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American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792531/the-expression-of-lysophosphatidic-acid-receptor-5-is-necessary-for-the-regulation-of-intestinal-na-h-exchanger-3-by-lysophosphatidic-acid-in-vivo
#1
Kayte A Jenkin, Peijian He, C Chris Yun
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid molecule, which regulates a broad range of pathophysiological processes. Recent studies have demonstrated that LPA modulates electrolyte flux in the intestine and its potential as an anti-diarrheal agent has been suggested. Of six LPA receptors, LPA5 is highly expressed in the intestine. Recent studies by our group have demonstrated activation of Na+ /H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) by LPA5 . However, much of what has been elucidated was achieved using colonic cell lines that were transfected to express LPA5 ...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792530/manganese-transport-and-toxicity-in-polarized-wif-b-hepatocytes
#2
Khristy J Thompson, Jennifer Hein, Andrew Baez, Jose Carlo Sosa, Marianne Wessling-Resnick
Mn toxicity arises from nutritional problems, community and occupational exposures, and genetic risks. Mn blood levels are controlled by hepatobiliary clearance. The goals of this study were to determine the cellular distribution of Mn transporters in polarized hepatocytes, to establish an in vitro assay for hepatocyte Mn efflux, and to examine possible roles the Mn transporters would play in metal import and export. For these experiments, hepatocytoma WIF-B cells were grown for 12-14 days to achieve maximal polarity...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792529/mir-155-accelerates-proliferation-of-mouse-hepatocytes-during-liver-regeneration-by-directly-targeting-socs1
#3
Xia Lin, Li Chen, Haiyan Li, Yu Liu, Yanhong Guan, Xiaoyan Li, Zhenchang Jia, Xiaolin Lin, Junshuang Jia, Yan Sun, Dong Xiao
Liver regeneration after 2/3 partial hepatectomy (PH) is a clinically significant repair process to restore proper liver architecture. Although microRNA-155 (miR-155) has been found to serve as a crucial microRNA (miRNA) regulator controlling liver cells functions and proliferation, little is known about its specific role in the regenerating liver. Using a mouse model with miR-155 overexpression or miR-155 knockout, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of miR-155 in liver regeneration. A marked induction of miR-155 was evident in C57BL/6 mice after PH...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771572/inhibition-of-ubiquitin-activating-enzyme-protects-against-organ-injury-after-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion
#4
Shingo Matsuo, Andrew Chaung, Deanna Liou, Ping Wang, Weng-Lang Yang
Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) occurs in various clinical settings, such as transplantation, acute mesenteric arterial occlusion, trauma and shock. I/R injury causes severe systemic inflammation, leading to multiple organ dysfunction associated with high mortality. The ubiquitin proteasome pathway has been indicated in the regulation of inflammation, particularly through NF-κB signaling pathway. PYR-41 is a small molecular compound that selectively inhibits ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. A mouse model of intestinal I/R injury by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 45 minutes was performed to evaluate the effect of PYR-41 treatment on organ injury and inflammation...
May 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746173/induction-of-gut-proteasome-activity-in-hemorrhagic-shock-and-its-recovery-by-treatment-with-diphenyldihaloketones-clefma-and-ef24
#5
Geeta Rao, Hailey Houson, Gregory Nkepang, Hooman Yari, Chengwen Teng, Vibhudutta Awasthi
BACKGROUND: Multi-organ failure in hemorrhagic shock is triggered by gut barrier dysfunction and consequent systemic infiltration of proinflammatory factors. Our previous study has shown that diphenyldihaloketone drugs CLEFMA and EF24 restore gut barrier dysfunction and reduce systemic inflammatory response in hemorrhagic shock. AIMS: We investigated the effect of hemorrhagic shock on proteasome activity of intestinal epithelium and how CLEFMA and EF24 treatments modulate proteasome function in hemorrhagic shock...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746172/pharmacological-decrease-of-liver-stiffness-is-pressure-related-and-predicts-long-term-clinical-outcome
#6
Felix Piecha, Mattias Mandorfer, Teresa Peccerella, Ann-Kathrin Ozga, Tanja Poth, Anna Vonbank, Helmut Karl Seitz, Vanessa Rausch, Thomas Reiberger, Sebastian Mueller
Liver stiffness (LS) as measured by transient elastography is increasingly used to non-invasively assess liver fibrosis. However, LS is efficiently modulated by confounders like arterial and portal pressure (PP). We here study the effect of acute hemodynamic changes on LS (measured by µFibroscan) in a rodent model of cirrhosis in response to pharmacological modulation of PP by losartan, NO-donors and propranolol. Additionally, changes of LS and the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) under propranolol therapy were assessed with regard to clinical outcomes in a human cohort of n=38 cirrhotic patients...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746171/increased-task-channel-mediated-currents-underlie-high-fat-diet-induced-vagal-afferent-dysfunction
#7
Sung Jin Park, Yang Yu, Brittany Wagner, William C Valinsky, Alan E Lomax, Michael J Beyak
We have previously demonstrated that satiety sensing vagal afferent neurons are less responsive to meal-related stimuli in obesity, due to reduced electrical excitability. As leak K+ currents are key determinants of membrane excitability, we hypothesized that leak K+ currents are increased in vagal afferents during obesity. Diet-induced obesity (DIO) was induced by feeding C57Bl/6J mice a high fat fed diet (60% energy from fat - HFF) for 8-10 weeks. In vitro extracellular recordings were performed on jejunal afferent nerves...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746170/filaggrin-and-tight-junction-proteins-are-crucial-for-il-13-mediated-esophageal-barrier-dysfunction
#8
Liping Wu, Tadayuki Oshima, Min Li, Toshihiko Tomita, Hirokazu Fukui, Jiro Watari, Hiroto Miwa
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergy-mediated disease that is accompanied by IL-13 overexpression and an impaired esophageal barrier. Filaggrin (FLG) and tight junction (TJ) proteins are considered to contribute to epithelial barrier function. However, their functional involvement in EoE has not been elucidated. Here, we aimed to determine the IL-13-mediated barrier dysfunction and expression of TJ-related proteins in EoE, and to characterize interactions among TJ-related proteins involved in the barrier function of the esophageal epithelium...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746169/preventive-effects-of-transcutaneous-electrical-acustimulation-on-ischemic-stroke-induced-constipation-mediated-via-the-autonomic-pathway
#9
Zhaoxiu Liu, Yebo Ge, Feng Xu, Yuemei Xu, Yanmei Liu, Feizhen Xia, Lin Lin, Jiande Dz Chen
AIM: To explore the preventive effect and possible mechanisms of transcutaneous electrical acustimulation (TEA) on stroke-induced constipation. METHODS: A total of 86 ischemic stroke patients were randomly allocated to 2-week TEA or sham-TEA group. Bowel dairy and Bristol Stool Form Scale were recorded daily. Constipation and dyspeptic symptom assessment was performed at the end of the 14-day treatment. Electrocardiogram was recorded for the assessment of autonomic function...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723041/transcriptional-factor-pancreatic-duodenal-homeobox-1-pdx1-is-involved-in-age-related-gip-hypersecretion-in-mice
#10
Eri Ikeguchi, Norio Harada, Yoshinori Kanemaru, Akiko Sankoda, Shunsuke Yamane, Kanako Iwasaki, Masamichi Imajo, Yuki Murata, Kazuyo Suzuki, Erina Joo, Nobuya Inagaki
Fat accumulation with aging is a serious problem; glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin that plays an important role in fat accumulation. GIP receptor-knockout mice show reduced fat mass and improved insulin sensitivity associated with aging. Therefore, GIP is involved in fat accumulation and insulin resistance with aging. However, age-related changes of GIP secretion remain unclear. The present study aimed to elucidate age-related changes of GIP secretion and enteroendocrine K cells using GIP reporter (GIP-GFP knock-in heterozygous; GIPgfp/+ ) mice...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723040/role-of-the-blood-coagulation-cascade-in-hepatic-fibrosis
#11
Asmita Pant, Anna K Kopec, James P Luyendyk
Liver is the primary source of numerous proteins critical for normal function of the blood coagulation cascade. Because of this, diseases of the liver, particularly when affiliated with severe complications like cirrhosis, are associated with abnormalities of blood clotting. Although conventional interpretation has inferred cirrhosis as a disorder of uniform bleeding risk, it is now increasingly appreciated as a disease wherein the coagulation cascade is precariously rebalanced. Moreover, prothrombotic risk factors are also associated with a more rapid progression of fibrosis in humans, suggesting that coagulation proteases participate in disease pathogenesis...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698057/differential-associations-between-plasma-concentrations-of-insulin-and-glucose-and-intestinal-expression-of-key-genes-involved-in-chylomicron-metabolism
#12
Jean-Philippe Drouin-Chartier, Andre J Tremblay, Valéry Lemelin, Benoit Lamarche, Patrick Couture
The mechanisms underlying the oversecretion of apolipoprotein (apo) B-48-containing triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) in insulin-resistance (IR) states in humans remain to be fully understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the plasma levels of insulin and glucose and the intestinal expression of key genes involved in chylomicron metabolism in a large sample of nondiabetic men displaying various degrees of IR. Duodenal biopsies were obtained by gastroduodenoscopy in 127 men free of intestinal disease...
April 26, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698056/the-muc2-mucin-coats-murine-paneth-cell-granules-and-facilitates-their-content-release-and-dispersion
#13
Martin Stahl, Sarah Tremblay, Marinieve Montero, Wayne Vogl, Lijun Xia, Kevan Jacobson, Alfredo Menendez, Bruce A Vallance
Paneth cells are a key subset of secretory epithelial cells found at the base of small intestinal crypts. Unlike intestinal goblet cells, which secrete the mucin Muc2, Paneth cells are best known for producing an array of antimicrobial factors. We unexpectedly identified Muc2 staining localized around Paneth cell granules. Electron microscopy (EM) confirmed an electron lucent halo around these granules, which was lost in Paneth cells from Muc2 deficient (-/- ) mice. EM as well as immunostaining for lysozyme revealed that Muc2-/- Paneth cells contained larger, more densely packed granules within their cytoplasm and we detected defects in the transcription of key antimicrobial genes in the ileal tissues of Muc2-/- mice...
April 26, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672156/ursodeoxycholic-acid-protects-against-intestinal-barrier-breakdown-by-promoting-enterocyte-migration-via-egfr-and-cox-2-dependent-mechanisms
#14
Jamie M Golden, Oswaldo H Escobar, Michelle Vl Nguyen, Michael U Mallicote, Patil Kavarian, Mark R Frey, Christopher P Gayer
The intestinal barrier is often disrupted in disease states, and intestinal barrier failure leads to sepsis. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a bile acid that may protect the intestinal barrier. We hypothesized that UDCA would protect the intestinal epithelium in injury models. To test this hypothesis, we utilized an in vitro wound healing assay and a mouse model of intestinal barrier injury. We found that UDCA stimulates intestinal epithelial cell migration in vitro, and this migration was blocked by inhibition of COX-2, EGFR, or ERK...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672155/an-endogenous-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-ahr-ligand-ite-induces-regulatory-t-cells-tregs-and-ameliorates-experimental-colitis
#15
Jessicca D Abron, Narendra P Singh, Manoj K Mishra, Robert L Price, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash S Nagarkatti, Udai P Singh
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory condition that affects millions of people with high morbidity and health-care cost. The precise etiology of IBD is unknown, but clear evidence suggests that intestinal inflammation is caused by an excessive immune response to mucosal antigens. Recent studies have shown that activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) induces regulatory T cells (Tregs) and suppresses autoimmune diseases. In the current study, we investigated if nontoxic ligand of AhR, 2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE), can attenuate dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672154/do-nerves-make-bowels-irritable
#16
Brian D Gulbransen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672153/p21-activated-kinase4-in-pancreatic-acini-is-activated-by-gi-hormones-growth-factors-by-novel-signaling-and-is-needed-to-stimulate-secretory-growth-cascades
#17
Irene Ramos-Alvarez, Robert T Jensen
p21-activated kinases(PAKs) are highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinases, which are divided into two groups:Group-I(PAKs1-3) and Group-II(PAKs4-6). In various tissues, Group-II PAKs play important roles in cytoskeletal dynamics, cell growth as well as neoplastic development/progression. However, little is known about Group-II PAKs role in a number of physiological events including their ability to be activated by gastrointestinal(GI) hormones/neurotransmitters/growth-factors(GFs). We used rat pancreatic acini to explore the ability of GI-hormones/neurotransmitters/GFs to activate Group-II-PAKs and the signaling cascades involved...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648878/protective-effect-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-dsm-17938-against-experimental-necrotizing-enterocolitis-is-mediated-by-toll-like-receptor-2
#18
Thomas K Hoang, Baokun He, Ting Wang, Dat Q Tran, Jon Marc Rhoads, Yuying Liu
Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (LR 17938) has been shown to reduce the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). It is unclear if preventing NEC by LR 17938 is mediated by toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which is known to mediate pro-inflammatory responses to bacterial cell wall components. NEC was induced in newborn TLR2-/- or WT mice by the combination of gavage-feeding cow milk-based formula and exposure to hypoxia and cold stress. Treatment groups were administered formula supplemented with LR 17938 or placebo (MRS media)...
April 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648877/role-of-mitophagy-regulation-by-ros-in-hepatic-stellate-cells-during-acute-liver-failure
#19
Zhen Tian, Yi Chen, Naijuan Yao, Chunhua Hu, Yuchao Wu, Dandan Guo, Jinfeng Liu, Yuan Yang, Tianyan Chen, Yingren Zhao, Yingli He
Liver sinusoids serve as the first line of defence against extrahepatic stimuli from the intestinal tract. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are pericytes residing in the perisinusoidal space that integrate cytokine-mediated inflammatory responses in the sinusoids and relay these signals to the liver parenchyma. Oxidative stress has been shown to promote inflammation during acute liver failure (ALF). Whether and how oxidative stress is involved in HSC inflammation during ALF remains unclear. Level of systemic oxidative stress is reflected by superoxide dismutase (SOD)...
April 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631379/tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-tnf-%C3%AE-reduces-intestinal-vitamin-c-uptake-a-role-for-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-signaling
#20
Veedamali S Subramanian, Subrata Sabui, Ganapathy A Subramenium, Jonathan S Marchant, Hamid M Said
Sodium-dependent vitamin C transporter-1 (SVCT-1) is the major transporter mediating intestinal vitamin C uptake. Intestinal inflammation and prolonged infection are associated with an increased serum and intestinal mucosa levels of TNF-α, which also exerts profound effects on intestinal absorption process. Elevated levels of TNF-α have been linked to the pathogenesis of IBD and malabsorption of nutrients and these patients have low levels of vitamin C. To date, little is known about the effect of TNF-α on intestinal absorption of vitamin C...
April 6, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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