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American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719336/infant-nutritional-status-feeding-practices-enteropathogen-exposure-socioeconomic-status-and-illness-are-associated-with-gut-barrier-function-as-assessed-by-the-lactulose-mannitol-test-in-the-mal-ed-birth-cohort
#1
Gwenyth O Lee, Benjamin J J McCormick, Jessica C Seidman, Margaret N Kosek, Rashidul Haque, Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Aldo A M Lima, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Gagandeep Kang, Amidou Samie, Caroline Amour, Carl J Mason, Tahmeed Ahmed, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Domingos B Oliveira, Didar Alam, Sudhir Babji, Pascal Bessong, Estomih Mduma, Sanjaya K Shrestha, Ramya Ambikapathi, Dennis R Lang, Michael Gottlieb, Richard L Guerrant, Laura E Caulfield, For The Mal-Ed Network Investigators
The lactulose mannitol (LM) dual sugar permeability test is the most commonly used test of environmental enteropathy in developing countries. However, there is a large but conflicting literature on its association with enteric infection and host nutritional status. We conducted a longitudinal cohort using a single field protocol and comparable laboratory procedures to examine intestinal permeability in multiple, geographically diverse pediatric populations. Using a previously published systematic review to guide the selection of factors potentially associated with LM test results, we examined the relationships between these factors and mucosal breach, represented by percent lactulose excretion; absorptive area, represented by percent mannitol excretion; and gut barrier function, represented by the L/M ratio...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719335/experimental-infection-with-and-maintenance-of-cell-fusing-agent-virus-flavivirus-in-aedes-aegypti
#2
Maria Angelica Contreras-Gutierrez, Hilda Guzman, Saravanan Thangamani, Nikos Vasilakis, Robert B Tesh
During the past two decades, there has been a dramatic increase in the recognition and characterization of novel insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFVs). Some of these agents are closely related to important mosquito-borne flavivirus pathogens. Results of experimental studies suggest that mosquitoes and mosquito cell cultures infected with some ISFVs are refractory to superinfection with related flavivirus pathogens; and it has been proposed that ISFVs potentially could be used to alter the vector competence of mosquitoes and reduce transmission of specific flavivirus pathogens, such as dengue, West Nile, or Zika viruses...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719334/precisely-tracking-childhood-death
#3
Tamer H Farag, Jeffrey P Koplan, Robert F Breiman, Shabir A Madhi, Penny M Heaton, Trevor Mundel, Jaume Ordi, Quique Bassat, Clara Menendez, Scott F Dowell
Little is known about the specific causes of neonatal and under-five childhood death in high-mortality geographic regions due to a lack of primary data and dependence on inaccurate tools, such as verbal autopsy. To meet the ambitious new Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 to eliminate preventable child mortality in every country, better approaches are needed to precisely determine specific causes of death so that prevention and treatment interventions can be strengthened and focused. Minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) is a technique that uses needle-based postmortem sampling, followed by advanced histopathology and microbiology to definitely determine cause of death...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719333/bidirectional-exchange-in-global-health-moving-toward-true-global-health-partnership
#4
Gitanjli Arora, Christiana Russ, Maneesh Batra, Sabrina M Butteris, Jennifer Watts, Michael B Pitt
Although there has been rapid growth in global health educational experiences over the last two decades, the flow of learners remains overwhelmingly one directional; providers from high-resourced settings travel to limited-resourced environments to participate in clinical care, education, and/or research. Increasingly, there has been a call to promote parity in partnerships, including the development of bidirectional exchanges, where trainees from each institution travel to the partner's setting to learn from and teach each other...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719332/case-report-a-symptomatic-case-of-hymenolepis-diminuta-infection-in-an-urban-dwelling-adult-in-malaysia
#5
Arine Fadzlun Ahmad, Romano Ngui, Jaxinthe Ong, Farikha Sarip, Wan Hafiz Wan Ismail, Hasidah Omar, Zurainee Mohamed Nor, Amirah Amir, Yvonne A L Lim, Rohela Mahmud
A case of Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a 43-year-old Malaysian male with persistent abdominal colicky pain is reported. Endoscopy revealed whitish worms in the lumen of the small intestine, which were identified as H. diminuta after microscopy. Patient was successfully treated with a single dose of praziquantel (25 mg/kg).
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719331/factors-associated-with-the-duration-of-moderate-to-severe-diarrhea-among-children-in-rural-western-kenya-enrolled-in-the-global-enteric-multicenter-study-2008-2012
#6
Katharine A Schilling, Richard Omore, Gordana Derado, Tracy Ayers, John B Ochieng, Tamer H Farag, Dilruba Nasrin, Sandra Panchalingam, James P Nataro, Karen L Kotloff, Myron M Levine, Joseph Oundo, Michelle B Parsons, Cheryl Bopp, Kayla Laserson, Christine E Stauber, Richard Rothenberg, Robert F Breiman, Ciara E O'Reilly, Eric D Mintz
Diarrheal disease is a leading cause of death among young children worldwide. As rates of acute diarrhea (AD; 1-6 days duration) have decreased, persistent diarrhea (PD; > 14 days duration) accounts for a greater proportion of the diarrheal disease burden. We describe factors associated with the duration of moderate-to-severe diarrhea in Kenyan children < 5 years old enrolled in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study. We found 587 (58%) children experienced AD, 360 (35%) had prolonged acute diarrhea (ProAD; 7-13 days duration), and 73 (7%) had PD...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719330/case-report-microcephaly-in-twins-due-to-the-zika-virus
#7
Victor S Santos, Sheila J G Oliveira, Ricardo Q Gurgel, Dorothy R R Lima, Cliomar A Dos Santos, Paulo R S Martins-Filho
Recent studies have demonstrated an association between congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and microcephaly; however, to date, there have been no reports on the consequences of ZIKV infection on fetuses in twin pregnancies. Herein, we reported on the first case of a monochorionic diamniotic (MCDA) twin pregnancy having ZIKV-related microcephaly. Our findings suggested that, in an MCDA twin pregnancy, the ZIKV may cause infection in both fetuses, resulting in severe abnormalities in the central nervous system due to neural cell destruction and the disruption of the normal development processes of the brain...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719329/rift-valley-fever-seroprevalence-in-coastal-kenya
#8
Elysse N Grossi-Soyster, Tamara Banda, Crystal Y Teng, Eric M Muchiri, Peter L Mungai, Francis M Mutuku, Ginny Gildengorin, Uriel Kitron, Charles H King, A Desiree Labeaud
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes severe disease in both animals and humans, resulting in significant economic and public health damages. The objective of this study was to measure RVFV seroprevalence in six coastal Kenyan villages between 2009 and 2011, and characterize individual-, household-, and community-level risk factors for prior RVFV exposure. Sera were tested for anti-RVFV IgG via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 51 (1.8%; confidence interval [CI95] 1.3-2.3) of 2,871 samples were seropositive for RVFV...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719328/president-s-address-november-2016-american-society-of-tropical-medicine-and-hygiene
#9
Stephen Higgs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719327/extensive-resistance-of-anopheles-sinensis-to-insecticides-in-malaria-endemic-areas-of-hainan-province-china
#10
Ding-Wei Sun, Guang-Ze Wang, Lin-Hai Zeng, Shan-Gan Li, Chang-Hua He, Xi-Min Hu, Shan-Qing Wang
Anopheles sinensis is one of the major malaria vectors and among the dominant species in Hainan Province, China. The resistance of An. sinensis to insecticides is an important threat to malaria control. However, few reports on insecticide resistance of An. sinensis were reported in this area. Eight districts in Hainan Province were selected as the study areas. Insecticide susceptibility bioassays were tested on wild-caught female mosquitoes of An. sinensis to 4% dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), 0.05% deltamethrin, and 5% malathion by using the World Health Organization standard resistance tube assay procedure...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719326/malaria-related-hospitalizations-in-the-united-states-2000-2014
#11
Diana Khuu, Mark L Eberhard, Benjamin N Bristow, Marjan Javanbakht, Lawrence R Ash, Shira C Shafir, Frank J Sorvillo
Few data are available on the burden of malaria hospitalization in the United States. Study of malaria using hospital-based data can better define the impact of malaria and help inform prevention efforts. U.S. malaria cases identified from hospitalization discharge records in the 2000-2014 Nationwide Inpatient Sample were examined. Frequencies and population rates were reported by demographics, infecting species, clinical, financial, institutional, geographic, and seasonal characteristics, and disparities were identified...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719325/serologic-monitoring-of-public-health-interventions-against-strongyloides-stercoralis
#12
Paola Vargas, Alejandro J Krolewiecki, Adriana Echazú, Marisa Juarez, Pamela Cajal, Jose F Gil, Nicolás Caro, Julio Nasser, Patrick Lammie, Rubén O Cimino
Northwestern Argentina is endemic for soil-transmitted helminths, and annual deworming programs are carried out in prioritized areas. High prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis was reported in this area; therefore, control programs including ivermectin are being evaluated. The NIE-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for this purpose. In this community trial, two groups of patients, classified according to housing and living conditions were evaluated. Simultaneous with baseline survey, Group 1 was moved to new households with access to improved water and sanitation facilities (W and S), where deworming (MDA, massive drug administration) took place within 1 month; whereas Group 2 received MDA but remained living with unimproved W and S...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719324/susceptibility-of-clinical-isolates-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-to-a-lipid-a-biosynthesis-inhibitor
#13
Sineenart Sengyee, Natnaree Saiprom, Suporn Paksanont, Direk Limmathurotsakul, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Narisara Chantratita
Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a serious infection associated with high mortality and relapse. Current antimicrobial therapy using ceftazidime (CAZ) is often ineffective. Inhibitors of LpxC, the enzyme responsible for lipid A biosynthesis, have potential antimicrobial activity against several Gram-negative bacteria in vivo, but their activity against B. pseudomallei is unclear. Herein, we investigated the susceptibility of B. pseudomallei clinical isolates to LpxC-4, an LpxC inhibitor, and LpxC-4 in combination with CAZ...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719323/burden-and-seasonality-of-viral-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-among-outpatients-in-southern-sri-lanka
#14
David Shapiro, Champica K Bodinayake, Ajith Nagahawatte, Vasantha Devasiri, Ruvini Kurukulasooriya, Jeremy Hsiang, Bradley Nicholson, Aruna Dharshan De Silva, Truls Østbye, Megan E Reller, Christopher W Woods, L Gayani Tillekeratne
In tropical and subtropical settings, the epidemiology of viral acute respiratory tract infections varies widely between countries. We determined the etiology, seasonality, and clinical presentation of viral acute respiratory tract infections among outpatients in southern Sri Lanka. From March 2013 to January 2015, we enrolled outpatients presenting with influenza-like illness (ILI). Nasal/nasopharyngeal samples were tested in duplicate using antigen-based rapid influenza testing and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for respiratory viruses...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719322/case-report-disseminated-talaromyces-penicillium-marneffei-and-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-coinfection-in-a-japanese-patient-with-acquired-immunodeficiency-syndrome
#15
Shuji Hatakeyama, Takeshi Yamashita, Toshiyasu Sakai, Katsuhiko Kamei
Talaromyces marneffei is a dimorphic fungus endemic mainly in southeast and south Asia. It causes severe mycosis, usually in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Concomitant infection with T. marneffei and other opportunistic pathogens is plausible because the majority of T. marneffei infections occur in patients with advanced HIV infection. Nonetheless, coinfection in the same site has rarely been reported, and poses a considerable diagnostic and therapeutic challenge...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719321/association-of-interferon-%C3%AE-receptor-1-gene-polymorphism-with-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-lung-infection-among-iranian-patients-with-pulmonary-disease
#16
Poopak Farnia, Jalaledin Ghanavi, Shima Saif, Parissa Farnia, Ali Akbar Velayati
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cause significant pulmonary infections in humans. Researchers have reported an association between interferon-gamma receptor-1 (IFN-γR1 or IFNGR1) deficiency and susceptibility to NTM, but the relevance of polymorphism within these genes is not yet clear. In this study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), T to C, at position-56 in NTM patients with pulmonary disease was investigated. Molecular identification of Mycobacterium isolates was performed with hsp65 genes using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719320/skin-manifestations-of-primary-vibrio-vulnificus-septicemia
#17
Norman L Beatty, Jose Marquez, Mayar Al Mohajer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719319/phosphoproteome-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infected-host-cells-reveals-specific-cellular-processes-predominating-in-different-phases-of-infection
#18
Cheng He, Ai-Yuan Chen, Hai-Xia Wei, Xiao-Shuang Feng, Hong-Juan Peng
The invasion of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites into the host cell results in extensive host cell signaling activation/deactivation that is usually regulated by the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation. To elucidate how T. gondii regulates host cell signal transduction, the comparative phosphoproteome of stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture-labeled human foreskin fibroblast cells was analyzed. The cells were grouped (Light [L], Medium [M], and Heavy [H] groups) based on the labeling isotope weight and were infected with T...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719318/experience-with-a-multinational-secondary-school-education-module-with-a-focus-on-prevention-of-virus-infections
#19
Laura Doornekamp, Karen M Stegers-Jager, Odette M Vlek, Tanja Klop, Marco Goeijenbier, Eric C M van Gorp
Worldwide, virus infections are responsible for many diseases in terms of morbidity and mortality. Vaccinations and therapies are only available for relatively few virus infections and not always where they are needed. However, knowledge of transmission routes can prevent virus infection. In the context of this study, we measured the effects of a secondary school education module, named Viruskenner, on knowledge, attitude, and risk behavior as these relate to virus infections. A nonrandomized intervention study was conducted between April and August 2015 to assess the effect of this 2-month education module on knowledge, attitude, and behavior of 684 secondary school students in the Netherlands, Suriname, and Indonesia...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719317/climate-influence-on-emerging-risk-areas-for-rift-valley-fever-epidemics-in-tanzania
#20
Clement N Mweya, Leonard E G Mboera, Sharadhuli I Kimera
Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a climate-related arboviral infection of animals and humans. Climate is thought to represent a threat toward emerging risk areas for RVF epidemics globally. The objective of this study was to evaluate influence of climate on distribution of suitable breeding habitats for Culex pipiens complex, potential mosquito vector responsible for transmission and distribution of disease epidemics risk areas in Tanzania. We used ecological niche models to estimate potential distribution of disease risk areas based on vectors and disease co-occurrence data approach...
July 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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