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American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016335/performance-of-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-for-the-identification-of-submicroscopic-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-in-uganda
#1
Shereen Katrak, Maxwell Murphy, Patience Nayebare, John Rek, Mary Smith, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, Joaniter I Nankabirwa, Moses Kamya, Grant Dorsey, Philip Rosenthal, Bryan Greenhouse
Accurately identifying and targeting the human reservoir of malaria parasitemia is critical for malaria control, and requires a reliable and sensitive diagnostic method. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is increasingly used to diagnose submicroscopic parasitemia. Although most published studies report the sensitivity of LAMP compared with nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as ≥ 80%, they have failed to use a consistent, sensitive diagnostic as a comparator. We used cross-sectional samples from children and adults in Tororo, Uganda, a region with high but declining transmission due to indoor residual spraying, to characterize the sensitivity and specificity of pan-Plasmodium LAMP for detecting submicroscopic infections...
October 9, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016331/determining-the-cause-of-death-mortality-surveillance-using-verbal-autopsy-in-indonesia
#2
Abdul Wahab, Ifta Choiriyyah, Siswanto Agus Wilopo
In the absence of a vital registration and health information systems, Indonesia does not have complete, accurate, and continuous data to summarize the mortality statistics of the population, nor determine the exact cause of death. Verbal autopsies performed in a community-based mortality surveillance have been used to provide information on the cause of deaths in such context. However, physician review of verbal autopsy can be expensive, time-consuming, and give inconsistent results, raising concern about its reliability...
October 9, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016327/molecular-and-clinical-epidemiology-of-salmonella-paratyphi-a-isolated-from-patients-with-bacteremia-in-nepal
#3
Jatan Bahadur Sherchan, Masatomo Morita, Takashi Matono, Hidemasa Izumiya, Makoto Ohnishi, Jeevan B Sherchand, Sarmila Tandukar, Ujjwal Laghu, Maki Nagamatsu, Yasuyuki Kato, Norio Ohmagari, Kayoko Hayakawa
Little is known about the epidemiology of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in Nepal. We aimed to elucidate the molecular and clinical epidemiology of Salmonella Paratyphi A in Nepal. Isolates were collected from 23 cases of bacteremia due to S. Paratyphi A between December 2014 and October 2015. Thirteen patients (57%) were male, and the median age was 21 years. None of the patients had an underlying chronic disease. All S. Paratyphi A isolates were sensitive to ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, ceftriaxone, and chloramphenicol...
October 9, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016314/case-report-paralytic-shellfish-poisoning-in-sabah-malaysia
#4
Maria Suleiman, Jenarun Jelip, Christina Rundi, Tock H Chua
During the months of January-February and May-June 2013 coinciding with the red tide occurrence in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia, six episodes involving 58 cases of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) or saxitoxin (STX) poisoning and resulting in four deaths were reported. Many of them were intoxicated from consuming shellfish purchased from the markets, whereas others were intoxicated from eating shellfish collected from the beach. Levels of STX in shellfish collected from the affected areas were high (mean 2,920 ± 780 and 360 ± 140 µg STX equivalents/100 g shellfish meat respectively for the two periods)...
October 9, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016305/real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-on-bronchoalveolar-lavage-an-alternative-method-for-diagnosing-chronic-pulmonary-schistosomiasis
#5
Federico Gobbi, Fabio Formenti, Francesca Perandin, Dora Buonfrate, Andrea Angheben, Simona Paiano, Zeno Bisoffi
Schistosomiasis causes mainly hepatic and genitourinary damage. Although lung nodules have been commonly described in acute phase, they are presumably underdiagnosed in chronic schistosomiasis. We previously reported a series of patients with chronic pulmonary schistosomiasis confirmed by the histological examination of the lung biopsies. In the present work, we retrospectively tested an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction for Schistosoma (currently validated for diagnosis on stool and on urine) in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of a couple of those patients, and both resulted positive...
October 9, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016293/molecular-and-phenotypic-characterization-of-diarrheagenic-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-from-bacteremic-children
#6
Maribel Riveros, Wilfredo García, Coralith García, David Durand, Erik Mercado, Joaquim Ruiz, Theresa J Ochoa
Escherichia coli is an important cause of Gram-negative bacteremia. The aim of this study was to characterize at the molecular and phenotypic levels E. coli strains belonging to different diarrheagenic pathotypes [diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC)] isolated from bacteremia in children younger than 5 years of age. Seventy bacteremia E. coli strains were collected in a prospective study in 12 hospitals in Lima, Peru. The presence of virulence genes associated with DEC [enterotoxigenic (lt and st), enteropathogenic (eaeA), shiga toxin-producing (stx1and stx2), enteroinvasive (ipaH), enteroaggregative (aggR), and diffusely adherent (daaD)] was determined by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
October 9, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016340/presence-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-in-soil-and-paddy-rice-water-in-a-rice-field-in-northeast-thailand-but-not-in-air-and-rainwater
#7
Catherine E L Ong, Gumphol Wongsuvan, Janet S W Chew, Tan Yian Kim, Low Hwee Teng, Premjit Amornchai, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Nicholas P J Day, Sharon J Peacock, Tan Yoke Cheng, Eric P H Yap, Direk Limmathurotsakul
Environmental Burkholderia pseudomallei has been postulated to be aerosolized during ploughing and heavy rain, and could result in inhalational melioidosis. Here, we determined the presence of B. pseudomallei in soil, paddy field water (PFW), air, and rainwater samples in a single rice paddy field in Ubon Ratchathani, northeast Thailand. In 2012, we collected 100 soil samples during the dry season, 10 PFW samples during the monsoon season, 77 air samples during ploughing (N = 31) and heavy rains (N = 46), and 60 rainwater samples during 12 rain events...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016337/the-multifactorial-epidemiology-of-blackwater-fever
#8
G Dennis Shanks
Blackwater fever is a massive hemolytic event usually occurring in the context of repeated falciparum malaria infections and intermittent quinine use. Its etiology is poorly understood, and it is rarely seen today. Historical epidemiological observations from the 20th century demonstrated variable patterns in prisoners in Andaman Islands, refugees in Macedonia, canal workers in Panama, expatriates in Rhodesia, and Second World War soldiers. Rates of blackwater fever per 1,000 malaria cases varied over two orders of magnitude...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016333/distribution-of-mutations-associated-with-antifolate-and-chloroquine-resistance-among-imported-plasmodium-vivax-in-the-state-of-qatar
#9
Devendra Bansal, Anushree Acharya, Praveen K Bharti, Mohamed H Abdelraheem, Ashraf Elmalik, Salem Abosalah, Fahmi Y Khan, Mohamed ElKhalifa, Hargobinder Kaur, Pradyumna K Mohapatra, Rakesh Sehgal, Mohammed A Idris, Jagadish Mahanta, Neeru Singh, Hamza A Babiker, Ali A Sultan
Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent parasite worldwide, escalating by spread of drug resistance. Currently, in Qatar, chloroquine (CQ) plus primaquine are recommended for the treatment of P. vivax malaria. The present study examined the prevalence of mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr), dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) genes and CQ resistance transporter (crt-o) genes, associated with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and chloroquine resistance, among imported P. vivax cases in Qatar. Blood samples were collected from patients positive for P...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016332/porcine-cysticercosis-possible-cross-reactivity-of-taenia-hydatigena-to-gp50-antigen-in-the-enzyme-linked-immunoelectrotransfer-blot-assay
#10
Claudio Muro, Luis A Gomez-Puerta, Robert H Flecker, Ricardo Gamboa, Percy Vilchez Barreto, Pierre Dorny, Victor C W Tsang, Robert H Gilman, Armando E Gonzalez, Hector H Garcia Lescano, Seth E O'Neal, For The Cysticercosis Working Group In Peru
The lentil lectin glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (LLGP EITB, reported sensitivity 99% and specificity 100%) is used as a serologic marker of exposure to Taenia solium in pigs. However, only a limited number of parasites have been evaluated for cross reactivity. Pigs may host other related cestode infections, including Taenia hydatigena, which have not been formally evaluated for cross-reactions. We investigated a corral in Tumbes, Peru, a region where a cysticercosis elimination demonstration project was completed in 2012...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016329/preliminary-evaluation-of-percutaneous-treatment-of-echinococcal-cysts-without-injection-of-scolicidal-agent
#11
Giovanni Firpo, Ambra Vola, Raffaella Lissandrin, Francesca Tamarozzi, Enrico Brunetti
Puncture, Aspiration, Injection of scolicidal agent, Re-aspiration is the most widely used percutaneous treatment of cystic echinococcosis (CE). Among its perceived risks is chemical sclerosing cholangitis, a serious complication due to the caustic effect of the scolicidal solution on the biliary tree, when a patent cystobiliary fistula occurs. To simplify the protocol, we decided to omit injection and reaspiration of the scolicidal agent and to implement a full course of albendazole (ABZ) therapy instead of the routine 1-month ABZ prophylaxis...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016321/nationwide-seroprevalence-of-leptospirosis-among-young-thai-men-2007-2008
#12
Siriphan Gonwong, Thippawan Chuenchitra, Patchariya Khantapura, Dilara Islam, Nattaya Ruamsap, Brett E Swierczewski, Carl J Mason
Leptospirosis, a global neglected zoonotic disease, is an important public health problem in Thailand. Nonspecific symptoms, lack of laboratory confirmation, and underreporting contribute to its neglected disease status. To better understand the distribution of leptospirosis exposure in Thailand, a retrospective leptospirosis seroprevalence study was conducted on repository serum specimens obtained from young Thai men entering the Royal Thai Army during 2007-2008. The overall nationwide leptospirosis IgG seroprevalence among these young Thai men was 28% (95% confidence interval = 26-30%) and the range by province was 10-52% confirming leptospirosis as an endemic disease throughout Thailand...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016319/clinical-epidemiology-of-septic-arthritis-caused-by-burkholderia-pseudomallei-and-other-bacterial-pathogens-in-northeast-thailand
#13
Prapit Teparrukkul, Jiraphorn Nilsakul, Susanna Dunachie, Direk Limmathurotsakul
Septic arthritis is a medical emergency, and if not treated appropriately, it can be associated with high morbidity and mortality. Melioidosis, a serious infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative bacillus Burkholderia pseudomallei, is highly endemic in South and Southeast Asia and northern Australia. We reviewed the medical charts of adult patients admitted with bacterial septic arthritis at Sunpasitthiprasong Hospital, Ubon Ratchathani, northeast Thailand from January 2012 to December 2014. Bacterial septic arthritis was defined as one or more hot swollen joints with isolation of a pathogenic organism from an affected joint or from blood...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016317/malaria-is-more-prevalent-than-iron-deficiency-among-anemic-pregnant-women-at-the-first-antenatal-visit-in-rural-south-kivu
#14
Esto Bahizire, P Lundimu Tugirimana, Michèle Dramaix, Déogratias Zozo, Mugisho Bahati, Andrew Mwale, Sylvain Meuris, Philippe Donnen
Anemia is common during pregnancy and is associated with poor outcomes. Objectives were not only 1) to determine the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency (ID) but also 2) to identify other factors associated with anemia in pregnant women from South Kivu province, in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Between December 2013 and March 2014, 531 women attending the first antenatal visit in their second trimester of pregnancy were recruited. Sociodemographic, clinical, and biological data were collected...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016313/case-report-fatal-pediatric-melioidosis-despite-optimal-intensive-care
#15
Alice Young, Catherine Tacon, Simon Smith, Ben Reeves, Greg Wiseman, Josh Hanson
With prompt administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy and access to modern intensive care support, fatal pediatric melioidosis is very unusual. We describe cases of two children in whom the possibility of melioidosis was recognized relatively early, but who died of the disease, despite receiving optimal supportive care. We discuss the resulting implications for bacterial virulence factors in disease pathogenesis.
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016311/case-report-severe-imported-influenza-infections-developed-during-travel-in-reunion-island
#16
Jérôme Allyn, Elise Brottet, Emmanuel Antok, Laurence Dangers, Romain Persichini, Nathalie Coolen-Allou, Bénédicte Roquebert, Nicolas Allou, David Vandroux
We report two cases of severe influenza infection imported by tourist patients from their country of origin and developed during travel. While studies have reported cases of influenza infections acquired during travel, here we examine two cases of severe influenza infection contracted in the country of origin that led to diagnosis and therapeutic problems in the destination country. No international recommendation exists concerning influenza vaccination before travel, and few countries recommend it for all travelers...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016310/case-report-a-cluster-of-three-leptospirosis-cases-in-a-new-york-city-abattoir-and-an-unusual-complication-in-the-index-case
#17
Tania Kupferman, Megan P Coffee, Benjamin J Eckhardt
We report the case of a 46-year-old man abattoir worker who developed myalgias, shortness of breath, and irritability 2 weeks after sustaining a laceration to the hand with a knife at work. During his hospital evaluation for septic shock he was noted to be febrile, hypotensive, profoundly jaundiced with aseptic meningitis, and renal failure, and was diagnosed with Leptospirosis interrogans infection confirmed by serum and urine polymerase chain reaction. After standard antibiotic therapy and recovery from severe clinical illness, he developed unilateral orchitis with pyuria secondary to leptospirosis, a well-established complication in the veterinary literature, but of which we offer the first report in humans in the English literature...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016307/the-differential-expression-and-possible-function-of-long-noncoding-rnas-in-liver-cells-infected-by-dengue-virus
#18
Xiao-Jun Wang, Shi-Chen Jiang, Hai-Xia Wei, Sheng-Qun Deng, Cheng He, Hong-Juan Peng
The function of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in liver injury resulted by dengue virus (DENV) infection have not yet been explored. The differential expression profiles of lncRNAs coupled with mRNAs in L-02 liver cells in the DENV1 infected, DENV2 infected, and untreated control group were analyzed after high throughput RNA sequencing, the significantly upregulated and downregulated lncRNAs or mRNAs comparing with the control group were identified with a cutoff value at log2 (ratio) ≥ 1.5 and log2 (ratio) ≤ -1...
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016301/case-report-primary-tuberculosis-of-the-bilateral-breast
#19
Qiang Li, Yin-Xia Huang, Qing Yang, Yu-Jie Dong, Meng-Qiu Gao, Li-Ping Ma
Primary breast tuberculosis is rare. We report a case of bilateral primary breast tuberculosis. The patient received incisional drainage and debridement of both breasts. Histopathology of the breast tissues revealed chronic granulomatous inflammation and positive acid-fast stain. The patient received antitubercular therapy for 18 months, and she achieved complete resolution.
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016298/case-report-cysticercosis-sonographic-diagnosis-of-a-treatable-cause-of-epilepsy-and-skin-nodules
#20
Tom Heller, Claudia Wallrauch, Daniel Kaminstein, Sam Phiri
A case of disseminated cysticercosis of brain, muscle subcutaneous tissue is reported and the use of musculoskeletal ultrasound in the diagnosis of the condition emphasized.
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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