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Annals of Medicine

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November 21, 2018: Annals of Medicine
Bashir Alaour, Felicity Liew, Thomas E Kaier
The definition of a high-sensitivity cardiac Troponin (cTn) assay describes the ability to quantify a cardiac biomarker level in at least 50% of healthy individuals. This advance in analytic sensitivity has come with a perceived loss of specificity in the most classic application - chest pain triage and the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). As cardiac Troponin can no longer be used as a dichotomous test, the medical field is increasingly moving towards a more granular interpretation. However, rapid rule-out/rule-in algorithms for AMI still rely on concrete thresholds for efficient triage, irrespective of the patient's comorbidities...
November 21, 2018: Annals of Medicine
Merja K Laine, Senja Masalin, Kristiina Rönö, Hannu Kautiainen, Mika Gissler, Pirjo Pennanen, Johan G Eriksson
INTRODUCTION: Preterm birth is a major cause of infant mortality. It is unknown whether body mass index (BMI) influences the risk of preterm birth in women, who prenatally use antidepressants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study cohort (N = 6920) consists of all primiparous European born women without previously diagnosed diabetes from the city of Vantaa, Finland, who delivered a singleton child between 2009 and 2015. Data on births, pre-pregnancy BMI and purchases of antidepressants from 12 months before conception until delivery were obtained from Finnish National Registers...
November 19, 2018: Annals of Medicine
Tero Juho Wilhelm Pääkkö, Juha S Perkiömäki, Marja-Leena Silaste, Risto Bloigu, Heikki V Huikuri, Y Antero Kesäniemi, Olavi H Ukkola
BACKGROUND: The association between dietary salt intake and hypertension has been well documented. We evaluated the association between dietary sodium intake and the incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) during a mean follow-up of 19 years among 716 subjects from the Oulu Project Elucidating Risk of Atherosclerosis (OPERA) cohort. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dietary sodium intake was evaluated from a seven-day food record. The diagnosis of AF (atrial flutter included) was made if ICD-10 code I48 was listed in the hospital discharge records during follow-up...
November 15, 2018: Annals of Medicine
Alessandro Menotti, Paolo Emilio Puddu, Hanna Tolonen, Anthony Kafatos
OBJECTIVES: To describe age at death (AD) in ten cohorts of middle-aged men followed-up until nearly extinction as a function of personal characteristics measured at baseline. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cohorts of men aged 40-59 years in five European countries (Finland, the Netherlands, Italy, Serbia, Greece) were examined and then followed-up for mortality during 45 (3 cohorts) or 50 years (7 cohorts). Multiple linear regression (MLR) models were computed with AD as dependent variable and 35 personal characteristics as independent variables...
October 25, 2018: Annals of Medicine
Jing-Lu Jin, Di Sun, Ye-Xuan Cao, Yuan-Lin Guo, Na-Qiong Wu, Cheng-Gang Zhu, Ying Gao, Qiu-Ting Dong, Hui-Wen Zhang, Geng Liu, Qian Dong, Jian-Jun Li
AIM: Previous studies have shown that both triglyceride glucose (TyG) and haemoglobin glycation indexes (HGI) are predictors of cardiovascular risk. However, the prognostic value of TyG index and HGI in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and stable coronary artery disease (CAD) is not determined. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study among 1282 T2DM patients with stable CAD. Patients were followed up for 3846 person-years. A total of 160 patients with events (12...
October 25, 2018: Annals of Medicine
Aino Ollila, Leena Vikatmaa, Reijo Sund, Ville Pettilä, Erika Wilkman
Haemodynamic instability predisposes patients to cardiac complications in non-cardiac surgery. Esmolol, a short-acting cardio selective beta adrenergic blocker might be efficient in perioperative cardiac protection, but could affect other vital organs, such as the kidneys, and post-discharge survival. We performed a systematic review on the use of esmolol for perioperative cardiac protection. We searched PubMed, Ovid Medline and Cochrane Central Register for Controlled trials. Eligible randomised controlled studies (RCTs) reported a perioperative esmolol intervention with at least one of the primary (major cardiac or renal complications during the first 30 postoperative days) or secondary (postoperative adverse effects and all-cause mortality) outcomes...
October 22, 2018: Annals of Medicine
Eduardo Peñaloza-Martínez, Pablo Demelo-Rodríguez, Marco Proietti, Guillermo Soria Fernández-Llamazares, Cristina Llamazares-Mendo, Luis Álvarez-Sala Walther, Alberto M Marra, Jorge Del Toro-Cervera
The importance of assessing the probability of venous thromboembolism recurrence, a condition that includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, lies in the fact that it is the most important factor in deciding the duration of anticoagulant treatment. Risk of recurrence depends mostly on the presence of a risk factor for developing venous thromboembolism, with patients with unprovoked events being at the higher risk of recurrence. The risk of recurrence needs to be balanced with the risk of bleeding and the potential severity of these thrombotic and hemorrhagic events...
October 22, 2018: Annals of Medicine
Samuli Jaakkola, Tuomas O Kiviniemi, K E Juhani Airaksinen
Cardioversion is an essential component of rhythm control strategy for atrial fibrillation. The thromboembolic risk of cardioversion is well established and the mechanisms behind the phenomenon have been comprehensively described. There are several clinical aspects that are important to take into consideration when assessing the safety of cardioversion. Before proceeding to cardioversion, the probability of early treatment failure and antiarrhythmic treatment options to prevent recurrences should be carefully evaluated to avoid the risks of repeated futile cardioversions...
October 15, 2018: Annals of Medicine
Per Rosengren, Xinjun Li, Jan Sundquist, Kristina Sundquist, Bengt Zöller
INTRODUCTION: The hospitalization rate of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) in a nationwide study is not established. We determined age- and sex-specific hospitalization rates and time trends for hospitalized PSVT in the Swedish population between 1987 and 2010. METHODS: This nationwide study is based on the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register. The patients with first PSVT diagnoses between January 1987 and December 2010 were identified. RESULTS: A total of 42,765 individuals with PSVT were diagnosed (mean age 60 years; 44% males)...
October 15, 2018: Annals of Medicine
M Ruscica, N Ferri, C Macchi, A Corsini, C R Sirtori
Inflammatory changes are responsible for maintenance of the atherosclerotic process and may underlie some of the most feared vascular complications. Among the multiple mechanisms of inflammation, the arterial deposition of lipids and particularly of cholesterol crystals is the one responsible for the activation of inflammasome NLRP3, followed by the rise of circulating markers, mainly C-reactive protein (CRP). Elevation of lipoproteins, LDL but also VLDL and remnants, associates with increased inflammatory changes and coronary risk...
October 15, 2018: Annals of Medicine
Ching-Yen Chen, Chia-Ming Chang, Huang-Li Lin, Chun-Lin Chu
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) would be positively associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) in perimenopausal women from a population-based perspective, after adjustment for all potential confounders. METHODS: This study used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database, 2005-2012, to report on MDD in perimenopausal women. RESULTS: The odds ratio (OR) for MDD increased when there was a smoker was in the home, as compared to not having a smoker in the home (aOR = 2...
October 12, 2018: Annals of Medicine
Weenita Pipitprapat, Sarawin Harnchoowong, Poonkiat Suchonwanit, Chutintorn Sriphrapradang
BACKGROUND: The smartphone apps provide a user-friendly option for measurement of heart rate (HR) by detecting pulsatile photoplethysmographic signals with built-in cameras from the fingertips, however, the validation study is limited. METHODS: We compared HR detected by the smartphone apps (App1 = Instant HR, App2 = Cardiio: HR Monitor, and App3 = Runtastic HR Monitor) with simultaneous standard ECG monitoring in the adult patients at the critical care unit...
October 1, 2018: Annals of Medicine
Krista Nuotio, Petra Ijäs, Hanna M Heikkilä, Suvi M Koskinen, Jani Saksi, Pirkka Vikatmaa, Pia Sorto, Laura Mäkitie, Henrietta Eriksson, Sonja Kasari, Heli Silvennoinen, Leena Valanne, Mikko I Mäyränpää, Petri T Kovanen, Lauri Soinne, Perttu J Lindsberg
INTRODUCTION: Every fifth ischemic stroke is caused by thromboembolism originating from an atherosclerotic carotid artery plaque. While prevention is the most cost-effective stroke therapy, antiplatelet and cholesterol-lowering drugs have a ceiling effect in their efficacy. Therefore, discovery of novel pathophysiologic targets are needed to improve the primary and secondary prevention of stroke. This article provides a detailed study design and protocol of HeCES2, an observational prospective cohort study with the objective to investigate the pathophysiology of carotid atherosclerosis...
October 1, 2018: Annals of Medicine
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 29, 2018: Annals of Medicine
Dima Dandachi, Rita Wilson Dib, Ana Fernández-Cruz, Ying Jiang, Anne-Marie Chaftari, Ray Hachem, Issam Raad
BACKGROUND: The characteristics and management of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in patients with hematologic malignancies are well known, but IPA in patients with solid tumours is not well described. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all Aspergillus-positive cultures at a tertiary cancer center during 2004-2017. We identified 101 patients with IPA and solid tumours. We analyzed the association between clinical features and treatment and 12-week mortality and response to antifungal therapy...
September 29, 2018: Annals of Medicine
Amirhossein Sahebkar, Luis E Simental-Mendía, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Matteo Pirro, Maciej Banach, Cesare R Sirtori, Željko Reiner
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein C-III (apo C-III) is a key regulator of triglycerides metabolism. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effect of fish omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on apo C-III levels. METHODS: Randomized placebo-controlled trials investigating the impact of omega-3 on apo C-III levels were searched in PubMed-Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Google Scholar. A random-effects model and generic inverse variance method were used for quantitative data synthesis...
September 29, 2018: Annals of Medicine
Anisja Hühne, David K Welsh, Dominic Landgraf
Disruption of circadian clocks is strongly associated with mood disorders. "Chronotherapies" targeting circadian rhythms have been shown to be very effective treatments of mood disorders, but still are not widely used in clinical practice. The mechanisms by which circadian disruption leads to mood disorders are poorly characterized and therefore may not convince clinicians to apply chronotherapies. Hence, in this review, we describe specific potential mechanisms, in order to make this connection more credible to clinicians...
September 28, 2018: Annals of Medicine
Eduard Brunet, Cristina Roig-Ramos, Emili Vela, Montserrat Clèries, Luigi Melcarne, Albert Villòria, Caridad Pontes, Xavier Calvet
INTRODUCTION: Few recent data on the epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are available, especially in Southern Europe. AIM: To evaluate the prevalence, incidence and mortality of IBD in Catalonia during the period 2011-2016. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data on the prevalence, incidence and mortality of IBD were obtained from the Catalan Health Surveillance System (CHSS). Crude incidence and prevalence rates were calculated for all the Catalan population...
September 24, 2018: Annals of Medicine
Carla M Prado, Sarah A Purcell, Carolyn Alish, Suzette L Pereira, Nicolaas E Deutz, Daren K Heyland, Bret H Goodpaster, Kelly A Tappenden, Steven B Heymsfield
Abnormalities in body composition can occur at any body weight. Low muscle mass is a predictor of poor morbidity and mortality and occurs in several populations. This narrative review provides an overview of the importance of low muscle mass on health outcomes for patients in inpatient, outpatient and long-term care clinical settings. A one-year glimpse at publications that showcases the rapidly growing research of body composition in clinical settings is included. Low muscle mass is associated with outcomes such as higher surgical and post-operative complications, longer length of hospital stay, lower physical function, poorer quality of life and shorter survival...
September 12, 2018: Annals of Medicine
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