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Antiviral Therapy

Fred Poordad, Mitchell L Shiffman, Wayne Ghesquiere, Alexander Wong, Gregory D Huhn, Florence Wong, Alnoor Ramji, Stephen D Shafran, Fiona McPhee, Rong Yang, Stephanie Noviello, Misti Linaberry
BACKGROUND: Optimal treatment for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype-3 infection and liver cirrhosis remains a medical priority. Daclatasvir+sofosbuvir and ribavirin is a recommended option for such patients, but clinical trial data are lacking for treatment >16 weeks. METHODS: This was a single-arm, Phase III study of daclatasvir+sofosbuvir+ribavirin for 24 weeks in patients with compensated cirrhosis and HCV genotype-3 infection. The primary endpoint was sustained virological response at post-treatment week 12 (SVR12); the primary objective was to demonstrate statistical superiority to historical SVR12 data for 12 weeks' daclatasvir+sofosbuvir without ribavirin in genotype-3-infected patients with cirrhosis (95% confidence interval [CI] lower bound >79...
November 1, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Julie B Dumond, Stephen A Greene, Heather Ma Prince, Jingxian Chen, Brian L Maas, Craig Sykes, Amanda P Schauer, Kimberly Blake, Julie Ae Nelson, Cynthia L Gay, Angela Dm Kashuba, Myron S Cohen
BACKGROUND: The male genital tract (MGT) is a viral sanctuary and likely HIV reservoir; understanding MGT pharmacokinetics (PK) of antiretrovirals (ARVs) used for curative strategies is critical to eradication and cure. Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is a tenofovir (TFV) formulation designed to maximize efficacy/minimize toxicity with unknown MGT PK. METHODS: HIV-positive and HIV-negative men receiving TFV-based regimens provided 6 paired blood plasma (BP) and semen samples...
October 30, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Jean-Simon Denault, Jean-François Cabot, Hugo Langlois, Suzanne Marcotte, Nancy L Sheehan
We report the cases of two treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients with complex antiretroviral regimens that showed significant drug-drug interactions with etravirine. Unexpectedly high etravirine concentrations likely caused subtherapeutic levels of darunavir, elvitegravir and dolutegravir through concentration-dependent metabolic induction. Therapeutic drug monitoring allowed safe etravirine dose decreases to manage these interactions.
October 24, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Davide Ferrari, Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Monica Manca, Alba Bigoloni, Camilla Muccini, Giuseppe Banfi, Massimo Locatelli, Antonella Castagna
BACKGROUND: The pilot phase IIb VIKING study suggested that dolutegravir (DTG), a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) integrase inhibitor (INI), is efficacious in INI-resistant patients at the 50 mg twice daily (BID) dose. However, DTG response was most reduced in subjects carrying resistance-associated mutations at position G140 and Q148. These mutations can cause a 10-20-fold reduced susceptibility to DTG as well as a 96% lower odds of achieving HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL at week 24 if compared with those with no mutations at these positions...
October 24, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Michelle Spaan, Matthew Bruce, Kosh Agarwal, Ivana Carey
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B reactivation in patients with resolved HBV can occur during hepatitis C treatment with direct-acting antivirals, but only a few cases have been described. It is not clear which patients are at risk for HBV reactivation and how to manage them. METHODS: Three patients (all hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg]-negative, antibody to hepatitis B core [anti-HBc] positive and HBV DNA negative) experienced a late HBV reactivation 12 weeks post-treatment but were able to control their viraemia...
October 12, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Christoph D Spinner, Sebastian Schulz, Ulrike Bauer, Jochen Schneider, Johanna Bobardt, Alexander Von Werder, Roland M Schmid, Alexander Zink, Eva Wolf, Roman Iakoubov
BACKGROUND: Increased insulin resistance (IR), associated with specific antiretroviral drugs or drug classes, is an established risk factor for type 2 diabetes in HIV patients, ultimately increasing morbidity and mortality. To date, data on the risk of IR in tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)-based protocols are unavailable. METHODS: This prospective randomised, open-label study evaluated the effects of IR on 30 healthy volunteers receiving fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) of tenofovir alafenamide/emtricitabine (F/TAF), tenofovir alafenamide/emtricitabine/elvitegravir/cobicistat (E/C/F/TAF), or tenofovir alafenamide/emtricitabine/rilpivirine (R/F/TAF)...
October 3, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Arturo Ciccullo, Gianmaria Baldin, Amedeo Capetti, Stefano Rusconi, Gaetana Sterrantino, Gabriella d'Ettorre, Manuela Colafigli, Sara Modica, Filippo Lagi, Andrea Giacomelli, Maria Vittoria Cossu, Sibilla Restelli, Andrea De Luca, Simona Di Giambenedetto
BACKGROUND: Two-drug regimens are increasingly used in clinical practice as switch strategies. We compared the efficacy and safety of two dolutegravir-based dual therapies (DT): dolutegravir plus lamivudine (3TC group) versus DTG plus rilpivirine (RPV group). METHODS: In a multicenter cohort of virologically suppressed (HIV-RNA <50 cp/ml) HIV+ pts switching to DTG+3TC or DTG+RPV we analyzed the incidence of virological failures (VF) and treatment discontinuations (TD), as well as their predictors...
October 2, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Na Sun, Panpan Sun, Mingjie Yao, Ajab Khan, Yaogui Sun, Kuohai Fan, Wei Yin, Hongquan Li
BACKGROUND: In previous research, we have demonstrated that Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) has the anti-PRRSV activity, but whether autophagy is involved in this process is still unknown. In this study, the autophagy effect of STS against PRRSV infection was investigated in vitro. METHODS: qRT-PCR and Western blot was used to evaluate the inhibition ability of STS on the mRNA expression levels on cell autophagy gene i.e. Beclin1, ATG5, and ATG7. Simultaneously, the effect of STS on N protein/gene expression was assessed by indirect immuno-fluorescence assay (IFA), qRT-PCR and Western blot...
October 1, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Akarin Hiransuthikul, Narukjaporn Thammajaruk, Isariya Techatanawat, Busarat Karachot, Bancha Chuasuwan, Chutima Manamuti, Mariam Duereh, Mathus Sawpitiporn, Jiratchaya Sophonphan, Sivaporn Gatechompol, Anchalee Avihingsanon, Chureeratana Bowonwattanuwong, Kiat Ruxrungtham
BACKGROUND: Ritonavir (RTV) tablet was not available in Thailand until it was manufactured by Government Pharmaceutical Organization of Thailand. We assessed pharmacokinetics (PK), safety and efficacy of generic RTV-boosted atazanavir (ATV) in virologically suppressed HIV-1 infected Thai adults. METHODS: Virologically suppressed HIV-1 infected Thai adults who currently use ATV (either 200 or 300 mg) with Norvir® soft gel capsule (SGC) 100 mg-based regimen were enrolled into this prospective, 48-week single-arm study...
September 28, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Dzhamal T Abdurakhmanov, Teona P Rozina, Elena N Nikulkina, Ekaterina A Nabatchikova, Vladimir P Chulanov, Sergey V Moiseev
Despite very high efficacies of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) reported in clinical trials, treatment failure in real-life practice can occur in 5-10% of cases and is mostly associated with emergence of resistance-associated substitutuions (RASs). Little is known about the efficacy of retreatment in these patients, especially in those with decompensated cirrhosis, and only a few retreatment studies have been performed so far. Here we present case reports of successful sofosbuvir based treatment in patients with advanced class B cirrhosis with prior PEG-IFN/ribavirin and all-oral DAA failure with multiclass drug resistance...
September 28, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Peter L Havens, Dustin Long, Gertrud U Schuster, Catherine M Gordon, Georgine Price, Craig M Wilson, Bill G Kapogiannis, Kathleen Mulligan, Charles B Stephensen
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) increases serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D (1,25-(OH)2 D), and decreases bone mineral density (BMD). Optimal treatment of TDF-associated BMD loss requires an understanding of the primary cause of these abnormalities. METHODS: Secondary review of data from two studies of TDF use in youth, comparing the relationship of PTH, 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD), and 1,25-(OH)2 D in 3 groups with varying exposures to TDF: Youth without HIV enrolled in a trial of TDF/emtricitabine (FTC) for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) at baseline (no TDF exposure) and after 12 weeks of TDF (short-term TDF exposure); and youth with HIV treated with TDF-containing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for at least 6 months at study entry (long-term TDF exposure)...
September 27, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Farah Ladak, Eugenia Socias, Seonaid Nolan, Huiru Dong, Thomas Kerr, Evan Wood, Julio Montaner, M-J Milloy
BACKGROUND: Active illicit drug use can present a barrier to the medical management of HIV infection by complicating adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) rebound, defined as a period of detectable HIV viral load (VL) following antiretroviral therapy (ART) and VL suppression, can lead to the generation of viral resistance and potential treatment failure. We sought to investigate the contribution of substance use patterns on rates of VL rebound. METHODS: We used data from the ACCESS study, a long-running community-recruited prospective cohort of HIV-positive people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada, a setting of universal no-cost HIV treatment...
September 19, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Poonam Mathur, Shyamasundaran Kottilil, Eleanor Wilson
Treatment for hepatitis C has escalated rapidly since the advent of directly acting antivirals. Although there are highly efficacious, pangenotypic regimens available as standard of care, 5-10% of patients do not achieve virologic cure. The recently approved fixed-dose combination of sofosbuvir, velpatasvir, and voxilaprevir provides an option for retreatment in patients who have failed prior regimens and have characteristics which make them difficult to treat. This review provides a summary of the evidence for use of Vosevi®, a fixed-dose combination pill for treatment of hepatitis C in treatment-experienced patients...
September 13, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Ana D Vega, Lauren M Hynicka, Kimberly Claeys, Joel V Chua, Emily L Heil
BACKGROUND: Data is limited on the use of 8 weeks of therapy with Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) for special populations such as HCV/HIV-coinfected patients. The primary objective of this analysis was to compare SVR12 rates among HCV-monoinfected and HCV/HIV-coinfected patients in a real-world clinical setting. Additionally, we compared SVR12 rates among patients receiving 8 versus 12 weeks of therapy. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective study of HCV-infected patients prescribed LDV/SOF at ambulatory clinics associated with the University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC) from May 2015 to May 2016...
September 7, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Juncheng Yang, Guifeng Yang, Haitang He, Lu Ning, Zhihua Liu, Qunfang Fu, Haitao Chen, Haohui Deng, Zhanhui Wang, Kangxian Luo
BACKGROUND: The correlation between hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroconversion and the characteristics of HBV quasispecies (QS) before and during pegylated interferon-α-2a (PEG-IFN-α-2a) treatment in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) children has not yet been reported. METHODS: 35 patients, including 18 HBsAg seroconverters (SS) and 17 non-seroconverters (SN), were enrolled. Serum samples were collected before treatment and at weeks 12 and 24 of treatment...
August 10, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Thomas C Mee, Julia Aepfelbacher, Rebecca Krakora, Cheryl Chairez, Nina Kvaratskhelia, Bryan Smith, Veit Sandfort, Colleen Hadigan, Caryn Morse, Dima A Hammoud
BACKGROUND: Both traditional and HIV-specific risk factors contribute to greater incidence of cardiovascular disease in persons living with HIV (PLWH). Using state-of-the-art, high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the common carotid arteries, this study aimed to evaluate the relationship between carotid vessel wall thickness (c-VWT) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk score in PLWH. METHODS: Cross-sectional determinations of c-VWT using MR imaging in virally suppressed PLWH without known cardiovascular disease (n=32) and matched controls (n=13) were completed...
August 8, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Joshua S Davis, Melissa Young, Sandra Lennox, Tracey Jones, Kim Piera, Robert Pickles, Stephen Oakley
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data suggest that chronic hepatitis C virus infection (CHC) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but it is unknown if it is associated with endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to assess the effect of antiviral treatment on endothelial function in non-cirrhotic adults with CHC. METHODS: Self-controlled before and after study. All patients had genotype 1 CHC and were treated with 12 weeks of paritaprevir/ritonavir, ombitasvir and dasabuvir (PrOD), with ribavirin added for those with genotype 1a infection...
July 26, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
George V Papatheodoridis, Eirini I Rigopoulou, Margarita Papatheodoridi, Kalliopi Zachou, Vassilios Xourafas, Nikolaos Gatselis, Emilia Hadziyannis, John Vlachogiannakos, Spilios Manolakopoulos, George N Dalekos
BACKGROUND: The remission rates after stopping antivirals in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) vary among studies, while reliable predictors of relapse have not been identified. This prospective study assessed rates and predictors of relapse and retreatment in 57 non-cirrhotic HBsAg positive patients with HBeAg-negative CHB who discontinued effective ≥4-year entecavir or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) therapy. METHODS: Fifty-seven patients discontinued therapy after median virological remission of 5...
July 25, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
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