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American Journal of Sports Medicine

Kathryn M Taylor, Marianthi-Anna Kioumourtzoglou, Jim Clover, Brent A Coull, Jack T Dennerlein, David C Bellinger, Marc G Weisskopf
BACKGROUND: The incidence of reported concussions in the adolescent population is increasing, yet research on the effects of concussions in this population is minimal and inconclusive. PURPOSE: To assess the association between concussion and performance on a cognitive test battery. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Using multivariate models, the authors assessed the association between concussion and performance on a cognitive test battery among 5616 high school and junior high school athletes...
September 19, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Nathan E Marshall, Robert A Keller, Orr Limpisvasti, Neal S ElAttrache
BACKGROUND: Ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) reconstruction (UCLR) has shown reliable rates of return to play, with conflicting results on pitching performance after players' return. PURPOSE: To evaluate Major League Baseball (MLB) pitching performance before and after UCLR performed at a single institution. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: MLB pitchers (minor league players were excluded) who underwent UCLR at our institution between 2002 and 2016 were identified...
September 19, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Mark De Ste Croix, Jonathan Hughes, Francisco Ayala, Luke Taylor, Naomi Datson
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of robustness training for high- versus low-risk individuals within high-risk groups is currently unknown. PURPOSE: To explore the efficacy of robustness training on injury risk factors among female youth soccer players and to examine if high-risk athletes are greater responders to such training. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS: A total of 125 elite youth female soccer players on the English FA talent pathway were randomly selected into a training group (n = 71) or a control group (n = 54)...
September 18, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Sergio E Flores, Joseph R Sheridan, Kristina R Borak, Alan L Zhang
BACKGROUND: Hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) has been shown to improve patient outcomes, especially for returning to sport. Although previous studies often evaluated outcomes 2 years after hip arthroscopy, there has been no analysis of the progression of patient improvement over time or with respect to achieving the minimal clinically important difference (MCID). Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate changes in patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores during the first 2 years after hip arthroscopy for FAI and to analyze when the MCID is achieved...
September 18, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Brittany Dowling, Michael P McNally, Walter A Laughlin, James A Onate
BACKGROUND: Elbow injuries among adolescent baseball players have been outpacing those of college and professional players. In attempts to prevent injuries and maximize return-to-play potential following injury, attention has been focused on "return to throw" programs, which include long-toss throws. Because the few studies that were conducted on long-toss throwing focused primarily on college-aged athletes, it is not known what type of load is incurred at the elbow during interval throwing progression among high school baseball players...
September 14, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Yoichi Murata, Soshi Uchida, Hajime Utsunomiya, Akihisa Hatakeyama, Hirotaka Nakashima, Angela Chang, Ichiro Sekiya, Akinori Sakai
BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown the relationship between poorer clinical outcomes of arthroscopic femoroacetabular impingement syndrome surgery and focal chondral defects or global chondromalacia/osteoarthritis. Although recent studies described good outcomes after the conjunctive application of synovial mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), none demonstrated the application of synovial MSCs for cartilaginous hip injuries. PURPOSE: To compare the characteristics of MSCs derived from the paralabral synovium and the cotyloid fossa synovium and determine which is the better source...
September 14, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Glenn S Fleisig, Alek Z Diffendaffer, Brett Ivey, Takanori Oi
BACKGROUND: Pitching injuries continue to be a serious problem, with adolescents now representing the group with the most injuries. Some have proposed that lowering or eliminating the pitching mound in youth baseball may reduce joint stress and subsequent injuries. Another potential risk factor is advancing from youth to adult pitching distance without an intermediate distance. HYPOTHESES: It was hypothesized that for a group of young pitchers, pitching kinetics and kinematics would change with mound height...
September 12, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Philipp Moroder, Fabian Plachel, Johannes Becker, Eva Schulz, Shejla Abdic, Maximilian Haas, Herbert Resch, Alexander Auffarth
BACKGROUND: The implant-free, autologous, iliac crest bone graft procedure (J-bone graft) for the treatment of anterior shoulder instability shows low rates of recurrent dislocations and moderate progression of instability arthropathy in the midterm follow-up. PURPOSE: To analyze the clinical and radiological long-term results of the J-bone graft procedure. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: A total of 46 patients (47 shoulders) with anterior shoulder instability and a relevant bony glenoid defect who received a J-bone graft between 1993 and 2000 and who were previously subjected to a midterm follow-up (mean, 8 years) were included...
September 12, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Flore-Anne Lecoq, Jean-Jacques Parienti, James Murison, Nicolas Ruiz, Khaled Bouacida, Jérémy Besse, Vincent Morin, Giovany Padiolleau, Thomas Cucurulo, Nicolas Graveleau, Christophe Hulet
BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is important to prevent knee osteoarthritis. Neither of the 2 most common graft techniques-the patellar tendon (PT) or hamstring tendon (HS) graft-has demonstrated superiority in terms of the long-term osteoarthritis rate. HYPOTHESIS: Based on the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) radiographic grading system, PT grafts decrease the incidence of osteoarthritis by providing better knee stability as compared with HS grafts over 12 years of follow-up...
September 10, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Manfred Nelitz, Jens Dreyhaupt, Sean Robert March Williams
BACKGROUND: Trochlear dysplasia is the most important risk factor for patellofemoral instability among adolescents; therefore, trochleoplasty to reshape the trochlear groove is the treatment of choice for patients with high-grade trochlear dysplasia. However, in the presence of open growth plates, there is a potential risk of injury to the distal femoral growth plate and subsequent growth disturbance. As such, most authors do not recommend trochleoplasty for skeletally immature patients...
September 10, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Emma Torrance, Ciaran J Clarke, Puneet Monga, Lennard Funk, Michael J Walton
BACKGROUND: Traumatic glenohumeral dislocation of the shoulder is one of the most common shoulder injuries, especially among adolescent athletes. The treatment of instability for young athletes continues to be controversial owing to high recurrence rates. PURPOSE: To investigate the recurrence rate of shoulder instability after arthroscopic capsulolabral repair for adolescent contact and collision athletes. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4...
September 10, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Zili Wang, Xuhui Liu, Michael R Davies, Devante Horne, Hubert Kim, Brian T Feeley
BACKGROUND: Rotator cuff (RC) tears are common tendon injuries seen in orthopaedic patients. Successful repair of large and massive RC tears remains a challenge due to our limited understanding of the pathophysiological features of this injury. Clinically relevant small animal models that can be used to study the pathophysiological response to repair are limited by the lack of chronic repair models. PURPOSE: To develop a highly clinically relevant mouse model of delayed RC repair...
September 10, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Robert A Magnussen, Emily K Reinke, Laura J Huston, Timothy E Hewett, Kurt P Spindler, Annunziato Amendola, Jack T Andrish, Robert H Brophy, Warren R Dunn, David C Flanigan, Morgan H Jones, Christopher C Kaeding, Robert G Marx, Matthew J Matava, Richard D Parker, Armando F Vidal, Michelle L Wolcott, Brian R Wolf, Rick W Wright
BACKGROUND: Knee laxity in the setting of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is often assessed through physical examination using the Lachman, pivot shift, and anterior drawer tests. The degree of laxity noted on these examinations may influence treatment decisions and prognosis. HYPOTHESIS: Increased preoperative knee laxity is associated with increased risk of revision ACL reconstruction, increased risk of contralateral ACL reconstruction, and poorer patient-reported outcomes at 6 years postoperatively...
September 7, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Yuji Yamamoto, Eiichi Tsuda, Shugo Maeda, Takuya Naraoka, Yuka Kimura, Daisuke Chiba, Yasuyuki Ishibashi
BACKGROUND: The presence of pivot shift after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is correlated with worse clinical outcomes. An orthopaedic navigation system is a useful tool for quantifying laxity in the ACL-deficient knee. PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between preoperative knee laxity measured by a navigation system and postoperative pivot shift (PPS) after ACL reconstruction. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3...
September 7, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Christopher Bramah, Stephen J Preece, Niamh Gill, Lee Herrington
BACKGROUND: Previous research has demonstrated clear associations between specific running injuries and patterns of lower limb kinematics. However, there has been minimal research investigating whether the same kinematic patterns could underlie multiple different soft tissue running injuries. If they do, such kinematic patterns could be considered global contributors to running injuries. HYPOTHESIS: Injured runners will demonstrate differences in running kinematics when compared with injury-free controls...
September 7, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Eric J Cotter, Charles P Hannon, David R Christian, Kevin C Wang, Drew A Lansdown, Brian R Waterman, Rachel M Frank, Brian J Cole
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of literature regarding the outcomes of adjacent-plug osteochondral allograft transplantation (OCA) for irregular or ovoid lesions and multifocal OCA for multicompartmental, focal lesions. PURPOSE: To quantify the survival of multiplug OCA for larger, high-grade chondral lesions with the "snowman" technique versus that of multicompartmental or bipolar OCA. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4...
September 4, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Brooke E Patterson, Adam G Culvenor, Christian J Barton, Ali Guermazi, Joshua J Stefanik, Hayden G Morris, Timothy S Whitehead, Kay M Crossley
BACKGROUND: An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is a well-established risk factor for the long-term development of radiographic osteoarthritis (OA). However, little is known about the early degenerative changes (ie, <5 years after injury) of individual joint features (ie, cartilage, bone marrow), which may be reversible and responsive to interventions. PURPOSE: To describe early degenerative changes between 1 and 5 years after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and explore participant characteristics associated with these changes...
September 4, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Stephen A Parada, K Aaron Shaw, Colleen Moreland, Douglas R Adams, Mickey S Chabak, Matthew T Provencher
BACKGROUND: Distal tibial allograft glenoid augmentation has been introduced as a viable treatment approach for glenoid bone loss in conjunction with shoulder instability. No previous study, however, has assessed the morphologic variation of the distal tibia at the incisura as it relates to graft dimensions for glenoid augmentation. Increased concavity at the lateral distal tibia necessitates removal of the lateral cortex to obtain a flat surface, which may have implications for the strength of surgical fixation...
August 31, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Simon Svedman, Robin Juthberg, Gunnar Edman, Paul W Ackermann
BACKGROUND: Patient outcome after an acute Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) continues to be suboptimal and heterogeneous. Thus, prognostic factors are called for to optimize evidence-based ATR treatment protocols; however, the influence of delayed time from injury to surgery (TTS) on patient outcome after ATR remains largely unknown. PURPOSE: To determine whether patient outcomes and adverse events after surgical repair of acute ATR are related to delayed TTS. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3...
August 31, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Anirudh K Gowd, Joseph N Liu, Brandon C Cabarcas, Grant H Garcia, Gregory L Cvetanovich, Matthew T Provencher, Nikhil N Verma
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence to suggest that the amount of glenoid bone loss to indicate bone block procedures may be lower than previously thought, particularly in the presence of a Hill-Sachs defect. PURPOSE: To better establish treatment recommendations for anterior shoulder instability among patients with bipolar bone lesions. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed with PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) guidelines...
August 27, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
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