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American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920396/prevalence-and-subtype-identification-of-blastocystis-sp-in-healthy-individuals-in-the-tunis-area-tunisia
#1
Imène Ben Abda, Nabil Maatoug, Rania Ben Romdhane, Nada Bouhelmi, Najet Zallegua, Karim Aoun, Eric Viscogliosi, Aïda Bouratbine
Blastocystis sp. is currently the most common eukaryotic parasite found in humans. Despite its potential public health impact, epidemiological data regarding its prevalence and molecular subtype (ST) distribution in Maghreb are rarely reported. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the parasite in a cohort of healthy food handler Tunisian individuals and to acquire the first molecular data regarding the distribution of Blastocystis sp. STs in this country. Therefore, 524 fecal samples were collected, and 68 of them (13%) were identified as positive for the parasite by direct-light microscopy of smears...
December 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920395/tetanus-immunity-gaps-in-children-5-14-years-and-men-%C3%A2-15-years-of-age-revealed-by-integrated-disease-serosurveillance-in-kenya-tanzania-and-mozambique
#2
Heather M Scobie, Minal Patel, Diana Martin, Harran Mkocha, Sammy M Njenga, Maurice R Odiere, Sonia Pelletreau, Jeffrey W Priest, Ricardo Thompson, Kimberly Y Won, Patrick J Lammie
Recent tetanus cases associated with male circumcision in Eastern and Southern Africa (ESA) prompted an examination of tetanus immunity by age and sex using multiplex serologic data from community surveys in three ESA countries during 2012-2013. Tetanus seroprotection was lower among children 5-14 years versus 1-4 years of age in Kenya (66% versus 90%) and Tanzania (66% versus 89%), but not in Mozambique (91% versus 88%), where children receive two booster doses in school. Among males ≥ 15 years of age, tetanus seroprotection was lower than females in Kenya (45% versus 96%), Tanzania (28% versus 94%), and Mozambique (64% versus 90%)...
December 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920394/blood-transfusion-delay-and-outcome-in-county-hospitals-in-kenya
#3
Julius Thomas, Philip Ayieko, Morris Ogero, Susan Gachau, Boniface Makone, Wycliffe Nyachiro, George Mbevi, Mercy Chepkirui, Lucas Malla, Jacquie Oliwa, Grace Irimu, Mike English
Severe anemia is a leading indication for blood transfusion and a major cause of hospital admission and mortality in African children. Failure to initiate blood transfusion rapidly enough contributes to anemia deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. This article examines delays in accessing blood and outcomes in transfused children in Kenyan hospitals. Children admitted with nonsurgical conditions in 10 Kenyan county hospitals participating in the Clinical Information Network who had blood transfusion ordered from September 2013 to March 2016 were studied...
December 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920393/detection-of-wolbachia-in-aedes-albopictus-and-their-effects-on-chikungunya-virus
#4
Noor Afizah Ahmad, Indira Vythilingam, Yvonne A L Lim, Nur Zatil Aqmar A Zabari, Han Lim Lee
Wolbachia-based vector control strategies have been proposed as a means to augment the currently existing measures for controlling dengue and chikungunya vectors. Prior to utilizing Wolbachia as a novel vector control strategy, it is crucial to understand the Wolbachia-mosquito interactions. In this study, field surveys were conducted to screen for the infection status of Wolbachia in field-collected Aedes albopictus The effects of Wolbachia in its native host toward the replication and dissemination of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was also studied...
December 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920392/knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-of-health-care-workers-about-viral-hepatitis-b-and-c-in-south-kivu
#5
Tony Akilimali Shindano, Esto Bahizire, René Fiasse, Yves Horsmans
Health-care workers (HCWs) are at risk of infections associated with accidental exposure to blood, including viral hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV). A survey using a questionnaire was conducted on 250 HCW in Bukavu, an eastern town of the Democratic Republic of Congo, to analyze their attitude and knowledge about these two viruses. A response rate of 86.8% (217/250) was obtained. The mean age of respondents was 39.6 ± 9.8 years, in majority from paramedical staff (66.4%) and with more than 5 years of professional experience (60...
December 5, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895280/effectiveness-of-albendazole-for-hookworm-varies-widely-by-community-and-correlates-with-nutritional-factors-a-cross-sectional-study-of-school-age-children-in-ghana
#6
Debbie Humphries, Sara Nguyen, Sunny Kumar, Josephine E Quagraine, Joseph Otchere, Lisa M Harrison, Michael Wilson, Michael Cappello
Mass drug administration (MDA) targeting school-age children is recommended by the World Health Organization for the global control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections. Although considered safe and cost-effective to deliver, benzimidazole anthelminthics are variably effective against the three most common STNs, and widespread use has raised concern about the potential for emerging resistance. To identify factors mediating response to albendazole, we conducted a cross-sectional study of hookworm infection in the Kintampo North Municipality of Ghana in 2011...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895279/evaluation-of-immunoglobulin-g-responses-to-plasmodium-falciparum-and-plasmodium-vivax-in-malian-school-children-using-multiplex-bead-assay
#7
Eric Rogier, Delynn M Moss, Anna N Chard, Victoria Trinies, Seydou Doumbia, Matthew C Freeman, Patrick J Lammie
Malaria serology through assaying for IgG against Plasmodium spp. antigens provides evidence into the infection history for an individual. The multiplex bead assay (MBA) allows for detection of IgG against multiple Plasmodium spp., and can be especially useful in many regions where Plasmodium falciparum is of primary clinical focus, but other species are co-endemic. Dried blood spots were collected from 805 Malian children attending 42 elementary schools in the regions of Mopti, Sikasso, Koulikoro, and Bamako capital district, and IgG assayed by MBA...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895278/paracoccidioidomycosis-in-brazilian-patients-with-and-without-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#8
Fabrício Arantes Almeida, Fernando Freitas Neves, Delio Jose Mora, Tarcisio Albertin Dos Reis, Diego Moelas Sotini, Barbara De Melo Ribeiro, Leonardo Eurípedes Andrade-Silva, Gabriel Nogueira Nascentes, Kennio Ferreira-Paim, Mario León Silva-Vergara
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is endemic to Latin America, where 10 million people may be infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis/Paracoccidioides lutzii and 1,600,000 individuals live with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. An epidemiological overlapping of these infections occurred early in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome era with nearly 180 published cases. This study presents epidemiological, clinical, and outcome profiles for 31 PCM/HIV-infected patients diagnosed in a teaching hospital in Brazil, and includes an update of previously reported cases...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895277/triatoma-infestans-calreticulin-gene-cloning-and-expression-of-a-main-domain-that-interacts-with-the-host-complement-system
#9
Katherine Weinberger, Norberto Collazo, Juan Carlos Aguillón, María Carmen Molina, Carlos Rosas, Jaime Peña, Javier Pizarro, Ismael Maldonado, Pedro E Cattan, Werner Apt, Arturo Ferreira
Triatoma infestans is an important hematophagous vector of Chagas disease, a neglected chronic illness affecting approximately 6 million people in Latin America. Hematophagous insects possess several molecules in their saliva that counteract host defensive responses. Calreticulin (CRT), a multifunctional protein secreted in saliva, contributes to the feeding process in some insects. Human CRT (HuCRT) and Trypanosoma cruzi CRT (TcCRT) inhibit the classical pathway of complement activation, mainly by interacting through their central S domain with complement component C1...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895276/rubella-immunity-in-pregnant-native-taiwanese-and-immigrants-from-asian-countries
#10
Yeong-Hwa Zen, Ching-Tang Shih, Wan-Ju Kung, Chien-Hung Lee, Ching-Chiang Lin
Vaccination is considered the most effective method to prevent rubella spread and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). The aim of the present study was to investigate the rubella immunity among native and immigrant pregnant women in Taiwan. From 2000 to 2014, a total of 16,879 pregnant women who received routine prenatal examinations were recruited in this study. The rubella IgG antibodies were assayed using a microparticle enzyme immunoassay or chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Subjects were categorized by nationality and subcategorized by specific periods of time for comparison...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895275/sequence-independent-single-primer-amplification-next-generation-sequencing-of-hantaan-virus-cell-culture-based-isolates
#11
Dong Hyun Song, Won-Keun Kim, Se Hun Gu, Daesang Lee, Jeong-Ah Kim, Jin Sun No, Seung-Ho Lee, Michael R Wiley, Gustavo Palacios, Jin-Won Song, Seong Tae Jeong
Hantaan virus (HTNV), identified in the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius), belongs to the hantavirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family and contains tripartite RNA genomes, small (S), medium (M), and large (L) segments. HTNV is a major causative for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) with fatality rates ranging from 1% to 15% in the Republic of Korea (ROK) and China. Defining of HTNV whole-genome sequences and isolation of the infectious particle play a critical role in the characterization and preventive and therapeutic strategies of hantavirus outbreaks...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895274/disease-severity-prediction-by-spirometry-in-adults-with-visceral-leishmaniasis-from-minas-gerais-brazil
#12
Isabel A Maia, Frank S Bezerra, André Luis Pereira de Albuquerque, Heitor F Andrade, Valdir S Amato
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is associated with interstitial pneumonitis according to histology and radiology reports. However, studies to address the functional impact on respiratory function in patients are lacking. We assessed pulmonary function using noninvasive spirometry in a cross-sectional study of hospitalized adult VL patients from Minas Gerais, Brazil, without unrelated lung conditions or acute infections. Lung conditions were graded as normal, restrictive, obstructive, or mixed patterns, according to Brazilian consensus standards for spirometry...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895273/results-from-the-workshop-problem-formulation-for-the-use-of-gene-drive-in-mosquitoes
#13
Andrew Roberts, Paulo Paes de Andrade, Fredros Okumu, Hector Quemada, Moussa Savadogo, Jerome Amir Singh, Stephanie James
Reducing the incidence of malaria has been a public health priority for nearly a century. New technologies and associated vector control strategies play an important role in the prospect of sustained reductions. The development of the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system has generated new possibilities for the use of gene-drive constructs to reduce or alter vector populations to reduce malaria incidence. However, before these technologies can be developed and exploited, it will be necessary to understand and assess the likelihood of any potential harms to humans or the environment...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895272/dengue-infection-in-a-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-positive-patient-chronically-infected-with-hepatitis-b-virus-in-western-mexico
#14
Iván Delgado-Enciso, Francisco Espinoza-Gómez, Rodolfo Ochoa-Jiménez, Salvador Valle-Reyes, Clemente Vásquez, Uriel A López-Lemus
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and dengue coinfection has not been extensively studied. We report herein a case of dengue serotype 1 infection in an HIV-1-positive patient coinfected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Colima State, Mexico. CD4(+) cells and HIV-1 viremia remained at normal levels, and no severe complications were observed during this multiple viral infection. The alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase AST values were elevated before and during dengue infection. Surprisingly, these parameters were significantly reduced 2 months later...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895271/examination-of-antibody-responses-as-a-measure-of-exposure-to-malaria-in-the-indigenous-batwa-and-their-non-indigenous-neighbors-in-southwestern-uganda
#15
Manisha A Kulkarni, Gala Garrod, Lea Berrang-Ford, Isaac Ssewanyana, Sherilee L Harper, Nestor Baraheberwa, Blanaid Donnelly, Kaitlin Patterson, Didacus B Namanya, Shuaib Lwasa, Chris Drakeley
Understanding variations in malaria transmission and exposure is critical to identify populations at risk and enable better targeting of interventions. The Indigenous Batwa of southwestern Uganda have a disproportionate burden of malaria infection compared with their non-Indigenous neighbors. To better understand the individual- and community-level determinants of malaria exposure, a seroepidemiological study was conducted in 10 local council cells in Kanungu District, Uganda, in April 2014. The Batwa had twice the odds of being seropositive to two Plasmodium falciparum-specific antigens, apical membrane antigen-1 and merozoite surface protein-119, compared with the non-Indigenous Bakiga (odds ratio = 2...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895270/dicrocoelium-dendriticum-an-unusual-parasitological-diagnosis-in-a-reference-international-health-unit
#16
Zaira Moure, Francesc Zarzuela, Mateu Espasa, Diana Pou, Nuria Serre-Delcor, Begoña Treviño, Cristina Bocanegra, Israel Molina, Tomas Pumarola, Elena Sulleiro
Finding Dicrocoelium dendriticum eggs in human feces is exceptional and there are few prevalence data available. True infection occurs after accidental ingestion of ants containing metacercariae and spurious infection through the consumption of infected animal liver. Differential diagnosis between true and pseudo-infections is performed through stool examination after a diet free of liver. In addition, microscopy can help to differentiate the type of infection. We report six cases, all from sub-Saharan Africa, detection of this fluke at the Tropical Medicine Unit Vall d'Hebron-Drassanes (Barcelona, Spain)...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895269/stability-of-dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine-tablet-halves-during-prolonged-storage-under-tropical-conditions
#17
Eva Maria Hodel, Harparkash Kaur, Dianne J Terlouw
Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) is recommended for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria, used in efforts to contain artemisinin resistance, and increasingly considered for mass drug administration. Because of the narrow therapeutic dose range and available tablet strengths, the manufacturers and World Health Organization recommended regimens involve breaking tablets into halves to accurately dose children according to body weight. Use of tablet fractions in programmatic settings under tropical conditions requires a highly stable product; however, the stability of DP tablet fractions is unknown...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895268/credit-with-health-education-in-benin-a-cluster-randomized-trial-examining-impacts-on-knowledge-and-behavior
#18
Dean Karlan, Bram Thuysbaert, Bobbi Gray
We evaluate whether health education integrated into microcredit lending groups reduces health risks by improving health knowledge and self-reported behaviors among urban and rural borrowers in eastern Benin. In 2007, we randomly assigned 138 villages in the Plateau region of Benin to one of four variations of a group liability credit product, varying lending groups' gender composition and/or inclusion of health education using a 2 × 2 design. Women in villages receiving health education, regardless of gender composition of the groups, showed improved knowledge of malaria and of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), but not of childhood illness danger signs...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895267/prototype-positive-control-wells-for-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-tests-prospective-evaluation-of-implementation-among-health-workers-in-lao-people-s-democratic-republic-and-uganda
#19
David Bell, John Baptist Bwanika, Jane Cunningham, Michelle Gatton, Iveth J González, Heidi Hopkins, Simon Peter S Kibira, Daniel J Kyabayinze, Mayfong Mayxay, Bbaale Ndawula, Paul N Newton, Koukeo Phommasone, Elizabeth Streat, René Umlauf
Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are widely used for malaria diagnosis, but lack of quality control at point of care restricts trust in test results. Prototype positive control wells (PCW) containing recombinant malaria antigens have been developed to identify poor-quality RDT lots. This study assessed community and facility health workers' (HW) ability to use PCWs to detect degraded RDTs, the impact of PCW availability on RDT use and prescribing, and preferred strategies for implementation in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) and Uganda...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879464/severe-pleuropulmonary-paragonimiasis-caused-by-paragonimus-mexicanus-treated-as-tuberculosis-in-ecuador
#20
Manuel Calvopina, Daniel Romero-Alvarez, Rubén Macias, Hiromu Sugiyama
A 30-year-old male, from a subtropical region of Ecuador, was hospitalized with a 5-year history of persistent cough with rusty brown sputum, chest pain, and progressive dyspnea. The patient underwent thoracic surgery 3 years ago for pleural effusion and subsequently received a 9-month regimen treatment of tuberculosis. However, there was no clinical resolution and symptoms became progressively worse. A chest radiograph and computerized tomography scan showed several small nodules in both lungs. Eggs of Paragonimus spp...
November 22, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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