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Antiviral Therapy

Pietro Lampertico, Diethelm Messinger, Hameed Oladipupo, Georgios Bakalos, Marco Castillo, Tarik Asselah
BACKGROUND: Approximately one-third of patients have durable responses after finite (48-week) treatment with peginterferon alfa-2a. The ability to identify patients likely to respond would be particularly useful in resource-limited settings. METHODS: Data from 1,363 peginterferon alfa-2a recipients (955 hepatitis B 'e' antigen [HBeAg]-positive and 408 -negative) in six studies were analyzed. Baseline scoring systems were developed using generalized additive models and multiple logistic regression analysis to predict virological response (VR, hepatitis B virus [HBV] DNA <2,000 IU/mL), alone or combined with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization (CR) at 24 weeks post-treatment...
July 4, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Erden Atilla, Merih Yalciner, Pinar Ataca Atilla, Can Ates, Sinem Civriz Bozdag, Meltem Kurt Yuksel, Selami Kocak Toprak, Mehmet Gunduz, Mehmet Ozen, Hamdi Akan, Taner Demirer, Onder Arslan, Osman Ilhan, Meral Beksac, Muhit Ozcan, Gunhan Gurman, Pervin Topcuoglu
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is usually a serious complication in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients. In this study, our aim is to define risk factors and outcomes for patients with HC in allo-HSCT setting. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 249 allo-HSCTs performed between 2011 and 2016 in our center. RESULTS: HC was diagnosed in 98 patients (39%) at a median of 119 days (range, 5-580), and 91 (93%) of the patients had late onset disease...
July 4, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Rohit P Ojha, Brooke R MacDonald, Tzu-Chun Chu, Esther O Fasanmi, Jonathan D Moore, Rachel A Stewart
BACKGROUND: Real-world studies have aimed to compare the effects of 8- and 12-week ledipasvir/sofosbuvir regimens on sustained virologic response (SVR) among hepatitis C virus infection genotype 1 (HCV-1) treatment-naïve patients. Nevertheless, real-world comparative effectiveness studies pose unique challenges, such as confounding by indication, that were not adequately addressed in prior studies. We thus aimed to address limitations in prior studies and compare overall- and subgroup-specific effectiveness of 8- and 12-week ledipasvir/sofosbuvir regimens among HCV-1 treatment-naïve patients...
July 3, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Thomas N Kakuda, Jeysen Yogaratnam, Jennifer Rito, Malcolm Boyce, Toni Mitchell, Kusum Gupta, Julian A Symons, Sushmita Chanda, Pieter Van Remoortere, John Fry
BACKGROUND: This double-blind, first-in-human phase 1 study evaluated pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of AL-794 (prodrug of ALS-033719), a potent endonuclease inhibitor of influenza A and B in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Healthy adult volunteers were randomized to AL-794 (50-2000 mg single ascending doses, fasting) or placebo (5 cohorts, n=6:2 AL-794: placebo/cohort) in part 1, and AL-794 (50-600 mg multiple ascending doses, twice-daily, fed or fasted) or placebo (3 cohorts, n=8:2 AL-794: placebo/cohort) for 7 days in part 2...
June 21, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Jae-Hoon Ko, Hyeri Seok, Sun Young Cho, Young Eun Ha, Jin Yang Baek, So Hyun Kim, Yae-Jean Kim, Jin Kyeong Park, Chi Ryang Chung, Eun-Suk Kang, Duck Cho, Marcel A Müller, Christian Drosten, Cheol-In Kang, Doo Ryeon Chung, Jae-Hoon Song, Kyong Ran Peck
BACKGROUND: The effects of convalescent plasma (CP) infusion, one of treatment options for severe Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections, have not yet been evaluated. METHODS: Serologic responses of CP-infused MERS patients during the 2015 Korean MERS outbreak at a tertiary care center were evaluated. Serologic activity was evaluated with anti-MERS-CoV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) IgG, ELISA IgA, immunofluorescence assay IgM, and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT)...
June 20, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Mariusz Łucejko, Robert Flisiak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Yumiko Tatsukawa, Masataka Tsuge, Yoshiiku Kawakami, Eisuke Murakami, Mio Kurihara, Motonobu Nomura, Ken Tsushima, Takuro Uchida, Takashi Nakahara, Daiki Miki, Tomokazu Kawaoka, Hiromi Abe-Chayama, Michio Imamura, Hiroshi Aikata, Hidenori Ochi, C Nelson Hayes, Hiroiku Kawakami, Kazuaki Chayama
BACKGROUND: Although pegylated-interferon (PEG-IFN) and nucleotide/nucleoside analogue (NA) combination therapy is considered to be optimal for accelerating serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) reduction, the effect is limited, and the best approach to PEG-IFN treatment for chronic hepatitis B patients during long term NA therapy has yet to be determined. METHODS: Twenty-one HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients whose HBV DNA levels were suppressed to undetectable levels by NA therapy were administrated PEG-IFNα2a for 48 weeks (sequential therapy: 10, add-on therapy: 11)...
June 1, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Surabhi B Vora, Adam W Brothers, Alpana Waghmare, Janet A Englund
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major risk factor for mortality in infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and other profound immune defects. Specific antiviral therapy must be initiated early and aggressively because of the potential for antiviral resistance, rapid dissemination and poor transplant outcomes. Combination antiviral therapy is routinely administered for some viral infections, but the value of this approach for the treatment of CMV is unclear...
May 23, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Navaneethan Palanisamy, Prabhav Kalaghatgi, Dario Akaberi, Åke Lundkvist, Zhi-Wei Chen, Peng Hu, Johan Lennerstrand
BACKGROUND: HCV infections can now be completely cured, thanks to the currently marketed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). It is known that HCV patients carry viral populations with baseline polymorphisms and/or mutations that make them resistant against some of these DAAs, which can negatively impact the patient's treatment outcome. Using complete HCV coding sequences isolated from 1,306 treatment-naive patients of genotypes (GTs) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 from around the globe, we studied the prevalence of baseline resistance-associated polymorphisms (RAPs) and resistance mutations (RMs) against DAAs that are currently on the market or in clinical trials...
May 10, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Michael D Weber, Elizabeth Andrews, Heather A Prince, Craig Sykes, Elias P Rosen, Camden Bay, Nicholas J Shaheen, Ryan D Madanick, Evan S Dellon, Kristina De Paris, Julie Ae Nelson, Cynthia L Gay, Angela Dm Kashuba
BACKGROUND: Raltegravir (RTG) and dolutegravir (DTG) have different pharmacokinetic patterns in the gastrointestinal tract. To determine if this results in pharmacodynamic differences, we compared HIV RNA, HIV DNA, and immunological markers in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of HIV-infected participants receiving RTG or DTG with tenofovir+emtricitabine (TDF/FTC). METHODS: GALT specimens from the terminal ileum, splenic flexure, and rectum were obtained by colonoscopy at a single time point in 20 adults treated with RTG (n=10) or DTG (n=10) with HIV RNA <50 copies/mL...
May 1, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Zhen Ding, Gengyun Sun, Zhongming Zhu
BACKGROUND: Influenza A viruses (IAV) can cause pandemics and are big threats to human health. Inflammation is the main pathological process in the lungs after IAV infection. We aimed to investigate whether hesperidin, a well-known anti-inflammatory compound, could be effective in improving IAV-induced lung injury. METHODS: We generated a rat model using H1N1 virus infection, and intraperitoneally injected different doses of hesperidin for 5 days. Pulmonary function was analysed...
April 6, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Esther Merlini, Laura Galli, Camilla Tincati, Elvira S Cannizzo, Andrea Galli, Nicola Gianotti, Giuseppe Ancona, Camilla Muccini, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Giulia Marchetti, Antonella Castagna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Esther Merlini, Laura Galli, Camilla Tincati, Elvira S Cannizzo, Andrea Galli, Nicola Gianotti, Giuseppe Ancona, Camilla Muccini, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Giulia Marchetti, Antonella Castagna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Sirinya Teeraananchai, Stephen J Kerr, Kiat Ruxrungtham, Anchalee Avihingsanon, Suchada Chaivooth, Achara Teeraratkul, Sorakij Bhakeecheep, Sumet Ongwandee, Sombat Thanprasertsuk, Matthew G Law
BACKGROUND: Loss to follow-up (LTFU) is a crucial indicator to evaluate the effectiveness of HIV care and treatment programmes. We assessed the LTFU rate and associated factors of Thai HIV-infected patients who enrolled in the National AIDS Program (NAP) for two periods: prior to (pre-ART) and after starting ART (ART-patients). METHODS: Thai HIV patients aged ≥15 years enrolled in NAP from 2008 to 2014. Vital status was ascertained by linkage with the National Death Registry...
March 27, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Hemalatha Beesetti, Poornima Tyagi, Brahmam Medapi, Vagolu Siva Krishna, Dharmarajan Sriram, Navin Khanna, Sathyamangalam Swaminathan
BACKGROUND: The global occurrence of dengue, a mosquito-​borne viral disease caused by four distinct dengue viruses (DENV-1, -2, -3 and -4), is reported to have increased approximately 30-fold in the last 50 years, causing approximately 400 million infections a year. A limited use, sub-optimal live attenuated dengue vaccine has become available recently. It is becoming apparent that antibodies to DENVs can promote infection by Zika virus (ZIKV), a related mosquito-borne flavivirus. A drug to treat these flaviviral infections continues to be an unmet public health need...
March 27, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Hong Dong, Lei Zhou, Xinna Ge, Xin Guo, Jun Han, Hanchun Yang
BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important pathogen that causes economically huge losses to the pig industry worldwide. Current control of PRRSV infection remains inadequate although various means have been implemented. Thus, investigating novel antiviral therapeutics to combat PRRSV infection is essential. In the present study, the antiviral effect in vitro of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC) against PRRSV was investigated. METHODS: Cell viability assay was performed to examine the impact of 25HC on the cell viability...
March 21, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Karin Kosulin, Elena Lam, Albert Heim, Thomas Dobner, Estefanía Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Human adenoviral (HAdV) infections are usually mild and self-limited, however, some infections from species A, B, C, D and E, can cause severe illnesses, which have raised public health concerns over the past few years. Current available antiviral therapies have limited efficacy and severe toxicity; therefore, finding new targets for specific anti-adenoviral drug design is urgently needed. Our previous work showed that the small molecule compound, HBX, inhibits HAdV type 5 (species C, HAdV-C5) replication and oncogenic transformation through inhibition of the cellular pro-viral factor ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7)...
March 20, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Paul Mel van Dam, Mark Wl van Geffen, Thomas Ra Havenith, Dirk Posthouwer
Triumeq is a single-tablet regimen for patients with HIV infection comprising dolutegravir, abacavir and lamivudine. Overdoses with Triumeq have not been reported previously. We present a case of a 26-year-old man who presented to our hospital after intentionally ingesting 30 tablets of Triumeq. An intoxication with Triumeq can lead to several side effects. An overdose of abacavir and lamivudine can cause mitochondrial toxicity and lactic acidosis. An intoxication with dolutegravir appears to be relatively harmless...
March 13, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Carmine Minichini, Mario Starace, Stefania De Pascalis, Margherita Macera, Laura Occhiello, Mara Caroprese, Martina Vitrone, Vincenzo Iovinella, Barbara Guerrera, Mario Masarone, Nicola Coppola
BACKGROUND: No data are available on the clinical presentation and virological pattern in the case of failure to IFN-free regimens in patients with genotype 3h. In this paper authors identified the virological and clinical characteristics of patients with genotype 3h treated with suboptimal or not indicated Interferon (IFN)-free regimens for the misclassification of HCV genotype METHODS: 87 consecutive patients with failure to an IFN-free regimen were re-tested for HCV genotype by HCV NS5B sequencing; the 26 patients identified as harboring HCV-3 were enrolled...
March 5, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Eve Todesco, Alessandra Mazzola, Sepideh Akhavan, Florence Abravanel, Thierry Poynard, Anne-Marie Roque-Afonso, Gilles Peytavin, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Yvon Calmus, Lucien Lecuyer, Romain Guillemain, Filomena Conti
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) can induce chronic infections in the case of immunosuppression, which are sometimes not cured with ribavirin. Furthermore, sofosbuvir is a highly potent inhibitor of HCV polymerase and was shown to inhibit HEV genotype-3 replication in vitro. We report here the outcome of sofosbuvir/ribavirin therapy on a chronic HEV infection in a heart transplant recipient non-responder to ribavirin. After 24 weeks, the regimen failed to cure the persistent HEV infection, highlighting the need of therapeutic options for HEV-infected immunosuppressed patients...
March 5, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
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