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American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916346/erratum
#1
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 18, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29916342/a-pilot-study-to-assess-safety-and-feasibility-of-intrathecal-immunoglobulin-for-the-treatment-of-adults-with-tetanus
#2
Huynh Thi Loan, Lam Minh Yen, Evelyne Kestelyn, Nguyen Van Hao, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Duong Bich Thuy, Ha Thi Hai Duong, Nguyen Thi Phuong Dung, Nguyen Hoan Phu, Pham Thi Lieu, Tran Tan Thanh, Ronald Geskus, H Rogier van Doorn, Le Van Tan, Duncan Wyncoll, Nicholas P J Day, Tran Tinh Hien, Guy E Thwaites, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, C Louise Thwaites
Tetanus remains a significant burden in many low- and middle-income countries. The tetanus toxin acts within the central nervous system and intrathecal antitoxin administration may be beneficial, but there are safety concerns, especially in resource-limited settings. We performed a pilot study to assess the safety and feasibility of intrathecal human tetanus immunoglobulin in five adults with tetanus before the conduct of a large randomized controlled trial. Intrathecal injection via lumbar puncture was given to all patients within a median 140 (range 100-165) minutes of intensive care unit (ICU) admission...
June 18, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893206/an-evolving-choice-in-a-diverse-water-market-a-quality-comparison-of-sachet-water-with-community-and-household-water-sources-in-ghana
#3
Danice Guzmán, Justin Stoler
Packaged water, particularly bagged sachet water, has become an important drinking water source in West Africa as local governments struggle to provide safe drinking water supplies. In Ghana, sachet water has become an important primary water source in urban centers, and a growing literature has explored various dimensions of this industry, including product quality. There is very little data on sachet water quality outside of large urban centers, where smaller markets often mean less producer competition and less government regulation...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893205/effective-population-size-differences-in-calomys-musculinus-the-host-of-jun%C3%A3-n-virus-its-relationship-with-the-epidemiological-history-of-argentine-hemorrhagic-fever
#4
Marina B Chiappero, María Florencia Piacenza, María Cecilia Provensal, Gladys E Calderón, Cristina N Gardenal, Jaime J Polop
Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) is a serious endemic disease in Argentina, produced by Junín virus, whose host is the Sigmodontinae rodent Calomys musculinus . Within the endemic area, human incidence and proportion of infected rodents remains high for 5-10 years after the first appearance of the disease (epidemic [E] zone) and then gradually declines to sporadic cases (historic [H] zone). We tested the hypothesis that host populations within the E zone are large and well connected by gene flow, facilitating the transmission and maintenance of the virus, whereas those in the H and nonendemic (NE) zones are small and isolated, with the opposite effect...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893204/acceptability-and-feasibility-of-sharing-a-soapy-water-system-for-handwashing-in-a-low-income-urban-community-in-dhaka-bangladesh-a-qualitative-study
#5
Farhana Sultana, Leanne E Unicomb, Fosiul A Nizame, Notan Chandra Dutta, Pavani K Ram, Stephen P Luby, Peter J Winch
Handwashing with soap at key times is an effective means of reducing pathogen transmission. In a low-income community in urban Dhaka, we piloted and evaluated the acceptability and feasibility of a shared handwashing intervention. This included promotion by community health promoters of a homemade solution of detergent powder mixed with water and stored in a 1.5-L reclaimed mineral water bottle. Community health promoters encouraged sharing of the recurrent detergent cost among compound members. Of 152 participating compounds, fieldworkers randomly selected 60 for qualitative assessment...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893203/malaria-elimination-lessons-from-el-salvador
#6
Adam Bennett, Jennifer L Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893202/carotid-taenia-solium-oncosphere-infection-a-novel-porcine-neurocysticercosis-model
#7
Karen A Alroy, Gianfranco Arroyo, Robert H Gilman, Eloy Gonzales-Gustavson, Linda Gallegos, Cesar M Gavidia, Manuela Verastegui, Silvia Rodriguez, Teresa Lopez, Luis A Gomez-Puerta, Joseph Alroy, Hector H Garcia, Armando E Gonzalez, For The Cysticercosis Working Group In Peru
Neurocysticercosis (NCC), the infection of the human central nervous system (CNS) with larval cysts of Taenia solium causes widespread neurological morbidity. Animal models are crucial for studying the pathophysiology and treatment of NCC. Some drawbacks of current NCC models include differences in the pathogenesis of the model and wild-type parasite, low rates of infection efficiency and lack of reproducibility. We describe a novel porcine model that recreates infection in the CNS with high efficiency. Activated oncospheres, either in a high (45,000-50,000) or low (10,000) dose were inoculated in the common carotid artery of 12 pigs by ultrasound-guided catheterization...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893201/association-of-fecal-markers-of-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-with-zinc-and-iron-status-among-children-at-first-two-years-of-life-in-bangladesh
#8
Shah Mohammad Fahim, Subhasish Das, Kazi Istiaque Sanin, Md Amran Gazi, Mustafa Mahfuz, M Munirul Islam, Tahmeed Ahmed
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) causes gut inflammation and increased intestinal permeability leading to deficiencies in micronutrients such as zinc and iron. Fecal markers such as myeloperoxidase (MPO), neopterin (NEO), and alpha-1-anti-trypsin (AAT) can predict EED. The aim of this study was to examine the association between fecal markers of EED with zinc and iron status among children at first 2 years of life. Malnutrition and Enteric Disease Study Bangladeshi birth cohort data were used to conduct this analysis...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893200/retinal-parameters-as-compared-with-head-circumference-height-weight-and-body-mass-index-in-children-in-kenya-and-bhutan
#9
Sara J Grundy, Lhab Tshering, Stanley W Wanjala, Megan B Diamond, Martin S Audi, Sashank Prasad, Russell T Shinohara, Debora Rogo, Dechen Wangmo, Ugyen Wangdi, Abi Aarayang, Thukten Tshering, Thomas F Burke, Farrah J Mateen
The retina shares embryological derivation with the brain and may provide a new measurement of overall growth status, especially useful in resource-limited settings. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides detailed quantification of retinal structures. We enrolled community-dwelling children ages 3-11 years old in Siaya, Kenya and Thimphu, Bhutan in 2016. We measured head circumference (age < 5 years only), height, and weight, and standardized these by age and gender. Research staff performed OCT ( iScan ; Optovue, Inc...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893199/genetic-characterization-of-the-patois-serogroup-genus-orthobunyavirus-family-peribunyaviridae-and-evidence-that-estero-real-virus-is-a-member-of-the-genus-orthonairovirus
#10
Patricia V Aguilar, William Marciel de Souza, Jesus A Silvas, Thomas Wood, Steven Widen, Marcílio Jorge Fumagalli, Márcio Roberto Teixeira Nunes
Estero Real virus (ERV) was isolated in 1980 from Ornithodoros tadaridae ticks collected in El Estero Real, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba. Antigenic characterization of the isolate based on serological methods found a relationship with Abras and Zegla viruses and, consequently, the virus was classified taxonomically within the Patois serogroup. Given the fact that genetic characterization of Patois serogroup viruses has not yet been reported and that ERV is the only virus within the Patois serogroup isolated from ticks, we recently conducted nearly complete genome sequencing in an attempt to gain further insight into the genetic relationship of ERV with other Patois serogroup viruses and members of Peribunyaviridae family ( Bunyavirales order)...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893198/utilization-and-clinical-value-of-diagnostic-modalities-for-tuberculosis-in-a-high-hiv-prevalence-setting
#11
Stephanie Gati, Rhoda Chetty, Douglas Wilson, Jacqueline M Achkar
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major risk factor for the development of active tuberculosis (TB), one of the deadliest infectious diseases globally. The high mortality associated with the disease can be reduced by early diagnosis and prompt antituberculous treatment initiation. Facilities in TB-endemic regions are increasing the use of nucleic acid amplification (e.g., GeneXpert), which provides rapid results but may have suboptimal sensitivity in HIV-associated TB. Our objective was to evaluate the current practices for TB diagnosis at Edendale Hospital, a large regional hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa-a TB-endemic region with high HIV prevalence...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893197/-schistosoma-mansoni-mass-drug-administration-regimens-and-their-effect-on-morbidity-among-schoolchildren-over-a-5-year-period-kenya-2010-2015
#12
Anita D Sircar, Pauline N M Mwinzi, Isaac O Onkanga, Ryan E Wiegand, Susan P Montgomery, W Evan Secor
Schistosomiasis control programs are designed to reduce morbidity by providing mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel to at-risk populations. We compared morbidity markers between two cohorts of Kenyan schoolchildren that initially had high prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections. One cohort ( N = 416 at year 1) received four rounds of annual MDA in a community-wide treatment (CWT) strategy. The other cohort ( N = 386 at year 1) received school-based treatment (SBT) every other year over the 4-year period...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893196/toward-point-of-care-drug-quality-assurance-in-developing-countries-comparison-of-liquid-chromatography-and-infrared-spectroscopy-quantitation-of-a-small-scale-random-sample-of-amoxicillin
#13
Norah Alotaibi, Sean Overton, Sharon Curtis, Jason W Nickerson, Amir Attaran, Sheldon Gilmer, Paul M Mayer
Substandard antibiotics are thought to be a major threat to public health in developing countries and a cause of antimicrobial resistance. However, assessing quality outside of a laboratory setting, using simple equipment, is challenging. The aim of this study was to validate the use of a portable Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer for the identification of substandard antibiotics. Results are presented for amoxicillin packages from Haiti, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Democratic Republic of Congo, India, Papua New Guinea, and Ethiopia collected over the course of 6 months in 2017, including two field trips with the FT-IR to Ghana and Sierra Leone...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873294/erratum
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 4, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869610/differential-effects-of-temperature-and-mosquito-genetics-determine-transmissibility-of-arboviruses-by-aedes-aegypti-in-argentina
#15
Alexander T Ciota, Pamela A Chin, Dylan J Ehrbar, Maria Victoria Micieli, Dina M Fonseca, Laura D Kramer
Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) have a global distribution and are the primary vector of a number of mosquito-borne viruses responsible for epidemics throughout the Americas. As in much of South America, the threat from pathogens including dengue virus (DENV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus ) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV; Togaviridae, Alphavirus ) has increased in Argentina in recent years. The complexity of transmission cycles makes predicting the occurrence and intensity of arbovirus outbreaks difficult...
June 4, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869609/case-report-mucosal-leishmaniasis-presenting-with-nasal-septum-perforation-after-almost-thirty-years
#16
Jesùs Rojas-Jaimes, Helena L Frischtak, Jose Arenas, Andres G Lescano
Mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) is associated with progressive tissue destruction and granuloma formation, often after a considerable period of latency from an initial cutaneous infection. We report a case of recurrent epistaxis of 3 years duration and nasopharyngeal obstruction in a woman with treated cutaneous leishmaniasis nearly 30 years before and with no further exposure to Leishmania. Computed tomography revealed nasal septal perforation and histopathology demonstrated chronic inflammation. Microscopy was negative for amastigotes, but molecular testing of nasal mucosa biopsy detected Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis ...
June 4, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869608/dracunculiasis-eradication-are-we-there-yet
#17
Donald R Hopkins, Ernesto Ruiz-Tiben, Mark L Eberhard, Adam Weiss, P Craig Withers, Sharon L Roy, Dean G Sienko
This report summarizes the status of the global Dracunculiasis Eradication Program as of the end of 2017. Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease) has been eliminated from 19 of 21 countries where it was endemic in 1986, when an estimated 3.5 million cases occurred worldwide. Only Chad and Ethiopia reported cases in humans, 15 each, in 2017. Infections of animals, mostly domestic dogs, with Dracunculus medinensis were reported in those two countries and also in Mali. Insecurity and infections in animals are the two main obstacles remaining to interrupting dracunculiasis transmission completely...
June 4, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869607/rickettsial-infections-among-cats-and-cat-fleas-in-riverside-county-california
#18
Kristin E Mullins, Alice N Maina, Laura Krueger, Ju Jiang, Robert Cummings, Allan Drusys, Greg Williams, Major Dhillon, Allen L Richards
Presently, few studies have investigated the role of domestic cats ( Felis catus ) in the recrudescence of flea-borne rickettsioses in California and the southern United States. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of Rickettsia typhi or Rickettisa felis in domestic cats ( F. catus ) and the fleas (primarily Ctenocephalides felis , the cat flea) associated with these cats in Riverside County, California. Thirty cats and 64 pools of fleas collected from these cats were investigated for rickettsial infections...
June 4, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869606/using-reference-quantitative-polymerase-chain-reaction-to-assess-the-clinical-performance-of-the-paracheck-pf-%C3%A2-rapid-diagnostic-test-in-a-field-setting-in-uganda
#19
Catherine J Mitran, Anthony K Mbonye, Michael Hawkes, Stephanie K Yanow
Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are widely used in clinical and surveillance settings. However, the performance of most RDTs has not been characterized at parasite densities below detection by microscopy. We present findings from Uganda, where RDT results from 491 participants with suspected malaria were correlated with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-defined parasitemia. Compared with qPCR, the sensitivity and specificity of the RDT for Plasmodium falciparum mono-infections were 76% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 68-83%) and 95% (95% CI: 92-97%), respectively...
June 4, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869605/prevalence-of-and-factors-associated-with-negative-microscopic-diagnosis-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-rural-peru
#20
Ryan Lamm, Clark Alves, Grace Perrotta, Meagan Murphy, Catherine Messina, Juan F Sanchez, Erika Perez, Luis Angel Rosales, Andres G Lescano, Edward Smith, Hugo Valdivia, Jack Fuhrer, Sarah-Blythe Ballard
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic to South America where diagnosis is most commonly conducted via microscopy. Patients with suspected leishmaniasis were referred for enrollment by the Ministry of Health (MoH) in Lima, Iquitos, Puerto Maldonado, and several rural areas of Peru. A 43-question survey requesting age, gender, occupation, characterization of the lesion(s), history of leishmaniasis, and insect-deterrent behaviors was administered. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted on lesion materials at the Naval Medical Research Unit No...
June 4, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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