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American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216736/near-apneic-ventilation-decreases-lung-injury-and-fibroproliferation-in-an-ards-model-with-ecmo
#1
Joaquin Araos, Leyla Alegria, Patricio Garcia, Pablo Cruces, Dagoberto Soto, Benjamín Erranz, Macarena Amthauer, Tatiana Salomon, Tania Medina, Felipe Rodriguez, Pedro Ayala, Gisella R Borzone, Manuel Meneses, Felipe Damiani, Jaime Retamal, Rodrigo Cornejo, Guillermo Bugedo, Alejandro Bruhn
RATIONALE: There is wide variability in mechanical ventilation settings during ECMO in ARDS patients. Although lung rest is recommended to prevent further injury, there is no evidence to support it. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether near-apneic ventilation decreases lung injury in a pig model of ARDS supported with ECMO. METHODS: Pigs (26-36kg; n=24) were anesthetized and connected to mechanical ventilation. In 18 animals lung injury was induced by a double-hit consisting in repeated saline lavages followed by 2 hours of injurious ventilation...
September 14, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216086/amikacin-liposome-inhalation-suspension-for-treatment-refractory-lung-disease-caused-by-mycobacterium-avium-complex-convert-a-prospective-open-label-randomized-study
#2
David E Griffith, Gina Eagle, Rachel Thomson, Timothy R Aksamit, Naoki Hasegawa, Kozo Morimoto, Doreen J Addrizzo-Harris, Anne E O'Donnell, Theodore K Marras, Patrick A Flume, Michael R Loebinger, Lucy Morgan, Luigi R Codecasa, Adam T Hill, Stephen J Ruoss, Jae-Joon Yim, Felix C Ringshausen, Stephen K Field, Julie V Philley, Richard J Wallace, Jakko van Ingen, Chris Coulter, James Nezamis, Kevin L Winthrop
Rationale Improved therapeutic options are needed for patients with treatment-refractory nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease caused by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Objectives To evaluate the efficacy and safety of daily amikacin liposome inhalation suspension (ALIS) added to standard guideline-based therapy (GBT) in patients with refractory MAC lung disease. Methods Adults with amikacin-susceptible MAC lung disease and MAC-positive sputum cultures despite ≥6 months of stable GBT were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive ALIS with GBT (ALIS+GBT) or GBT alone...
September 14, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30216085/prognosticating-outcomes-in-interstitial-lung-disease-by-mediastinal-lymph-node-assessment-an-observational-cohort-study-with-independent-validation
#3
Ayodeji Adegunsoye, Justin M Oldham, Catherine Bonham, Cara Hrusch, Paul Nolan, Wesley Klejch, Shashi Bellam, Uday Mehta, Kiran Thakrar, Janelle Vu Pugashetti, Aliya N Husain, Steven M Montner, Christopher M Straus, Rekha Vij, Anne I Sperling, Imre Noth, Mary E Strek, Jonathan H Chung
RATIONALE: Mediastinal lymph node (MLN) enlargement on chest computed tomography (CT) is prevalent in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and may reflect immunologic activation and subsequent cytokine-mediated immune cell trafficking. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine whether MLN enlargement on chest CT predicts clinical outcomes and circulating cytokine levels in ILD. METHODS: MLN measurements were obtained from chest CT scans of patients with ILD at baseline evaluation over a ten-year period...
September 14, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30215529/life-course-smoking-trajectories-and-risk-of-emphysema-in-middle-age-the-cardia-lung-study
#4
Amanda R Mathew, Surya P Bhatt, Laura A Colangelo, Norrina B Allen, David R Jacobs, Reto Auer, Mark T Dransfield, Brian Hitsman, George R Washko, Ravi Kalhan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212240/an-improved-inhaled-mucolytic-to-treat-airway-muco-obstructive-diseases
#5
Camille Ehre, Zachary L Rushton, Boya Wang, Lauren N Hothem, Cameron B Morrison, Nicholas C Fontana, Matthew R Markovetz, Martial F Delion, Takafumi Kato, Diane Villalon, William R Thelin, Charles R Esther, David B Hill, Barbara R Grubb, Alessandra Livraghi-Butrico, Scott H Donaldson, Richard C Boucher
RATIONALE: Airways obstruction with thick, adherent mucus is a pathophysiologic and clinical feature of muco-obstructive respiratory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF). Mucins, the dominant component of mucus, organize into complex polymeric networks via the formation of covalent disulfide bonds, which govern the viscoelastic properties of the mucus gel. For decades, inhaled N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been used as a mucolytic to reduce mucin disulfide bonds with little, if any, therapeutic effects...
September 13, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211629/toll-like-receptor-3-is-a-therapeutic-target-for-pulmonary-hypertension
#6
Daniela Farkas, A A Roger Thompson, Aneel R Bhagwani, Schuyler Hultman, Hyun Ji, Naveen Kotha, Grant Farr, Nadine D Arnold, Adam Braithwaite, Helen Casbolt, Jennifer E Cole, Ian Sabroe, Claudia Monaco, Carlyne D Cool, Elena A Goncharova, Allan Lawrie, Laszlo Farkas
RATIONALE: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by vascular cell proliferation and endothelial cell apoptosis. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is a receptor for double-stranded RNA and has been recently implicated in vascular protection. OBJECTIVE: The goal was to study the expression and role of TLR3 in PAH and to determine whether a TLR3 agonist reduces Pulmonary Hypertension in preclinical models. METHODS: Lung tissue and endothelial cells from PAH patients were investigated by polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence and apoptosis assays...
September 13, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211626/why-an-aging-smoker-lung-develops-ipf-and-not-copd
#7
Moisés Selman, Fernando J Martinez, Annie Pardo
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are generally progressive and irreversible chronic-degenerative disorders. COPD is associated with chronic inflammation, and changes in both the alveolar and airway compartments, resulting in small airways disease and emphysema. IPF is driven by an abnormal activation of the alveolar lung epithelium resulting in progressive scarring of the lung parenchyma. Both diseases are heterogeneous with several clinical phenotypes, and usually occur in aged individuals, mostly smokers...
September 13, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211619/supplemental-oxygen-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-much-to-be-done
#8
Qi Jin, Qin Luo, Zhihui Zhao, Zhihong Liu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211618/physiological-analysis-and-clinical-performance-of-the-ventilatory-ratio-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#9
Pratik Sinha, Carolyn S Calfee, Jeremy R Beitler, Neil Soni, Kelly Ho, Michael A Matthay, Richard H Kallet
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary dead space fraction is an independent predictor of mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Yet, it is seldom utilized in practice. The Ventilatory ratio is a simple bedside index that can be calculated using routinely measured respiratory variables and is a measure of impaired ventilation. Ventilatory ratio is defined as [minute ventilation (mL/min) * arterial PCO2 (mmHg)]/[predicted body weight * 100 * 37.5]. The relation of Ventilatory Ratio with in ARDS is currently unknown...
September 13, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30211614/reply-to-supplemental-oxygen-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-much-to-be-done
#10
Chris D Turnbull, Nayia Petousi, John R Stradling
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30207738/endobronchial-ultrasound-elastography-helps-identify-fibrotic-lymph-nodes-in-sarcoidosis
#11
Vanina Livi, Alessandra Cancellieri, Pietro Pirina, Alessandro Fois, Erik H F M van der Heijden, Rocco Trisolini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 12, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30199657/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-genome-wide-interaction-analyses-reveal-dpp10-pulmonary-function-association
#12
Jiayi Xu, Nathan C Gaddis, Traci M Bartz, Ruixue Hou, Ani W Manichaikul, Nathan Pankratz, Albert V Smith, Fangui Sun, Natalie Terzikhan, Christina A Markunas, Bonnie K Patchen, Matthew Schu, May A Beydoun, Guy G Brusselle, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Xia Zhou, Alexis C Wood, Mariaelisa Graff, Tamara B Harris, M Arfan Ikram, David R Jacobs, Lenore J Launer, Rozenn N Lemaitre, George O'Connor, Elizabeth C Oelsner, Bruce M Psaty, Vasan S Ramachandran, Rebecca R Rohde, Stephen S Rich, Jerome I Rotter, Sudha Seshadri, Lewis J Smith, Henning Tiemeier, Michael Y Tsai, André G Uitterlinden, V Saroja Voruganti, Hanfei Xu, Nuno R Zilhão, Myriam Fornage, M Carola Zillikens, Stephanie J London, R Graham Barr, Josée Dupuis, Sina A Gharib, Vilmundur Gudnason, Lies Lahousse, Kari E North, Lyn M Steffen, Patricia A Cassano, Dana B Hancock
RATIONALE: Omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) have anti-inflammatory properties that could benefit adults with comprised pulmonary health. OBJECTIVE: To investigate n-3 PUFA associations with spirometric measures of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and determine underlying genetic susceptibility. METHODS: Associations of n-3 PUFA biomarkers (alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid [DPA], and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) were evaluated with PFTs (forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1 ], forced vital capacity [FVC], and [FEV1 /FVC]) in meta-analyses across seven cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium (N=16,134 of European or African ancestry)...
September 10, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30199655/recommended-reading-from-the-university-of-virginia-pulmonary-and-critical-care-medicine-fellows
#13
Sean J Callahan, Kavita Pal, Robert M Jones, Eric M Davis, Alex Kadl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 10, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30199652/the-injurious-effects-of-elevated-or-non-elevated-respiratory-rate-during-mechanical-ventilation
#14
Evangelia Akoumianaki, Katerina Vaporidi, Dimitris Georgopoulos
Respiratory rate is one of the key variables we set and monitor during mechanical ventilation. As part of our increasing efforts to optimise mechanical ventilation, it is prudent that we expand our understanding of the potential harmful effects not only of volume and pressures, but also of respiratory rate. The mechanisms by which respiratory rate may become injurious during mechanical ventilation can be distinguished in two broad categories. In the first well-recognised category, concerning both controlled and assisted ventilation, the respiratory rate per se may promote ventilator-induced lung injury, dynamic hyperinflation, ineffective efforts and respiratory alkalosis...
September 10, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30199642/stratification-of-pulmonary-nodules-using-quantitative-iodine-maps-from-dual-energy-ct
#15
Nils Große Hokamp, Amit Gupta, Robert C Gilkeson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 10, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30192649/yield-and-efficiency-of-novel-intensified-tuberculosis-case-finding-algorithms-for-people-living-with-hiv
#16
Christina Yoon, Fred C Semitala, Lucy Asege, Jane Katende, Sandra Mwebe, Alfred O Andama, Elly Atuhumuza, Martha Nakaye, Derek T Armstrong, David W Dowdy, Charles E McCulloch, Moses Kamya, Adithya Cattamanchi
Rationale/Objectives: The recommended tuberculosis (TB) intensified case finding (ICF) algorithm for people living with HIV (PLHIV) - symptom-based screening followed by Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) testing - is insufficiently sensitive and results in unnecessary Xpert testing. We evaluated whether novel ICF algorithms combining C-reactive protein (CRP)-based screening with urine Determine TB-LAM (TB-LAM), sputum Xpert and/or culture could improve ICF yield and efficiency. Methods/Measurements: We compared the yield and efficiency of novel ICF algorithms inclusive of POC CRP-based TB screening and confirmatory testing with urine TB-LAM (if CD4 count ≤100 cells/μL), sputum Xpert, and/or a single sputum culture among consecutive PLHIV with CD4 counts ≤350 cells/uL initiating antiretroviral therapy in Uganda...
September 7, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30192644/recommended-reading-from-the-medica-sur-clinic-foundation-critical-care-medicine-fellows
#17
Oscar Rojo Del Moral, Roger G Mena-Arceo, Alan E García-García, Silvio A Ñamendys-Silva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30192638/anti-il5-in-mild-asthma-alters-rhinovirus-induced-macrophage-b-cell-and-neutrophil-responses-material-a-placebo-controlled-double-blind-study
#18
Yanaika S Sabogal Piñeros, Suzanne M Bal, Marianne A van de Pol, Barbara S Dierdorp, Tamara Dekker, Annemiek Dijkhuis, Paul Brinkman, Koen F van der Sluijs, Aeilko H Zwinderman, Christof J Majoor, Peter I Bonta, Lara Ravanetti, Peter J Sterk, René Lutter
RATIONALE: Eosinophils drive pathophysiology in stable and exacerbating eosinophilic asthma and therefore treatment is focused on the reduction of eosinophil numbers. Mepolizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that neutralizes interleukin (IL)-5 and efficiently attenuates eosinophils, proved clinically effective in severe eosinophilic asthma but not in mild asthma. OBJECTIVES: Study the effect of Mepolizumab on virus-induced immune responses in mild asthma. METHODS: Mild asthma patients, steroid-naïve and randomized for eosinophil numbers, received 750 mg Mepolizumab iv in a placebo-controlled double-blind trial, 2 weeks after which patients were challenged with rhinovirus(RV)16...
September 7, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30192635/is-cystic-fibrosis-related-diabetes-reversible-new-data-on-cftr-potentiation-and-insulin-secretion
#19
Andrew W Norris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30192634/exposure-to-humidifier-disinfectants-increases-the-risk-of-asthma-in-children
#20
Jisun Yoon, So-Yeon Lee, Seung-Hwa Lee, Eun Mi Kim, Sungsu Jung, Hyun-Ju Cho, Eun Lee, Song-I Yang, Soo-Jong Hong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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