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Annals of Neurology

Ronald C Petersen, Emily S Lundt, Terry M Therneau, Stephen D Weigand, David S Knopman, Michelle M Mielke, Rosebud O Roberts, Val J Lowe, Mary M Machulda, Walter K Kremers, Yonas E Geda, Clifford R Jack
Despite much attention to the use of biomarkers for predicting Alzheimer's disease, little information is available at the individual level. We used the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging to estimate absolute risk of cognitive impairment by biomarker group. Risk increased with age and any biomarker abnormality. For example, a 75-year-old with abnormal amyloid and cortical thinning biomarkers has ≈20% chance of cognitive impairment by age 80 whereas with normal biomarkers the chance is <10%. Persons with only one abnormal biomarker had similar intermediate risks...
December 6, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Matthew J Burke, Ted J Kaptchuk, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
'Differential placebo effects' is the concept that different types of placebos (e.g. inert pill versus sham device) may yield different magnitudes of placebo effects. This issue has been pushed into the spotlight by recent clinical trials of new technologies reporting unexpectedly large placebo effects from sham devices/procedures needed to maintain blinding integrity. In this Neurology Grand Rounds, we use transcranial magnetic stimulation as a model to explore the principles and implications of differential placebo effects...
December 6, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Tomoyuki Ohara, Jun Hata, Masashi Tanaka, Takanori Honda, Hajime Yamakage, Daigo Yoshida, Takayuki Inoue, Yoichiro Hirakawa, Toru Kusakabe, Mao Shibata, Tadashi Teraoka, Takanari Kitazono, Shigenobu Kanba, Noriko Satoh-Asahara, Toshiharu Ninomiya
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between serum soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (sTREM2), a soluble type of an innate immune receptor expressed on the microglia, and the risk of dementia. METHODS: A total of 1,349 Japanese community-residents aged 60 and older without dementia were followed prospectively for 10 years (2002-2012). Serum sTREM2 levels were quantified by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and divided into quartiles...
November 28, 2018: Annals of Neurology
F M Petrini, G Valle, I Strauss, G Granata, R Di Iorio, E D'Anna, P Čvančara, M Mueller, J Carpaneto, F Clemente, M Controzzi, L Bisoni, C Carboni, M Barbaro, F Iodice, D Andreu, A Hiairrassary, J L Divoux, C Cipriani, D Guiraud, L Raffo, E Fernandez, T Stieglitz, S Raspopovic, P M Rossini, S Micera
OBJECTIVE: Hand amputation is a highly disabling event, which significantly affects quality of life. An effective hand replacement can be achieved if the user, in addition to motor functions, is provided with the sensations that are naturally perceived while grasping and moving. Intraneural peripheral electrodes have shown promising results toward the restoration of the sense of touch. However, the long-term usability and clinical relevance of intraneural sensory feedback have not yet been clearly demonstrated...
November 25, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Patrick Lyden, Kent E Pryor, Christopher S Coffey, Merit Cudkowicz, Robin Conwit, Ashutosh Jadhav, Robert N Sawyer, Jan Claassen, Opeolu Adeoye, Shlee Song, Peter Hannon, Natalia S Rost, Archana Hinduja, Michel Torbey, Jin-Moo Lee, Curtis Benesch, Michael Rippee, Marilyn Rymer, Michael T Froehler, E Clarke Haley, Mark Johnson, Jon Yankey, Kim Magee, Julie Qidwai, Howard Levy, E Mark Haacke, Miller Fawaz, Thomas P Davis, Arthur W Toga, John H Griffin, Berislav V Zlokovic
OBJECTIVE: Agonism of the protease activated receptor (PAR) 1 by activated protein C (APC) provides neuroprotection and vasculoprotection in experimental neuro-injury models. The pleiotropic PAR1 agonist, 3K3A-APC, reduces neurologic injury and promotes vascular integrity; 3K3A-APC proved safe in human volunteers. We performed a randomized, controlled, blinded, trial to determine the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) of 3K3A-APC in ischemic stroke patients. METHODS: The NeuroNEXT trial RHAPSODY used a novel continual reassessment method to determine the MTD using tiers of 120, 240, 360 and 540μg/kg 3K3A-APC...
November 18, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Atsushi Fujita, Hiroyasu Tsukaguchi, Eriko Koshimizu, Hitoshi Nakazato, Kyoko Itoh, Shohei Kuraoka, Yoshihiro Komohara, Masaaki Shiina, Shohei Nakamura, Mika Kitajima, Yoshinori Tsurusaki, Satoko Miyatake, Kazuhiro Ogata, Kazumoto Iijima, Naomichi Matsumoto, Noriko Miyake
OBJECTIVE: Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GAMOS) is a neural and renal disorder, characterized by microcephaly, brain anomalies, and early-onset nephrotic syndrome. Biallelic mutations in WDR73 and the four subunit genes of the KEOPS complex are reported to cause GAMOS. Furthermore, an identical homozygous NUP107 (nucleoporin 107 kDa) mutation was identified in four GAMOS-like families, although biallelic NUP107 mutations were originally identified in steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome. NUP107 and NUP133 (nucleoporin 133 kDa) are interacting subunits of the nuclear pore complex in the nuclear envelope during interphase, and these proteins are also involved in centrosome positioning and spindle assembly during mitosis...
November 14, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Joseph Hindman, Mark D Bowren, Joel Bruss, Brad Wright, Joel C Geerling, Aaron D Boes
In this study we evaluate the role of the thalamus in the neural circuitry of arousal. Level of consciousness within the first 12 hours of a thalamic stroke is assessed with lesion symptom mapping. Impaired arousal correlates with lesions in the paramedian posterior thalamus near the centromedian and parafascicular nuclei, posterior hypothalamus, and midbrain tegmentum. All patients with severely impaired arousal (coma, stupor) had lesion extension into the midbrain and/or pontine tegmentum, whereas purely thalamic lesions did not severely impair arousal...
November 12, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Kazunori Toyoda, Masatoshi Koga, Haruko Yamamoto, Lydia Foster, Yuko Y Palesch, Yongjun Wang, Nobuyuki Sakai, Takayuki Hara, Chung Y Hsu, Ryo Itabashi, Shoichiro Sato, Mayumi Fukuda, Thorsten Steiner, Byung-Woo Yoon, Daniel F Hanley, Adnan I Qureshi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between clinical outcomes and acute systolic blood pressure (SBP) levels achieved after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: Eligible patients who were randomized to the Antihypertensive Treatment in Intracerebral Hemorrhage 2 (ATACH-2) trial ( NCT01176565) were divided into 5 groups by 10-mmHg strata of average hourly minimum SBP (<120 mmHg, 120-130, 130-140, 140-150 and ≥150) during 2 to 24 hours after randomization...
November 12, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Patricia A Boyle, Lei Yu, Sue E Leurgans, Robert S Wilson, Ron Brookmeyer, Julie A Schneider, David A Bennett
OBJECTIVE: The degree to which Alzheimer's versus other neuropathologies contribute to the risk of Alzheimer's dementia is unknown. We examined the risk of Alzheimer's dementia attributable to pathologic AD and eight other neuropathologies. METHODS: Participants (n=1,161) came from two clinical-pathologic studies of aging. Multivariable logistic regression models examined associations of eight neuropathologic indices with Alzheimer's dementia and quantified the percentage of cases attributable to each...
November 12, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Nicholas D Schiff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Satoko Miyatake, Sacha Schneeberger, Norihisa Koyama, Kenji Yokochi, Kayo Ohmura, Masaaki Shiina, Harushi Mori, Eriko Koshimizu, Eri Imagawa, Yuri Uchiyama, Satomi Mitsuhashi, Martin C Frith, Atsushi Fujita, Mai Satoh, Masataka Taguri, Yasuko Tomono, Keita Takahashi, Hiroshi Doi, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Mitsuko Nakashima, Takeshi Mizuguchi, Atsushi Takata, Noriko Miyake, Hirotomo Saitsu, Fumiaki Tanaka, Kazuhiro Ogata, Thierry Hennet, Naomichi Matsumoto
OBJECTIVE: Approximately 5% of cerebral small vessel diseases are hereditary, which include COL4A1/COL4A2-related disorders. COL4A1/COL4A2 encode type IV collagen α1/2 chains in the basement membranes of cerebral vessels. COL4A1/COL4A2 mutations impair the secretion of collagen to the extracellular matrix, thereby resulting in vessel fragility. The diagnostic yield for COL4A1/COL4A2 variants is around 20 to 30%, suggesting other mutated genes might be associated with this disease. This study aimed to identify novel genes that cause COL4A1/COL4A2-related disorders...
November 9, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Jin-Sun Jun, Soon-Tae Lee, Ryul Kim, Kon Chu, Sang Kun Lee
We investigated the therapeutic potential of the interleukin-6 receptor inhibitor tocilizumab in 7 patients with new onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) who remained refractory to conventional immunotherapy with rituximab (n = 5) or without rituximab (n = 2). Status epilepticus (SE) was terminated after 1 or 2 doses of tocilizumab in 6 patients with a median interval of 3 days from the initiation. They had no recurrence of SE during the observation. However, 2 patients experienced severe adverse events related to infection during the tocilizumab therapy...
November 8, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Guangwei Du, Mechelle M Lewis, Christopher Sica, Lan Kong, Xuemei Huang
OBJECTIVE: Newer MRI techniques have shown promise in capturing early Parkinson's disease (PD)-related changes in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), the key pathological loci. Their translational value, however, is hindered by technical complexity and inconsistent results. METHODS: A novel yet simple MRI contrast, the T1w/T2w ratio, was used to study 76 PD patients and 70 controls. The T1w/T2w ratio maps were analyzed using both voxel-based and region-of-interest approaches in normalized space...
November 8, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Natalie Mrachacz-Kersting, Andrew J T Stevenson, Helle R M Jørgensen, Kåre Eg Severinsen, Susan Aliakbaryhosseinabadi, Ning Jiang, Dario Farina
OBJECTIVE: Adjuvant protocols devised to enhance motor recovery in subacute stroke patients have failed to show benefits with respect to classic therapeutic interventions. Here we evaluate the efficacy of a novel brain-state dependent intervention based on known mechanisms of memory and learning, that is integrated as part of the weekly rehabilitation program in subacute stroke patients. METHODS: Twenty-four hospitalized subacute stroke patients were randomly assigned to two intervention groups; 1...
November 8, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Audrey Gabelle, Isabelle Jaussent, Fayçal Ben Bouallègue, Sylvain Lehmann, Régis Lopez, Lucie Barateau, Caroline Grasselli, Carole Pesenti, Delphine de Verbizier, Séverine Béziat, Denis Mariano-Goulart, Bertrand Carlander, Yves Dauvilliers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2018: Annals of Neurology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Ozan Eren, Veronika Rauschel, Ruth Ruscheweyh, Andreas Straube, Christoph J Schankin
Patients with visual snow syndrome (VS) suffer from a debilitating continuous visual disturbance of unknown mechanism. The present study tested the hypothesis of dysfunctional visual processing using visual evoked potentials. Eighteen patients were compared to age-matched migraineurs (M) and healthy controls (C) using 2-way analysis of variance with group (VS, M, C) and gender as factors. Visual evoked potentials from patients with VS demonstrated increased N145 latency (in milliseconds, VS: 152.7 ± 7...
November 1, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Rainer Malik, Kristiina Rannikmäe, Matthew Traylor, Marios K Georgakis, Muralidharan Sargurupremraj, Hugh S Markus, Jemma C Hopewell, Stephanie Debette, Cathie L M Sudlow, Martin Dichgans
We conducted a European-only and transancestral genome-wide association meta-analysis in 72,147 stroke patients and 823,869 controls using data from UK Biobank (UKB) and the MEGASTROKE consortium. We identified an exonic polymorphism in NOS3 (rs1799983, p.Glu298Asp; p = 2.2E-8, odds ratio [OR] = 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.07) and variants in an intron of COL4A1 (rs9521634; p = 3.8E-8, OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.03-1.06) and near DYRK1A (rs720470; p = 6.1E-9, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03-1.07) at genome-wide significance for stroke...
November 1, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Sanne Kikkert, Melvin Mezue, Jacinta O'Shea, David Henderson-Slater, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Irene Tracey, Tamar R Makin
OBJECTIVE: Phantom limb pain (PLP) is notoriously difficult to treat, partly due to an incomplete understanding of PLP-related disease mechanisms. Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) is used to modulate plasticity in various neuropathological diseases, including chronic pain. While NIBS can alleviate neuropathic pain (including PLP), both disease and treatment mechanisms remain tenuous. Insight into the mechanisms underlying both PLP and NIBS-induced PLP relief is needed for future implementation of such treatment and generalisation to related conditions...
November 1, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Rui Araújo, Bastiaan R Bloem
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2018: Annals of Neurology
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