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American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Eddy Jean-Baptiste, Julia von Oettingen, Philippe Larco, Frédérica Raphaël, Nancy Charles Larco, Marie Marcelle Cauvin, René Charles
The impact of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection on diabetic patients (DPs) has not been described. We aimed to compare clinical features of CHIKV infection in DPs and nondiabetic patients (NDPs), and to evaluate its effects on glycemic control among DP. We recorded clinical information and, in DP, glycemic control. Forty-six DPs and 53 NDPs aged ≥ 20 years living in Haiti, with acute CHIKV infection, were studied. Diabetes duration was 7.1 ± 6.1 years. The most common acute CHIKV clinical manifestations were arthralgia (100...
October 10, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Sébastien D Pion, Céline Montavon, Cédric B Chesnais, Joseph Kamgno, Samuel Wanji, Amy D Klion, Thomas B Nutman, Michel Boussinesq
Since the mid-2000s, the immunochromatographic card test (ICT), a point-of-care test for detecting Wuchereria bancrofti circulating filarial antigens (CFAs), has been the backbone for mapping and monitoring lymphatic filariasis (LF) worldwide. Recently, there have been instances in which CFA positivity has been associated with Loa loa microfilaremia. Here, we examined the association, at both the community and individual levels, between L. loa and CFA using additional diagnostic tools (quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qPCR], Og4C3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and IgG4 antibodies to Wb123 assays) to demonstrate the relationship between L...
October 10, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
J Kevin Baird, Neena Valecha, Stephan Duparc, Nicholas J White, Ric N Price
The diagnosis and treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria differs from that of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in fundamentally important ways. This article reviews the guiding principles, practices, and evidence underpinning the diagnosis and treatment of P vivax malaria.
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Andre M Siqueira, Oscar Mesones-Lapouble, Paola Marchesini, Vanderson de Souza Sampaio, Patricia Brasil, Pedro L Tauil, Cor Jesus Fontes, Fabio T M Costa, Claudio T Daniel-Ribeiro, Marcus V G Lacerda, Camila P Damasceno, Ana Carolina S Santelli
Brazil is the largest country in Latin America. Furthermore, a considerable portion of its territory is located within the Amazon region in the north. As a result, Brazil has reported half of the total malaria cases in the Americas in the last four decades. Recent progress in malaria control has been accompanied by an increasing proportion of Plasmodium vivax, underscoring a need for a better understanding of management and control of this species and associated challenges. Among these challenges, the contribution of vivax malaria relapses, earlier production of gametocytes (compared with Plasmodium falciparum), inexistent methods to diagnose hypnozoite carriers, and decreasing efficacy of available antimalarials need to be addressed...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Toby Leslie, Sami Nahzat, Walid Sediqi
Around half of the population of Afghanistan resides in areas at risk of malaria transmission. Two species of malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) account for a high burden of disease-in 2011, there were more than 300,000 confirmed cases. Around 80-95% of malaria is P. vivax Transmission is seasonal and focal, below 2,000 m in altitude, and in irrigated areas which allow breeding of anopheline mosquito vectors. Malaria risk is stratified to improve targeting of interventions. Sixty-three of 400 districts account for ∼85% of cases, and are the target of more intense control efforts...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Anupkumar R Anvikar, Naman Shah, Akshay C Dhariwal, Gagan Singh Sonal, Madan Mohan Pradhan, Susanta K Ghosh, Neena Valecha
Historically, malaria in India was predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax, accounting for 53% of the estimated cases. After the spread of drug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in the 1990s, the prevalence of the two species remained equivalent at the national level for a decade. By 2014, the proportion of P. vivax has decreased to 34% nationally, but with high regional variation. In 2014, P. vivax accounted for around 380,000 malaria cases in India; almost a sixth of all P. vivax cases reported globally. Plasmodium vivax has remained resistant to control measures, particularly in urban areas...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Sovannaroth Siv, Arantxa Roca-Feltrer, Seshu Babu Vinjamuri, Denis Mey Bouth, Dysoley Lek, Mohammad Abdur Rashid, Ngau Peng By, Jean Popovici, Rekol Huy, Didier Menard
The Cambodian National Strategic Plan for Elimination of Malaria aims to move step by step toward elimination of malaria across Cambodia with an initial focus on Plasmodium falciparum malaria before achieving elimination of all forms of malaria, including Plasmodium vivax in 2025. The emergence of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum in western Cambodia over the last decade has drawn global attention to support the ultimate goal of P. falciparum elimination, whereas the control of P. vivax lags much behind, making the 2025 target gradually less achievable unless greater attention is given to P...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
J Kevin Baird
Discussions beginning in 2012 ultimately led to a landmark document from the World Health Organization (WHO) titled, Control and Elimination of Plasmodium vivax: A Technical Brief, published in July 2015. That body of work represents multiple expert consultations coordinated by the WHO Global Malaria Program, along with technical consensus gathering from national malaria control programs via the WHO regional offices around the globe. That document thus represents thoroughly vetted state-of-the-art recommendations for dealing specifically with P...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Claudia Surjadjaja, Asik Surya, J Kevin Baird
Endemic malaria occurs across much of the vast Indonesian archipelago. All five species of Plasmodium known to naturally infect humans occur here, along with 20 species of Anopheles mosquitoes confirmed as carriers of malaria. Two species of plasmodia cause the overwhelming majority and virtually equal shares of malaria infections in Indonesia: Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax The challenge posed by P. vivax is especially steep in Indonesia because chloroquine-resistant strains predominate, along with Chesson-like strains that relapse quickly and multiple times at short intervals in almost all patients...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Suleyman Mammadov, Elkhan Gasimov, Rossitza Kurdova-Mintcheva, Chansuda Wongsrichanalai
Azerbaijan in the south caucasus region of far southeastern Europe has a long history of malaria endemicity but just successfully eliminated local transmission. After a period of relatively stable malaria situation (1960-1970), the country witnessed an epidemic followed by a series of outbreaks of various magnitudes in the following two decades, all caused by Plasmodium vivax. Compared with 1993, the number of malaria cases in the country jumped 29 times in 1994, 123 times in 1995, and 571 times in 1996 at the peak of the epidemic, when 13,135 cases were officially registered...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Amanda Tiffany, Faya Pascal Moundekeno, Alexis Traoré, Melat Haile, Esther Sterk, Timothé Guilavogui, Micaela Serafini, Blaise Genton, Rebecca F Grais
Multiple community-based approaches can aid in quantifying mortality in the absence of reliable health facility data. Community-based sentinel site surveillance that was used to document mortality and the systems utility for outbreak detection was evaluated. We retrospectively analyzed data from 46 sentinel sites in three sous-préfectures with a reinforced malaria control program and one sous-préfecture without (Koundou) in Guinea. Deaths were recorded by key informants and classified as due to malaria or another cause...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Gabriela Torres Mattos, Paula Costa Dos Santos, Paula de Lima Telmo, Maria Elisabeth Aires Berne, Carlos James Scaini
Human toxocariasis is a neglected parasitic disease worldwide. Researchers studying this disease use infectious strains of Toxocara for experiments. Health workers are at risk in the course of their daily routine and must adhere to biosafety standards while carrying out the activities. Researchers on biosafety concerning working with these parasites are insufficient. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of seroprevalence of Toxocara species among health-care research laboratory workers (professors, technicians, and students), and to investigate the risk factors of Toxocara infection associated with laboratory practices...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Wilawan Thipmontree, Kittipong Suwattanabunpot, Yupin Supputtamonkol
Spontaneous rupture of the spleen is rarely described as a complication of scrub typhus infection. We report a previously healthy 74-year-old Thai female farmer who presented in Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand, with a history of fever and malaise for 5 days, followed by abdominal pain for 1 day. An exploratory laparotomy was performed due to peritonitis. Operative findings revealed a ruptured spleen and hemoperitoneum. A splenectomy was performed afterward. Scrub typhus was confirmed by a 4-fold increase of IgM titer using an indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay and a positive result from the polymerase chain reaction targeting the 47- and 56-kDa genes in Orientia tsutsugamushi She responded well to intravenous chloramphenicol and defervesced within 24 hours without any complication...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Lena Huebl, Stephan Leick, Lukas Guettl, Grace Akello, Ruth Kutalek
The etiology and health consequences of geophagy are still poorly understood. The consumed soil, individual motives, consumption habits, and the clinical perspective of geophagy in northern Uganda were examined. A total of 50 semistructured interviews (17 pregnant, eight nonpregnant women, 10 men, and 15 health-care professionals) were conducted. Our results suggest that geophagy is not limited to pregnancy and can also be found among nonpregnant women and men. During gestation, excessive amounts of various soil types are consumed and can replace food at times...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Mahamud-Ur Rashid, Christine Marie George, Shirajum Monira, Toslim Mahmud, Zillur Rahman, Munshi Mustafiz, K M Saif-Ur-Rahman, Tahmina Parvin, Sazzadul Islam Bhuyian, Fatema Zohura, Farzana Begum, Shwapon Kumar Biswas, Xiaotong Zhang, David Sack, R Bradley Sack, Munirul Alam
Household members of cholera patients are at a 100 times higher risk of cholera infections than the general population because of shared contaminated drinking water sources and secondary transmission through poor household hygiene practices. In this study, we investigated the bactericidal concentration of free chlorine required to inactivate Vibrio cholerae in household drinking water in Dhaka city. In laboratory experiments, we found that the concentrations of free chlorine required to inactivate 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL of V...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Fatema Zohura, Sazzadul Islam Bhuyian, Shirajum Monira, Farzana Begum, Shwapon K Biswas, Tahmina Parvin, David Sack, R Bradley Sack, Elli Leontsini, K M Saif-Ur-Rahman, Mahamud-Ur Rashid, Rumana Sharmin, Xiaotong Zhang, Munirul Alam, Christine Marie George
Household members of cholera patients are at a 100 times higher risk of cholera than the general population. Despite this risk, there are only a handful of studies that have looked at the handwashing practices among hospitalized diarrhea patients and their accompanying household members. To investigate handwashing practices in a hospital setting among this high-risk population, a 3-hour structured observation was conducted in a hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh, among 148 cholera patients and their household members...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Ayse Sayili, Aysegul Taylan Ozkan, Henk D F H Schallig
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease widespread in the Mediterranean basin, including Cyprus. During the last decades no cases were notified from northern Cyprus, but herein three cases of VL (female: 2, male: 1, median age: 24.6 months) diagnosed during their hospital admission between January 2011 and December 2012 are reported. Diagnosis was based on clinical findings; 1 ≥ 1/64 titer positivity of immunofluorescence antibodies, Leishmania amastigotes in Giemsa-stained slides of bone marrow, as well as molecular identification confirmed that in all three the infecting pathogen was Leishmania infantum Fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly were the typical clinical findings...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
James W Kazura
Onchocerciasis is one of the two filarial helminth "neglected tropical diseases" (the other being lymphatic filariasis) that has been targeted for geographically local elimination followed by global eradication. The last known areas of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in the Americas have recently been reported to be eliminated. In contrast, achieving metrics for interruption of O. volvulus transmission in Africa, thus removing the requirement for continued monitoring and mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin, has been more challenging...
October 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Md Golam Hasnain, Mohammad Sohel Shomik, Prakash Ghosh, Mamun Or Rashid, Md Shakhawat Hossain, Shinjiro Hamano, Dinesh Mondal
Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) without previous visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a rare dermatological manifestation of Leishmania infection. To date, most of the reported cases neither showed parasitological confirmation nor explained the outcome of treatment. Herein, we report three confirmed cases that were were successfully cured after miltefosine treatment.
September 26, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Michelle E Roh, Caesar Oyet, Patrick Orikiriza, Martina Wade, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire, Yap Boum, Gertrude N Kiwanuka, Sunil Parikh
Despite the potential benefit of primaquine in reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission and radical cure of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale infections, concerns over risk of hemolytic toxicity in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd) have hampered its deployment. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2014 to assess the G6PDd prevalence among 631 children between 6 and 59 months of age in southwestern Uganda, an area where primaquine may be a promising control measure...
September 26, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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