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American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30234998/urinary-acrolein-metabolite-levels-in-severe-acute-alcoholic-hepatitis-patients
#1
Vatsalya Vatsalya, Maiying Kong, Leila Gobejishvili, Wei-Yang Chen, Sanjay Srivastava, Shirish Barve, Craig J McClain, Swati Joshi-Barve
Alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD) remains a major health concern worldwide. Alcohol consumption gives rise to reactive/toxic acrolein, a pathogenic mediator of liver injury in experimental ALD. Elevated acrolein adducts and metabolites are detectable in blood and urine. This study evaluates the major urinary acrolein metabolite, 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (HPMA), in patients with acute alcoholic hepatitis (AAH), and examines its association with disease severity, and markers of hepatic inflammation and injury...
September 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212254/il-15-regulates-fibrosis-and-inflammation-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-pancreatitis
#2
Murli Manohar, Hemanth K Kandikattu, Alok Kumar Verma, Anil Mishra
Pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by the induction of several pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1β, and IL-1. Recently, a multifunctional innate cytokine IL-15 has been implicated in the protection of several diseases including cancer. Tissue fibrosis is one of the major problems to treat successfully chronic pancreatitis pathogenesis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that rIL-15 treatment may induce innate tissue responses and its over-expression will improve the pathogenesis of cerulein-induced chronic pancreatitis, associated remodeling and fibrosis...
September 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212253/associations-between-the-gut-microbiota-and-host-responses-to-high-altitude
#3
J Philip Karl, Claire E Berryman, Andrew J Young, Patrick N Radcliffe, Tobyn A Branck, Ida G Pantoja-Feliciano, Jennifer C Rood, Stefan M Pasiakos
Hypobaric hypoxia, and dietary protein and fat intakes have been independently associated with an altered gastrointestinal (GI) environment and gut microbiota, but little is known regarding host-gut microbiota interactions at high altitude (HA) and the impact of diet macronutrient composition. This study aimed to determine the effect dietary protein:fat ratio manipulation on the gut microbiota and GI barrier function during weight loss at high altitude (HA), and to identify associations between the gut microbiota and host responses to HA...
September 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30212252/eosinophilic-esophagitis-pathophysiology-and-its-clinical-implications
#4
Eisuke Inage, Glenn T Furuta, Calies Menard-Katcher, Joanne C Masterson
Eosinophilic Esophagitis is an antigen mediated chronic disease that is distinct from gastroesophageal reflux disease. EoE an emerging clinical problem that is rapidly growing in incidence and in recognition. It is characterized clinically by feeding dysfunction, dysphagia and reflux-like symptoms. Histologically EoE is identifiable by a dense epithelial eosinophilic infiltrate. Experimental modeling and clinical studies over the last decade have greatly improved our understanding of this disease and led to improvements in clinical understanding and the assessment of therapeutic options for patients and their clinicians who manage this disease...
September 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30188752/growth-differentiation-factor-11-ameliorates-experimental-colitis-by-inhibiting-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation
#5
Lanju Wang, Yaohui Wang, Zhenfeng Wang, Yu Qi, Beibei Zong, Meichen Liu, Xuefang Li, Xingkun Zhang, Chengguo Liu, Run Cao, Yuanfang Ma
Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) has an anti-inflammatory effect in the mouse model of atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, but how GDF11 regulates intestinal inflammation during ulcerative colitis (UC) is poorly defined. The NLRP3 (Nod-like receptor family pyrin domain-1 containing 3) inflammasome is closely associated with intestinal inflammation due to its ability to increase IL-1β secretion. Our aim is to determine whether GDF11 has an effect on attenuating experimental colitis in mice. In this study, using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis mouse model, we reported that GDF11 treatment attenuated loss of body weight, the severity of the disease activity index (DAI), shortening of the colon, and histological changes in the colon...
September 6, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30188751/small-adipose-stores-in-cystic-fibrosis-mice-are-characterized-by-reduced-cell-volume-not-cell-number
#6
Ilya R Bederman, Alexander DiScenna, Leigh Henderson, Aura Perez, Jeannie Klavanian, Daniel Kovtun, Olivia Collins, John Dunn, Bernadette O Erokwu, Chris A Flask, Mitchell L Drumm
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal genetic disorder that affects many organ systems of the body, including various endocrine and exocrine tissues. Health and survival positively associate with body mass and as a consequence, CF clinical care includes high-fat, high-calorie diets to maintain and increase adipose tissue stores. Such strategies have been implemented without a clear understanding of the cause and effect relationship between body mass and patients' health. Here, we use CF mouse models, which display small adipose stores, to begin examining body fat as a prelude into mechanistic studies of low body growth in CF, so that optimal therapeutic strategies can be developed...
September 6, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30188750/a-rotating-light-cycle-promotes-weight-gain-and-hepatic-lipid-storage-in-mice
#7
Stewart Christie, Andrew D Vincent, Hui Li, Claudine L Frisby, Stephen J Kentish, Rebecca O'Rielly, Gary A Wittert, Amanda J Page
Processes involved in regulation of energy balance and intermediary metabolism are aligned to the light-dark cycle. Shift-work and high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity disrupt circadian rhythmicity and are associated with increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to determine the effect of simulating shift work on hepatic lipid accumulation in lean and HFD-mice. C57BL/6 mice fed a standard laboratory diet (SLD) or HFD for 4wks were further allocated to a normal light (NL)-cycle (lights on:0600-1800hr) or rotating light (RL)-cycle (3-days NL and 4-days reversed (lights on:1800-0600hr) repeated) for 8wks...
September 6, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30160993/intestinal-bile-acid-sequestration-improves-glucose-control-by-stimulating-hepatic-mir-182-5p-in-type-2-diabetes
#8
Leslie R Sedgeman, Carine Beysen, Ryan M Allen, Marisol A Ramirez Solano, Scott M Turner, Kasey C Vickers
Colesevelam is a bile acid sequestrant approved to treat both hyperlipidemia and type 2 diabetes, but the mechanism for its glucose lowering effects is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of hepatic microRNA's as regulators of metabolic disease and to investigate the link between the cholesterol and glucose lowering effects of colesevelam. To quantify the impact of colesevelam treatment in rodent models of diabetes, metabolic studies were performed in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats and db/db mice...
August 30, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30160982/measuring-length-tension-function-of-the-anal-sphincters-and-puborectalis-muscle-using-functional-luminal-imaging-probe
#9
Lori Jeanne Tuttle, Ali Zifan, Catherine Sun, Jessica Swartz, Sophia Roalkvam, Ravinder K Mittal
Functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) has been used to measure the distensibility of the anal canal. We hypothesized that with increasing distension of the anal canal with FLIP there will be an increase in length of the anal sphincter muscle allowing measurement of the length-tension function of anal sphincter and puborectalis muscles (PRM). We studied 14 healthy nulliparous women. A custom designed FLIP bag (30mm diameter) was placed in the vagina and then in the anal canal, distended in 10ml steps with volumes ranging from 30-90ml...
August 30, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30160980/assessment-of-liver-fibrosis-progression-and-regression-by-a-serological-collagen-turnover-profile
#10
Morten Asser Karsdal, Sara Toftegaard Hjuler, Yi Luo, Daniel Guldager Kring Rasmussen, Mette J Nielsen, Signe Holm Nielsen, Diana Julie Leeming, Zachary Goodman, Robert H Arch, Keyur Patel, Detlef Schuppan
OBJECTIVE: There is a need for non-invasive biomarkers that can identify patients with progressive liver fibrosis and monitor response to anti-fibrotic therapy. An equally important need is identification of patients with spontaneous fibrosis regression, since they may not need treatment nor be included in clinical studies with fibrosis as endpoint. Circulating biomarkers, originating from defined fragments of the scar tissue itself, may serve as valuable tools for this aspect of precision medicine...
August 30, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30160974/intestinal-imino-transporter-sit1-is-not-expressed-in-human-newborns
#11
Chantal Florence Meier, Simone M R Camargo, Schirin Hunziker, Ueli Moehrlen, Stephanie J Gros, Peter Karl Bode, Svenja Leu, Martin Meuli, Stefan Holland-Cunz, François Verrey, Raphael Nicolas Vuille-Dit-Bille
The expression of amino acid transporters in small intestine epithelium of human newborns has not been studied yet. It is further not known whether the maturation of imino acid (proline) transport is delayed as in kidney proximal tubule. The possibility to obtain small intestinal tissue from patients undergoing surgery for jejunal or ileal atresia during their first days after birth was used to address these questions. As control, adult terminal ileum tissue was sampled during routine endoscopies. Gene expression of luminal imino- and amino acid transporter SIT1 (SLC6A20) was approximately 3-fold lower in newborns versus adults...
August 30, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138575/luminal-na-homeostasis-has-an-important-role-in-intestinal-peptide-absorption-in-vivo
#12
Noriko Ishizuka, Michiko Nakayama, Miki Watanabe, Haruna Tajima, Yuri Yamauchi, Akira Ikari, Hisayoshi Hayashi
Intestinal cell line studies indicated luminal Na+ homeostasis is essential for proton-coupled peptide absorption, because the driving force of PepT1 activity is supported by the apical Na+ /H+ exchanger NHE3. However, there is no direct evidence demonstrating the importance of in vivo luminal Na+ for peptide absorption in animal experiments. To investigate the relationship between luminal Na+ homeostasis and peptide absorption, we took advantage of claudin 15 deficient (cldn15-/- ) mice, whereby Na+ homeostasis is disrupted...
August 23, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138574/inhibition-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-by-4-phenylbutyric-acid-prevents-vital-organ-injury-in-rat-acute-pancreatitis
#13
Yu-Pu Hong, Wen-Hong Deng, Wen-Yi Guo, Qiao Shi, Liang Zhao, Yun-Dong You, Fang-Chao Mei, Yu Zhou, Chen-Yang Wang, Chen Chen, Jia Yu, Wei-Xing Wang
BACKGROUND AND AIM: To investigate the effect of 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) on vital organ injury following sodium taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis (AP) in rats and the pertinent mechanism. METHODS: The serum biochemical indicators and key inflammatory cytokines, histopathological damages and apoptosis of vital organs in rat AP, were evaluated in the presence or absence of 4-PBA. Moreover, mRNA and protein levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) markers were assessed...
August 23, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118352/absence-of-leptin-signaling-allows-fat-accretion-in-cf-mice
#14
Ilya R Bederman, Gavriella Pora, Maureen O'Reilly, James Poleman, Kimberly Spoonhower, Michelle Puchowicz, Aura Perez, Bernadette O Erokwu, Alex Rodriguez-Palacios, Chris A Flask, Mitchell L Drumm
Negative energy balance is a prevalent feature of cystic fibrosis (CF). Pancreatic insufficiency, elevated energy expenditure, lung disease, and malnutrition, all characteristic of CF, contribute to the negative energy balance causing low bodily growth phenotype. As low body weight and BMI strongly correlate with poor lung health and survival of CF patients, improving energy balance is an important clinical goal (e.g. high-fat diet). CF mouse models also exhibit negative energy balance (growth retardation and high energy expenditure), independent from exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, lung disease, and malnutrition...
August 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118351/periodontal-therapy-favorably-modulates-the-oral-gut-hepatic-axis-in-cirrhosis
#15
Jasmohan Singh Bajaj, Payam Matin, Melanie B White, Andrew Fagan, Janina Golob Deeb, Chathur Acharya, Swati S Dalmet, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Patrick M Gillevet, Sinem Esra Sahingur
Cirrhosis is associated with a systemic pro-inflammatory milieu, endotoxemia and gut dysbiosis. The oral cavity could be an additional source of inflammation. We aimed to determine the effect of periodontal therapy in cirrhosis through evaluating endotoxemia, inflammation, cognition and quality of life (QOL). Age-matched cirrhotic/non-cirrhotic subjects exhibiting chronic gingivitis and/or mild/moderate periodontitis underwent periodontal therapy with follow-up at 30 days. Saliva/stool for microbial composition and serum for MELD score, endotoxin and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and immune-inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-6, histatins 1, 3, 5 and lysozyme) were collected at baseline and day 30...
August 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118350/neonatal-gut-and-immune-maturation-is-determined-more-by-postnatal-age-than-by-post-conceptional-age-in-moderately-preterm-pigs
#16
Shuqiang Ren, Yan Hui, Karina Obelitz-Ryom, Anne B Brandt, Witold Kot, Dennis Sandris Nielsen, Thomas Thymann, Per T Sangild, Duc Ninh Nguyen
Preterm infants have immature organ functions that predispose them to gut and immune disorders. Developmental delays at preterm birth may affect various organs differently at term-corrected age. We hypothesized that gut and immune maturation in moderately preterm neonates depends more on birth and postnatal factors than on advancing post-conceptional age (PCA). Using preterm pigs as models, we investigated how gut and immune parameters develop until term-corrected age, and how these differ from those in term counterparts...
August 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118349/inhibition-of-autotaxin-alleviates-inflammation-and-increases-the-expression-of-sodium-dependent-glucose-cotransporter-1-and-na-h-exchanger-3-in-samp1-fc-mice
#17
Peijian He, Abedul Haque, Songbai Lin, Fabio Cominelli, C Chris Yun
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, relapsing, inflammatory disease that is often associated with malnutrition due to inflammation in the small intestine. Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted enzyme that produces extracellular lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Increasing evidence suggests that ATX is upregulated during inflammation and inhibition of ATX has been effective in attenuating chronic inflammatory conditions, such as arthritis and pulmonary fibrosis. This study is aimed to determine whether inhibition of ATX alleviates CD-associated inflammation and malnutrition by using SAMP1/Fc mice, a model of CD-like ileitis...
August 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118317/linaclotide-improves-gastrointestinal-transit-in-cystic-fibrosis-mice-by-inhibiting-sodium-hydrogen-exchanger-3
#18
Daniel R McHugh, Calvin Utley Cotton, Fraser J Moss, Megan Vitko, Dana M Valerio, Thomas J Kelley, Shuyu Hao, Anjum Jafri, Mitchell L Drumm, Walter F Boron, Robert C Stern, Kimberly McBennett, Craig A Hodges
Gastrointestinal dysfunction in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a prominent source of pain among patients with CF. Linaclotide, a Guanylate Cyclase C (GCC) receptor agonist, is an FDA-approved drug prescribed for chronic constipation, but has not been widely utilized in CF, as the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is the main mechanism of action. However, anecdotal clinical evidence suggests that linaclotide may be effective for treating some gastrointestinal symptoms in CF. The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness and mechanism of linaclotide in treating CF gastrointestinal disorders utilizing CF mouse models...
August 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095299/high-fat-diet-overfeeding-promotes-non-detrimental-liver-steatosis-in-female-mice
#19
Lino Arisqueta, Hiart Navarro-Imaz, Ibone Labiano, Yuri Rueda, Olatz Fresnedo
High fat diet (HFD) feeding or leptin deficient mice are extensively used as models resembling features of human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The concurrence of experimental factors as fat content and source or total caloric intake leads to prominent differences in the development of the hepatic steatosis and related disturbances. In this work, we characterized the hepatic lipid accumulation induced by HFD in wild type (Wt) and ob/ob mice with the purpose of differentiating adaptations to HFD from those specific of increased overfeeding due to leptin deficiency-associated hyperphagia...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095298/ground-flaxseed-reverses-protection-of-a-reduced-fat-diet-against-citrobacter-rodentium-induced-colitis
#20
Pekka Määttänen, Eberhard Lurz, Steven R Botts, Richard Y Wu, Chiu William Yeung, Bo Li, Sumayyah Abiff, Kathene C Johnson-Henry, Dion Lepp, Krista A Power, Agostino Pierro, Marc E Surette, Philip M Sherman
Flaxseed is high in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, fiber and lignans known to lower cholesterol levels. However, its use for prevention or treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases has yielded mixed results, perhaps related to dietary interactions. In this study, we evaluated the impact of ground flaxseed supplementation on the severity of Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis in the setting of either a high fat (HF; ~36 %kcal) or reduced fat (RF; ~12 %kcal) diet. After weaning, C57BL/6 mice (n=8-15/treatment) were fed ground flaxseed (7g/100g diet) with either HF (HF Flx) or RF (RF Flx) diets for four weeks prior to infection with C...
August 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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