA- containing blood collection tubes, may contain traces of blood cells consequently resulting in a false low-level HIV-1 viral load when using Roche Cobas HIV-1 assays. METHODS: The presence of human DNA in Roche Cobas 4800 RNA extracts and in RNA extracts from the Abbott HIV-1 RealTime assay was assessed by quantifying the human albumin gene by means of qPCR...
October 24, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022881/primary-hiv-infection-in-patients-with-acute-hepatitis-b-a-report-of-two-cases
#14
Francesca Binda, Elisa Monge, Francesco R Simonetti, Nadia Zanchetta, Massimo Galli, Laura Milazzo, Mario Corbellino, Spinello Antinori
We describe 2 patients admitted to our Institution with a diagnosis of sexually acquired acute hepatitis B who also had underlying hyper acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Both individuals reported high rates of condomless sex. Antiviral therapy active against Hepatitis B virus and HIV was started within days after diagnosis. Treatment was well tolerated and led to a rapid control of both infections and HBsAb seroconversion. The efficacy and safety of contemporary antiretroviral drug combinations suggest that treatment of acute HIV infection is feasible in patients with acute hepatitis B...
October 12, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021409/hiv-1-viral-load-and-resistance-in-genital-secretions-in-patients-taking-protease-inhibitor-based-second-line-therapy-in-africa
#15
Anne Hoppe, Marina Giuliano, Abbas Lugemwa, Jennifer A Thompson, Marco Floridia, Ann S Walker, Ismail Senoga, Mary C Abwola, Maria F Pirillo, Cissy M Kityo, Alejandro Arenas-Pinto, Nicholas I Paton
BACKGROUND: HIV is transmitted primarily through sexual intercourse, and the objective of this study was therefore to assess whether there is occult viral replication and resistance in genital secretions in patients on protease inhibitor (PI)-based second-line therapy. METHODS: HIV-infected adults taking ritonavir-boosted lopinavir with either two NRTIs, raltegravir, or as monotherapy for 96 weeks were enrolled at seven clinical sites in Uganda. Viral load (VL) was measured in cervico-vaginal secretions or semen and in a corresponding plasma sample...
October 11, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994661/vitamin-d-supplementation-decreases-immune-activation-and-exhaustion-in-hiv-1-infected-youth
#16
Allison Ross Eckard, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Julia C Rosebush, Seungeun Thera Lee, Jakob G Habib, Joshua H Ruff, Danielle Labbato, Julie E Daniels, Monika Uribe-Leitz, Vin Tangpricha, Ann Chahroudi, Grace A McComsey
BACKGROUND: Heightened immune activation and exhaustion drive HIV disease progression and co-morbidities. Vitamin D has pleiotropic immunomodulatory effects, but little is known about the effects of supplementation in HIV. Our study investigates changes in immune activation and exhaustion markers after 12 months of supplementation in virologically-suppressed HIV-infected youth with vitamin D insufficiency. METHODS: This is a randomized, active-control, double-blind trial investigating with 3 different vitamin D3 doses [18,000 (standard/active-control dose), 60,000 (moderate dose) and 120,000 IU/monthly (high dose)] in 8-26 year old HIV-infected youth on combination antiretroviral therapy with baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations ≤30 ng/mL...
October 10, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994660/pharmacokinetics-of-rilpivirine-and-24-week-outcomes-after-switching-from-efavirenz-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-1-infected-adolescents
#17
Watsamon Jantarabenjakul, Suvaporn Anugulruengkitt, Naruporn Kasipong, Narukjaporn Thammajaruk, Jiratchaya Sophonphan, Torsak Bunupuradah, Tim R Cressey, Angela Colbers, David M Burger, Wanatpreeya Phongsamart, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Chitsanu Pancharoen
BACKGROUND: Rilpivirine (RPV), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor drug, could be a favorable drug for maintenance therapy in HIV-infected adolescents because it has few long-term side effects. However, data among adolescents switching from efavirenz (EFV) to RPV are limited. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics (PK), safety and efficacy of RPV in virologically-suppressed HIV-1-infected adolescents after switching from EFV. METHODS: Adolescents aged 12-18 years on EFV-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) were switched from EFV to RPV (25 mg, once daily)...
October 10, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994393/quantitative-measurement-of-hcv-core-antigen-for-management-of-interferon-free-therapy-in-hcv-infected-patients
#18
Mariusz Łucejko, Robert Flisiak
BACKGROUND: According to current recommendations diagnosis and management of HCV infection need detection and quantification of nucleic acids. In the era of direct acting antivirals (DAA) it is essential to develop inexpensive and simple method replacing polymerase chain reaction. Since there is no available data on HCV core antigen (HCVcAg) versus HCV RNA kinetics in the early phase of treatment with DAA, we carried out this study to evaluate possible application of HCVcAg quantitative measurement for management of HCV infection...
October 10, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935850/viro-immunological-response-of-drug-naive-hiv-1-infected-patients-starting-a-first-line-regimen-with-viraemia-500-000-copies-ml-in-clinical-practice
#19
Maria Mercedes Santoro, Domenico Di Carlo, Daniele Armenia, Mauro Zaccarelli, Carmela Pinnetti, Manuela Colafigli, Francesca Prati, Andrea Boschi, Anna Maria Degli Antoni, Filippo Lagi, Laura Sighinolfi, Cristina Gervasoni, Massimo Andreoni, Andrea Antinori, Cristina Mussini, Carlo Federico Perno, Vanni Borghi, Gaetana Sterrantino
BACKGROUND: Virological success (VS) and immunological reconstitution (IR) of antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1 infected patients with pre-therapy viral load (VL) >500,000 copies/mL was assessed after 12 months of treatment according to initial drug-class regimens. METHODS: An observational multicenter retrospective study was performed. VS was defined as the first VL <50 copies/mL from treatment start. IR was defined as an increase of at least 150 CD4+ T-lymphocytes from treatment start...
September 22, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933705/durability-of-antiretroviral-therapy-regimens-and-determinants-for-change-in-hiv-1-infected-patients-in-the-treat-asia-hiv-observational-database-tahod-lite
#20
Rosario Martinez-Vega, Nicole L De La Mata, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Penh Sun Ly, Kinh Van Nguyen, Tuti P Merati, Thi Thanh Pham, Man Po Lee, Jun Yong Choi, Jeremy L Ross, Oon Tek Ng
BACKGROUND: The durability of first line regimen is important to achieve long term treatment success for the management of HIV infection. Our analysis describes the duration of sequential ART regimens and identifies the determinants leading to treatment change in HIV-positive patients initiating in Asia. METHODS: All HIV-positive adult patients initiating first-line ART in 2003-2013, from eight clinical sites among seven countries in Asia. Patient follow-up was to May 2014...
September 21, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
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