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Antiviral Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790851/rig-i-enhances-ifn-%C3%AE-response-by-promoting-antiviral-protein-expression-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#1
Shu Wu, Jinpiao Lin, Ya Fu, Qishui Ou
BACKGROUND: IFN-α is widely used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection due to its high HBsAg loss. However, IFN-α treatment has a number of side effects. Thus, identification of molecular biomarkers to predict IFN-α therapeutic effect would be useful in the clinic. In this study, we aim to study the role of RIG-I in prediction of IFN-α curative effect of CHB patients. METHODS: A total of 65 CHB patients treated with PegIFN-αweekly for 48 weeks were enrolled...
May 23, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790481/antiviral-combination-therapy-for-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-high-risk-infants
#2
Surabhi B Vora, Adam W Brothers, Alpana Waghmare, Janet A Englund
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major risk factor for mortality in infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and other profound immune defects. Specific antiviral therapy must be initiated early and aggressively because of the potential for antiviral resistance, rapid dissemination and poor transplant outcomes. Combination antiviral therapy is routinely administered for some viral infections, but the value of this approach for the treatment of CMV is unclear...
May 23, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745936/worldwide-prevalence-of-baseline-resistance-associated-polymorphisms-and-resistance-mutations-in-hcv-against-current-direct-acting-antivirals
#3
Navaneethan Palanisamy, Prabhav Kalaghatgi, Dario Akaberi, Åke Lundkvist, Zhi-Wei Chen, Peng Hu, Johan Lennerstrand
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections can now be completely cured, thanks to the currently marketed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). It is known that HCV patients carry viral populations with baseline polymorphisms and/or mutations that make them resistant against some of these DAAs, which can negatively impact the patient's treatment outcome. Using complete HCV coding sequences isolated from 1306 treatment-naïve patients of genotypes (GTs) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 from around the globe, we studied the prevalence of baseline resistance-associated polymorphisms (RAPs) and resistance mutations (RMs) against DAAs that are currently on the market or in clinical trials...
May 10, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714167/virological-and-immunological-responses-to-raltegravir-and-dolutegravir-in-the-gut-associated-lymphoid-tissue-of-hiv-infected-men-and-women
#4
Michael D Weber, Elizabeth Andrews, Heather A Prince, Craig Sykes, Elias P Rosen, Camden Bay, Nicholas J Shaheen, Ryan D Madanick, Evan S Dellon, Kristina De Paris, Julie Ae Nelson, Cynthia L Gay, Angela Dm Kashuba
BACKGROUND: Raltegravir (RTG) and dolutegravir (DTG) have different pharmacokinetic patterns in the gastrointestinal tract. To determine if this results in pharmacodynamic differences, we compared HIV RNA, HIV DNA, and immunological markers in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of HIV-infected participants receiving RTG or DTG with tenofovir+emtricitabine (TDF/FTC). METHODS: GALT specimens from the terminal ileum, splenic flexure, and rectum were obtained by colonoscopy at a single time point in 20 adults treated with RTG (n=10) or DTG (n=10) with HIV RNA <50 copies/mL...
May 1, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623897/hesperidin-attenuates-influenza-a-virus-h1n1-induced-lung-injury-in-rats-through-its-anti-inflammatory-effect
#5
Zhen Ding, Gengyun Sun, Zhongming Zhu
BACKGROUND: Influenza A viruses (IAV) can cause pandemics and are big threats to human health. Inflammation is the main pathological process in the lungs after IAV infection. We aimed at investigating whether hesperidin, a well-known anti-inflammatory material, could be effective in improving IAV-induced lung injury. METHODS: We generated a rat model using H1N1 virus infection, and intraperitoneally injected with different doses of hesperidin for 5 days. Pulmonary function was analyzed...
April 6, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589587/immune-activation-inflammation-and-hiv-dna-after-96-weeks-of-atv-r-monotherapy-a-modat-substudy
#6
LETTER
Esther Merlini, Laura Galli, Camilla Tincati, Elvira S Cannizzo, Andrea Galli, Nicola Gianotti, Giuseppe Ancona, Camilla Muccini, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Giulia Marchetti, Antonella Castagna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583122/loss-to-follow-up-and-associated-factors-of-patients-through-the-national-aids-program-in-thailand
#7
Sirinya Teeraananchai, Stephen J Kerr, Kiat Ruxrungtham, Anchalee Avihingsanon, Suchada Chaivooth, Achara Teeraratkul, Sorakij Bhakeecheep, Sumet Ongwandee, Sombat Thanprasertsuk, Matthew G Law
BACKGROUND: Loss to follow-up is a crucial indicator to evaluate the effective of HIV care and treatment program. We assessed the LTFU rate and associated factors of Thai HIV-infected patients who enrolled in the National AIDS program (NAP) for 2 periods: prior to (pre-ART) and after starting ART (ART-patients). METHODS: Thai HIV patients aged ≥ 15 years enrolled in NAP from 2008 to 2014. Vital status was ascertained by linkage with the National Death Registry...
March 27, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29583121/a-quinoline-compound-inhibits-the-replication-of-dengue-virus-serotypes-1-4-in-vero-cells
#8
Hemalatha Beesetti, Poornima Tyagi, Brahmam Medapi, Vagolu Siva Krishna, Dharmarajan Sriram, Navin Khanna, Sathyamangalam Swaminathan
BACKGROUND: The global occurrence of dengue, a mosquito-borne viral disease caused by four distinct dengue viruses (DENV-1, -2, -3 and -4), is reported to have increased ~30-fold in the last fifty years, causing ~400 million infections a year. A limited use, sub-optimal live attenuated dengue vaccine has become available recently. It is becoming apparent that antibodies to DENVs can promote infection by Zika virus (ZIKV), a related mosquito-borne flavivirus. A drug to treat these flaviviral infections continues to be an unmet public health need...
March 27, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561734/antiviral-effect-of-25-hydroxycholesterol-against-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-in-vitro
#9
Hong Dong, Lei Zhou, Xinna Ge, Xin Guo, Jun Han, Hanchun Yang
BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important pathogen that causes economically huge losses to the pig industry worldwide. Current control of PRRSV infection remains inadequate although various means have been implemented. Thus, investigating novel antiviral therapeutics to combat PRRSV infection is essential. In the present study, the antiviral effect in vitro of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC) against PRRSV was investigated. METHODS: Cell viability assay was performed to examine the impact of 25HC on the cell viability...
March 21, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533918/intentional-overdose-of-dolutegravir-abacavir-lamivudine-triumeq-in-a-26-year-old-man
#10
Paul Mel van Dam, Mark Wl van Geffen, Thomas Ra Havenith, Dirk Posthouwer
Triumeq is a single-tablet regimen for patients with HIV infection comprising dolutegravir, abacavir and lamivudine. Overdoses with Triumeq have not been reported previously. We present a case of a 26-year-old man who presented to our hospital after intentionally ingesting 30 tablets of Triumeq. An intoxication with Triumeq can lead to several side effects. An overdose of abacavir and lamivudine can cause mitochondrial toxicity and lactic acidosis. An intoxication with dolutegravir appears to be relatively harmless...
March 13, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504510/hcv-genotype-3h-a-difficult-to-diagnose-sub-genotype-in-the-daa-era
#11
Carmine Minichini, Mario Starace, Stefania De Pascalis, Margherita Macera, Laura Occhiello, Mara Caroprese, Martina Vitrone, Vincenzo Iovinella, Barbara Guerrera, Mario Masarone, Nicola Coppola
BACKGROUND: No data are available on the clinical presentation and virological pattern in the case of failure to IFN-free regimens in patients with genotype 3h. In this paper authors identified the virological and clinical characteristics of patients with genotype 3h treated with suboptimal or not indicated Interferon (IFN)-free regimens for the misclassification of HCV genotype METHODS: 87 consecutive patients with failure to an IFN-free regimen were re-tested for HCV genotype by HCV NS5B sequencing; the 26 patients identified as harboring HCV-3 were enrolled...
March 5, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504509/chronic-hepatitis-e-in-a-heart-transplant-patient-sofosbuvir-and-ribavirin-regimen-not-fully-effective
#12
Eve Todesco, Alessandra Mazzola, Sepideh Akhavan, Florence Abravanel, Thierry Poynard, Anne-Marie Roque-Afonso, Gilles Peytavin, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Yvon Calmus, Lucien Lecuyer, Romain Guillemain, Filomena Conti
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) can induce chronic infections in the case of immunosuppression, which are sometimes not cured with ribavirin. Furthermore, sofosbuvir is a highly potent inhibitor of HCV polymerase and was shown to inhibit HEV genotype-3 replication in vitro. We report here the outcome of sofosbuvir/ribavirin therapy on a chronic HEV infection in a heart transplant recipient non-responder to ribavirin. After 24 weeks, the regimen failed to cure the persistent HEV infection, highlighting the need of therapeutic options for HEV-infected immunosuppressed patients...
March 5, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557344/retreatment-with-sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-in-cirrhotic-patients-with-genotype-4-who-failed-a-previous-interferon-free-regimen-a-case-series
#13
Lucio Boglione, Simone Mornese Pinna, Tommaso Lupia, Giuseppe Cariti, Giovanni Di Perri
BACKGROUND: The novel available interferon (IFN)-free regimens significantly improved the sustained virological response (SVR) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), without important side effects and with shorter duration of treatment. In a subset of patients, however, the treatment failure (TF) was due to the presence of resistance-associated substitutions (RAS) that lead to virological breakthrough (BT) or relapse. We analysed in this case series the role of RAS on the TF in cirrhotic patients with genotype (GT)4, treated with a previous IFN-free regimen, and retreated with the combination of sofosbuvir (SOF)/velpatasvir (VEL) for 12 or 24 weeks, without ribavirin (RBV)...
February 14, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442067/retreatment-with-sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-in-cirrhotic-patients-with-genotype-4-who-failed-a-previous-interferon-free-regimen-a-case-series
#14
Lucio Boglione, Simone Mornese Pinna, Tommaso Lupia, Giuseppe Cariti, Giovanni Di Perri
BACKGROUND: The novel available interferon (IFN)-free regimens significantly improved the sustained virological response (SVR) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), without important side-effects and with shorter duration of treatment. In a subset of patients, however, the treatment failure (TF) was due to the presence of resistance-associated substitutions (RAS) that lead to virological breakthrough (BT) or relapse. We analyzed in this case-series the role of RAS on the TF in cirrhotic patients with GT4, treated with a previous IFN-free regimen, and retreated with the combination of sofosbuvir (SOF)/velpatasvir (VEL) for 12 or 24 weeks, without ribavirin (RBV)...
February 14, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438098/sustained-antiviral-effects-and-clearance-of-hepatitis-surface-antigen-after-combination-therapy-with-entecavir-and-pegylated-interferon-in-chronic-hepatitis-b
#15
Satoru Hagiwara, Naoshi Nishida, Tomohiro Watanabe, Hiroshi Ida, Toshiharu Sakurai, Kazuomi Ueshima, Masahiro Takita, Yoriaki Komeda, Norihiro Nishijima, Yukio Osaki, Masatoshi Kudo
BACKGROUND: Although the efficacy of combination therapy with lamivudine or tenofovir and pegylated-interferon (Peg-IFN) has been reported in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), the long-term effect of the combination based on the observation of clinical course remains to be clarified. We previously reported the efficacy of combination therapy with entecavir (ETV) and Peg-IFN. Here, we investigated the long-term effect of this combination in patients with CHB. METHODS: We administered both ETV and Peg-IFN α-2a or -2b simultaneously to 26 patients with hepatitis B virus genotype C infection...
February 13, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424697/patterns-of-efavirenz-use-as-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-the-united-states-1999-2015
#16
Angela M Bengtson, Brian W Pence, Ellen F Eaton, Jessie K Edwards, Joseph J Eron, William C Mathews, Katie Mollan, Richard D Moore, Connall O'Cleirigh, Elvin Geng, Michael J Mugavero
BACKGROUND: Efavirenz has been a mainstay of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for over 15 years in the US. Its association with neuropsychiatric side effects may influence clinical prescribing and management. METHODS: We included HIV-infected adults enrolled in care at 7 sites across the US, who initiated combination ART between 1999 and 2015. We examined the proportion initiating and continuing on efavirenz, overall and by mental health status. Log binomial and Cox models were used to estimate associations between mental health, clinical, and sociodemographic characteristics and initiating or switching from efavirenz as first line ART...
February 9, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424696/upper-respiratory-viral-infections-in-patients-with-haematological-malignancies-after-allogeneic-haematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-retrospective-study
#17
Erden Atilla, Didem Sahin, Pinar Ataca Atilla, Istar Dolapci, Alper Tekeli, Sinem Civriz Bozdag, Meltem Kurt Yuksel, Selami Kocak Toprak, Osman Ilhan, Onder Arslan, Muhit Ozcan, Gunhan Gurman, Pervin Topcuoglu
BACKGROUND: Community respiratory viruses (CRVs) are associated with upper respiratory viral infections (URI), pneumonia or life-threatening respiratory disease in patients with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Our aim is to demonstrate our URI experience related to CRVs after allo-HSCT. METHODS: From January 2013 to November 2015, 39 post allo-HSCT patients with acute URI symptoms were included to the study. We evaluated CRVs by multiplex PCR from nasopharyngeal wash and throat swabs...
February 9, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372886/the-outcome-of-hiv-positive-late-presenters-according-to-detectable-cmv-dna-and-anti-cmv-treatment
#18
Paolo Bigliano, Andrea Calcagno, Anna Lucchini, Sabrina Audagnotto, Chiara Montrucchio, Letizia Marinaro, Chiara Alcantarini, Valeria Ghisetti, Giovanni Di Perri, Stefano Bonora
BACKGROUND: HIV late presenters are at high risk of Cytomegalovirus reactivation and end-organ disease. CMV viremia has been associated with poor survival but the effect of anti-CMV treatment has not been studied in this setting. METHODS: HIV-positive patients were included in a retrospective study if presenting with <350 CD4/uL and starting an antiretroviral treatment within 3 months of the diagnosis. Primary endpoint was 5-year survival according to the presence of CMV viremia (CMV-V), CMV end-organ disease (CMV-EOD) and anti-CMV treatment...
January 26, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372885/immune-response-after-a-single-intravenous-peramivir-administration-in-children-with-influenza
#19
Masatoki Sato, Koichi Hashimoto, Yukihiko Kawasaki, Mitsuaki Hosoya
BACKGROUND: Immune response after intravenous peramivir administration, which is approved for children with influenza infection in Japan, is unclear. METHODS: Kinetics of viral load and serum cytokine levels before and after peramivir therapy were analysed in 17 and 8 hospitalized children infected with influenza A and B, respectively. Additionally, haemagglutination inhibition (HI) titre was measured. The first day of hospital admission was defined as day 0. RESULTS: Serum interleukin (IL)-6 levels in influenza-A-infected children significantly decreased after peramivir administration, unlike in those with influenza B where a decrease on day 1 was followed by an increase on day 2...
January 26, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360097/renunciation-of-health-care-by-people-living-with-hiv-in-france-is-still-associated-with-discrimination-in-health-care-services-and-social-insecurity-results-from-the-anrs-vespa2-survey
#20
Marion Fiorentino, Marie Suzan-Monti, Antoine Vilotitch, Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Rosemary Dray-Spira, France Lert, Bruno Spire
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to estimate the frequency of renunciation of healthcare among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in France, including healthcare unrelated to HIV, and to characterize associated socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors. METHODS: The cross-sectional ANRS-VESPA2 survey was conducted on adult PLHIV attending French hospitals in 2011. Correlates of healthcare renunciation in the 12 months before the survey were assessed through logistic modelling...
January 23, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
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