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American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Jenna E Coalson, Lauren M Cohee, Jenny A Walldorf, Andrew Bauleni, Don P Mathanga, Terrie E Taylor, Mark L Wilson, Miriam K Laufer
Prompt and effective treatment is key to malaria control and prevention, as it reduces disease morbidity and mortality and minimizes the number of transmission reservoirs. Transmission reduction may be particularly important among school-age children (SAC, 5-15 years old), who have the highest prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection in southern Malawi. We hypothesized that one factor contributing to this difference in prevalence is that SAC are less likely to seek appropriate treatment for fever than children younger than 5 years...
December 10, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Luis M Jara, Magaly Rodriguez, Faride Altamirano, Antonio Herrera, Manuela Verastegui, Luis G Gimenez-Lirola, Robert H Gilman, Cesar M Gavidia
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a parasitic zoonosis caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus . Detection of the adult stage in the canine definitive host is essential for estimating infection rates, surveillance and monitoring of CE control programs. This study sought to develop and validate a coproantigen sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (copro-ELISA), based on antibodies against E. granulosus -soluble membrane antigens (EGMA), that is capable of distinguishing infected and noninfected dogs...
December 10, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Eduard Matkovic, Diep K Hoang Johnson, J Erin Staples, Maria C Mora-Pinzon, Lina I Elbadawi, Rebecca A Osborn, David M Warshauer, Mark V Wegner, Jeffrey P Davis
Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV), a mosquito-borne Orthobunyavirus (within the California serogroup), can cause severe neuroinvasive disease. According to national data during 2000-2013, 42% of the 31 documented JCV disease cases in the United States were detected in residents from Wisconsin. The Wisconsin Division of Public Health enhanced JCV surveillance by implementing routine use of JCV-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody testing followed by confirmatory JCV-specific plaque reduction neutralization testing on all patients with suspected cases of arboviral infection who had tests positive for arboviral immunoglobin at commercial laboratories...
December 10, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Tamaki Kobayashi, Mufaro Kanyangarara, Natasha M Laban, Masiliso Phiri, Harry Hamapumbu, Kelly M Searle, Jennifer C Stevenson, Philip E Thuma, William J Moss, For The Southern Africa International Centers Of Excellence For Malaria Research
To achieve and sustain malaria elimination, identification and treatment of the asymptomatic infectious reservoir is critical. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are frequently used to identify asymptomatic, Plasmodium -infected individuals through test-and-treat strategies, but their sensitivity is low when used in low transmission settings. Characteristics of individuals with subpatent (RDT-negative but polymerase chain reaction [PCR]-positive) Plasmodium parasitemia were evaluated in southern Zambia where malaria transmission has declined and efforts to achieve malaria elimination are underway...
December 10, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Md Mujibur Rahman, S K Jakaria Been Sayed, Md Moniruzzaman, A K M Humayon Kabir, Md Uzzal Mallik, Md Rockyb Hasan, Abu Bakar Siddik Zaber, Md Arman Hossain, Nazim Uddin, Md Mehedi Hassan, Fazle Rabbi Chowdhury
From April to September 2017, Bangladesh experienced a huge outbreak of acute Chikungunya virus infection in Dhaka. This series describes the clinical and laboratory features of a large number of cases (690; 399 confirmed and 291 probable) suffered during that period. This observational study was carried out at Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh. The median age of the patients at presentation was 38 years (IQR 30-50) with a male (57.3%) predominance. Hypertension and diabetes were the most common comorbidities...
December 10, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Luz Toribio, Miryam de Los Angeles Romano, Alan L Scott, Isidro Gonzales, Herbert Saavedra, Hector H Garcia, Clive Shiff, For The Cysticercosis Working Group In Peru
Neurocysticercosis (NCC), caused by Taenia solium larvae that reside in the central nervous system, results in serious public health and medical issues in many regions of the world. Current diagnosis of NCC is complex requiring both serology and costly neuroimaging of parasitic cysts in the brain. This diagnostic pipeline can be problematic in resource-constrained settings. There is an unmet need for a highly sensitive and clinically informative diagnostic test to complement the present diagnostic approaches...
December 10, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Elisa Rubio, Izaskun Alejo-Cancho, Cristian Aylagas, Daniel Camprubí, Roser Ferre, Ma Rosa Albarracín, Verónica Gonzalo, Josep Barrachina, Míriam José Álvarez-Martínez, Maria Eugenia Valls, Jordi Mas, Jordi Vila, Irene Losada, Miguel J Martínez, Climent Casals-Pascual
Malaria, arbovirus infection and traveler's diarrhea are among the most common etiologies of fever after a stay in the tropics. Because the initial symptoms of these diseases often overlap, the differential diagnostic remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to establish the effectiveness of platelet and leukocyte counts in the differential diagnosis of fever in the returning traveler. Between 2013 and 2016, patients with a clinical suspicion of malaria, who had thick blood smears performed were retrospectively included...
December 10, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Kim R Blasdell, David Perera, Cadhla Firth
Rodents are the most prominent animal host of Bartonella spp., which are associated with an increasing number of human diseases worldwide. Many rodent species thrive in urban environments and live in close contact with people, which can lead to an increased human risk of infection from rodent-borne pathogens. In this study, we explored the prevalence and distribution of Bartonella spp. in rodents in urban, developing, and rural environments surrounding a growing city in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. We found that although Bartonella spp...
December 10, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Richard S Bradbury, Shantanu Roy, Ibne K Ali, Jasmin R Morrison, Dale Waldner, Katherine Hebbeln, Wade Aldous, Ryan Jepson, Haleigh R Delavan, MacKevin Ndubuisi, Henry S Bishop
Amoebic trophozoites were identified in the cervicovaginal smear of a U.S. patient without travel history at the time of intrauterine device (IUD) removal. Subsequent morphologic analysis and DNA sequencing identified a mixed cervicovaginal colonization of the female genital tract with both Entamoeba gingivalis and Entamoeba polecki in association with Actinomyces species bacteria. This highlights to the potential for colonization of the genital tract with E. gingivalis , particularly in association with IUD placement, and represents the first report of E...
December 10, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Maria Mavrouli, Georgia Vrioni, Violetta Kapsimali, Costantinos Tsiamis, Spyridon Mavroulis, Danai Pervanidou, Charalambos Billinis, Christos Hadjichristodoulou, Athanassios Tsakris
Greece experienced the largest European West Nile virus (WNV) outbreak in 2010 since the 1996 Romania epidemic. West Nile virus reemerged in southern Greece during 2017, after a 2-year hiatus of recorded human cases, and herein laboratory findings, clinical features, and geographic distribution of WNV cases are presented. Clinical specimens from patients with clinically suspected WNV infection were sent from local hospitals to the Microbiology Department of Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, and were tested for the presence of specific anti-WNV antibodies and WNV RNA...
December 10, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Su-Lin Yang, Kun-Hsien Tsai, Hsiang-Fei Chen, Jun-Yu Luo, Pei-Yun Shu
Scrub typhus is caused by the intracellular bacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi . The 56-kDa type-specific antigen (TSA) displays a significant antigenic variation across different O. tsutsugamushi strains. To minimize the influence of the antigenic diversity of TSA on assay sensitivity, we developed a mixed-TSA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (mixed-TSA ELISA) using a mixture of recombinant TSAs of prototype (Karp, Gilliam, and Kato) and local (TW-1, TW-10, TW-19, and TW-22) O. tsutsugamushi strains as antigens to detect IgM and IgG antibodies against O...
December 10, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Eeshan Khandekar, Randall Kramer, Abdullah S Ali, Abdul-Wahid Al-Mafazy, Joseph R Egger, Sara LeGrand, Humphrey R Mkali, Michael McKay, Jeremiah M Ngondi
As countries transition toward malaria elimination, malaria programs rely on surveillance-response systems, which are often supported by web- and mobile phone-based reporting tools. Such surveillance-response systems are interventions for elimination, making it important to determine if they are operating optimally. A metric to measure this by is timeliness. This study used a mixed-methods approach to investigate the response time of Zanzibar's malaria elimination surveillance-response system, Malaria Case Notification...
December 10, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Andrea G Buchwald, Boubou Tamboura, Fadima C Haidara, Flanon Coulibaly, Moussa Doumbia, Fatoumata Diallo, Sarah Boudova, Adama M Keita, Samba O Sow, Karen Kotloff, Myron Levine, Milagritos D Tapia
Influenza transmission is increased among household contacts. Vaccination decreases transmission; however it is unclear how vaccinating a single individual alters disease risk among household contacts, particularly in regions with low vaccination coverage. Pregnant women were randomized to influenza or control vaccination. Households were visited weekly until infants born to enrolled women reached 6 months. Household contacts younger than 5 years were tested for laboratory-confirmed influenza (LCI). Incidence of LCI and rate ratios (RtR) comparing incidence between vaccine groups were calculated...
December 3, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Adama Z Diarra, Maureen Laroche, Franck Berger, Philippe Parola
Matrix-assisted desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a clinical microbiology tool for the systematic identification of microorganisms. It has recently been presented as an innovative tool for the rapid and accurate identification of mosquitoes and their blood meal. To evaluate the capacity of this tool to identify mosquitoes collected in a tropical environment and preserved with silica gel, we analyzed 188 mosquitoes of different species collected in Chad, which were preserved with silica gel for 2 months...
December 3, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Kárita Cláudia Freitas Lidani, Fabiana Antunes Andrade, Ronaldo Kiviatcoski Kozlowski, Paola Rosa Luz, Iara J Messias-Reason
Chagas disease (CD), caused by infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi , leads to severe cardiomyopathy in 20-30% of patients, whereas the remainder may stay asymptomatic and never develop cardiomyopathy or other clinical manifestations. The underlying cause for this variable outcome is not fully characterized, although previous studies have found high levels of circulating mannose-binding lectin (MBL) to be associated with cardiac failure echocardiographic changes. We report three indeterminate (asymptomatic) chronic Chagas patients who were followed up for 10 years...
December 3, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
David New, Benjamin Rogers
We report a case of reactivation of cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major in a 40-year-old man from Afghanistan, in the context of immune suppression. His last potential exposure was 7 years before the clinical presentation. To our knowledge, this is the most temporally distant reactivation of cutaneous leishmaniasis reported in a non-endemic country.
December 3, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Lyle R Petersen, Charles B Beard, Susanna N Visser
Reported cases of vector-borne diseases in the United States have more than tripled since 2004, characterized by steadily increasing incidence of tick-borne diseases and sporadic outbreaks of domestic and invasive mosquito-borne diseases. An effective public health response to these trends relies on public health surveillance and laboratory systems, proven prevention and mitigation measures, scalable capacity to implement these measures, sensitive and specific diagnostics, and effective therapeutics. However, significant obstacles hinder successful implementation of these public health strategies...
November 29, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
S M Abdul Gaffar, Shafiqul Alam Sarker, Mustafa Mahfuz, Jeffrey R Donowitz, Tahmeed Ahmed
Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is prevalent among children living in low-income settings, leading to impaired growth and development. The aim of this study was to assess linear and ponderal growth parameters between malnourished SIBO-positive and SIBO-negative children aged 12-18 months who prospectively underwent a nutritional intervention. A glucose hydrogen breath test to detect SIBO was performed in 194 stunted (length-for-age Z score [LAZ] < -2 standard deviations) or at-risk of stunting (LAZ score between < -1 and -2 standard deviations) children...
November 26, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
M Schmedding, B R Adegbite, S Gould, J O Beyeme, A A Adegnika, M P Grobusch, M A M Huson
The quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA) score has been proposed for risk stratification of emergency room patients with suspected infection. Its use of simple bedside observations makes qSOFA an attractive option for resource-limited regions. We prospectively assessed the predictive ability of qSOFA compared with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), universal vital assessment (UVA), and modified early warning score (MEWS) in a resource-limited setting in Lambaréné, Gabon. In addition, we evaluated different adaptations of qSOFA and UVA in this cohort and an external validation cohort from Malawi...
November 26, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Martin C Arostegui, Chelsea L Wood, Isabel J Jones, Andy Chamberlin, Nicolas Jouanard, Djibril S Faye, Armand M Kuris, Gilles Riveau, Giulio A De Leo, Sanna H Sokolow
More than 200 million people in sub-Saharan Africa are infected with schistosome parasites. Transmission of schistosomiasis occurs when people come into contact with larval schistosomes emitted from freshwater snails in the aquatic environment. Thus, controlling snails through augmenting or restoring their natural enemies, such as native predators and competitors, could offer sustainable control for this human disease. Fishes may reduce schistosomiasis transmission directly, by preying on snails or parasites, or indirectly, by competing with snails for food or by reducing availability of macrophyte habitat (i...
November 26, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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