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Antiviral Therapy

Farah Ladak, Eugenia Socias, Seonaid Nolan, Huiru Dong, Thomas Kerr, Evan Wood, Julio Montaner, M-J Milloy
BACKGROUND: Active illicit drug use can present a barrier to the medical management of HIV infection by complicating adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) rebound, defined as a period of detectable HIV viral load (VL) following antiretroviral therapy (ART) and VL suppression, can lead to the generation of viral resistance and potential treatment failure. We sought to investigate the contribution of substance use patterns on rates of VL rebound. METHODS: We used data from the ACCESS study, a long-running community-recruited prospective cohort of HIV-positive people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada, a setting of universal no-cost HIV treatment...
September 19, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Poonam Mathur, Shyamasundaran Kottilil, Eleanor Wilson
Treatment for hepatitis C has escalated rapidly since the advent of directly acting antivirals. Although there are highly efficacious, pangenotypic regimens available as standard of care, 5-10% of patients do not achieve virologic cure. The recently approved fixed-dose combination of sofosbuvir, velpatasvir, and voxilaprevir provides an option for retreatment in patients who have failed prior regimens and have characteristics which make them difficult to treat. This review provides a summary of the evidence for use of Vosevi®, a fixed-dose combination pill for treatment of hepatitis C in treatment-experienced patients...
September 13, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Ana D Vega, Lauren M Hynicka, Kimberly Claeys, Joel V Chua, Emily L Heil
BACKGROUND: Data is limited on the use of 8 weeks of therapy with Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) for special populations such as HCV/HIV-coinfected patients. The primary objective of this analysis was to compare SVR12 rates among HCV-monoinfected and HCV/HIV-coinfected patients in a real-world clinical setting. Additionally, we compared SVR12 rates among patients receiving 8 versus 12 weeks of therapy. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective study of HCV-infected patients prescribed LDV/SOF at ambulatory clinics associated with the University of Maryland Medical Center (UMMC) from May 2015 to May 2016...
September 7, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Juncheng Yang, Guifeng Yang, Haitang He, Lu Ning, Zhihua Liu, Qunfang Fu, Haitao Chen, Haohui Deng, Zhanhui Wang, Kangxian Luo
BACKGROUND: The correlation between hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroconversion and the characteristics of HBV quasispecies (QS) before and during pegylated interferon-α-2a (PEG-IFN-α-2a) treatment in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) children has not yet been reported. METHODS: 35 patients, including 18 HBsAg seroconverters (SS) and 17 non-seroconverters (SN), were enrolled. Serum samples were collected before treatment and at weeks 12 and 24 of treatment...
August 10, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Thomas C Mee, Julia Aepfelbacher, Rebecca Krakora, Cheryl Chairez, Nina Kvaratskhelia, Bryan Smith, Veit Sandfort, Colleen Hadigan, Caryn Morse, Dima A Hammoud
BACKGROUND: Both traditional and HIV-specific risk factors contribute to greater incidence of cardiovascular disease in persons living with HIV (PLWH). Using state-of-the-art, high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the common carotid arteries, this study aimed to evaluate the relationship between carotid vessel wall thickness (c-VWT) and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk score in PLWH. METHODS: Cross-sectional determinations of c-VWT using MR imaging in virally suppressed PLWH without known cardiovascular disease (n=32) and matched controls (n=13) were completed...
August 8, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Joshua S Davis, Melissa Young, Sandra Lennox, Tracey Jones, Kim Piera, Robert Pickles, Stephen Oakley
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data suggest that chronic hepatitis C virus infection (CHC) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but it is unknown if it is associated with endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to assess the effect of antiviral treatment on endothelial function in non-cirrhotic adults with CHC. METHODS: Self-controlled before and after study. All patients had genotype 1 CHC and were treated with 12 weeks of paritaprevir/ritonavir, ombitasvir and dasabuvir (PrOD), with ribavirin added for those with genotype 1a infection...
July 26, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
George V Papatheodoridis, Eirini I Rigopoulou, Margarita Papatheodoridi, Kalliopi Zachou, Vassilios Xourafas, Nikolaos Gatselis, Emilia Hadziyannis, John Vlachogiannakos, Spilios Manolakopoulos, George N Dalekos
BACKGROUND: The remission rates after stopping antivirals in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) vary among studies, while reliable predictors of relapse have not been identified. This prospective study assessed rates and predictors of relapse and retreatment in 57 non-cirrhotic HBsAg positive patients with HBeAg-negative CHB who discontinued effective ≥4-year entecavir or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) therapy. METHODS: Fifty-seven patients discontinued therapy after median virological remission of 5...
July 25, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Frederick Lahser, Angela Galloway, Peggy Hwang, John Palcza, Joann Brunhofer, Janice Wahl, Michael Robertson, Eliav Barr, Todd Black, Ernest Asante-Appiah, Barbara Haber
BACKGROUND: In hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected people who fail to achieve sustained virological response after receiving a direct-acting antiviral regimen, virological failure is almost always accompanied by the presence of resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) in the target protein(s). The aim of this long-term observational study was to evaluate the persistence of NS3/4A and NS5A RASs in participants with genotype (GT) 1 infection who relapsed following treatment with a grazoprevir-containing treatment regimen...
July 24, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Claire Deback, Antoine Rousseau, Magali Breckler, Lucie Molet, David Boutolleau, Sonia Burrel, Anne-Marie Roque-Afonso, Marc Labetoulle
BACKGROUND: Cacicol®, a topical eye biopolymer containing a poly-carboxymethylglucose sulfate solution that is a regenerating matrix therapy agent, intended for wound healing of persistent corneal epithelial defects. Based on the chemical composition, we hypothesized that Cacicol® may compete with natural heparan sulfate (HS) which initiates cell surface attachment of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), varicella zoster virus (VZV) and human adenovirus (HAdV), three viruses associated with corneal infections...
July 20, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Pietro Lampertico, Diethelm Messinger, Hameed Oladipupo, Georgios Bakalos, Marco Castillo, Tarik Asselah
BACKGROUND: Approximately one-third of patients have durable responses after finite (48-week) treatment with peginterferon alfa-2a. The ability to identify patients likely to respond would be particularly useful in resource-limited settings. METHODS: Data from 1,363 peginterferon alfa-2a recipients (955 hepatitis B 'e' antigen [HBeAg]-positive and 408 -negative) in six studies were analyzed. Baseline scoring systems were developed using generalized additive models and multiple logistic regression analysis to predict virological response (VR, hepatitis B virus [HBV] DNA <2,000 IU/mL), alone or combined with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) normalization (CR) at 24 weeks post-treatment...
July 4, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Erden Atilla, Merih Yalciner, Pinar Ataca Atilla, Can Ates, Sinem Civriz Bozdag, Meltem Kurt Yuksel, Selami Kocak Toprak, Mehmet Gunduz, Mehmet Ozen, Hamdi Akan, Taner Demirer, Onder Arslan, Osman Ilhan, Meral Beksac, Muhit Ozcan, Gunhan Gurman, Pervin Topcuoglu
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) is usually a serious complication in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients. In this study, our aim is to define risk factors and outcomes for patients with HC in allo-HSCT setting. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 249 allo-HSCTs performed between 2011 and 2016 in our center. RESULTS: HC was diagnosed in 98 patients (39%) at a median of 119 days (range, 5-580), and 91 (93%) of the patients had late onset disease...
July 4, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Rohit P Ojha, Brooke R MacDonald, Tzu-Chun Chu, Esther O Fasanmi, Jonathan D Moore, Rachel A Stewart
BACKGROUND: Real-world studies have aimed to compare the effects of 8- and 12-week ledipasvir/sofosbuvir regimens on sustained virological response (SVR) among HCV infection genotype-1 (HCV-1) treatment-naive patients. Nevertheless, real-world comparative effectiveness studies pose unique challenges, such as confounding by indication, that were not adequately addressed in prior studies. We thus aimed to address limitations in prior studies and compare overall- and subgroup-specific effectiveness of 8- and 12-week ledipasvir/sofosbuvir regimens among HCV-1 treatment-naive patients...
July 3, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Thomas N Kakuda, Jeysen Yogaratnam, Jennifer Rito, Malcolm Boyce, Toni Mitchell, Kusum Gupta, Julian A Symons, Sushmita Chanda, Pieter Van Remoortere, John Fry
BACKGROUND: This double-blind, first-in-human phase 1 study evaluated pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of AL-794 (prodrug of ALS-033719), a potent endonuclease inhibitor of influenza A and B in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Healthy adult volunteers were randomized to AL-794 (50-2000 mg single ascending doses, fasting) or placebo (5 cohorts, n=6:2 AL-794: placebo/cohort) in part 1, and AL-794 (50-600 mg multiple ascending doses, twice-daily, fed or fasted) or placebo (3 cohorts, n=8:2 AL-794: placebo/cohort) for 7 days in part 2...
June 21, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Jae-Hoon Ko, Hyeri Seok, Sun Young Cho, Young Eun Ha, Jin Yang Baek, So Hyun Kim, Yae-Jean Kim, Jin Kyeong Park, Chi Ryang Chung, Eun-Suk Kang, Duck Cho, Marcel A Müller, Christian Drosten, Cheol-In Kang, Doo Ryeon Chung, Jae-Hoon Song, Kyong Ran Peck
BACKGROUND: The effects of convalescent plasma (CP) infusion, one of the treatment options for severe Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections, have not yet been evaluated. METHODS: Serological responses of CP-infused MERS patients during the 2015 Korean MERS outbreak at a tertiary care centre were evaluated. Serological activity was evaluated with anti-MERS-CoV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) immunoglobulin (Ig)G, ELISA IgA, immunofluorescence assay IgM and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT)...
June 20, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Mariusz Łucejko, Robert Flisiak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Yumiko Tatsukawa, Masataka Tsuge, Yoshiiku Kawakami, Eisuke Murakami, Mio Kurihara, Motonobu Nomura, Ken Tsushima, Takuro Uchida, Takashi Nakahara, Daiki Miki, Tomokazu Kawaoka, Hiromi Abe-Chayama, Michio Imamura, Hiroshi Aikata, Hidenori Ochi, C Nelson Hayes, Hiroiku Kawakami, Kazuaki Chayama
BACKGROUND: Although pegylated-interferon (PEG-IFN) and nucleotide/nucleoside analogue (NA) combination therapy is considered to be optimal for accelerating serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) reduction, the effect is limited, and the best approach to PEG-IFN treatment for chronic hepatitis B patients during long term NA therapy has yet to be determined. METHODS: Twenty-one HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients whose HBV DNA levels were suppressed to undetectable levels by NA therapy were administrated PEG-IFNα2a for 48 weeks (sequential therapy: 10, add-on therapy: 11)...
June 1, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Shu Wu, Jinpiao Lin, Ya Fu, Qishui Ou
BACKGROUND: Interferon (IFN)-α is widely used for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection due to the high rate of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroconversion. However, IFN-α treatment has a number of side effects. Thus, identification of molecular biomarkers to predict IFN-α therapeutic effect would be useful in the clinic. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) in prediction of IFN-α curative effect of CHB patients...
May 23, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Surabhi B Vora, Adam W Brothers, Alpana Waghmare, Janet A Englund
BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a major risk factor for mortality in infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) and other profound immune defects. Specific antiviral therapy must be initiated early and aggressively because of the potential for antiviral resistance, rapid dissemination and poor transplant outcomes. Combination antiviral therapy is routinely administered for some viral infections, but the value of this approach for the treatment of CMV is unclear...
May 23, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
Navaneethan Palanisamy, Prabhav Kalaghatgi, Dario Akaberi, Åke Lundkvist, Zhi-Wei Chen, Peng Hu, Johan Lennerstrand
BACKGROUND: HCV infections can now be completely cured, thanks to the currently marketed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). It is known that HCV patients carry viral populations with baseline polymorphisms and/or mutations that make them resistant against some of these DAAs, which can negatively impact the patient's treatment outcome. Using complete HCV coding sequences isolated from 1,306 treatment-naive patients of genotypes (GTs) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 from around the globe, we studied the prevalence of baseline resistance-associated polymorphisms (RAPs) and resistance mutations (RMs) against DAAs that are currently on the market or in clinical trials...
May 10, 2018: Antiviral Therapy
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