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American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932504/expression-of-cav1-3-calcium-channel-in-the-human-and-mouse-colon-post-transcriptional-inhibition-by-ifn%C3%AE
#1
Vijayababu M Radhakrishnan, Maryam M Gilpatrick, Nouralhoda Dehdashti, Pawel R Kiela, Fayez K Ghishan
It has been hypothesized that apically expressed L-type Ca(2+) channel Cav1.3 (encoded by CACNA1D gene) contributes towards an alternative TRPV6-independent route of intestinal epithelial Ca(2+) absorption, especially during digestion when high luminal concentration of Ca(2+) and other nutrients limit TRPV6 contribution. We and others have implicated altered expression and activity of key mediators of intestinal and renal Ca(2+) (re)absorption as contributors to negative systemic Ca2+ balance and bone loss in intestinal inflammation...
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932503/computational-modelling-of-epithelial-fluid-and-ion-transport-in-the-parotid-duct-after-transfection-of-human-aquaporin-1
#2
Shelley Fong, John A Chiorini, James Sneyd, Vinod Suresh
Previous studies have shown that localized delivery of the aquaporin-1 (AQP1) gene to the parotid duct can restore saliva flow in minipigs following irradiation-induced salivary hypofunction. The resulting flow rate and electrochemisty of secreted saliva contradicts current understanding of ductal fluid transport. We hypothesized that changes in expression of ion transport proteins have occurred following AQP1 transfection. We use a mathematical model of ion and fluid transport across the parotid duct epithelial cells to predict the expression profile of ion transporters that are consistent with the experimental measurements of saliva composition and secretion rates...
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932502/ca2-calmodulin-mlck-pathway-initiates-and-rhoa-rock-maintains-the-internal-anal-sphincter-smooth-muscle-tone
#3
Satish Rattan
N/A.
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932501/molecular-mechanism-s-involved-in-differential-expression-of-vitamin-c-transporters-along-the-intestinal-tract
#4
Veedamali S Subramanian, Padmanabhan Srinivasan, Alexis J Wildman, Jonathan S Marchant, Hamid M Said
Mammalian cells utilize two transporters for the uptake of ascorbic acid (AA), the sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter-1 & -2 (SVCT-1 and SVCT-2). In the intestine, these transporters are involved in the absorption of AA and are expressed at the apical and basolateral membrane domains of the polarized epithelia, respectively. Little is known about the differential expression of these two transporters along the anterior-posterior axis of the intestinal tract and the molecular mechanism(s) that dictate this pattern of expression...
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932500/notch1-and-notch2-regulate-epithelial-cell-proliferation-in-mouse-and-human-gastric-corpus
#5
Elise S Demitrack, Gail B Gifford, Theresa M Keeley, Nobukatsu Horita, Andrea Todisco, D Kim Turgeon, Christian W Siebel, Linda C Samuelson
The Notch signaling pathway is known to regulate stem cells and epithelial cell homeostasis in gastrointestinal tissues; however, Notch function in the corpus region of the stomach is poorly understood. In this study we examined the consequences of Notch inhibition and activation on cellular proliferation and differentiation and defined the specific Notch receptors functioning in the mouse and human corpus. Notch pathway activity was observed in the mouse corpus epithelium, and gene expression analysis revealed NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 to be the predominant Notch receptors in both mouse and human...
December 8, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908847/homeostasis-of-the-gut-barrier-and-potential-biomarkers
#6
Jerry M Wells, Robert J Brummer, Muriel Derrien, Thomas T MacDonald, Freddy Troost, Patrice D Cani, Vassilia Theodorou, Jan Dekker, Agnes Méheust, Willem M de Vos, Annick Mercenier, Arjen Nauta, Clara L Garcia-Rodenas
The gut barrier plays a crucial role by spatially compartmentalizing bacteria to the lumen through the production of secreted mucus and is fortified by the production of sIgA and antimicrobial peptides and proteins. With exception of sIgA the expression of these protective barrier factors is largely controlled by innate immune recognition of microbial molecular ligands. Several specialized adaptations and checkpoints are operating in the mucosa to scale the immune response according to the threat and prevent overreaction to the trillions of symbionts inhabiting the human intestine...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881404/novel-insights-into-fecal-incontinence-in-men
#7
Yoav Mazor, Michael Jones, Alison Andrews, John E Kellow, Allison Malcolm
Fecal incontinence (FI) in men is common yet data on gender differences in clinical features, physiology and treatment is scarce. Our aim was to provide insights into FI in males compared to females. Prospectively collected data from 73 men and 596 women with FI in a tertiary referral centre was analysed. Anorectal physiology, clinical characteristics and outcome of instrumented biofeedback (BF) was recorded. 31 men with FI proceeded to BF and were matched with 62 age-matched women with FI who underwent BF...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881403/irritable-bowel-syndrome-a-gut-microbiota-related-disorder
#8
Yogesh Bhattarai, David A Muniz Pedrogo, Purna C Kashyap
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Despite its prevalence, the pathophysiology of IBS is not well understood though multiple peripheral and central factors are implicated. Recent studies suggest a role for alterations in gut microbiota in IBS. Significant advances in next-generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics, and the declining cost has now allowed us to better investigate the role of gut microbiota in IBS. In the following review, we propose gut microbiota as a unifying factor in the pathophysiology of IBS...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881402/maturity-and-age-influence-chief-cell-ability-to-transdifferentiate-into-metaplasia
#9
Victoria G Weis, Christine P Petersen, Jared A Weis, Anne R Meyer, Eunyoung Choi, Jason C Mills, James R Goldenring
The plasticity of gastric chief cells is exemplified by their ability to transdifferentiate into Spasmolytic Polypeptide-expressing Metaplasia (SPEM) after parietal cell loss. We sought to determine if chief cell maturity is a limiting factor in the capacity to transdifferentiate. Mist1(-/-) mice, previously shown to form only immature chief cells, were treated with DMP-777 or L635 to study the capability of these immature chief cells to transdifferentiate into a proliferative metaplastic lineage after acute parietal cell loss...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881401/alterations-of-colonic-function-in-the-winnie-mouse-model-of-spontaneous-chronic-colitis
#10
Ainsley M Robinson, Ahmed A Rahman, Simona Elisa Carbone, Sarron Randall-Demllo, Rhiannon Filippone, Joel Charles Bornstein, Rajaraman Eri, Kulmira Nurgali
The Winnie mouse, carrying a missense mutation in Muc2, is a model for chronic intestinal inflammation demonstrating symptoms closely resembling inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Alterations to the immune environment, morphological structure and innervation of Winnie mouse colon have been identified; however analyses of intestinal transit and colonic functions have not been conducted. In this study, we investigated in vivo intestinal transit in radiographic studies and in vitro motility of the isolated colon in organ bath experiments...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856419/neuropeptide-y-npy-promotes-inflammation-induced-tumorigenesis-by-enhancing-epithelial-cell-proliferation
#11
Sabrina Jeppsson, Shanthi Srinivasan, Bindu Chandrasekharan
We have demonstrated that neuropeptide Y (NPY), abundantly produced by enteric neurons, is an important regulator of intestinal inflammation. However the role of NPY in the progression of chronic inflammation to tumorigenesis is unknown. We investigated whether NPY could modulate epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis, and thus regulate tumorigenesis. Repeated cycles of dextran sodium sulfate (DSSn) was used to model inflammation-induced tumorigenesis in wild-type (WT) and NPY knockout (NPY(-/-)) mice...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856418/spinal-afferent-nerve-endings-in-visceral-organs-recent-advances
#12
Nick J Spencer, Vladimir P Zagorodnyuk, Simon J Brookes, Tim James Hibberd
Spinal afferent neurons play a major role in detection and transduction of painful stimuli from internal (visceral) organs. Recent technical advances have made it possible to visualize the endings of spinal afferent axons in visceral organs. Although it is well known that the sensory nerve cell bodies of spinal afferents reside within dorsal root ganglia (DRG), identifying their endings in internal organs has been especially challenging because of a lack of techniques to distinguish them from endings of other extrinsic and intrinsic neurons (sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric)...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856417/the-probiotic-mixture-vsl-3-reduces-colonic-inflammation-and-improves-intestinal-barrier-function-in-muc2-mucin-deficient-mice
#13
Manish Kumar, Vanessa Kissoon-Singh, Aralia Leon Coria, France Moreau, Kris Chadee
MUC2 mucin is the major glycoprotein in colonic mucus that separates intestinal microbiota from underlying host cells and serves as a food source for some eubacteria. MUC2 deficiency results in impaired epithelial barrier function, imbalance in gut microbiota and spontaneous colitis. Use of probiotics has been shown to have protective effect against colitis. In this study we tested whether the probiotic mixture VSL#3 required an intact mucin barrier to exert its beneficial effect using Muc2 mucin deficient (Muc2(-/-)) and Muc2(+/+) littermates...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856416/regulation-and-function-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-signaling-in-colonic-injury-and-inflammation
#14
Tuo Ji, Hidehiko Takabayashi, Maria Mao, Xu Han, Xiang Xue, Jennifer C Brazil, Kathryn A Eaton, Yatrik M Shah, Andrea Todisco
The bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate gastrointestinal homeostasis. We investigated the expression of BMP-4 and the localization and function of BMP signaling during colonic injury and inflammation. Wild type mice and mice expressing the β-galactosidase (β-gal) gene under the control of a BMP responsive element (BRE), BMP-4-β-gal/+ mice, and animals generated by crossing villin-Cre mice to mice with floxed alleles of BMP receptor 1A (villin-Cre;Bmpr1a(flox/flox)), were treated with DSS to induce colonic injury and inflammation...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810953/weight-gain-in-mice-on-a-high-caloric-diet-and-chronically-treated-with-omeprazole-depends-on-sex-and-genetic-background
#15
Milena Saqui-Salces, Amy C Tsao, Merritt G Gillilland, Juanita L Merchant
: The impact of omeprazole (OM), a widely used over-the-counter proton pump inhibitor, on weight gain has not been extensively explored. We examined what factors, e.g., diet composition, microbiota, genetic strain and sex, might affect weight gain in mice fed a high caloric diet while on OM. METHODS: Inbred C57BL/6J strain, a 50:50 hybrid (B6SJLF1/J) strain and mice on a highly mixed genetic background were fed four diets: standard chow (STD, 6% fat), STD with 200 ppm OM (STD+O), a high-energy chow (HiE, 11% fat) and HiE chow with OM (HiE+O) for 17 weeks...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789458/relationship-between-gastric-motility-and-liquid-mixing-in-the-stomach
#16
Taimei Miyagawa, Yohsuke Imai, Shunichi Ishida, Takuji Ishikawa
The relationship between gastric motility and the mixing of liquid food in the stomach is investigated using a numerical analysis. Three parameters of gastric motility are considered: the propagation velocity, frequency, and terminal acceleration of peristaltic contractions. We simulate gastric flow using an anatomically-realistic geometric model of the stomach, considering free-surface flow and moving boundaries. When a peristaltic contraction approaches the pylorus, retropulsive flow is generated in the antrum...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789457/a-model-of-the-enteric-neural-circuitry-underlying-the-generation-of-rhythmic-motor-patterns-in-the-colon-the-role-of-serotonin
#17
Terence Keith Smith, Sang Don Koh
We discuss the multiple cell types involved in rhythmic motor patterns in the large intestine that include tonic inhibition of the muscle layers interrupted by rhythmic colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs), and secretomotor activity. We propose a model that assumes these motor patterns are dependent upon myenteric descending 5-Hydroxytrpamine (5-HT, serotonin) interneurons. Asynchronous firing in 5-HT neurons excite inhibitory motor neurons (IMNs) to generate tonic inhibition occurring between CMMCs. IMNs release mainly nitric oxide (NO) to inhibit the muscle, IPANs, glia cells and pacemaker ICC-MY...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789456/hydroxylases-regulate-intestinal-fibrosis-through-the-suppression-of-erk-mediated-tgf-%C3%AE-1-signaling
#18
Mario C Manresa, Murtaza M Tambuwala, Praveen Radhakrishnan, Jonathan M Harnoss, Eric Brown, Miguel A Cavadas, Ciara E Keogh, Alex Cheong, Kim E Barrett, Eoin P Cummins, Martin Schneider, Cormac T Taylor
Fibrosis is a complication of chronic inflammatory disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a condition which has limited therapeutic options and often requires surgical intervention. Pharmacologic inhibition of oxygen-sensing prolyl hydroxylases (PHD), which confer oxygen-sensitivity upon the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway, has recently been shown to have therapeutic potential in colitis, although the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here, we investigated the impact of hydroxylase inhibition on inflammation-driven fibrosis in a murine colitis model...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789455/catalpol-restores-lps-elicited-rat-microcirculation-disorder-by-regulation-of-a-network-of-signaling-involving-inhibition-of-tlr-4-and-src
#19
Yun-Pei Zhang, Chun-Shui Pan, Li Yan, Yu-Ying Liu, Bai-He Hu, Xin Chang, Quan Li, Dan-Dan Huang, Hao-Yu Sun, Ge Fu, Kai Sun, Jing-Yu Fan, Jing-Yan Han
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microvascular hyperpermeability and hemorrhage play a key role in the development of sepsis, attenuation of which might be an important strategy to prevent sepsis. However, present clinical therapies are proved to be inefficiency in improving the final survival rate for the patients with sepsis. Catalpol, an iridoid glycoside extracted from the roots of Rehmannia, has been reported able to protect against LPS-induced acute lung injury through Tool-like Receptor-4 (TLR-4) mediated NF-κB signaling pathway...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765760/advanced-spatiotemporal-mapping-methods-give-new-insights-into-the-coordination-of-contractile-activity-in-the-stomach-of-the-rat
#20
Roger Graham Lentle, Gordon W Reynolds, Corrin M Hulls, J P Chambers
We used spatiotemporal mapping of strain rate to determine the direction of propagation and amplitudes of the longitudinal and circumferential components of antro-corporal contractions and fundal contractions in the rat stomach maintained ex vivo and containing a volume of fluid that was within its normal functional capacity. In the region of the greater curvature the longitudinal and circular components of anterocorporal (AC) contractions propagated synchronously at right angles to the arciform geometric axis of the stomach...
October 20, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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