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American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231157/plant-produced-subunit-vaccine-candidates-against-yellow-fever-induce-virus-neutralizing-antibodies-and-confer-protection-against-viral-challenge-in-animal-models
#1
Stephen Tottey, Yoko Shoji, R Mark Jones, Jessica A Chichester, Brian J Green, Konstantin Musiychuk, Huaxin Si, Slobodanka Manceva, Amy Rhee, Moneim Shamloul, Joey Norikane, Rosane C Guimarães, Elena Caride, Andrea N M R Silva, Marisol Simões, Patricia C C Neves, Renato Marchevsky, Marcos S Freire, Stephen J Streatfield, Vidadi Yusibov
Yellow fever (YF) is a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes and endemic mostly in South America and Africa with 20-50% fatality. All current licensed YF vaccines, including YF-Vax® (Sanofi-Pasteur, France) and 17DD-YFV (Bio-Manguinhos, Brazil), are based on live attenuated virus produced in hens' eggs and have been widely used. The YF vaccines are considered safe and highly effective. However, a recent increase in demand for YF vaccines and reports of rare cases of YF vaccine-associated fatal adverse events have provoked interest in developing a safer YF vaccine that can be easily scaled up to meet this increased global demand...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231154/enteropathogens-and-gut-inflammation-in-asymptomatic-infants-and-children-in-different-environments-in-southern-india
#2
Ira Praharaj, R Revathy, Rini Bandyopadhyay, Blossom Benny, Mohammad Azharuddin Ko, Jie Liu, Eric R Houpt, Gagandeep Kang
Children in poor environmental conditions are exposed early and often to enteric pathogens, but within developing countries, heterogeneity in enteropathogen exposure in different settings and communities is rarely addressed. We tested fecal samples from healthy infants and children from two different environments in the same Indian town for gut enteropathogens and biomarkers of gut inflammation. A significantly higher proportion of infants and children from a poor semi-urban neighborhood (93%) had one or more enteropathogens than those from a medical college campus (71...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231152/risk-factors-for-human-brucellosis-in-northern-tanzania
#3
Shama Cash-Goldwasser, Michael J Maze, Matthew P Rubach, Holly M Biggs, Robyn A Stoddard, Katrina J Sharples, Jo E B Halliday, Sarah Cleaveland, Michael C Shand, Blandina T Mmbaga, Charles Muiruri, Wilbrod Saganda, Bingileki F Lwezaula, Rudovick R Kazwala, Venance P Maro, John A Crump
Little is known about the epidemiology of human brucellosis in sub-Saharan Africa. This hampers prevention and control efforts at the individual and population levels. To evaluate risk factors for brucellosis in northern Tanzania, we conducted a study of patients presenting with fever to two hospitals in Moshi, Tanzania. Serum taken at enrollment and at 4-6 week follow-up was tested by Brucella microagglutination test. Among participants with a clinically compatible illness, confirmed brucellosis cases were defined as having a ≥ 4-fold rise in agglutination titer between paired sera or a blood culture positive for Brucella spp...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210355/neuroangiostrongyliasis-the-subarachnoid-phase-and-its-implications-for-anthelminthic-therapy
#4
Paul Prociv, Megan Turner
Infection with the Rat Lungworm Angiostrongylus cantonensis is the leading cause of human eosinophilic meningoencephalitis worldwide. From its origins in southeastern Asia, the parasite was spread extensively throughout the twentieth century and is now established in many of the world's warmer regions. Its clinical effects range from mild and transient symptoms, usually headache with peripheral nerve dysfunction, to severe and permanent central nervous system (CNS) damage, occasionally fatal. The severity and prognosis of disease are determined by the larval dose, acquired by ingesting infected intermediate hosts (slugs and snails) or, less often, paratenic hosts, such as crabs, shrimps, frogs, and monitor lizards...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210354/neurocysticercosis-among-people-living-nearby-pigs-heavily-infected-with-cysticercosis-in-rural-endemic-peru
#5
Brian T Garvey, Luz M Moyano, Viterbo Ayvar, Silvia Rodriguez, Robert H Gilman, Armando E Gonzalez, Hector H Garcia, Seth E O'Neal, For The Cysticercosis Working Group In Peru
Neurocysticercosis causes substantial neurologic morbidity in endemic regions around the world. In this cross-sectional study, we describe the frequency of neurocysticercosis among a presumed high-risk group of people in an endemic community in northern Peru. Participants who screened positive on a nine-question seizure survey were evaluated clinically to diagnose epilepsy using International League Against Epilepsy criteria. Those with epilepsy were offered a noncontrast computerized tomography (CT) of the head...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210353/genetic-clustering-of-tuberculosis-in-an-indigenous-community-of-brazil
#6
Flávia Patussi Correia Sacchi, Mariana Bento Tatara, Camila Camioli de Lima, Liliane Ferreia da Silva, Eunice Atsuko Cunha, Vera Simonsen, Lucilaine Ferrazoli, Harrison Magdinier Gomes, Sidra Ezidio Gonçalves Vasconcellos, Philip Noel Suffys, Jason R Andrews, Julio Croda
We conducted a population-based study of tuberculosis (TB) from 2009 to 2015 in an indigenous community of Brazil, the largest in the country, to investigate risk factors associated with recent TB transmission. The clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were genotyped by IS6110-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and spoligotyping analysis. Among 67 isolates typed by RFLP, 69% fell into fifteen clusters, and 91% of TB cases with shared IS6110-RFLP pattern were diagnosed within 2 years of another case in the cluster...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210352/congenital-transmission-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-in-argentina-honduras-and-mexico-an-observational-prospective-study
#7
Pierre Buekens, Maria-Luisa Cafferata, Jackeline Alger, Fernando Althabe, Jose M Belizan, Norma Bustamante, Yves Carlier, Alvaro Ciganda, Jaime H DelCid, Eric Dumonteil, Rubi Gamboa-León, Jorge A García, Luz Gibbons, Olga Graiff, Jesus Gurubel Maldonado, Claudia Herrera, Elizabeth Howard, Laura Susana Lara, Benjamín López, Maria Luisa Matute, María Jesús Ramírez-Sierra, María Cecilia Robles, Sergio Sosa-Estani, Carine Truyens, Christian Valladares, Dawn M Wesson, Concepcion Zuniga, For The Congenital Chagas Working Group
Compared with South America, there is a lack of epidemiologic studies about the risk of congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Central America and Mexico. It has been suggested that T. cruzi genotypes might differ by region and that congenital transmission might vary according to the parasite's genotype. Our objective was to compare T. cruzi congenital transmission rates in three countries. We performed an observational prospective study in 2011-2014 enrolling women at delivery in one hospital in Argentina, two hospitals in Honduras, and two hospitals in Mexico...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210351/seasonal-dynamics-of-malaria-in-pregnancy-in-west-africa-evidence-for-carriage-of-infections-acquired-before-pregnancy-until-first-contact-with-antenatal-care
#8
Isha Berry, Patrick Walker, Harry Tagbor, Kalifa Bojang, Sheick Oumar Coulibaly, Kassoum Kayentao, John Williams, Abraham Oduro, Paul Milligan, Daniel Chandramohan, Brian Greenwood, Matthew Cairns
In malaria-endemic areas, Plasmodium falciparum prevalence is often high in young women because of 1) low use of insecticide-treated nets before their first pregnancy and 2) acquired immunity, meaning infections are asymptomatic and thus untreated. Consequently, a common source of malaria in pregnancy (MiP) may be infected women becoming pregnant, rather than pregnant women becoming infected. In this study, prevalence of infection was determined by microscopy at first antenatal care (ANC) visit in primigravidae and secundigravidae in Ghana, Burkina Faso, Mali, and The Gambia, four countries with strong seasonal variations in transmission...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210350/rotavirus-vaccine-will-improve-child-survival-by-more-than-just-preventing-diarrhea-evidence-from-bangladesh
#9
Senjuti Saha, Mathuram Santosham, Manzoor Hussain, Robert E Black, Samir K Saha
Despite the high burden of rotavirus diarrhea, uptake of rotavirus vaccines in Asia remains low. This primarily stems from a perception of rotavirus as a non-life-threatening pathogen amidst a background of competing health priorities and limited resources. In the largest pediatric hospital of Bangladesh, where there is a fierce competition for beds, we found that between November 2015 and October 2016, 12% of 23,064 admissions were due to gastrointestinal infections, 54% of which were caused by rotavirus. One in four cases requiring hospitalization, or 5,879 cases, was refused because of unavailability of beds...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210349/high-prevalence-of-shigella-or-enteroinvasive-escherichia-coli-carriage-among-residents-of-an-internally-displaced-persons-camp-in-south-sudan
#10
Jesse Bliss, Malika Bouhenia, Peter Hale, Brianne A Couturier, Anita S Iyer, John Rumunu, Stephen Martin, Joseph F Wamala, Abdinasir Abubakar, David A Sack, Francisco J Luquero, Marc Roger Couturier, Andrew S Azman, Daniel T Leung
Displaced persons living in camps are at an increased risk of diarrheal diseases. Subclinical carriage of pathogens may contribute to the spread of disease, especially for microbes that require a low infectious dose. Multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect a panel of 20 bacterial, viral, and protozoal targets, and we report a high prevalence of enteropathogen carriage, including Shigella spp. or enteroinvasive Escherichia coli in 14%, among a sample of 88 asymptomatic individuals in an internally displaced persons camp in South Sudan...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210348/mediating-effect-of-repeated-tuberculosis-exposure-on-the-risk-of-transmission-to-household-contacts-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients
#11
Peng Lu, Xiaoyan Ding, Qiao Liu, Wei Lu, Leonardo Martinez, Jiansheng Sun, Feng Lu, Chongqiao Zhong, Hui Jiang, Changdong Miao, Limei Zhu, Haitao Yang
Primary Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission is an important driver of the global epidemic of resistance to tuberculosis drugs. A few studies have compared tuberculosis infection in contacts of index cases with different drug-resistant profiles, suggesting that contacts of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis cases are at higher risk. Repeated tuberculosis exposure in contacts of MDR tuberculosis patients through recurrent tuberculosis may modify this relationship. We compared tuberculosis infection in household contacts of MDR and drug-susceptible (DS) tuberculosis patients from six cities in southeastern China and investigated whether repeated tuberculosis exposure was a mediating factor...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210347/visceral-leishmaniasis-and-hiv-co-infection-in-northwest-ethiopia-antiretroviral-treatment-and-burden-of-disease-among-patients-enrolled-in-hiv-care
#12
Johan van Griensven, Tesfa Simegn, Mengistu Endris, Ermias Diro
The approach to treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-HIV co-infection in East Africa has not been systematically examined. Although antiretroviral treatment (ART) should be initiated for all co-infected persons, the extent of ART prescription is not known. We conducted a retrospective cohort study including all VL-HIV co-infected adults at selected referral and district hospitals in northwest Ethiopia from 2010 to 2015. Purposes of the study were to compare the proportion of VL diagnoses made in previously diagnosed HIV-patients versus diagnosis concurrent with HIV diagnosis and to quantify utilization of ART...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210346/serious-neurological-adverse-events-after-ivermectin-do-they-occur-beyond-the-indication-of-onchocerciasis
#13
Rebecca E Chandler
Serious neurological adverse events have been reported from large scale community-based ivermectin treatment campaigns against Onchocerciasis volvulus in Africa. The mechanism of these events has been debated in the literature, largely focusing on the role of concomitant infection with Loa loa versus the presence of mdr-1 gene variants in humans allowing ivermectin penetration into the central nervous system. A case series of serious neurological adverse events occurring with the use of ivermectin outside of the onchocerciasis indication has been identified in VigiBase, an international database of suspected adverse drug reactions...
December 4, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182145/experimental-zika-virus-infection-of-neotropical-primates
#14
John A Vanchiere, Julio C Ruiz, Alan G Brady, Thomas J Kuehl, Lawrence E Williams, Wallace B Baze, Gregory K Wilkerson, Pramod N Nehete, Gloria B McClure, Donna L Rogers, Shannan L Rossi, Sasha R Azar, Christopher M Roundy, Scott C Weaver, Nikos Vasilakis, Joe H Simmons, Christian R Abee
The establishment of a sylvatic reservoir of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas is dependent on the susceptibility of primates of sufficient population density, the duration and magnitude of viremia, and their exposure to the human mosquito-borne transmission cycle. To assess the susceptibility of squirrel (Saimiri sp.) and owl monkeys (Aotus sp.) to infection, we inoculated four animals of each species with ZIKV from the current epidemic. Viremia in the absence of detectible disease was observed in both species and seroconversion occurred by day 28...
November 27, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182144/chikungunya-virus-disease-among-travelers-united-states-2014-2016
#15
Nicole P Lindsey, J Erin Staples, Marc Fischer
Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes an acute febrile illness with severe polyarthralgia. The first local transmission of chikungunya virus in the Western Hemisphere was reported in December 2013. In the following year, the virus spread throughout much of the Americas and the number of cases among travelers increased substantially. We reviewed the epidemiology of chikungunya virus disease cases reported among U.S. travelers from 2014 to 2016. A total of 3,941 travel-acquired cases were reported from 49 states and the District of Columbia; 3,616 (92%) reported travel to other countries or territories in the Americas; the remaining 8% reported travel to Asia, Africa, or the Western Pacific...
November 27, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182143/joint-modeling-of-mixed-plasmodium-species-infections-using-a-bivariate-poisson-lognormal-model
#16
Kathryn L Colborn, Ivo Mueller, Terence P Speed
Infectious diseases often present as coinfections that may affect each other in positive or negative ways. Understanding the relationship between two coinfecting pathogens is thus important to understand the risk of infection and burden of disease caused by each pathogen. Although coinfections with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are very common outside Africa, it is yet unclear whether infections by the two parasite species are positively associated or if infection by one parasite suppresses the other...
November 27, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165234/blood-meal-analysis-of-phlebotomine-sandflies-diptera-psychodidae-phlebotominae-for-leishmania-spp-identification-and-vertebrate-blood-origin-central-tunisia-2015-2016
#17
Kaouther Jaouadi, Jihene Bettaieb, Amira Bennour, Sadok Salem, Wissem Ghawar, Mohamed Ridha Rjeibi, Neila Khabouchi, Jean-Paul Gonzalez, Mohamed Fethi Diouani, Afif Ben Salah
During the time periods of June 2015 and from July to August 2016, sandflies were collected among seven collection sites of the three leishmaniasis endemic villages of Sidi Bouzid, Tunisia. A total of 690 sandflies were captured and identified (380 males and 310 females). Four species belonging to genus Phlebotomus (Ph.) and two species belonging to genus Sergentomyia were identified. Leishmania DNA was detected in four out of 310 females (one Ph. sergenti and three Ph. papatasi). The overall sensitivity of the the Prepronociceptin gene detection reached 76%...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165231/sequence-optimized-real-time-reverse-transcription-polymerase-chain-reaction-assay-for-detection-of-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-virus
#18
Jeffrey W Koehler, Korey L Delp, Adrienne T Hall, Scott P Olschner, Brian J Kearney, Aura R Garrison, Louis A Altamura, Cynthia A Rossi, Timothy D Minogue
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus of the genus Nairovirus within the family Bunyaviridae. Infection can result in general myalgia, fever, and headache with some patients developing hemorrhagic fever with mortality rates ranging from 5% to 30%. CCHFV has a wide geographic range that includes Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Europe with nucleotide sequence variation approaching 20% across the three negative-sense RNA genome segments. While phylogenetic clustering generally aligns with geographic origin of individual strains, distribution can be wide due to tick/CCHFV dispersion via migrating birds...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165228/case-report-histoplasmosis-first-autochthonous-case-from-israel
#19
Adi Elias, Khaldun Abu Saleh, Nabil Faranesh, Raid Dalal, Yuval Geffen, Yael Fisher, Ami Neuberger, Suleiman Zaaroura
We present an autochthonous Histoplasma infection in Israel. The patient presented with hoarseness and weight loss. Pathology findings and molecular tests confirmed the diagnosis, and the patient responded to antifungal therapy. Because the patient had an atypical presentation of histoplasmosis, it is likely that other more typical cases have gone unreported. To our knowledge, no other cases have been previously reported from Israel or the Middle East region.
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165227/reflections-on-a-community-engagement-strategy-for-mass-antimalarial-drug-administration-in-cambodia
#20
Thomas J Peto, Rupam Tripura, Chan Davoeung, Chea Nguon, Sanann Nou, Chhouen Heng, Pich Kunthea, Bipin Adhikari, Renly Lim, Nicola James, Christopher Pell, Phaik Yeong Cheah
Mass drug administration (MDA) to interrupt malaria transmission requires the participation of entire communities. As part of a clinical trial in western Cambodia, four villages received MDA in 2015-2016. Before approaching study communities, a collaboration was established with the local health authorities, village leaders, and village malaria workers. Formative research guided the development of engagement strategies. In each village, a team of volunteers was formed to explain MDA to their neighbors and provide support during implementation...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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