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American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085500/a-pilot-study-linking-endothelial-injury-in-lungs-and-kidneys-in-copd
#1
Francesca Polverino, Maria E Laucho-Contreras, Hans Petersen, Vanesa Bijol, Lynette M Sholl, Mary E Choi, Miguel Divo, Victor Pinto-Plata, Alfredo Chetta, Yohannes Tesfaigzi, Bartolomé R Celli, Caroline A Owen
BACKGROUND: COPD patients frequently have albuminuria (indicative of renal endothelial cell injury) associated with hypoxemia. We hypothesized that: 1) cigarette smoke (CS)-induced pulmonary and renal endothelial cell injury explains the association between albuminuria and COPD; 2) CS-induced albuminuria is linked to increases in the oxidative-stress-advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-receptor for AGEs (RAGE) pathway; and 3) Enalapril (which has anti-oxidant properties) limits the progression of pulmonary and renal injury by reducing activation of the AGEs-RAGE pathway in endothelial cells in both organs...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085492/mucosal-type-2-innate-lymphoid-cells-are-a-key-component-of-the-allergic-response-to-aeroallergen
#2
Jaideep Dhariwal, Aoife Cameron, Maria-Belen Trujillo-Torralbo, Ajerico Del Rosario, Eteri Bakhsoliani, Malte Paulsen, David J Jackson, Michael R Edwards, Batika M J Rana, David J Cousins, Trevor T Hansel, Sebastian L Johnston, Ross P Walton
RATIONALE: Newly characterised type 2 innate lymphoid cells display potent type 2 effector functionality, however their contribution to allergic airways inflammation and asthma is poorly understood. Mucosal biopsy used to characterise the airway mucosa is invasive, poorly tolerated and does not allow sequential sampling. OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of type 2 innate lymphoid cells during nasal allergen challenge in subjects with allergic rhinitis, using novel non-invasive methodology...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085486/host-microbial-interactions-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#3
Philip L Molyneaux, Saffron A G Willis Owen, Michael J Cox, Phillip James, Steven Cowman, Michael Loebinger, Andrew Blanchard, Lindsay M Edwards, Carmel Stock, Cécile Daccord, Elisabetta A Renzoni, Athol U Wells, Miriam F Moffatt, William O C Cookson, Toby M Maher
RATIONALE: Changes in the respiratory microbiome are associated with disease progression in Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The role of the host response to the respiratory microbiome however remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To explore the host-microbial interaction in IPF. METHODS: Sixty patients diagnosed with IPF were prospectively enrolled, together with 20 matched controls. Subjects underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and peripheral whole blood was collected into PAXgene tubes for all subjects at baseline...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081369/randomized-controlled-ethanol-cookstove-intervention-and-blood-pressure-in-pregnant-nigerian-women
#4
Donee Alexander, Amanda Northcross, Nathaniel Wilson, Anindita Dutta, Rishi Pandya, Tope Ibigbami, Damilola Adu, John Olamijulo, Oludare Morhason-Bello, Theodore Karrison, Oladosu Ojengbede, Christopher O Olopade
RATIONALE: Hypertension during pregnancy is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Exposure to household air pollution (HAP) elevates blood pressure (BP). OBJECTIVES: Investigate ability of clean cookstove intervention to lower BP during pregnancy. METHODS: A randomized, controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in Nigeria. Pregnant women cooking with kerosene or firewood were randomly assigned to ethanol (n = 162) or control arms (n = 162). BP measurements were taken during 6 antenatal visits...
January 12, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075609/female-smokers-are-at-greater-risk-of-airflow-obstruction-than-male-smokers-uk-biobank
#5
André F S Amaral, David P Strachan, Peter Gj Burney, Deborah L Jarvis
The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing faster among women than among men. <br><br> Objectives: To examine sex differences in the risk of airflow obstruction (COPD hallmark) in relation to smoking history. <br><br> Methods: We analysed 149,075 women and 100,252 men taking part in the UK Biobank, who had provided spirometry measurements and information on smoking. The association of airflow obstruction with smoking characteristics was assessed, by sex, using regression analysis...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060546/gray-matter-hypertrophy-and-thickening-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-middle-aged-and-older-adults
#6
Andrée-Ann Baril, Katia Gagnon, Pauline Brayet, Jacques Montplaisir, Louis De Beaumont, Julie Carrier, Chantal Lafond, Francis L'Heureux, Jean-François Gagnon, Nadia Gosselin
RATIONALE: Obstructive sleep apnea causes intermittent hypoxemia, hemodynamic fluctuations, and sleep fragmentation, all of which could damage cerebral gray matter that can be indirectly assessed with neuroimaging. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether markers of obstructive sleep apnea severity are associated with gray matter changes among middle-aged and older individuals. METHODS: Seventy-one subjects (ages: 55 to 76; apnea-hypopnea index: 0...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060545/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-adenovirus-35-tb-vaccine-candidate-in-adults-with-active-or-previous-tb-a-randomized-trial
#7
Richard N van Zyl-Smit, Aliasgar Esmail, Mary E Bateman, Rodney Dawson, Jonathan Goldin, Eva van Rikxoort, Macaya Douoguih, Maria Grazia Pau, Jerald C Sadoff, J Bruce McClain, Margaret Ann Snowden, Jacqueline Benko, David A Hokey, Kathryn Tucker Rutkowski, Andrew Graves, Barbara Shepherd, Sadritdin Ishmukhamedov, Benjamin M N Kagina, Brian Abel, Willem A Hanekom, Thomas J Scriba, Eric D Bateman
RATIONALE: Administration of tuberculosis vaccines in participants with previous or current pulmonary tuberculosis may have the potential for causing harmful post-vaccination immunological (Koch-type) reactions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and immunogenicity of three dose levels of the AERAS-402 live, replication-deficient adenovirus 35-vectored tuberculosis candidate vaccine, containing three mycobacterial antigens, in individuals with current or previous pulmonary tuberculosis...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040987/fifty-years-of-research-in-ards-is-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-a-preventable-disease
#8
Hemang Yadav, B Taylor Thompson, Ognjen Gajic
Despite significant advances in our understanding and management of patients with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), the morbidity and mortality from ARDS remains unacceptably high. Given the consistent failure to find effective treatments for established ARDS, the strategic focus of ARDS research has shifted towards identifying patients with or at high risk of ARDS early in the course of the underlying illness where strategies to reduce the development and progression of ARDS and associated organ failures can be systematically evaluated...
December 31, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040986/recommended%C3%A2-reading%C3%A2-from%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-saint%C3%A2-louis%C3%A2-university%C3%A2-pulmonary%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-critical%C3%A2-care%C3%A2-fellows
#9
Pujan H Patel, Ghassan Kamel, Armin Krvavac, Ravi P Nayak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 31, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036233/shared-and-distinct-aspects-of-the-sepsis-transcriptomic-response-to-fecal-peritonitis-and-pneumonia
#10
Katie L Burnham, Emma E Davenport, Jayachandran Radhakrishnan, Peter Humburg, Anthony C Gordon, Paula Hutton, Eduardo Svoren-Jabalera, Christopher Garrard, Adrian Vs Hill, Charles J Hinds, Julian C Knight
RATIONALE: Heterogeneity in the septic response has hindered efforts to understand pathophysiology and develop targeted therapies. Source of infection, with different causative organisms and temporal changes, might influence this heterogeneity. OBJECTIVES: To investigate individual and temporal variation in the transcriptomic response to sepsis due to fecal peritonitis, and to compare with community acquired pneumonia. METHODS: We performed genome-wide gene expression profiling in peripheral blood leukocytes for adult patients admitted to intensive care with sepsis due to fecal peritonitis (n=117) or community acquired pneumonia (n=126), and non-septic controls (n=10)...
December 30, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005404/anti-histone-properties-of-c1-esterase-inhibitor-protect-against-lung-injury
#11
Malgorzata Wygrecka, Djuro Kosanovic, Lukasz Wujak, Katrin Reppe, Ingrid Henneke, Helena Frey, Miroslava Didiasova, Grazyna Kwapiszewska, Leigh M Marsh, Nelli Baal, Holger Hackstein, Dariusz Zakrzewicz, Holger C Müller-Redetzky, Steven de Maat, Coen Maas, Marc W Nolte, Con Panousis, Ralph T Schermuly, Werner Seeger, Martin Witzenrath, Liliana Schaefer, Philipp Markart
RATIONALE: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by alveolar epithelial cell injury, edema formation, and intraalveolar contact phase activation. OBJECTIVES: To explore whether C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH), an endogenous inhibitor of the contact phase, may protect from lung injury in vivo and to decipher the possible underlying mechanisms mediating protection. METHODS: The ability of C1INH to control the inflammatory processes was studied in vitro and in vivo...
December 22, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002683/a-prediction-model-to-help-with-the-assessment-of-adenopathy-in-lung-cancer-hal
#12
Oisin J O'Connell, Francisco A Almeida, Michael J Simoff, Lonny Yarmus, Ray Lazarus, Benjamin Young, Yu Chen, Roy Semaan, Timothy M Saettele, Joseph Cicenia, Harmeet Bedi, Corrine Kliment, Liang Li, Sonali Sethi, Javier Diaz-Mendoza, David Feller-Kopman, Juhee Song, Thomas Gildea, Hans Lee, Horiana B Grosu, Michael Machuzak, Macarena Rodriguez-Vial, George A Eapen, Carlos A Jimenez, Roberto F Casal, David E Ost
RATIONALE: Estimating the probability of finding N2 or N3 (prN2/3) malignant nodal disease on EBUS-TBNA in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can facilitate the selection of subsequent management strategies. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to develop a clinical prediction model for estimating the prN2/3. METHODS: We used the AQuIRE registry to identify patients with NSCLC with clinical radiographic stage T1-3, N0-3, M0 disease that had EBUS-TBNA for staging...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002680/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-fibrotic-hypersensitivity-pneumonia-where-we-stand-and-where-we-need-to-go
#13
Margaret L Salisbury, Jeffrey L Myers, Elizabeth A Belloli, Ella A Kazerooni, Fernando J Martinez, Kevin R Flaherty
Hypersensitivity pneumonia (HP) is an interstitial lung disease (ILD) caused by sensitization to an inhaled antigen. The exact prevalence is unknown and may vary geographically. HP is likely clinically under-recognized. The broad range of presenting symptoms, radiologic, and lung biopsy findings, and lack of validated diagnostic criteria makes diagnosis difficult, and has hindered progress of research investigating treatment modalities. HP as an ILD is unique in its heterogeneous disease phenotypes and clinical outcomes...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997805/physiologic-effects-of-high-flow-nasal-cannula-in-acute-hypoxemic-respiratory-failure
#14
Tommaso Mauri, Cecilia Turrini, Nilde Eronia, Giacomo Grasselli, Carlo Alberto Volta, Giacomo Bellani, Antonio Pesenti
RATIONALE: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) improves the clinical outcomes of non-intubated acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (AHRF) patients. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of HFNC on gas exchange, inspiratory effort, minute ventilation, end-expiratory lung volume, dynamic compliance and ventilation homogeneity in AHRF patients. METHODS: This was a prospective randomized cross-over study in non-intubated AHRF patients with PaO2/setFiO2 ≤300 mmHg admitted to the Intensive Care Unit...
December 20, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997216/transmissible-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-strains-share-genetic-markers-and-immune-phenotypes
#15
Hanna Nebenzahl-Guimaraes, Arjan van Laarhoven, Maha R Farhat, Valerie Acm Koeken, Jornt J Mandemakers, Aldert Zomer, Sacha Aft van Hijum, Mihai G Netea, Megan Murray, Reinout van Crevel, Dick van Soolingen
RATIONALE: Successful transmission of tuberculosis depends on the interplay of human behavior, host immune responses and Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence factors. Previous studies have focused on identifying host risk factors associated with increased transmission, while the contribution of specific genetic variations in mycobacterial strains themselves are still unknown. OBJECTIVES: To identify mycobacterial genetic markers associated with increased transmissibility, and examine whether these markers lead to altered in vitro immune responses...
December 20, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984699/gene-expression-correlated-to-severe-asthma-characteristics-reveals-heterogeneous-mechanisms-of-severe-disease
#16
Brian D Modena, Eugene R Bleecker, William W Busse, Serpil C Erzurum, Benjamin M Gaston, Nizar N Jarjour, Deborah A Meyers, Jadranka Milosevic, John R Tedrow, Wei Wu, Naftali Kaminski, Sally E Wenzel
RATIONALE: Severe asthma is a heterogeneous disease with multiple molecular mechanisms. Gene expression studies of asthmatic bronchial epithelial cells have provided biological insight and underscored possible mechanistic differences between individuals. OBJECTIVE: Identify networks of genes reflective of underlying biological processes that define severe asthma(SA). METHODS: Airway epithelial cell gene expression from 155 asthmatics and healthy controls(HC) in the Severe Asthma Research Program was analyzed by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to identify gene networks and profiles associated with severe asthma and its specific characteristics (i...
December 16, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983875/orbital-cellulitis-cavernous-sinus-thrombosis-internal-jugular-vein-thrombus-and-clival-osteomyelitis-secondary-to-acute-sinusitis
#17
Raghav Gupta, Deep Patadia, Vinodkumar Velayudhan, Daniel Buchnea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 16, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973930/comorbidities-and-subgroups-of-patients-surviving-severe-acute-hypercapnic-respiratory-failure-in-the-icu
#18
Dan Adler, Jean-Louis Pépin, Elise Dupuis-Lozeron, Katerina Espa-Cervena, Roselyne Merlet-Violet, Hajo Muller, Jean-Paul Janssens, Laurent Brochard
RATIONALE: No methodical assessment of the lung, cardiac and sleep function of patients surviving an acute hypercapnic respiratory failure episode requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) has been reported in the literature. OBJECTIVES: To prospectively investigate the prevalence and impact of comorbidities in patients treated by mechanical ventilator support (invasive or non-invasive) for acute hypercapnic respiratory failure in the ICU. METHODS: Seventy-eight consecutive patients admitted for an episode of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure underwent an assessment of lung, cardiac and sleep function by pulmonary function tests, transthoracic echocardiography and polysomnography 3 months after ICU discharge...
December 14, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967215/effects-of-age-and-disease-severity-on-systemic-corticosteroid-responses-in-asthma
#19
Wanda Phipatanakul, David T Mauger, Ronald L Sorkness, Jonathan M Gaffin, Fernando Holguin, Prescott G Woodruff, Ngoc P Ly, Leonard B Bacharier, Nirav R Bhakta, Wendy C Moore, Eugene R Bleecker, Annette T Hastie, Deborah A Meyers, Mario Castro, John Fahy, Anne Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M Gaston, Nizar N Jarjour, Bruce D Levy, Stephen P Peters, W Gerald Teague, Merritt Fajt, Sally E Wenzel, Serpil C Erzurum, Elliot Israel
RATIONALE: Phenotypic distinctions between severe asthma (SA) and non-severe asthma (NONSA) may be confounded by differential adherence or incorrect use of corticosteroids. OBJECTIVES: To determine if there are persistent phenotypic distinctions between SA (as defined by 2014 ATS/ERS guidelines) and NONSA after intramuscular triamcinolone acetonide (TA), and to identify predictors of a corticosteroid response in these populations. METHODS: 526 adults age 18+ years (315 SA) and 188 children, age 6 to <18 years (107 SA) in the NHLBI Severe Asthma Research Program III were characterized before and 3 weeks after TA...
December 14, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967204/mmp-1-activation-contributes-to-airway-smooth-muscle-growth-and-asthma-severity
#20
Shams-Un-Nisa Naveed, Debbie Clements, David J Jackson, Christopher Philp, Charlotte K Billington, Irshad Soomro, Catherine Reynolds, Timothy W Harrison, Sebastian L Johnston, Dominick E Shaw, Simon R Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Matrix metalloproteinase-1 and mast cells are present in the airways of people with asthma. We hypothesised that matrix metalloproteinase-1 could be activated by mast cells and increase asthma severity. METHODS: Patients with stable asthma and healthy controls underwent spirometry, methacholine challenge, bronchoscopy and their airway smooth muscle cells were grown in culture. A second asthma group and controls had symptom scores, spirometry and bronchoalveolar lavage before and after rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations...
December 14, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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