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Antiviral Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327462/neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-hiv-infected-youth-investigating-the-relationship-with-immune-activation
#1
Allison Ross Eckard, Julia C Rosebush, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Chanda C Graves, Ashley Alexander, Anita K Grover, S Thera Lee, Jakob G Habib, Joshua H Ruff, Ann Chahroudi, Grace A McComsey
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk of neurocognitive impairment compared to the general population. Studies suggest that, despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV infection causes immune activation which results in neural damage; however, few data exist in HIV-infected youth. METHODS: HIV-infected youth 8-26 years old on cART with virologic suppression were prospectively enrolled along with healthy controls. Neurocognitive performance was assessed by age-appropriate Wechsler Intelligence Scales...
March 22, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327461/muscle-strength-is-impaired-in-men-but-not-in-women-living-with-hiv-taking-antiretroviral-therapy
#2
Vitor Hf Oliveira, Susana L Wiechmann, Argéria Ms Narciso, Allison R Webel, Rafael Deminice
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that HIV Antiretroviral Therapy adverse effects may be sex-dependent, but data examing these sex differences in muscle strength is scarce. Our aim was to compare dynamic and isokinetic parameters of muscle strength between HIV-infected men and women to HIV-uninfected subjects. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, muscle strength was evaluated in 44 HIV-infected (20 men, 24 women) and 25 age-, race- and body mass index-matched HIV-uninfected subjects (11 men, 14 women)...
March 22, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300730/the-enrichment-of-hbv-immune-escape-mutations-during-nucleoside-nucleotide-analogue-therapy
#3
Menglin Shan, Zhen Shen, Hua Sun, Jianghua Zheng, Min Zhang
BACKGROUND: Drug-resistant HBV mutants frequently arise during nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) therapy, while the resistance mutations on polymerase also have consequent changes in the S protein. Besides, the enrichment of immune-escape mutations was negatively correlated with HBsAg clearance under NAs therapy. This study aims to characterize the variability of hepatitis B virus polymerase and surface antigen in patients with virologic breakthrough under nucleos(t)ide analogues therapy...
March 16, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291736/association-of-vitamin-d-related-genetic-variations-and-treatment-response-to-pegylated-interferon-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#4
Umaporn Limothai, Natthaya Chuaypen, Apichaya Khlaiphuengsin, Salyavit Chittmittraprap, Yong Poovorawan, Pisit Tangkijvanich
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D, a potent immune-modulator, has been linked to the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). This study was aimed at investigating the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in vitamin D-related genes and treatment response to pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) in patients with CHB. METHODS: A total 275 Thai patients (122 HBeAg-positive and 153 HBeAg-negative CHB) treated with 48-week PEG-IFN were recruited. Virological response (VR) at 48 weeks post treatment was defined as HBeAg seroconversion plus HBV DNA <2,000 IU/mL for HBeAg-positive CHB and HBV DNA <2,000 IU/mL for HBeAg-negative CHB...
March 14, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291735/cd4-cd8-ratio-comparison-between-cohorts-of-hiv-positive-asians-and-caucasians-upon-commencement-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#5
Kathy Petoumenos, Jun Yong Choi, Jennifer Hoy, Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul, Oon Tek Ng, Mark Boyd, Reena Rajasuriar, Matthew Law
BACKGROUND: In the era of effective antiretroviral treatment (ART) CD4:CD8 ratio is proposed as a potential marker for HIV-positive (HIV+) patients at increased risk for non-AIDS comorbidities. The current study aims to compare CD4:CD8 ratio between Asian and Caucasian HIV+ patients. METHODS: HIV+ patients from the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) and the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) meeting specific criteria were included. In these analyses Asian and Caucasian status were defined by cohort...
March 14, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287396/topical-treatment-of-herpes-simplex-virus-infection-with-enzymatically-created-sirna-swarm
#6
Henrik Paavilainen, Jenni Lehtinen, Alesia Romanovskaya, Michaela Nygårdas, Dennis H Bamford, Minna M Poranen, Veijo Hukkanen
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a common human pathogen. Despite current antivirals, it causes a significant medical burden. Drug resistant strains exist and they are especially prevalent in immunocompromised patients and in HSV eye infections. New treatment modalities are needed. METHODS: BALB/c mice were corneally infected with HSV and subsequently treated with a swarm of enzymatically created, Dicer-substrate small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules that targeted the HSV gene UL29...
March 13, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272019/geniposide-demonstrates-anti-inflammatory-and-antiviral-activity-against-pandemic-a-jiangsu-1-2009-h1n1-influenza-virus-infection-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#7
Zhang Yunshi, Yao Jing, Qi Xian, Liu Xing, Lu Xieqin, Feng Ganzhu
BACKGROUND: Influenza A viruses (IAVs) remains to be a great threat to human health for centuries, without effective control. Geniposide, a main iridoid glycoside compound extracted from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (GJ) fruit, possesses various biologic activities including anti-inflammation and anti-virus. METHODS: Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells were infected with pandemic A/Jiangsu/1/2009 (H1N1) influenza virus in vitro. Cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of geniposide were estimated by MTT assay...
March 8, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260694/a-case-study-of-chewed-truvada-%C3%A2-for-prep-maintaining-protective-drug-levels-as-measured-by-a-novel-urine-tenofovir-assay
#8
Linden Lalley-Chareczko, Devon Clark, Athena F Zuppa, Ganesh Moorthy, Caitlin Conyngham, Karam Mounzer, Helen Koenig
FTC/TDF (Truvada®) given as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) successfully blocks HIV when taken once daily prior to potential HIV exposure. A 22 year old male reported difficulty swallowing FTC/TDF for PrEP and subsequently began chewing the FTC/TDF tablets. Monthly urine samples assessed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) indicated tenofovir levels >1000 ng/mL, indicative of protection from HIV acquisition, over a 48 week period. Data from observational studies of HIV positive patients details the successful treatment of HIV using crushed FTC/TDF delivered via feeding and gastronomy tubes while small, randomized trials of healthy volunteers demonstrate bioequivalence between whole and crushed FTC/TDF...
March 6, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248190/changes-in-abdominal-fat-following-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-in-hiv-infected-individuals-correlate-with-waist-circumference-and-self-reported-changes
#9
Priya Bhagwat, Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Grace A McComsey, Todd T Brown, Carlee Moser, Catherine A Sugar, Judith S Currier
BACKGROUND: We examined whether waist circumference (WC) and self-reported abdominal size changes can estimate visceral adipose tissue (VAT) changes for those initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Prospectively collected data from ACTG A5257 and its metabolic substudy, A5260s, were used for this analysis. ART-naïve HIV-infected participants were randomized to one of three contemporary ART regimens. Changes in abdominal CT-measured VAT and total adipose tissue (TAT) and DXA-measured trunk fat were tested for association with WC changes (by Pearson correlation) and categories of self-reported abdominal size changes (by ANOVA) between entry and week 96...
March 1, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248189/in-vitro-selection-of-resistance-to-sofosbuvir-in-hcv-replicons-of-genotype-1-to-6
#10
Simin Xu, Brian Doehle, Sonal Rajyaguru, Bin Han, Ona Barauskas, Joy Feng, Jason Perry, Hadas Dvory-Sobol, Evguenia S Svarovskaia, Michael D Miller, Hongmei Mo
BACKGROUND: Sofosbuvir is a nucleoside analog inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase approved for treatment of HCV-infected patients in combination with ribavirin or with other antivirals. It has activity against all genotypes of HCV. Resistance to sofosbuvir in genotype 1 and 2 HCV is conferred by the S282T substitution in NS5B. METHODS: To begin to define the correlates of resistance to sofosbuvir in other genotypes, we performed selection experiments in cell culture using cell lines containing subgenomic replicons derived from genotypes 1b, 2a, 3a, and 4a, or chimeric replicons in a genotype 1b background but encoding genotype 2b, 5a, and 6a NS5B polymerase...
March 1, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240597/telaprevir-containing-triple-therapy-in-acute-hcv-coinfection-the-chat-study
#11
Christoph Boesecke, Gurmit K Jagjit Singh, Stefan H-A Scholten, Thomas Lutz, Axel Baumgarten, Stephan M Schneeweiss, Andreas Trein, Michael Rausch, Patrick Ingiliz, Jürgen K Rockstroh, Mark Nelson
BACKGROUND: No published randomised controlled data on the use of direct acting antivirals (DAA) in acute hepatitis C (AHC) coinfection exist. However, with the AHC epidemic ongoing among men who have sex with men (MSM) these are urgently needed. METHODS: The CHAT study is a randomised controlled trial of pegylated interferon + ribavirin (PR) plus telaprevir (TVR) for 12-24 weeks versus PR alone for 24-48 weeks in the response guided treatment of patients with AHC genotype (GT) 1 infection and HIV-1 co-infection in Germany and Great Britain...
February 27, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240596/discontinuation-of-lamivudine-treatment-in-hbeag-negative-chronic-hepatitis-b-a-pilot-study-with-long-term-follow-up
#12
Fatih Karakaya, Sevil Özer, Çağdaş Kalkan, E Ali Tüzün, Aysun Çalışkan, Onur Keskin, Gökhan Kabaçam, Senem Karatayli, Ersin Karatayli, A Mithat Bozdayi, Ramazan Idilman, Cihan Yurdaydin
BACKGROUND: Finite treatment of HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) is important in resource limited countries. Outcome of treatment discontinuation in patients on long-term lamivudine (LVD) was assessed in a single center observational pilot study in the current study. METHODS: Non-cirrhotic patients on LVD for at least 5 years with undetectable HBV DNA on at least two consecutive assessments were offered to stop treatment...
February 27, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234630/prevalence-of-rilpivirine-resistance-in-people-starting-antiretroviral-treatment-in-argentina
#13
Emiliano Bissio, Maria G Barbás, Silvia Kademián, Maria B Bouzas, Horacio Salomón, Analia Cudolá, Silvina Fernández Giuliano, Carlos Falistocco
BACKGROUND: Rilpivirine-based regimens are now preferred or alternative first-line regimens according to many HIV treatment guidelines. Recently, a surveillance study conducted in our country determined that prevalence of pretreatment resistance to first-generation NNRTIs was 10%. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of resistance mutations to newer generation NNRTIs in the population starting ART in Argentina. METHODS: We analyzed the prevalence of resistance mutations to rilpivirine and etravirine (according to the IAS list), obtained through a nationally representative pretreatment HIV-drug resistance (PDR) surveillance study performed in Argentina in 2014-2015...
February 24, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234235/evaluation-of-csf-virological-escape-in-patients-on-long-term-pi-monotherapy
#14
Alejandro Arenas-Pinto, Wolfgang Stöhr, Amanda Clarke, Ian Williams, Nicholas J Beeching, Jane Minton, Vincent Lee, Nicholas I Paton
BACKGROUND: A strategy of protease inhibitor (PI) monotherapy with re-introduction of triple therapy in those who rebound has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment simplification approach for long-term management. We sought evidence for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) virological escape in patients on long-term PI monotherapy. METHODS: We performed lumbar puncture in asymptomatic participants with suppressed plasma HIV-RNA after 96 weeks on the PI monotherapy arm (PI-mono) of the PIVOT trial...
February 24, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234234/increases-in-cd4-t-cell-count-at-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-among-hiv-positive-illicit-drug-users-during-a-treatment-as-prevention-initiative-in-canada
#15
Mimi Tran, Evan Wood, Thomas Kerr, Sophie Patterson, David Bangsberg, Huiru Dong, Silvia Guillemi, Julio Sg Montaner, M-J Milloy
BACKGROUND: Although Treatment-as-Prevention (TasP) efforts are a new cornerstone of efforts to respond to the HIV/AIDS pandemic, their effects among people who use drugs (PWUD) have not been fully evaluated. This study characterizes temporal trends in CD4 cell count at ART initiation and rates of virologic response among HIV-positive PWUD during a TasP initiative. METHODS: We used data on individuals initiating ART within a prospective cohort of PWUD linked to comprehensive clinical records...
February 24, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206979/effect-of-gender-and-age-on-the-relative-bioavailability-of-doravirine-results-of-a-phase-i-trial-in-healthy-subjects
#16
Martin O Behm, Ka L Yee, Li Fan, Paul Fackler
BACKGROUND: Doravirine is a potent, once-daily, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor with a distinct resistance profile in Phase 3 development for the treatment of HIV-1. As doravirine may be administered to women and the elderly, we investigated the impact of gender and age in doravirine pharmacokinetics. METHODS: In this Phase 1, open-label, single-period, parallel-group investigation, doravirine 100 mg was administered to 36 healthy subjects in 3 groups: elderly men (n=12, 65-80 years), elderly women (n=12, 65-80 years), and young women (n=12, 18-50 years)...
February 16, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205506/prospective-surveillance-of-antiviral-resistance-in-hospitalized-infants-less-than-12-months-of-age-with-a-h3n2-influenza-infection-and-treated-with-oseltamivir
#17
Barbara Rath, Xi Chen, Vera Spies, Susann Muehlhans, Patrick Obermeier, Franziska Tief, Lea Seeber, Katharina Karsch, Jeanette Milde, Heino Skopnik, Brunhilde Schweiger, Susanne C Duwe
BACKGROUND: Infants exhibit elevated influenza virus loads and prolonged viral shedding, which may increase the risk for resistance development, especially in cases of suboptimal exposure to antiviral therapy. METHODS: We performed a prospective surveillance of hospitalized infants undergoing oseltamivir therapy during the 2008-2009 and 2011-2012 influenza seasons at two paediatric hospitals in Germany. A total of 37 infants less than one year of age with laboratory confirmed influenza A(H3N2) infection received oseltamivir as per physician's order for 5 days (2008-2009 season: 2mg/kg BID; 2011-2012 season: 2...
February 16, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198351/therapeutic-drug-monitoring-guided-raltegravir-dosing-for-prevention-of-vertical-transmission-in-a-premature-neonate-born-to-a-woman-living-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv
#18
Denise Kreutzwiser, Nancy Sheehan, Natalie Dayneka, Benoît Lemire, Alison Wong, Lindy Samson, Jason Brophy
We report a case of therapeutic drug monitoring guided raltegravir use for the prevention of vertical HIV transmission in a premature neonate born to a woman living with perinatally acquired HIV and documented resistance to multiple HIV drugs. Maternal viral load was above 1,000 copies/mL at delivery. This case demonstrates delayed raltegravir elimination in a neonate born at 33 weeks gestational age and a need for less frequent raltegravir dosing than is used in older infants and children.
February 15, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198350/cerebrospinal-fluid-viral-load-and-neopterin-in-hiv-positive-patients-with-undetectable-viraemia
#19
Ilaria Motta, Tiziano Allice, Alessandra Romito, Micol Ferrara, Sara Ecclesia, Daniele Imperiale, Valeria Ghisetti, Giovanni Di Perri, Stefano Bonora, Andrea Calcagno
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV RNA is commonly used as a marker of compartmental antiviral activity in HIV-positive patients. Undetectable CSF HIV RNA levels have been associated with low CSF neopterin levels and better neurocognitive performances. Aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence and predictors of non-detectable CSF HIV RNA using a commercial assay. METHODS: In adult HIV-positive HAART-treated patients with confirmed plasma HIV RNA <50 copies/mL, CSF HIV RNA (with Roche Amplicor Assay) and neopterin were measured...
February 15, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198349/impact-of-itpa-gene-polymorphisms-on-the-risk-of-ribavirin-induced-haemolytic-anaemia-using-interferon-free-antivirals-for-chronic-hepatitis-c
#20
Isabella Esposito, Laura Benítez-Gutiérrez, Ana Treviño, Ana Arias, Maria Jesus Citores, Silvia Requena, Vicente Soriano, Valentín Cuervas-Mons, Carmen de Mendoza
BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the ITPA gene are associated with hemolytic anemia in chronic hepatitis C patients treated with peginterferon-ribavirin (RBV). Information in patients treated with interferon-free, direct-acting antivirals (DAA) is scarce. METHODS: Median hemoglobin (Hb) levels were compared at baseline and at week 4, when ribavirin concentration achieves steady state, in all consecutive chronic hepatitis C patients treated with oral DAA plus RBV at our clinic...
February 15, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
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