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American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219994/coinfection-with-hymenolepis-nana-hymenolepis-diminuta-giardia-intestinalis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-a-case-report-with-complex-immunologic-interactions
#1
Gladymar Pérez-Chacón, Leonor A Pocaterra, Elsy Rojas, Aurora Hernán, Juan Carlos Jiménez, Luz Núñez
We describe the case of a 43-year-old human immunodeficiency virus-infected man receiving combined antiretroviral therapy and coinfected with Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta, and Giardia intestinalis, presenting as chronic diarrhea and critical weight loss. Immunological aspects of these interactions are reviewed.
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219993/low-prevalence-of-substandard-and-falsified-antimalarial-and-antibiotic-medicines-in-public-and-faith-based-health-facilities-of-southern-malawi
#2
Felix Khuluza, Stephen Kigera, Lutz Heide
Substandard and falsified antimalarial and antibiotic medicines represent a serious problem for public health, especially in low- and middle-income countries. However, information on the prevalence of poor-quality medicines is limited. In the present study, samples of six antimalarial and six antibiotic medicines were collected from 31 health facilities and drug outlets in southern Malawi. Random sampling was used in the selection of health facilities. For sample collection, an overt approach was used in licensed facilities, and a mystery shopper approach in nonlicensed outlets...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219992/a-new-handheld-device-for-the-detection-of-falsified-medicines-demonstration-on-falsified-artemisinin-based-therapies-from-the-field
#3
Benjamin K Wilson, Harparkash Kaur, Elizabeth Louise Allan, Anthony Lozama, David Bell
Poor-quality medicines are a major problem for health-care systems in resource-poor settings as identifying falsified medicines requires a complex laboratory infrastructure such as a Medicines Quality Control Laboratory. We report here an evaluation of a low-cost, handheld near-infrared spectrometer (NIRS) device by analyzing a library of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) medicines to determine its usefulness as a drug-screening tool. The "SCiO" research prototype device was used to collect NIR spectra of a library of ACT and artesunate monotherapy medicine samples previously collected in Bioko Island and Equatorial Guinea and Kintampo, Ghana...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219991/impacts-on-global-health-from-nursing-research
#4
Kimberly Baltzell, Monica McLemore, Mona Shattell, Sally Rankin
Infectious disease continues to adversely affect populations in low- and middle-income countries. Investments in solutions often focus on technology, yet health-care workers remain in short supply. Nurses are the largest cadre of health-care workers and are largely responsible for patient care around the world. In fact, it is estimated that nurses care for nine out of every 10 patients seen. Importantly, sound nursing science contributes to solutions that directly impact patient care, especially, those that pertain to infectious disease...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219990/an-outbreak-of-pellagra-in-the-kasese-catchment-area-dowa-malawi
#5
George Matapandeu, Samuel H Dunn, Patti Pagels
Pellagra is a deficiency of niacin or its amino acid precursor, tryptophan, which presents with the classic four Ds: the characteristic dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and eventually death if left untreated. The incidence of pellagra is quite rare presently because of increased awareness and strategies such as vitamin fortification. However, the deficiency is still present in cultures that rely on maize as their primary source of sustenance. We report a recent outbreak in a catchment area in Kasese, Malawi, of 691 cases of pellagra which were successfully treated with niacin supplementation...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219989/submicroscopic-falciparum-malaria-in-febrile-individuals-in-urban-and-rural-areas-of-gabon
#6
Denise P Mawili-Mboumba, Rosalie Nikiéma Ndong Ella, Noemi Bahamontes Rosa, Jose Luis Llergo Largo, Aude Lembet-Mikolo, Prycil Nzamba, Christelle Offouga Mbouoronde, Maryvonne Kombila, Marielle K Bouyou Akotet
Characterization of the parasite reservoir is required to improve malaria control. Asymptomatic patients with subpatent parasitemia have been identified in Gabon, but the prevalence of such infections among febrile subjects is unclear. We assessed the prevalence of submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum infections on an island (Port-Gentil), and in urban (Libreville), semiurban (Melen), and rural (Oyem) settings in Gabon. Blood samples (N = 310) from febrile patients were tested for malaria parasites by quantitative nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (QT-NASBA)...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193746/dengue-virus-exposures-among-deployed-u-s-military-personnel
#7
Elisabeth M Hesse, Luis J Martinez, Richard G Jarman, Arthur G Lyons, Kenneth H Eckels, Rafael A De La Barrera, Stephen J Thomas
Dengue virus infections have adversely impacted U.S. military operations since the Spanish-American War. The erosion of mission capabilities and lost duty days are underestimated. Appreciating the incidence and prevalence of dengue infections in U.S. military personnel is important to inform disease prevention strategies. Banked pre- and post-deployment serum samples from 1,000 U.S. military personnel with a single deployment to a dengue-endemic region were tested using a screening microneutralization assay to detect anti-dengue-virus-neutralizing antibodies...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193745/clarithromycin-based-triple-therapy-is-still-useful-as-an-initial-treatment-for-helicobacter-pylori-infection-in-the-dominican-republic
#8
Muhammad Miftahussurur, Modesto Cruz, Phawinee Subsomwong, José A Jiménez Abreu, Celso Hosking, Hiroyuki Nagashima, Junko Akada, Yoshio Yamaoka
Helicobacter pylori antibiotic susceptibility in the Dominican Republic has not been monitored. We assessed Hpylori antibiotic susceptibility in the Dominican Republic, and analyzed Hpylori mutations associated with antibiotic resistance. We recruited 158 dyspeptic patients in Santo Domingo and used agar dilution to test susceptibility to five antibiotics. Polymerase chain reaction-based sequencing was used to assess gyrA, gyrB, rdxA, frxA, and 23S rRNA mutations; next-generation sequencing was used to identify other metronidazole resistance-associated genes...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193744/impact-of-the-integration-of-water-treatment-hygiene-nutrition-and-clean-delivery-interventions-on-maternal-health-service-use
#9
Kirsten Fagerli, Katherine O'Connor, Sunkyung Kim, Maureen Kelley, Aloyce Odhiambo, Sitnah Faith, Ronald Otieno, Benjamin Nygren, Mary Kamb, Robert Quick
Reducing barriers associated with maternal health service use, household water treatment, and improved hygiene is important for maternal and neonatal health outcomes. We surveyed a sample of 201 pregnant women who participated in a clinic-based intervention in Kenya to increase maternal health service use and improve household hygiene and nutrition through the distribution of water treatment products, soap, protein-fortified flour, and clean delivery kits. From multivariable logistic regression analyses, the adjusted odds of ≥ 4 antenatal care (ANC4+) visits (odds ratio [OR] = 3...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193743/yaws-osteoperiostitis-treated-with-single-dose-azithromycin
#10
Camila González-Beiras, Martí Vall-Mayans, Ángel González-Escalante, Kelly McClymont, Li Ma, Oriol Mitjà
The etiologic agent of yaws, Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue, causes a multistage infection transmitted by nonsexual contact with the exudates from active lesions. Bone lesions in the form of osteoperiostitis are common and occur in numerous bones simultaneously in early stages. Although a multinational eradication campaign with mass administration of intramuscular benzylpenicillin in the 1950s greatly reduced its global incidence, a resurgence of yaws has occurred since around 2000 in western and central Africa and the Pacific Islands...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193742/delays-and-pathways-to-final-tuberculosis-diagnosis-in-patients-from-a-referral-hospital-in-urban-china
#11
Leonardo Martinez, Lin Xu, Cheng Chen, Juliet N Sekandi, Yongzhong Zhu, Changsheng Zhang, Christopher C Whalen, Limei Zhu
China is among the countries with the largest epidemic of drug susceptible and resistant tuberculosis globally. We investigated the locations tuberculosis patients visited before being diagnosed, total diagnostic delay, and risk factors associated with total delay from a large tuberculosis referral hospital in Nanjing, China. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among tuberculosis patients who initiated anti-tuberculosis treatment within 3 months prior to the study date. Patient information regarding time and locations visited while seeking care for tuberculosis-related symptoms was collected through face-to-face interviews...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193741/coinfection-of-leishmania-guyanensis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-report-of-a-case-of-disseminated-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-ecuador
#12
Manuel Calvopina, Cristina Aguirre, William Cevallos, Alberto Castillo, Ibrahim Abbasi, Alon Warburg
Reported herein is the first case of Leishmania-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection in Ecuador. In Ecuador, HIV infections overlap endemic areas of leishmaniasis. Immunosuppression is a well-established risk factor for developing severe disease. This is a severe case of a 32-year-old man presenting with disseminated pleomorphic ulcers, papules, and cutaneous plaque-like lesions over his whole body. Numerous amastigotes were observed in both skin scrapings and biopsies. The sequence of the cytochrome b gene confirmed the presence of Leishmania guyanensis The patient was treated but failed to respond to meglumine antimoniate and amphotericin B...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193740/development-of-delayed-hemolytic-anemia-after-treatment-with-oral-artemether-lumefantrine-in-two-patients-with-severe-falciparum-malaria
#13
Yasuhiro Tsuchido, Fukumi Nakamura-Uchiyama, Kasumi Toyoda, Moritoshi Iwagami, Kentaro Tochitani, Koh Shinohara, Naokuni Hishiya, Taku Ogawa, Kenji Uno, Kei Kasahara, Yukiteru Ouji, Shigeyuki Kano, Keiichi Mikasa, Tsunehiro Shimizu, Masahide Yoshikawa, Haruhiko Maruyama
Recently, reports of delayed hemolytic anemia after treatment with artemisinin and its derivatives have emerged. Here we report two cases of delayed hemolytic anemia in a patient with severe falciparum malaria after treatment with oral artemether-lumefantrine (AL). The first patient, a 20-year-old Japanese male student, was diagnosed with falciparum malaria and was administered AL. As having a high parasitemia rate (20.6%) was the only severe malaria criterion met in this case and his general condition was stable, we continued with AL treatment...
February 13, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167603/at-home-with-mastomys-and-rattus-human-rodent-interactions-and-potential-for-primary-transmission-of-lassa-virus-in-domestic-spaces
#14
Jesse Bonwitt, Almudena Mari Sáez, Joseph Lamin, Rashid Ansumana, Michael Dawson, Jacob Buanie, Joyce Lamin, Diana Sondufu, Matthias Borchert, Foday Sahr, Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet, Hannah Brown
The multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis) is the reservoir for Lassa virus (LASV). Zoonotic transmission occurs when humans are directly or indirectly exposed to fluids of the multimammate mouse, such as urine, saliva, and blood. Housing characteristics and domestic organization affect rodent density in and around households and villages, and are likely to be a risk factor for Lassa fever in humans where the reservoir exists. We use semi-structured interviews (N = 51), a quantitative survey (N = 429), direct observations, and a rodent ecology study to provide new insights into how the organization of domestic spaces brings together humans and rodents and creates pathways for infection in rural settlements in Bo District, Sierra Leone...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167602/case-case-analysis-using-7-years-of-travelers-diarrhea-surveillance-data-preventive-and-travel-medicine-applications-in-cusco-peru
#15
Mary Carol Jennings, Drake H Tilley, Sarah-Blythe Ballard, Miguel Villanueva, Fernando Maldonado Costa, Martha Lopez, Hannah E Steinberg, C Giannina Luna, Rina Meza, Maria E Silva, Robert H Gilman, Mark P Simons, Ryan C Maves, Miguel M Cabada
In Cusco, Peru, and South America in general, there is a dearth of travelers' diarrhea (TD) data concerning the clinical features associated with enteropathogen-specific infections and destination-specific risk behaviors. Understanding these factors would allow travel medicine providers to tailor interventions to patients' risk profiles and travel destination. To characterize TD etiology, evaluate region-specific TD risk factors, and examine relationships between preventive recommendations and risk-taking behaviors among medium- to long-term travelers' from high-income countries, we conducted this case-case analysis using 7 years of prospective surveillance data from adult travelers' presenting with TD to a physician in Cusco...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167601/imported-dengue-infection-in-a-spanish-hospital-with-a-high-proportion-of-travelers-from-africa-a-9-year-retrospective-study
#16
Carlos Toro, Patricia Trevisi, Beatriz López-Quintana, Aránzazu Amor, Nuria Iglesias, Mercedes Subirats, Concepción Ladrón de Guevara, Mar Lago, Marta Arsuaga, Fernando de la Calle-Prieto, Dolores Herrero, Margarita Rubio, Sabino Puente, Margarita Baquero
Epidemiological data on dengue in Africa are still scarce. We investigated imported dengue infection among travelers with a high proportion of subjects from Africa over a 9-year period. From January 2005 to December 2013, blood samples from travelers with clinical suspicion of dengue were analyzed. Dengue was diagnosed using serological, antigen detection, and molecular methods. Subjects were classified according to birthplace (Europeans versus non-Europeans) and last country visited. Overall, 10,307 serum samples corresponding to 8,295 patients were studied; 62% were European travelers, most of them from Spain, and 35...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167600/schistosomiasis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-men-in-tanzania
#17
Jennifer A Downs, Claudia J de Dood, Hannah E Dee, Megan McGeehan, Hijab Khan, Abena Marenga, Patrick E Adel, Edward Faustine, Benson Issarow, Emmanuel F Kisanga, Godfrey Alfred Kisigo, Salvius Ngahyolerwa, Frank Zahoro, Donald Miyaye, Ruth Gideon Magawa, Julius Mngara, Myung Hee Lee, Paul L A M Corstjens, Govert J van Dam, Daniel W Fitzgerald
Schistosomiasis is a parasitic worm infection that affects over 260 million individuals worldwide. Women with schistosome infections have been demonstrated to have a 4-fold increase in the odds of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection compared with women without schistosome infections. A relationship between schistosome and HIV infections has not been clearly defined in men. Among 674 men aged 18-50 years living in rural Tanzania, we identified 429 (63.6%) who had a schistosome infection as defined by serum positivity for schistosome circulating anodic antigen, visualization of parasite eggs in urine or stool, or both...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167599/genotypic-distribution-of-rotavirus-in-phnom-penh-cambodia-an-association-of-g9-with-more-severe-diseases
#18
Sasikorn Silapong, Pimmada Sakpaisal, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Paphavee Lertsethtakarn, Orntipa Sethabutr, Ket Vansith, Chhour Y Meng, Brett E Swierczewski, Carl J Mason
Rotavirus causes significant morbidity and mortality among children worldwide. Stool samples from a previous hospital-based surveillance study to detect diarrhea etiology at the National Pediatric Hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, by Meng and others in 2011 were tested for rotavirus by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting vp6 gene and characterized for G- and P-genotypes of positive samples based on vp7 and vp4 genes, respectively. Rotavirus was detected in 159/531 (30%) of children with diarrhea and none was detected in 287 nondiarrhea controls...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167598/in-vitro-sensitivity-of-cutaneous-leishmania-promastigote-isolates-circulating-in-french-guiana-to-a-set-of-drugs
#19
Marine Ginouvès, Stéphane Simon, Mathieu Nacher, Magalie Demar, Bernard Carme, Pierre Couppié, Ghislaine Prévot
Anti-leishmaniasis drug resistance is a common problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to inventory the general in vitro level of sensitivity of Leishmania isolates circulating in French Guiana and to highlight potential in vitro pentamidine-resistant isolates. This sensitivity study was conducted on 36 patient-promastigote isolates for seven drugs (amphotericin B, azithromycin, fluconazole, meglumine antimoniate, miltefosine, paromomycin, and pentamidine) using the Cell Counting Kit-8 viability test. The IC50 values obtained were heterogeneous...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167597/epidemiology-of-soil-transmitted-helminth-and-intestinal-protozoan-infections-in-preschool-aged-children-in-the-amhara-region-of-ethiopia
#20
Kristen Aiemjoy, Sintayehu Gebresillasie, Nicole E Stoller, Ayalew Shiferaw, Zerihun Tadesse, Melsew Chanyalew, Solomon Aragie, Kelly Callahan, Jeremy D Keenan
Intestinal parasites are important contributors to global morbidity and mortality and are the second most common cause of outpatient morbidity in Ethiopia. This cross-sectional survey describes the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa in preschool children 0-5 years of age in seven communities in the Amhara region of Ethiopia, and investigates associations between infection, household water and sanitation characteristics, and child growth. Stool samples were collected from children 0-5 years of age, 1 g of sample was preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and examined for intestinal helminth eggs and protozoa cysts ether-concentration method...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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