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American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Claire Panosian Dunavan
Aboard the Good Ship Verona.
October 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Arnaud Tarantola, Cyrille Goarant
Early names for leptospirosis often indicate occupational or environmental exposure. Leptospirosis is hard to identify in the tropical setting because of co-circulating diseases. This is not the case in the temperate setting, such as Europe, where the few differential diagnoses at the time are malaria, typhoid, and viral hepatitis. Leptospirosis presumably caused community epidemics in Europe before 1900 and military epidemiologists carefully documented outbreaks in "constrained settings." Achille Kelsch (1841-1911) synthesized available military data and epidemiological perspectives to define "epidemic jaundice" as a nosological continuum, caused by an infectious agent found in muds and water...
October 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Epco Hasker, Paritosh Malaviya, Kristien Cloots, Albert Picado, Om Prakash Singh, Sangeeta Kansal, Marleen Boelaert, Shyam Sundar
In the Indian subcontinent, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has a strongly clustered distribution. The "index case approach" is promoted both for active case finding and indoor residual spraying (IRS). Uncertainty exists about the optimal radius. Buffer zones of 50-75 m around incident cases have been suggested for active case finding, for IRS the recommendation is to cover a radius of 500 m. Our aim was to establish optimal target areas both for IRS and for (re)active case finding. We plotted incident VL cases on a map per 6-month period (January-June or July-December) and drew buffers of 0 (same household), 50, 75, 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 m around these cases...
October 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Laura Maria Francisca Kuijpers, Charlotte Gryseels, Sambunny Uk, Panha Chung, Sotharith Bory, Bun Sreng, Amy Parry, Jan Jacobs, Koen Peeters Grietens
Enteric fever is a systemic bacterial infection in humans that is endemic in Cambodia and for which antibiotic resistance is increasingly reported. To guide public health programs, this qualitative study sought to explore community perceptions on transmission and treatment. Participant observation was carried out in hospital settings, pharmacies, and at a community level in Phnom Penh. In-depth interviews 39 and one focus group discussion were carried out with blood culture-confirmed enteric fever patients and purposively selected key informants...
October 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Panjaporn Chaichana, Kemajittra Jenjaroen, Premjit Amornchai, Suchintana Chumseng, Sayan Langla, Patpong Rongkard, Manutsanun Sumonwiriya, Atthanee Jeeyapant, Narisara Chantratita, Prapit Teparrukkul, Direk Limmathurotsakul, Nicholas P J Day, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Susanna J Dunachie
Melioidosis is a major neglected tropical disease with high mortality, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei ( Bp ). Microbiological culture remains the gold standard for diagnosis, but a simpler and more readily available test such as an antibody assay is highly desirable. In this study, we conducted a serological survey of blood donors ( n = 1,060) and adult melioidosis patients ( n = 200) in northeast Thailand to measure the antibody response to Bp using the indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA)...
October 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Tarun Narang, Anuradha Bishnoi, Sunil Dogra, Uma Nahar Saikia, Kavita
A subset of multibacillary (MB) leprosy patients manifest with clinical "nonresponsiveness" to the fixed-duration, World Health Organization multidrug therapy MB regimen (WHO-MDT-MBR). The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of alternate anti-leprosy therapy (ALT) in such patients. This is an analysis of patients' records, registered in the leprosy clinic of our institute over a period of 6 years (2010-2015). The criteria for inadequate response/nonresponsiveness to treatment were as follows: 1) persistent/new lesions after completing ≥ 12 months of WHO-MDT-MBR (isolated reactions were ruled out histopathologically) and 2) persistent positive/increasing value of the morphological index (MI) and a 2 log increase in the bacteriological index (BI) after ≥ 12 months of WHO-MDT-MBR...
October 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Gabriela Salmón-Mulanovich, David L Blazes, M Claudia Guezala V, Zonia Rios, Angelica Espinoza, Carolina Guevara, Andrés G Lescano, Joel M Montgomery, Daniel G Bausch, William K Pan
Dengue virus (DENV) affects more than 100 countries worldwide. Dengue virus infection has been increasing in the southern Peruvian Amazon city of Puerto Maldonado since 2000. We designed this study to describe the prevalence of past DENV infection and to evaluate risk factors. In 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional serosurvey and administered a knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) questionnaire to members of randomly selected households. Sera were screened for antibodies to DENV by ELISA and confirmed by plaque reduction neutralization test...
October 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Charles Ampong Adjei, Fidelis Atibila, Felix Apiribu, Frederick Ahordzor, Priscilla Adumoah Attafuah, Michael Ansah-Nyarko, Richard Asamoah, William Menkah
Global evidence suggests that hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection is endemic in Africa and perinatal transmission remains one of the most important modes of HBV transmission in this area. This cross-sectional survey examined the seroprevalence and knowledge of hepatitis B among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic (ANC) in a mission hospital in Ghana. Systematic sampling technique was used to recruit 196 pregnant women. The level of statistical significance was set at 0.05 alpha level. The hepatitis B prevalence estimate (hepatitis B surface antigen) was 10...
October 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Michele Spinicci, Fabio Macchioni, Simona Gabrielli, David Rojo, Herlan Gamboa, Ana Liz Villagrán, Yolanda Vallejos, Marianne Strohmeyer, Mimmo Roselli, Gabriella Cancrini, Piero Olliaro, Antonio Montresor, Alessandro Bartoloni
Tropical anemia can have multiple causes, whether socioeconomic, dietary, or infectious. In the Bolivian Chaco, soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH), malaria, and Chagas disease are potential infectious causes of anemia among school-aged children (SAC). Following years of preventive chemotherapy with mebendazole, the prevalence of STH among SAC living in that area is now negligible, whereas protozoan infections are still highly prevalent (81%); Hymenolepis nana is the most frequent intestinal helminth (∼13%)...
October 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Ng Yee Ling, Alfonso Olivos-García, Lim Teck Kwang, Rahmah Noordin, Lin Qingsong, Nurulhasanah Othman
Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite that causes amebiasis and poses a significant health risk for populations in endemic areas. The molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis and regulation of the parasite are not well characterized. We aimed to identify and quantify the differentially abundant membrane proteins by comparing the membrane proteins of virulent and avirulent variants of E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS, and to investigate the potential associations among the differentially abundant membrane proteins...
October 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Bryan Greenhouse, David L Smith, Isabel Rodríguez-Barraquer, Ivo Mueller, Chris J Drakeley
Antibodies directed against malaria parasites are easy and inexpensive to measure but remain an underused surveillance tool because of a lack of consensus on what to measure and how to interpret results. High-throughput screening of antibodies from well-characterized cohorts offers a means to substantially improve existing assays by rationally choosing the most informative sets of responses and analytical methods. Recent data suggest that high-resolution information on malaria exposure can be obtained from a small number of samples by measuring a handful of properly chosen antibody responses...
October 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Repon C Paul, Heather F Gidding, Arifa Nazneen, Kajal C Banik, Shariful A Sumon, Kishor K Paul, Stephen P Luby, Emily S Gurley, Andrew Hayen
In the absence of a civil registration system, a house-to-house survey is often used to estimate cause-specific mortality in low- and middle-income countries. However, house-to-house surveys are resource and time intensive. We applied a low-cost community knowledge approach to identify maternal deaths from any cause and jaundice-associated deaths among persons aged ≥ 14 years, and stillbirths and neonatal deaths in mothers with jaundice during pregnancy in five rural communities in Bangladesh. We estimated the method's sensitivity and cost savings compared with a house-to-house survey...
October 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Carla Muñoz-Antoli, Paloma Pérez, Aleyda Pavón, Rafael Toledo, Jose-Guillermo Esteban
The prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in schoolchildren from Corn Islands (Nicaragua) were examined to detect mono- or poly-STH infected children, measuring different intensity levels, and to elucidate measurably increased odds of being anemic. A total of 341 stool samples provided by 2- to 15-year-old children were examined using a concentration technique and a Kato-Katz slide. Intensity of infection was expressed as eggs per gram (epg) of feces to classify light, moderate, or heavy intensity infection...
October 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Eiichiro Sando, Yuka Oshikawa, Atsushi Tanaka, Shungo Katoh, Masakatsu Taira, Tomoko Ogawa, Hiromi Fujita, Makito Yaegashi, Daniel H Paris, Koya Ariyoshi
Scrub typhus and Japanese spotted fever-both rickettsial diseases-are endemic and notifiable in Japan and may cause a fatal outcome without prompt treatment. Here we present the first case of a concurrent sympatric infection of both diseases with grade II evidence. A 67-year-old woman, after a single event of potential exposure to the pathogens, presented with a 12-day history of fever, pharyngeal pain, papulo-erythematous rash, and pronounced fatigue. Her erythematous rash was distributed on her trunk and extremities, palms, and soles and eventually progressed to purpura...
October 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Norman L Beatty, Carlos M Perez-Velez, Hayley D Yaglom, Sharon Carson, Eugene Liu, Zain I Khalpey, Stephen A Klotz, Sean P Elliott
A healthy 16-year-old girl born and raised in Tucson, AZ, had screening and confirmatory testing revealing Chagas disease; clinical evaluation established that she had the indeterminate form of chronic Chagas disease with evidence of likely autochthonous transmission. Trypanosoma cruzi DNA was detected by conventional PCR in Triatoma rubida captured at her home.
October 1, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Joelma Nascimento De Souza, Barbara Nascimento Rocha Ribeiro Soares, Luana Leandro Goes, Cintia de Souza Lima, Nilo Manoel Pereira Vieira Barreto, Beatriz Soares Jacobina, Noilson Gonçalves, Marcia Cristina Aquino Teixeira, Bernardo Galvão-Castro, Maria Fernanda Rios Grassi, Neci Matos Soares
Strongyloides stercoralis is the main etiological agent of human strongyloidiasis. Severe strongyloidiasis is commonly associated to alcoholism, corticostereoid use, and human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) coinfection. Herein, we report a case of a 13-year-old boy coinfected with S. stercoralis and HTLV-1, excreting several parasitic forms in the stool. The parasitological examination of his feces showed a large amount of filariform (about 3,000 larvae per gram of feces) and rhabditiform larvae (about 2,000 larvae per gram of feces)...
October 1, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Juliana Inoue, Irina Jovel, Ulrika Morris, Berit Aydin-Schmidt, Atiqul Islam, Aluisio Cotrim Segurado, Anders Björkman, Silvia Di Santi, Andreas Mårtensson
Artemisinin resistance, presently confined to Southeast Asia and associated with mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum K13 (PfK13) propeller domain, represents a serious threat to global malaria control. This study aimed to provide baseline information for future artemisinin resistance surveillance, by analyzing the PfK13 propeller domain in P. falciparum field isolates collected from the Brazilian Amazon Basin between 1984 and 2011. A total of 152 P. falciparum mono-infections were assessed, of which 118 (78%) were collected before and 34 (22%) after the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in 2006...
October 1, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Kye-Yeung Park, Hoon-Ki Park, Hwan-Sik Hwang, Jae-Sook Ryu, Kyeong-Geun Lee, Ki-Seok Jang
Visceral larva migrans (VLM) is one of the clinical syndromes of human toxocariasis. We report a case of hepatic VLM presenting preprandial malaise and epigastric discomfort in a 58-year-old woman drinking raw roe deer blood. The imaging studies of the abdomen showed a 74-mm hepatic mass featuring hepatic VLM. Anti- Toxocara canis IgG was observed in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot. Despite anthelmintic treatment, the patient complained of newly developed cough and skin rash with severe eosinophilia...
October 1, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Simon Mutembo, Andrea Carcelen, Francis Mwansa, Kelly Searle, Jane Wanyiri, Chris Book, Philip E Thuma, William J Moss, Kyla Hayford
Age-specific population immunity to many vaccine-preventable diseases can be measured using serological surveys. However, stand-alone serological surveys are infrequently conducted in low- and middle-income countries because of costs, operational challenges, and potential high refusal rates for blood collection. Nesting a serosurvey within a household cluster survey may overcome some of these challenges. We share lessons learned from nesting a serosurvey within a measles and rubella vaccination post-campaign coverage evaluation survey (PCES)...
October 1, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Rufin K Assaré, Mathieu B I Tra, Mamadou Ouattara, Eveline Hürlimann, Jean T Coulibaly, Eliézer K N'Goran, Jürg Utzinger
The sensitivity of a point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) urine cassette test for diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni in low-endemicity settings is poorly understood. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 14 villages in western Côte d'Ivoire and diagnosed children aged 9-12 years for schistosomiasis. Two stool samples were subjected to triplicate Kato-Katz thick smears each for diagnosis of S. mansoni , whereas a single urine sample was examined by POC-CCA for S. mansoni, filtration for Schistosoma haematobium, and reagent strip for microhematuria...
October 1, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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