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Annals of Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409656/condomless-sex-and-hiv-transmission-among-serodifferent-couples-current-evidence-and-recommendations
#1
Alan Koff, Carole Goldberg, Onyema Ogbuagu
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a global pandemic. The primary driver of HIV incidence is sexual transmission between serodifferent individuals. Condoms, when used consistently and correctly, are effective at preventing sexually-transmitted HIV infections, and are considered an integral component of a comprehensive approach to HIV prevention. However, the demonstrated effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to prevent HIV transmission, known as treatment as prevention, and of pre-exposure prophylaxis, have raised an intriguing dilemma on the necessity and additive preventive benefit of condom use among individuals in serodifferent relationships utilizing these prevention strategies...
April 14, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286967/protective-effect-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-agents-on-reperfusion-injury-for-acute-myocardial-infarction-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#2
Mengjie Huang, Ribao Wei, Yang Wang, Tingyu Su, Qingping Li, Xi Yang, Xiangmei Chen
BACKGROUND: The cardioprotective properties of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients against reperfusion injury remain unclear. We performed a meta-analysis to assess their role in the acute phase of AMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing GLP-1 agents with placebo in AMI patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention were identified by searching PubMed, Embase and Cochrane libraries...
March 31, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358246/effects-of-direct-renin-inhibition-versus-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockade-on-angiotensin-profiles-in-non-diabetic-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
Marlies Antlanger, Sebastian Bernhofer, Johannes J Kovarik, Chantal Kopecky, Christopher C Kaltenecker, Oliver Domenig, Marko Poglitsch, Marcus D Säemann
BACKGROUND: Direct renin inhibition (DRI) is clinically inferior to other blockers of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Thus far, the underlying molecular causes of this finding remain unknown. METHODS: 24 patients with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage III-IV and albuminuria were randomized to DRI or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). Employing a novel mass-spectrometry method, the concentrations of renin, aldosterone and plasma angiotensin peptides [Ang I, Ang II, Ang-(1-7), Ang-(1-5), Ang-(2-8), Ang-(3-8)] were quantified before and after an 8-week treatment...
March 30, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281834/association-of-sleep-disordered-breathing-with-diabetes-associated-kidney-disease
#4
Stefan Stadler, Tanja Zimmermann, Franziska Franke, Myriam Rheinberger, Iris M Heid, Carsten A Böger, Michael Arzt
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes-associated kidney disease is characterized by impairment of renal function and albuminuria. The aim of the present study was to assess whether sleep-disordered breathing is associated with decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate or increased urine-albumin-to-creatinine-ratio independently from known modulators of diabetes-associated kidney disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Estimated glomerular filtration rate and urine-albumin-to-creatinine-ratio were determined in the baseline survey of the DIACORE-SDB substudy, a prospectively planned study of Diabetes mellitus 2 patients...
March 27, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332418/asthma-status-is-an-independent-risk-factor-for-herpes-zoster-in-children-a-population-based-cohort-study
#5
Su-Jing Chen, Kuang-Hua Huang, Wen-Chen Tsai, Cheng-Li Lin, Yih-Dih Cheng, Chang-Ching Wei
The literature regarding the effects of childhood asthma on the risk of herpes zoster (HZ) is very limited. The aim of this study is to investigate the risks of children developing HZ with asthma. From the National Health Insurance Research Database, a total of 600,891 children were enrolled in this study between 2000 and 2007. The children were matched by age, gender, level of urbanization, and parental occupation. All subjects were followed until the end of 2008. A Cox model was used to estimate the association of asthma on the risk of HZ...
March 23, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326854/subclinical-carotid-atherosclerosis-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-meta-analysis-of-literature-studies
#6
Pasquale Ambrosino, Roberta Lupoli, Giovanni Cafaro, Salvatore Iervolino, Mauro Carone, Nicola Pappone, Matteo Nicola Dario Di Minno
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients have an increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Common carotid intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) and carotid plaques are surrogate markers of subclinical atherosclerosis and predictors of CV events. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between COPD and subclinical atherosclerosis. Studies evaluating the impact of COPD on CCA-IMT and on the prevalence of carotid plaques were systematically searched...
March 22, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300429/leptin-predicts-short-term-major-adverse-cardiac-events-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#7
Veli-Pekka Puurunen, Antti Kiviniemi, Samuli Lepojärvi, Olli-Pekka Piira, Pirjo Hedberg, Juhani Junttila, Olavi Ukkola, Heikki Huikuri
INTRODUCTION: Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone associated with cardiovascular risk factors. We examined whether leptin predicts major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. METHODS: Fasting plasma leptin levels were measured in 1327 male and 619 female CAD patients. The patients were followed up for two years. The primary endpoint (MACE) was the composite of a hospitalisation for congestive heart failure (CHF) or a cardiac death...
March 16, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294644/electrocardiogram-changes-and-atrial-arrhythmias-in-individuals-carrying-sodium-channel-scn5a-d1275n-mutation
#8
Sari U M Vanninen, Kjell Nikus, Katriina Aalto-Setälä
INTRODUCTION: The cardiac sodium channel SCN5A regulates atrioventricular and ventricular depolarization as well as cardiac conduction. Patients with cardiac electrical abnormalities have an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) and cardio-embolic stroke. Optimal management of cardiac disease includes the understanding of association between the causative mutations and the clinical phenotype. A 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is an easy and inexpensive tool for finding risk patients...
March 15, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293967/efficacy-of-rasagiline-for-the-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease-an-updated-meta-analysis
#9
Ying Chang, Li-Bo Wang, Dan Li, Ke Lei, Song-Yan Liu
OBJECTIVE: Rasagiline is a second-generation potent selective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase-B. The aim of the study was to analyze the effectiveness of rasagiline in treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), both as monotherapy and combination therapy. METHODS: Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until 9 March 2016 using the keywords: Rasagiline, Azilect, Parkinson's disease. Randomized controlled trials of patients with PD who were randomized to treatment with rasagiline or placebo were included...
March 15, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271734/overuse-of-organ-biopsies-in-immunoglobulin-light-chain-al-amyloidosis-the-consequence-of-failure-of-early-recognition
#10
Eli Muchtar, Angela Dispenzieri, Martha Q Lacy, Francis K Buadi, Prashant Kapoor, Suzanne R Hayman, Wilson Gonsalves, Rahma Warsame, Taxiarchis V Kourelis, Rajshekhar Chakraborty, Stephen Russell, John A Lust, Yi Lin, Ronald S Go, Steven Zeldenrust, S Vincent Rajkumar, David Dingli, Nelson Leung, Robert A Kyle, Shaji K Kumar, Morie A Gertz
INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis of amyloidosis requires histological confirmation of Congo-red (CR) deposits. The tissue source is preferably fat aspiration and/or bone marrow biopsy, but at times organ biopsy is required. METHODS: We studied 612 patients with systemic immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis to characterize the tissues used to establish the diagnosis. RESULTS: The median number of tissue samples was 3. 95% of bone marrow (BM) biopsies were stained for CR, while 79% of patients had fat aspiration CR-stained...
March 8, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266875/ten-days-of-levofloxacin-containing-concomitant-therapy-can-achieve-effective-helicobacter-pylori-eradication-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#11
Yao-Jong Yang, Chung-Tai Wu, Horng-Yih Ou, Chin-Han Lin, Hsiu-Chi Cheng, Wei-Lun Chang, Wei-Ying Chen, Hsiao-Bai Yang, Cheng-Chan Lu, Bor-Shyang Sheu
BACKGROUND: This study investigated whether levofloxacin-containing concomitant therapy can effectively eradicate Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: A total of 797 T2DM patients were screened for anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies, and the presence of H. pylori infection was confirmed by (13)C-urea breath test. We prospectively randomized 114 of these patients to receive either 10 d of levofloxacin-concomitant therapy (n = 55) or sequential therapy (n = 59)...
March 7, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276867/pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-adult-type-granulosa-cell-tumor-of-the-ovary
#12
Anniina Färkkilä, Ulla-Maija Haltia, Johanna Tapper, Melissa K McConechy, David G Huntsman, Markku Heikinheimo
Adult-type granulosa cell tumor is a clinically and molecularly unique subtype of ovarian cancer. These tumors originate from the sex cord stromal cells of the ovary and represent 3-5% of all ovarian cancers. The majority of adult-type granulosa cell tumors are diagnosed at an early stage with an indolent prognosis. Surgery is the cornerstone for the treatment of both primary and relapsed tumor, while chemotherapy is applied only for advanced or non-resectable cases. Tumor stage is the only factor consistently associated with prognosis...
March 6, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276868/population-based-birth-weight-reference-percentiles-for-chinese-twins
#13
Li Dai, Changfei Deng, Yanhua Li, Ling Yi, Xiaohong Li, Yi Mu, Qi Li, Qiang Yao, Yanping Wang
BACKGROUND: Birth weight percentiles by gestational age are important for assessing prenatal growth and predicting postnatal outcomes of newborns. Several countries have developed nation-specific birth weight references for twins, but China still lacks such references. METHODS AND RESULTS: Birth weight data for twins born between October 2006 and September 2015 were abstracted from the China National Population-based Birth Defects Surveillance System. A total of 54,786 live twin births aged ≥28 weeks of gestation without birth defects were included in the analysis...
February 28, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276870/renal-sympathetic-denervation-for-treatment-of-patients-with-heart-failure-summary-of-the-available-evidence
#14
Wail Nammas, Juhani Koistinen, Tuomas Paana, Pasi P Karjalainen
Heart failure syndrome results from compensatory mechanisms that operate to restore - back to normal - the systemic perfusion pressure. Sympathetic overactivity plays a pivotal role in heart failure; norepinephrine contributes to maintenance of the systemic blood pressure and increasing preload. Cardiac norepinephrine spillover increases in patients with heart failure; norepinephrine exerts direct toxicity on cardiac myocytes resulting in a decrease of synthetic activity and/or viability. Importantly, cardiac norepinephrine spillover is a powerful predictor of mortality in patients with moderate to severe HF...
February 10, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276869/comorbidities-and-risk-of-mortality-in-patients-with-sleep-apnea
#15
Chi-Lu Chiang, Yung-Tai Chen, Kang-Ling Wang, Vincent Yi-Fong Su, Li-An Wu, Diahn-Warng Perng, Shi-Chuan Chang, Yuh-Min Chen, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Kun-Ta Chou
BACKGROUND: A variety of disorders, most notably cardiovascular diseases, was linked to sleep apnea (SA), but their impact on mortality of SA patients had not been systematically investigated. We aimed to develop a composite index based on the comorbidity burden to predict mortality risk. METHODS: Using Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 9853 adult SA patients were enrolled and their comorbidity profile at baseline was recorded. The subjects were followed from 1995 till death or the end of 2011...
February 10, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084122/plasma-endothelin-1-levels-in-patients-with-resistant-hypertension-effects-of-renal-sympathetic-denervation
#16
Luigi Petramala, Federica Olmati, Massimo Mancone, Antonio Concistré, Matteo Galassi, Cristiano Marinelli, Gianfranco Tonnarini, Piernatale Lucia, Umberto Costi, Gino Iannucci, Gennaro Sardella, Claudio Letizia
INTRODUCTION: Resistant arterial hypertension (RHT) is defined as poor controlled blood pressure (BP) despite optimal doses of three or more antihypertensive agents, including a diuretic. In the development of RHT, hyperactivity of sympathetic (SNS) and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (SRAA) systems are involved, and SNS is a potent stimulator of vasoactive endothelin-1 (ET-1) peptide. Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) through disrupting renal afferent and efferent nerves attenuates SNS activity...
February 10, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042729/critical-laboratory-values-in-hemostasis-toward-consensus
#17
Giuseppe Lippi, Dorothy Adcock, Ana-Maria Simundic, Armando Tripodi, Emmanuel J Favaloro
The term "critical values" can be defined to entail laboratory test results that significantly lie outside the normal (reference) range and necessitate immediate reporting to safeguard patient health, as well as those displaying a highly and clinically significant variation compared to previous data. The identification and effective communication of "highly pathological" values has engaged the minds of many clinicians, health care and laboratory professionals for decades, since these activities are vital to good laboratory practice...
February 10, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166422/relation-of-heart-rate-recovery-after-exercise-testing-to-coronary-artery-calcification
#18
Sae Young Jae, Sudhir Kurl, Jari A Laukkanen, Eun Sun Yoon, Yoon-Ho Choi, Bo Fernhall, Barry A Franklin
BACKGROUND: We examined whether slow heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise testing as an estimate of impaired autonomic function is related to coronary artery calcification (CAC), an emerging marker of coronary atherosclerosis. METHODS: We evaluated 2088 men who participated in a health screening program that included measures of CAC and peak or symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing. HRR was calculated as the difference between peak heart rate during exercise testing and the heart rate at 2 minutes of recovery after peak exercise...
February 6, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166415/adverse-metabolic-and-mental-health-outcomes-associated-with-shiftwork-in-a-population-based-study-of-277-168-workers-in-uk-biobank
#19
Cathy A Wyse, Carlos A Celis Morales, Nicolas Graham, Yu Fan, Joey Ward, Anne M Curtis, Daniel Mackay, Daniel J Smith, Mark E S Bailey, Stephany Biello, Jason M R Gill, J P Pell
BACKGROUND: Reported associations between shiftwork and health have largely been based on occupation-specific, or single sex studies that might not be generalizable to the entire working population. The objective of this study was to investigate whether shiftwork was independently associated with obesity, diabetes, poor sleep and well-being in a large, UK general population cohort. METHODS: Participants of the UK Biobank study who were employed at the time of assessment were included...
February 6, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151011/cardiovascular-risk-factors-and-glucose-tolerance-in-midlife-and-risk-of-cognitive-disorders-in-old-age-up-to-a-49-year-follow-up-of-the-helsinki-businessmen-study
#20
Kirsi Rantanen, Arto Y Strandberg, Veikko V Salomaa, Kaisu H Pitkälä, Reijo S Tilvis, Pentti J Tienari, Timo E Strandberg
PURPOSE: To compare midlife predictors of old age dementia with or without concomitant atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). DESIGN: In the Helsinki Businessmen Study (men born in 1919-1934, n = 3309) death certificates (n = 1885) during up to 49-year follow-up (through December 31, 2013) were screened for dementia (n = 365) and ASCVD, and categorized as 1) AD without ASCVD ("pure" AD, n = 93), 2) AD+ASCVD (n = 126), 3) Vascular dementia (VD, n = 82), 4) Other or undefined etiology (n = 64)...
February 2, 2017: Annals of Medicine
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