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American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Ayok M Tembei, Jonas A Kengne Ouaffo, Elvis A Ngoh, Bonekeh John, Theobald M Nji, Kebede Deribe, Peter Enyong, Theresa Nkuo-Akenji, Gail Davey, Samuel Wanji
Leprosy and podoconiosis (podo) are neglected tropical diseases that cause severe disfigurement and disability, and may lead to catastrophic health expenditure and hinder economic development of affected persons and households. This study compared economic costs of both diseases on affected households with unaffected neighboring households in the Northwest Region (N.W.R.) of Cameroon. A matched comparative cross-sectional design was used enrolling 170 households (43 podo case households, 41 podo control households, 43 leprosy case households, and 43 leprosy control households) from three health districts in the N...
February 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Norma Pavía-Ruz, Diana Patricia Rojas, Salja Villanueva, Pilar Granja, Angel Balam-May, Ira M Longini, M Elizabeth Halloran, Pablo Manrique, Hector Gómez-Dantés
Dengue transmission in Mexico has become a major public health problem. Few epidemiological studies have examined the seroprevalence of dengue in Mexico, and recent estimates are needed to better understand dengue transmission dynamics. We conducted a dengue seroprevalence survey among 1,668 individuals including all age groups in three urban settings in Yucatan, Mexico. Children (< 19 years old) were selected randomly from schools. The adults (≥ 19 years old) were selected from healthcare facilities. Participants were asked to provide a venous blood sample and to answer a brief questionnaire with demographic information...
February 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Natalie G Exum, Gwenyth O Lee, Maribel Paredes Olórtegui, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Mery Siguas Salas, Dixner Rengifo Trigoso, Josh Colston, Kellogg J Schwab, Benjamin J J McCormick, Margaret N Kosek
Poor child gut health, resulting from a lack of access to an improved toilet or clean water, has been proposed as a biological mechanism underlying child stunting and oral vaccine failure. Characteristics related to household sanitation, water use, and hygiene were measured among a birth cohort of 270 children from peri-urban Iquitos Peru. These children had monthly stool samples and urine samples at four time points and serum samples at (2-4) time points analyzed for biomarkers related to intestinal inflammation and permeability...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
John Woodford, G Dennis Shanks, Paul Griffin, Stephan Chalon, James McCarthy
Liver dysfunction has long been recognized as a clinical feature of malaria. We have observed delayed elevation in the transaminase portion of liver function tests (LFTs) after treatment in some participants undergoing induced blood-stage malaria infection. We sought to determine whether similar LFT elevations occur after naturally acquired infection. We performed a retrospective audit of confirmed cases of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in Queensland, Australia, from 2006 to 2016. All LFT results from malaria diagnosis until 28 days after diagnosis were collected with demographic and clinical information to describe longitudinal changes...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Solaiman Doza, Musarrat Jabeen Rahman, Mohammad Aminul Islam, Laura H Kwong, Leanne Unicomb, Ayse Ercumen, Amy J Pickering, Sarker Masud Parvez, Abu Mohd Naser, Sania Ashraf, Kishor Kumar Das, Stephen P Luby
Consumption of contaminated stored food can cause childhood diarrhea. Flies carry enteropathogens, although their contribution to food contamination remains unclear. We investigated the role of flies in contaminating stored food by collecting food and flies from the same households in rural Bangladesh. We selected 182 households with children ≤ 24 months old that had stored foods for later feeding at room temperature for ≥ 3 hours. We collected food samples and captured flies with fly tapes hung by the kitchen...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Si Li, Yue Chen, Congcong Xia, Henry Lynn, Fenghua Gao, Qizhi Wang, Shiqing Zhang, Yi Hu, Zhijie Zhang
Schistosomiasis is still prevalent in some parts of China. A shift in strategy from morbidity control to elimination has led to great strides in the past several decades. The objective of this study was to explore the spatial and temporal characteristics of schistosomiasis in Anhui, an eastern province of China. In this study, township-based parasitological data were collected from annual cross-sectional surveys during 1997-2010. The kernel k -means method was used to identify spatial clusters of schistosomiasis, and an empirical mode decomposition technique was used to analyze the temporal trend for Schistosoma japonicum in each clustered region...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jun-Gu Kang, Jeong-Byoung Chae, Yoon-Kyoung Cho, Yong-Sun Jo, Nam-Shik Shin, Hang Lee, Kyoung-Seong Choi, Do-Hyeon Yu, Jinho Park, Bae-Keun Park, Joon-Seok Chae
Anaplasmosis, cat-scratch disease, and Lyme disease are emerging vector-borne infectious diseases in Korea. Although the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) in domestic animals and vector arthropods has been documented, there is limited information on the presence of VBPs in wild animals. The raccoon dog ( Nyctereutes procyonoides ), a wild canid found in East Asia and Europe, represents a potential wildlife reservoir for zoonotic diseases. To investigate the prevalence of VBPs in raccoon dogs, 142 carcasses and 51 blood samples from captured raccoon dogs were collected from 2003 to 2010 and from 2008 to 2009, respectively, in Korea...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Tarique Md Nurul Huda, Wolf-Peter Schmidt, Amy J Pickering, Zahid Hayat Mahmud, Md Sirajul Islam, Md Sajjadur Rahman, Stephen P Luby, Adam Biran
We conducted a cross sectional study to assess 1) the association between access to basic sanitation and fecal contamination of sentinel toy balls and 2) if other sanitation factors such as shared use and cleanliness are associated with fecal contamination of sentinel toy balls. We assessed sanitation facilities in 454 households with a child aged 6-24 months in rural Bangladesh. We defined "basic" sanitation as access to improved sanitation facilities (pit latrine with a slab or better) not shared with other households...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Emily L Deichsel, Kirkby D Tickell, Jessica E Long, Nelson L Jumbe, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, Judd L Walson
Despite the recognition of stunting as a public health priority, nutritional and nonnutritional interventions to reduce or prevent linear growth failure have demonstrated minimal impact. Investigators and policymakers face several challenges that limit their ability to assess the potential benefits of combining available interventions into a linear growth promotion package. We use two common but very different interventions, deworming and multiple micronutrient supplements, to illustrate barriers to recommending an optimal linear growth promotion package based on the currently available literature...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Richard S Bradbury, Kathleen V Breen, Erin M Bonura, John W Hoyt, Henry S Bishop
We report a case of thelaziasis in a 26-year-old female, acquired in Oregon. A total of 14 worms were removed from the patient's left eye and were morphologically identified as being Thelazia gulosa . Until now, only two species of Thelazia have been implicated in causing human disease, Thelazia callipaeda in Asia and Europe and occasional reports of Thelazia californiensis from the United States of America. Here, we describe a third, previously unreported parasite of humans, T. gulosa (the cattle eyeworm) as an agent of human thelaziasis and the first reported case of human thelaziasis in North America in over two decades...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Domenico Otranto, Roberta Iatta, Riccardo Paolo Lia, Maria Alfonsa Cavalera, Jan Màca, Marco Pombi, Filipe Dantas-Torres, John Jaenike
Over the past 20 years, Thelazia callipaeda (the oriental eyeworm) has become endemic in Europe, infecting domestic and wild carnivores and humans. The vector of this nematode, the fruit fly Phortica variegata , has recently been discovered in the United States, and its vector competence is demonstrated for T. callipaeda in this article, therefore representing a potential new threat for infection of carnivores and humans in the United States.
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Vichaya Suttisunhakul, Phireak Hip, Pidor Ouch, Piseth Ly, Chonthida Supaprom, Agus Rachmat, Michael Prouty, Andrew Vaughn, Ahreej Eltayeb, Sim Kheng, Danielle V Clark, James V Lawler, Narisara Chantratita, Mary N Burtnick, Paul J Brett, Kevin L Schully
Burkholderia pseudomallei , the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is predicted to be ubiquitous in tropical regions of the world with areas of highest endemicity throughout Southeast Asia (SEA). Nevertheless, the distribution of B. pseudomallei and the burden of melioidosis in many SEA countries remain unclear. In Cambodia, the first human endemic case of melioidosis was not described until 2008 and since then, only a few 100 cases have been described in the literature. This is in sharp contrast to the annual burden of thousands of cases in surrounding areas...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jannifer Oliveira Chiang, William Marciel de Souza, Márcio Roberto Teixeira Nunes, Gustavo Olszanski Acrani, Amélia Paes de Andrade Travassos da Rosa, Nelma Mesquita de Freitas, Sandro Patroca da Silva, Pedro Henrique Dorta de Silva, Alana Watanabe de Sousa, Sueli Guerreiro Rodrigues, Juarez Antônio Simões Quaresma, Bedsy Dutary, Hilda Guzmán, Nikos Vasilakis, Robert B Tesh, Pedro Fernando da Costa Vasconcelos
Comprehensive comparative phylogenetic analyses were performed on 17 Gamboa serogroup viruses (GAMSVs) from distinct geographic regions in the Americas and other representative members of the genus Orthobunyavirus (Peribunyaviridae), based on small (S), medium (M), and large (L) open reading frame full-length and partial sequences. Genome characterization showed that the GAMSVs divide into four clades or genotypes. The GAMSVs have a genetic organization similar to other orthobunyaviruses, except that they have a larger NSm protein than other orthobunyaviruses...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Tao Zhang, Xian Xu, Jingjing Jiang, Chen Yu, Cuicui Tian, Weidong Li
Between 2012 and 2016, more than 80% of registered malaria cases in Anhui province were Plasmodium falciparum returned from Africa. However, drug-resistance marker polymorphisms in imported P. falciparum cases have not been assessed. This study looked at the distribution of antimalarial-drug resistance by evaluating K13-propeller, pfmdr1 , and pfcrt gene mutations. Fourteen synonymous and 15 nonsynonymous mutations in the K13-propeller gene were detected in samples from nine African countries, yet no candidate and validated K13 resistance mutations were found...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Karamoko Niaré, Lucie Paloque, Sandie Ménard, Pety Tor, Arba P Ramadani, Jean-Michel Augereau, Antoine Dara, Antoine Berry, Françoise Benoit-Vical, Ogobara K Doumbo
We assessed the ex vivo/in vitro sensitivity of 54 Malian Plasmodium falciparum isolates to artemisinin for the monitoring of drug resistance in this area. The artemisinin sensitivity of parasites was evaluated using 1) the ex vivo and in vitro parasite recrudescence detection after treatment of the ring stage with 1-200 nM artemisinin for 48 hours and 2) the in vitro parasite recrudescence kinetics assay over 7 days after 6-hour treatment of the ring stage with 700 nM dihydroartemisinin (DHA). In addition, as recommended by the World Health Organization for artemisinin resistance characterization, the ring-stage survival assay (RSA0-3 h) was performed and the parasite isolates were sequenced at the kelch 13 propeller locus...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Edford Sinkala, Kanekwa Zyambo, Ellen Besa, Patrick Kaonga, Bright Nsokolo, Violet Kayamba, Michael Vinikoor, Rabison Zulu, Martin Bwalya, Graham R Foster, Paul Kelly
Cirrhosis is the dominant cause of portal hypertension globally but may be overshadowed by hepatosplenic schistosomiasis (HSS) in the tropics. In Zambia, schistosomiasis seroprevalence can reach 88% in endemic areas. Bacterial translocation (BT) drives portal hypertension in cirrhosis contributing to mortality but remains unexplored in HSS. Rifaximin, a non-absorbable antibiotic may reduce BT. We aimed to explore the influence of rifaximin on BT, inflammation, and fibrosis in HSS. In this phase II open-label trial (ISRCTN67590499), 186 patients with HSS in Zambia were evaluated and 85 were randomized to standard care with or without rifaximin for 42 days...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Katherine L Rosettie, Theo Vos, Ali H Mokdad, Abraham D Flaxman, Ibrahim Khalil, Chris Troeger, Marcia R Weaver
Two rotavirus vaccines, RotaTeq and Rotarix, are licensed for global use; however, the protection they confer to unvaccinated individuals through indirect effects remains unknown. We systematically reviewed the literature and quantified indirect rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (VE) for preventing rotavirus hospitalization in children aged less than 5 years. From 148 identified abstracts, 14 studies met our eligibility criteria. In our main analysis using a random-effects model, indirect rotavirus VE was 48% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 39-55%)...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Norsyahida Arifin, Muhammad Hafiznur Yunus, Thomas J Nolan, James B Lok, Rahmah Noordin
Strongyloides stercoralis is a human parasite that can cause a long-term infection. In immunosuppressed patients, strongyloidiasis may be fatal when there is overwhelming autoinfection resulting in the migration of large numbers of larvae through many organs. Definitive diagnosis is still a challenge, and a combination of symptoms, microscopic identification, and serology test results are often used to arrive at a clinical decision. However, intermittent larval excretion, low parasite burden, and occult infections are challenges with parasitological diagnosis of infection with S...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Abu Mohd Naser, Eilidh M Higgins, Shaila Arman, Ayse Ercumen, Sania Ashraf, Kishor K Das, Mahbubur Rahman, Stephen P Luby, Leanne Unicomb
We assessed the ability of sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) to provide adequate chlorine residual when used to treat groundwater with variable iron concentration. We randomly selected 654 tube wells from nine subdistricts in central Bangladesh to measure groundwater iron concentration and corresponding residual-free chlorine after treating 10 L of groundwater with a 33-mg-NaDCC tablet. We assessed geographical variations of iron concentration using the Kruskal-Wallis test and examined the relationships between the iron concentrations and chlorine residual by quantile regression...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Linda M Mobula, Nathalie MacDermott, Clive Hoggart, Kent Brantly, Lance Plyler, Jerry Brown, Bev Kauffeldt, Deborah Eisenhut, Lisa A Cooper, John Fankhauser
Although the high case fatality rate (CFR) associated with Ebola virus disease (EVD) is well documented, there are limited data on the actual modes of death. We conducted a retrospective, observational cohort study among patients with laboratory-confirmed EVD. The patients were all seen at the Eternal Love Winning Africa Ebola Treatment Unit in Monrovia, Liberia, from June to August 2014. Our primary objective was to describe the modes of death of our patients and to determine predictors of mortality. Data were available for 53 patients with laboratory-confirmed EVD, with a median age of 35 years...
February 5, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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