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American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Cédric Dananché, Valentina Sánchez Picot, Thomas Bénet, Mélina Messaoudi, Monidarin Chou, Jianwei Wang, Jean-William Pape, Shally Awasthi, Ashish Bavdekar, Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Mariam Sylla, Pagbajabyn Nymadawa, Graciela Russomando, Florence Komurian-Pradel, Hubert Endtz, Gláucia Paranhos-Baccalà, Philippe Vanhems, On Behalf Of The Pneumonia Gabriel Network
This descriptive 4-year study reports the proportion of detection of influenza viruses in less than 5-year-old children hospitalized for pneumonia in eight developing and emerging countries and describes clinical and microbiological characteristics of influenza-related pneumonia cases. Hospitalized children presenting radiologically confirmed pneumonia aged 2-60 months were prospectively enrolled in this observational standardized study. Mean proportion of isolated influenza virus was 9.7% (95% confidence interval: 7...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Tariku Nigatu Bogale, Abebaw Gebeyehu Worku, Alemayehu Yalew, Gashaw Andargie Biks, Zemene Tigabu Kebede
This study was conducted to explore the experiences of community members, particularly mothers, concerning their beliefs about the causes, treatment practices, and preferences for WHO-defined neonatal danger signs in northwest Ethiopia. A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted in three districts of north Gondar Zone, Amhara region, Ethiopia, from March 10 to 28, 2016. Twelve focus group discussions were conducted involving 98 individuals. In-depth interviews were conducted with six health extension workers and 30 women who were either pregnant or who delivered in the past 6 months...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Michelle Beam, Angela Spencer, Lauralee Fernandez, Ruth Atto, Claudio Muro, Percy Vilchez, Ricardo Gamboa, Sandra Olaya, Viterbo Ayvar, Armando E Gonzalez, Hector H Garcia, Seth E O'Neal, For The Cysticercosis Working Group In Peru
Infection of the brain with Taenia solium larvae (neurocysticercosis) is a leading cause of preventable epilepsy worldwide. Effective and sustainable strategies to control parasite transmission in rural endemic communities are needed to prevent the disease. Surveillance and targeted intervention around infected pigs (ring control strategy) have been shown to be effective when carried out by research teams. However, this strategy has not been implemented or tested as a community-based program. In this small trial in northern Peru, eight villages were randomly assigned to community-led surveillance and treatment (five villages, 997 residents) or control (three villages, 1,192 residents)...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Boudaouara Yosr, Aoun Karim, Maatoug Rania, Souissi Olfa, Bouratbine Aïda, Ben Abdallah Rym
Congenital toxoplasmosis (CT) results from transplacental passage of Toxoplasma gondii to the fetus during acute maternal infection. Our study aims to report clinical and biological patterns of 35 cases of CT diagnosed at the department of the Parasitology of the Pasteur Institute of Tunis and to access the performance of prenatal and early postnatal diagnosis techniques. Serological screening of maternal infection was performed by Immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG detection and IgG avidity determination. Prenatal diagnosis was based on both Toxoplasma DNA detection in the amniotic fluid and monthly ultrasound examinations...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Chompunoot Wangboon, Puangrat Yongvanit, Watcharin Loilom, Raynoo Thanan, Chanika Worasith, Chatanun Eamudomkarn, Nittaya Chamadol, Eimorn Mairiang, Jiraporn Sithithaworn, Prasert Saichua, Banchob Sripa, Narong Khuntikeo, Jeffrey M Bethony, Paiboon Sithithaworn
Previous studies demonstrated that urinary 8-oxodG is a predictive biomarker for Opisthorchis viverrini (OV)-associated hepatobiliary disease (HBD) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). This study examined the effects of praziquantel treatment on the profile of urinary 8-oxodG in relation to HBD status. Infection with OV, levels of urinary 8-oxodG, and HBD status in terms of periductal fibrosis (PDF) assessed by abdominal ultrasonography (US) were monitored and compared in cohorts of participants in Khon Kaen, Thailand, before and 1 year after praziquantel treatment...
April 9, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Hannah Romo, Anna Papa, Rebekah Kading, Rebecca Clark, Mark Delorey, Aaron C Brault
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is phylogenetically separated into distinct lineages. Lineage 1 (L1) and lineage 2 (L2) encompass all WNV isolates associated with human and veterinary disease cases. Although L1 WNV is globally distributed, including North America, L2 WNV only recently emerged out of sub-Saharan Africa into Europe and Russia. The spread of L2 WNV throughout and beyond Europe depends, in part, on availability of competent vectors. The vector competence of mosquitoes within the Culex genus for WNV is well established for L1 WNV but less extensively studied for L2 WNV...
April 9, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Evan M Bloch, Kasubi Mabula, Andrew Levin, Zakayo Mrango, Jerusha Weaver, Beatriz Munoz, Sheila K West
Babesia is a tick-borne intraerythrocytic parasite that is clinically and diagnostically similar to malaria parasite, conferring risk of misdiagnosis in areas where both parasites are endemic. Data on Babesia in humans in Africa are lacking, despite evidence that it is present in regional animal populations. Samples that were collected in November 2014 to July 2015 in Kilosa district, Tanzania, were evaluated for evidence of malaria and Babesia infection. Clinical data and laboratory samples (i.e., hemoglobin, rapid diagnostic testing [RDT] for malaria, peripheral blood smear, and dried blood spots) from a routine survey were available for analysis...
April 9, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Sadie J Ryan, Catherine A Lippi, Colin J Carlson, Anna M Stewart-Ibarra, Mercy J Borbor-Cordova, Moory M Romero, Shelly-Ann Cox, Roché Mahon, Adrian Trotman, Leslie Rollock, Marquita Gittens-St Hilaire, Desmond King, Steven Daniel
Barbados is a Caribbean island country of approximately 285,000 people, with a thriving tourism industry. In 2015, Zika spread rapidly throughout the Americas, and its proliferation through the Caribbean islands followed suit. Barbados reported its first confirmed autochthonous Zika transmission to the Pan American Health Organization in January 2016, a month before the global public health emergency was declared. After detection of suspected Zika cases on Barbados in 2015, 926 individuals were described as suspected cases, and 147 laboratory-confirmed cases were reported through December 2016, the end of the most recent epidemiological year...
April 9, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Catherine Manix Feintuch, Archana Tare, Lucas Cusumano, Jacqueline Benayoun, Seungjin Ryu, Alick Sixpence, Karl Seydel, Miriam Laufer, Terrie Taylor, Yousin Suh, Johanna P Daily
Cerebral malaria (CM) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Risk for developing CM partially depends on host genetic factors, including variants encoded in the type I interferon (IFN) receptor (IFNAR1). Type I IFNs bind to IFNAR1 resulting in increased expression of IFN responsive genes, which modulate innate and adaptive immune responses. To comprehensively study IFNAR1 genetic variant associations in Malawians with CM or uncomplicated malaria, we used a tag SNP approach, based on the HapMap Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria, population database...
April 9, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Gyem Tshering, Palden Wangyel Dorji, Wanna Chaijaroenkul, Kesara Na-Bangchang
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a malignant tumor of the bile duct, is a major public health problem in many Southeast Asian countries, particularly Thailand. The slow progression makes it difficult for early diagnosis and most patients are detected in advanced stages. This study aimed to review all relevant articles related to the biomarkers for the diagnosis of CCA and point out potential biomarkers. A thorough search was performed in PubMed and ScienceDirect for CCA biomarker articles. Required data were extracted...
April 9, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Giorgi Chakhunashvili, Bradley F Carlson, Laura Johnson, Ekaterine Khmaladze, Davit Tsaguria, Mari Gavashelidze, Khatuna Zakhashvili, Paata Imnadze, Matthew L Boulton
Infections caused by viruses of the parapoxvirus (PPV) genus, including orf and pseudocowpox viruses, are frequently seen in both humans and animals in many regions of the world. These infections are often misdiagnosed or neglected because of the lack of clinician awareness, inadequate diagnostic capacity, and their relatively mild disease presentation, which may result in affected individuals not seeking medical attention. Although PPV infections should be routinely considered in patients with cutaneous lesions, especially in those who have occupational exposure to farm animals, they are often excluded from the differential diagnosis because they are not perceived as serious, resulting in underestimation of the burden of disease...
April 9, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Yanhong Gong, Shijiao Yan, Lei Qiu, Shengchao Zhang, Zuxun Lu, Yeqing Tong, Pengqian Fang, Xiaoxv Yin
Poor mental health among tuberculosis (TB) patients affects not only their compliance with treatments but also their daily lives. Few studies in China have evaluated depressive symptoms among TB patients. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of depressive symptoms and its associated risk factors among Chinese TB patients. A total of 1,342 TB patients were recruited using a multistage sampling method and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale...
April 9, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Rahat F Vohra, David H Walker, Lucas S Blanton
Murine typhus, caused by Rickettsia typhi , is an undifferentiated febrile illness with no available rapid and sensitive diagnostic assay for use during early disease. We aimed to compare the health-care charges in those diagnosed with murine typhus to those with influenza, a febrile illness with an available rapid diagnostic test. A comparison of health-care-associated charges at the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston demonstrated a median of $817 for influenza versus $16,760 for murine typhus ( P < 0...
April 9, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Tammi L Johnson, Karen A Boegler, Rebecca J Clark, Mark J Delorey, Jenna K H Bjork, Frances M Dorr, Elizabeth K Schiffman, David F Neitzel, Andrew J Monaghan, Rebecca J Eisen
Ixodes scapularis is the vector of at least seven human pathogens in Minnesota, two of which are known to cause Lyme disease ( Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia mayonii ). In Minnesota, the statewide incidence of Lyme disease and other I. scapularis -borne diseases and the geographic extent over which cases have been reported have both increased substantially over the last two decades. These changes correspond with an expanding distribution of I. scapularis over a similar time frame. Because the risk of exposure to I...
April 9, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Analía Burgueño, Sandra Frabasile, Luis Adrián Díaz, Andrés Cabrera, María Belén Pisano, María Elisa Rivarola, Marta Contigiani, Adriana Delfraro
Alphaviruses ( Togaviridae ) are arboviruses frequently associated with emerging infectious diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of alphaviruses in Uruguay by detecting the viral genome in mosquitoes and neutralizing antibodies in equines. A total of 3,575 mosquitoes were analyzed for alphavirus genome detection. Serologic studies were performed on 425 horse sera by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT80 ) against Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) subtype IAB, Pixuna virus (PIXV), Rio Negro virus (RNV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and Madariaga virus (MADV)...
April 9, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Yuzana Khine Zaw, Nutcha Charoenboon, Marco J Haenssgen, Yoel Lubell
Antibiotic resistance is not solely a medical but also a social problem, influenced partly by patients' treatment-seeking behavior and their conceptions of illness and medicines. Situated within the context of a clinical trial of C-reactive protein (CRP) biomarker testing to reduce antibiotic over-prescription at the primary care level, our study explores and compares the narratives of 58 fever patients in Chiang Rai (Thailand) and Yangon (Myanmar). Our objectives are to 1) compare local conceptions of illness and medicines in relation to health-care seeking and antibiotic demand; and to 2) understand how these conceptions could influence CRP point-of-care testing (POCT) at the primary care level in low- and middle-income country settings...
April 9, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Ahmed Abade, Rachel B Eidex, Athanasia Maro, Jean Gratz, Jie Liu, Ireen Kiwelu, Buliga Mujaga, Maria Kelly, Blandina T Mmbaga, James J Gibson, Fausta Mosha, Eric R Houpt
We describe the deployment of a custom-designed molecular diagnostic TaqMan Array Card (TAC) to screen for 31 bacterial, protozoal, and viral etiologies in blood from outbreaks of acute febrile illness in Tanzania during 2015-2017. On outbreaks notified to the Tanzanian Ministry of Health, epidemiologists were dispatched and specimens were collected, transported to a central national laboratory, and tested by TAC within 2 days. This algorithm streamlined investigation, diagnosed a typhoid outbreak, and excluded dozens of other etiologies...
April 2, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Patrick A Robinson, Kate K Orroth, Lauren A Stutts, Patrick A Baron, David R Wessner
The prevalence of public health and global health (PH/GH) curricular offerings appear to be increasing in terms of undergraduate curricula and in the context of liberal arts education in the United States. Liberal arts colleges (LACs) represent stand-alone institutions, which exclusively focus on undergraduate education. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of PH/GH study pathways and PH/GH course offerings among LACs. All LACs identified through the US News and World Report (USNWR) college rankings were contacted with a survey about the following: formal majors, minors, or concentrations in PH/GH; independent study (IS) pathways for PH/GH; specific PH/GH courses offered; and the number of students graduating in 2016, 2017, and 2018 with formal and IS degrees in PH/GH...
April 2, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Alejandra Rojas, Cheikh T Diagne, Victoria D Stittleburg, Alisha Mohamed-Hadley, Yvalena Arévalo de Guillén, Angel Balmaseda, Oumar Faye, Ousmane Faye, Amadou A Sall, Eva Harris, Benjamin A Pinsky, Jesse J Waggoner
The differential diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV) and yellow fever virus (YFV) infections in endemic areas is complicated by nonspecific early clinical manifestations. In this study, we describe an internally controlled, multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) for the detection of DENV and YFV. The DENV-YFV assay demonstrated specific detection and had a dynamic range of 2.0-8.0 log10 copies/μL of eluate for each DENV serotype and YFV. Clinical performance was similar to a published pan-DENV assay: 48/48 acute-phase samples from dengue cases were detected in both assays...
April 2, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Daniel G Bausch, John Edmunds
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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