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American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Alice Young, Simon Smith, Peter Horne, Bronwyn Thomsett, Josh Hanson
In many parts of the world, the case-fatality rate of Chromobacterium violaceum infection approaches 60%. To evaluate the spectrum of disease associated with C. violaceum in Far North Queensland (FNQ), Australia, we reviewed all culture-confirmed isolates from 1997 to 2017. There were 28 isolates, 15 represented infection, 11 were contaminants, and two charts were destroyed preventing detailed evaluation of these cases. The most common sites of infection were the skin and soft tissue and the urinary tract; there were two cases of bacteremia without focus...
August 13, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Johanna M Roth, Patrick Sawa, George Omweri, Nicodemus Makio, Victor Osoti, Menno D de Jong, Henk D F H Schallig, Pètra F Mens
Artemisinin resistance is rapidly rising in Southeast Asia and may spread to African countries, where efficacy estimates are currently still excellent. Extensive monitoring of parasite clearance dynamics after treatment is needed to determine whether responsiveness to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) is changing in Africa. In this study, Kenyan children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were randomly assigned to pyronaridine-artesunate (PA) or artemether-lumefantrine (AL) treatment. Parasite clearance was evaluated over 7 days following the start of treatment by qPCR and direct-on-blood PCR nucleic acid lateral flow immunoassay (db-PCR-NALFIA), a simplified molecular malaria diagnostic...
August 13, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Henrietta E Lewis, Katie Greenland, Val Curtis, Wolf-Peter Schmidt
Changing hand hygiene behavior at scale in the community remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of Unilever's school-based "School of 5" handwashing campaign on handwashing with soap (HWWS) in schoolchildren and their mothers in the Indian state of Bihar. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial in two districts. We randomized a total of 32 villages with at least one eligible school to intervention and control groups (1:1) and recruited 338 households in each group for outcome measurement...
August 13, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Mathew Muturi, John Gachohi, Athman Mwatondo, Isaac Lekolool, Francis Gakuya, Alice Bett, Eric Osoro, Austine Bitek, S Mwangi Thumbi, Peninah Munyua, Harry Oyas, Obadiah N Njagi, Bernard Bett, M Kariuki Njenga
Epidemiologic data indicate a global distribution of anthrax outbreaks associated with certain ecosystems that promote survival and viability of Bacillus anthracis spores. Here, we characterized three anthrax outbreaks involving humans, livestock, and wildlife that occurred in the same locality in Kenya between 2014 and 2017. Clinical and epidemiologic data on the outbreaks were collected using active case finding and review of human, livestock, and wildlife health records. Information on temporal and spatial distribution of prior outbreaks in the area was collected using participatory epidemiology...
August 13, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Winnie A Okeyo, Norah P Saarman, Rosemary Bateta, Kirstin Dion, Michael Mengual, Paul O Mireji, Collins Ouma, Sylvance Okoth, Grace Murilla, Serap Aksoy, Adalgisa Caccone
The tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes , the major vector of the parasite that causes animal African trypanosomiasis in Kenya, has been subject to intense control measures with only limited success. The G. pallidipes population dynamics and dispersal patterns that underlie limited success in vector control campaigns remain unresolved, and knowledge on genetic connectivity can provide insights, and thereby improve control and monitoring efforts. We therefore investigated the population structure and estimated migration and demographic parameters in G...
August 13, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Yolanda M Brooks, Erika A Tenorio-Moncada, Nisarg Gohil, Yuqi Yu, Mynor R Estrada-Mendez, Geovany Bardales, Ruth E Richardson
This is the first study to document the reduction of turbidity and Escherichia coli throughout the processes of full-scale gravity-fed drinking water plants (GFWTPs) and their downstream distribution systems in rural Honduras. The GFWTPs, which in these cases were designed by AguaClara, use standard treatment processes: coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and chlorination. During the dry season, we measured E. coli , turbidity, and chlorine residual at five GFWTPs with < 1,000 connections and at three alternative piped-water systems in neighboring communities...
August 6, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
K A Schilling, A O Awuor, A Rajasingham, F Moke, R Omore, M Amollo, T H Farag, D Nasrin, J P Nataro, K L Kotloff, M M Levine, T Ayers, K Laserson, A Blackstock, R Rothenberg, C E Stauber, E Mintz, R F Breiman, C E O'Reilly
Diarrheal illness, a common occurrence among people living with HIV (PLHIV), is largely preventable through access to safe drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) facilities. We examined WASH characteristics among households with and without HIV-positive residents enrolled in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) in rural Western Kenya. Using univariable logistic regression, we examined differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative households in regard to WASH practices. Among HIV-positive households, we explored the relationship between the length of time knowing their HIV status and GEMS enrollment...
August 6, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Dennis Chan, Joseph Andrew Geiger, Elton José Rosas Vasconcelos, Brian Oakley, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva Diniz
Bartonella rochalimae is an emerging zoonotic pathogen present in the United States, South America, and Europe. The molecular detection of B. rochalimae frequently relies on PCR assays that target the genus Bartonella coupled with DNA sequencing for species determination. However, the presence of other Bartonella spp. in the sample being tested may result in false-negative results for B. rochalimae , especially when Sanger sequencing is used. We developed a sensitive and specific quantitative PCR platform for B...
August 6, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Florian Vogt, Bewketu Mengesha, Helen Asmamaw, Tigist Mekonnen, Helina Fikre, Yegnasew Takele, Emebet Adem, Rezika Mohammed, Koert Ritmeijer, Wim Adriaensen, Yayehirad Melsew, Johan van Griensven, Ermias Diro
Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and assessment of treatment response in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-coinfected patients still relies on invasive tissue aspiration. This hampers scale-up and decentralization of care in resource-limited settings. Noninvasive diagnostics are urgently needed. KATEX is a frequently used latex agglutination test for Leishmania antigen in urine that has never been evaluated in HIV-coinfected individuals from Leishmania donovani -endemic areas. This was an exploratory sub-study embedded within the screening phase of a trial in highly endemic northwestern Ethiopia...
August 6, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Charles D Mackenzie, Abdul-Samid Al-Kubati, Yasin Al-Qubati, Ashley Behan-Braman, Joseph Kubofcik, Adrian Hopkins, Thomas B Nutman
Yemen is a country that has been treating severe cases of oncho-dermatitis since 1992 and is now moving to a program aimed at the elimination of the transmission of Onchocerca volvulus . It is important to ensure that the currently acceptable tools used in epidemiological assessment of onchocerciasis in Africa and Latin America also apply to Yemen. Five hundred and ten blood samples from three known O. volvulus -endemic areas, locations that have never been under a mass treatment program, were tested for the presence of antibodies against a panel of O...
August 6, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Sonia Toussaint Caire, Alejandro Woroszylski Yoselevitz, Maria Elisa Vega-Memije, Guiehdani Villalobos, Nancy Rivas, Ricardo Alejandre, Mirza Romero-Valdovinos, Pablo Maravilla, Fernando Martínez-Hernández
Dermatobia hominis is a fly endemic to and widely distributed throughout the Americas; it is found from the southern regions of Mexico to Argentina. However, because of widespread travel, myiasis has become common in countries where neither the disease nor the species that cause this infection are endemic. Central Mexico, for instance, is not a region where myiasis is endemic. We, thus, describe three cases of D. hominis myiasis: two autochthonous cases from the southern part of Mexico and one imported from Costa Rica...
July 30, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Prathit A Kulkarni, Debra Chew, Manal Youssef-Bessler, Hanaa A Hamdi, Lindsay A Montoya, Kimberly B Cervantes, Nicole L Mazur, Diana Lucas, Julia W Wells, David Cennimo, Anne Sutherland, Linda M Di Domenico, Lincoln P Miller, Frantz Pierre-Louis, Gregory Rokosz, Atif Nazir, Marie A de Perio, Luis Lowe, Craig Manning, Kenneth R Mead, Bryan E Christensen, César G Albariño, Ute Ströher, Maleeka Glover, Edward I Lifshitz, Christina G Tan, Pierre E Rollin, Shereen Semple
We report a fatal case of Lassa fever diagnosed in the United States in a Liberian traveler. We describe infection control protocols and public health response. One contact at high risk became symptomatic, but her samples tested negative for Lassa virus; no secondary cases occurred among health care, family, and community contacts.
July 30, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Karthikeya R, Dheepak Sundar M, Sohini Mandal, Raghav Ravani, Vinod Kumar
Dengue is a vector-borne viral illness of major public health importance. It is endemic in many parts of India and also causes frequent epidemics. Platelet transfusions are given in severe cases of dengue fever to treat and prevent hemorrhagic complications. Here, we report three patients in North India with development of panophthalmitis and endophthalmitis shortly after receiving platelet transfusion.
July 30, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Arti Kundu, Woutrina A Smith, Danielle Harvey, Stefan Wuertz
Poor drinking water quality is one of the main causes of acute diarrheal disease in developing countries. The study investigated the relationship between fecal contamination of hands, stored drinking water, and source waters in India. We further evaluated the environmental and behavioral factors associated with recontamination of water between collection and consumption. The bacterial contamination, that is, Escherichia coli (log10 most probable number per two hands), found on mothers' hands (mean = 1.11, standard deviation [SD] = 1...
July 30, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Huijie Wang, Lingli Lu, Dan She, Zhibo Wen, Zexun Mo, Jun Li, Hua Li
Angiostrongyliasis is a food-borne parasitic disease caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis that can lead to eosinophilic meningitis (EM) or meningoencephalitis in humans. Angiostrongylus cantonensis is prevalent in the Pacific Islands. In recent years, a large number of outbreaks and severe cases have occurred. Several species of mollusk, such as snails and slugs, act as intermediate and paratenic hosts of A. cantonensis . In this study, two cases of EM were found to have been caused by infection with A...
July 30, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Vitaliano A Cama, Circe McDonald, Alice Arcury-Quandt, Mark Eberhard, M Harley Jenks, Jared Smith, Sindew M Feleke, Francisca Abanyie, Lakwo Thomson, Ryan E Wiegand, Paul T Cantey
Onchocerciasis is a neglected parasitic disease targeted for elimination. Current World Health Organization guidelines for elimination include monitoring antibody responses to the recombinant Onchocerca volvulus antigen OV-16 in children to demonstrate the absence of transmission. We report the performance characteristics of a modified OV-16 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and describe anti-OV-16 responses in serum samples from laboratory-inoculated nonhuman primates (NHPs) in relation to microfilariae (mf) in skin snip biopsies...
July 30, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jonathan L Chang, Raquel Reyes, Michael Matte, Moses Ntaro, Edgar Mulogo, Matthew O Wiens, Steven R Meshnick, Mark J Siedner, Ross Boyce
Not much is known about clinical decision-making in rural, low-resource settings regarding fever, a common reason for presentation to care. In this prospective cohort study of patients presenting with febrile illness to a rural Ugandan health center, we examined demographic and clinical factors predictive of an initial disposition of inpatient admission after clinical evaluation, but before laboratory testing. We then assessed the association of laboratory results and system factors with a change between initial and final disposition plans...
July 30, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Elizabeth H Lee, Robin H Miller, Penny Masuoka, Elizabeth Schiffman, Danushka Wanduragala, Robert DeFraites, Stephen Dunlop, William Stauffer, Patrick Hickey
Although immigrants who visit friends and relatives (VFRs) account for most of the travel-acquired malaria cases in the United States, there is limited evidence on community-level risk factors and best practices for prevention appropriate for various VFR groups. Using 2010-2014 malaria case reports, sociodemographic census data, and health services data, we explored and mapped community-level characteristics to understand who is at risk and where imported malaria infections occur in Minnesota. We examined associations with malaria incidence using Poisson and negative binomial regression...
July 30, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Diana Martin, Ryan Wiegand, Brook Goodhew, Patrick Lammie, Harran Mkocha, Mabula Kasubi
Scabies was recently added to the World Health Organization list of neglected tropical diseases. The ability to treat scabies with oral ivermectin makes a mass drug administration (MDA) campaign a feasible option for scabies control. Ivermectin MDA in communities endemic for lymphatic filariasis (LF) or onchocerciasis may already be having an impact on scabies. We examined the effect of ivermectin MDA for LF on scabies prevalence over 4 years in eight Tanzanian villages. At baseline, 4.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3...
July 30, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Naomi E Clarke, Stacey Llewellyn, Rebecca J Traub, James McCarthy, Alice Richardson, Susana V Nery
Appropriate diagnostic techniques are crucial to global soil-transmitted helminth (STH) control efforts. The recommended Kato-Katz method has low sensitivity in low-transmission settings. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a highly sensitive alternative diagnostic option. However, little is known about the variability in qPCR results, and there are few published comparisons between qPCR and other microscopy-based techniques such as sodium nitrate flotation (SNF). Using 865 stool samples collected from 571 individuals, we compared SNF and qPCR in terms of diagnostic sensitivity and infection intensity measurements...
July 30, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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