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American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001147/a-luminescent-future-for-the-study-of-bile-acid-transporters
#1
Nan Wu, Gianfranco Alpini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001146/vagus-nerve-cholinergic-circuitry-to-the-liver-and-the-gastrointestinal-tract-in-the-neuroimmune-communicatome
#2
Christine N Metz, Valentin A Pavlov
Improved understanding of neuroimmune communication and the neural regulation of immunity and inflammation has recently led to proposing the concept of the neuroimmune communicatome. This advance is based on experimental evidence for an organized and brain integrated reflex-like relationship and dialogue between the nervous and the immune systems. A key circuitry in this communicatome is provided by efferent vagus nerve fibers and cholinergic signaling. Inflammation and metabolic alterations co-exist in many disorders affecting the liver and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, fatty liver disease, liver injury and liver failure, as well as inflammatory bowel disease...
July 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001145/muscarinic-suppression-of-atp-sensitive-k-channels-mediated-by-the-m-3-g-q-11-phospholipase-c-pathway-contributes-to-mouse-ileal-smooth-muscle-contractions
#3
Ban Wang, Yuri Murakami, Maiki Ono, Saki Fujikawa, Hayato Matsuyama, Toshihiro Unno, Kiyotada Naitou, Yasuyuki Tanahashi
ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP ) channels are expressed in gastrointestinal smooth muscles, and their activity is regulated by muscarinic receptor stimulation. However, the physiological significance and mechanisms of muscarinic regulation of KATP channels are not fully understood. We examined the effects of the KATP channel opener cromakalim and the KATP channel blocker glibenclamide on electrical activity of single mouse ileal myocytes and on mechanical activity in ileal segment preparations. To explore muscarinic regulation of KATP channel activity and its underlying mechanisms, the effect of carbachol (CCh) on cromakalim-induced KATP channel currents (IKATP ) was studied in myocytes of M2 or M3 receptor-knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice...
July 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001144/-new-links-for-old-differential-roles-of-filaggrin-in-the-regulation-of-mucosal-barriers
#4
J Winny Yun, Mansoureh Barzegar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29975550/phenotypical-heterogeneity-in-responder-r-and-non-responder-nr-male-apoe-3leiden-cetp-mice
#5
Erika Tarasco, Giovanni Pellegrini, Lynda Whiting, Thomas A Lutz
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a major health issue worldwide and is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and hypercholesterolemia. Several animal models were used to describe the MetS, however many of them do not mimic well the MetS pathophysiology in humans. The ApoE*3Leiden.CETP mouse model overcomes part of this limitation, since they have a humanised lipoprotein metabolism and a heterogeneous response to MetS, similarly to humans. The reported heterogeneity among them and their common classification into responder (R) and non-responder mice (NR); R mice show increased body weight, cholesterol and triglycerides levels, while NR mice do not show this expected phenotype when fed a Western type diet...
July 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29953254/identification-of-novel-mrnas-and-lncrnas-associated-with-mouse-experimental-colitis-and-human-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
Carl Robert Rankin, Evangelos Theodorou, Ivy Ka Man Law, Lorraine Rowe, Efi Kokkotou, Joel Pekow, Jiafang Wang, Martin G Martin, Charalabos Pothoulakis, David Miguel Padua
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex disorder that is associated with significant morbidity. While many recent advances have been made with new diagnostic and therapeutic tools, a deeper understanding of its basic pathophysiology is needed to continue this trend towards improving treatments. By utilizing an unbiased, high-throughput transcriptomic analysis of two well-established mouse models of colitis, we set out to uncover novel coding and non-coding RNAs that are differentially expressed in the setting of colonic inflammation...
June 28, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29953253/lipid-malabsorption-from-altered-hormonal-signaling-changes-early-gut-microbial-responses
#7
Natalie A Terry, Lucie V Ngaba, Benjamin J Wilkins, Danielle Pi, Nishi Gheewala, Klaus H Kaestner
Infants with congenital diarrheal disorders caused by enteroendocrine cell dysgenesis, or the loss of intestinal endocrine cells, by itself causes severe malabsorptive diarrhea though the mechanism is unknown. The transcription factor 'Aristaless-related homeobox' (Arx), is specifically expressed in intestinal endocrine cells. This study seeks to characterize the early malabsorptive phenotype of mice deficient for Arx using cell-type specific gene ablation in Villin-Cre; ArxloxP/Y (Arxint ) mice. In neonatal mice, loss of intestinal Arx caused loss of intestinal hormones, such as cholecystokinin (CCK), secretin (Sct), neurotensin (Nts), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and GLP-2 but also upregulation of somatostatin (Sst)...
June 28, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927325/inflammation-associated-changes-in-dor-expression-and-function-in-the-mouse-colon
#8
Jesse J DiCello, Ayame Saito, Pradeep Rajasekhar, Emily M Eriksson, Rachel M McQuade, Cameron J Nowell, Benjamin W Sebastian, Jakub Fichna, Nicholas A Veldhuis, Meritxell Canals, Nigel W Bunnett, Simona Elisa Carbone, Daniel P Poole
Endogenous opioids activate opioid receptors (ORs) in the enteric nervous system to control intestinal motility and secretion. The mu OR mediates the deleterious side effects of opioid analgesics, including constipation, respiratory depression and addiction. Although the delta OR (DOR) is a promising target for analgesia, the function and regulation of DOR in the colon are poorly understood. This study provides evidence that endogenous opioids activate DOR in myenteric neurons which may regulate colonic motility...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927324/a-novel-bioluminescence-based-method-to-investigate-uptake-of-bile-acids-in-living-cells
#9
Alexander L Ticho, Hyunjin Lee, Ravinder K Gill, Pradeep K Dudeja, Seema Saksena, Daesung Lee, Waddah A Alrefai
Bile acid transporters including the ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) and the hepatic sodium-taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) are crucial for the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. Our objective was to develop a method for measuring bile acid transporter activity in real time to precisely evaluate rapid changes in their function. We designed a reporter system relying on a novel probe: cholic acid attached to luciferin via a disulfide-containing, self-immolating linker (CA-SS-Luc)...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927323/role-of-the-placenta-in-serum-autotaxin-elevation-during-maternal-cholestasis
#10
Rocio I R Macias, Sonia Matilla, Elisa Lozano, Maria C Estiú, Ronald Pj Oude Elferink, Jose J G Marin
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is frequently accompanied by pruritus, whose etiology has been associated with an enhanced production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) by the combined action of phospholipase A1/A2 (PLA1/PLA2) and autotaxin (ATX). Here we have investigated whether the placenta is involved in LPA release to maternal circulation during ICP. Serum levels of ATX and LPA (determined by ELISA) were elevated in women with ICP, and a correlation between both parameters was found. No relationship between serum levels of ATX or LPA and bile acids was found...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927322/liver-hfe-protein-content-is-posttranscriptionally-decreased-in-iron-deficient-mice-and-rats
#11
Jana Frydlova, Daniel W Rogalsky, Jaroslav Truksa, Lisa Traeger, Andrea U Steinbicker, Martin Vokurka, Jan Krijt
Although the relationship between hereditary hemochromatosis and mutations in the HFE gene was discovered more than 20 years ago, information on the in vivo regulation of HFE protein expression is still limited. The purpose of the study was to determine the response of liver HFE protein content to iron deficiency in mice and rats by immunoblotting. Attempts to visualize the HFE protein in whole liver homogenates were unsuccessful; however, HFE could be detected in liver microsomes or in plasma membrane-enriched fractions...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927321/hepatic-zip8-deficiency-is-associated-with-disrupted-selenium-homeostasis-liver-pathology-and-tumor-formation
#12
Liu Liu, Xiangrong Geng, Yihong Cai, Bryan L Copple, Masafumi Yoshinaga, Jian Shen, Daniel W Nebert, Hua Wang, Zijuan Liu
ZIP8 (encoded by Slc39a8) is a multi-functional membrane transporter that influxes essential metal cations Zn2+ , Mn2+ , Fe2+ and non-metal inorganic selenite (HSeO3 - ). Physiological roles of ZIP8 in different cell-types and tissues remain to be elucidated. We aimed to investigate ZIP8 functions in liver. Two mouse models were used in this study: one, 13- to 21-month-old Slc39a8(+/neo) hypomorphs having diminished ZIP8 levels; the other, a liver-specific ZIP8 acute knockdown mouse (Ad-shZip8). Histology, immunohistochemistry, and Western-blotting were used to investigate ZIP8-deficiency effects on hepatic injury, inflammatory changes, and oxidative stress...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927320/the-cholinergic-activation-of-enteric-glia-is-a-physiological-mechanism-that-contributes-to-the-regulation-of-gastrointestinal-motility
#13
Ninotchska M Delvalle, David E Fried, Gretchen Rivera-Lopez, Luke Gaudette, Brian D Gulbransen
The reflexive activities of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are regulated, in part, by precise interactions between neurons and glia in the enteric nervous system (ENS). Intra-ganglionic enteric glia are a unique type of peripheral glia that surround enteric neurons and regulate neuronal function, activity, and survival. Enteric glia express numerous neurotransmitter receptors that allow them to sense neuronal activity, but it is not clear if enteric glia monitor acetylcholine (ACh), the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the ENS...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927319/dietary-fat-stimulates-pancreatic-cancer-growth-and-promotes-fibrosis-of-the-tumor-microenvironment-through-the-cholecystokinin-receptor
#14
Sandeep Nadella, Julian Burks, Abdulhameed Al-Sabban, Gloria Inyang, Juan Wang, Robin D Tucker, Marie E Zamanis, William Bukowski, Narayan Shivapurkar, Jill P Smith
The gastrointestinal peptide cholecystokinin (CCK) is released from the duodenum in response to dietary fat to aid in digestion, and plasma CCK levels are elevated with the consumption of high fat diets. CCK is also a trophic peptide for the pancreas and has also been shown to stimulate growth of pancreatic cancer. In the current investigation, we studied the influence of a diet high in saturated fat on growth of pancreatic cancer in syngeneic murine models before the mice became obese to exclude the confounding factors associated with obesity...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927318/rho-kinase-inhibition-maintains-intestinal-and-vascular-barrier-function-by-upregulation-of-occludin-in-experimental-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#15
Justyna S Grothaus, Guillermo Ares, Carrie Y Yuan, Douglas R Wood, Catherine J Hunter
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a deadly disease that occurs in 5-10% of neonates. Although NEC has been extensively studied, no single therapeutic target has been identified. Rho kinase is a serine/ threonine kinase that affects multiple cellular processes including tight junction function, cellular permeability, and apoptosis. We hypothesized that ROCK inhibition would decrease cellular permeability, stabilize tight junction (TJ) proteins (occludin), and decrease the severity of NEC. To test this hypothesis, human colon epithelial cells (Caco-2) and human endothelial cells (HUVEC) were studied...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902066/cholecystokinin-induces-esophageal-longitudinal-muscle-contraction-and-transient-lower-esophageal-sphincter-relaxation-in-healthy-humans
#16
Arash Babaei, Ravinder K Mittal
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is known to cause lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation through the activation of inhibitory motor neurons. Recent studies show that the longitudinal muscle contraction (LMC) related axial stretch may play a role in the LES relaxation. The aim of our study was to determine whether the CCK induced LES relaxation and identify the characteristics of associated LMC in humans. Nine healthy volunteers (5F, 40 + 12 years) received escalating doses of CCK-octapeptide (5, 10, 20 and 40 ng/kg)...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902065/mesenteric-adipose-tissue-contributes-to-intestinal-barrier-integrity-and-protects-against-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice
#17
Zhe Wu, Jiang Tan, Yujing Chi, Feng Zhang, Jun Xu, Yang Song, Xu Cong, Na Wu, Yulan Liu
Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is related to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the role of mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT), part of the VAT, in NAFLD is unclear. In the present study, we monitored the liver and four depots of the VAT in high fat diet (HFD) feeding mice at multiple time points (4, 8, and 12 weeks). The MAT had become inflamed by the 8th week of HFD feeding, earlier than other depots of VAT. Furthermore, MAT removal after 8 weeks of HFD resulted in more severe steatosis and more foci of inflammation infiltration, as well as higher NAFLD activity scores...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878847/niemann-pick-c1-deficient-mice-lacking-sterol-o-acyltransferase-2-have-less-hepatic-cholesterol-entrapment-and-improved-liver-function
#18
Adam M Lopez, Ryan Dale Jones, Joyce J Repa, Stephen D Turley
Cholesteryl esters are generated at multiple sites in the body by sterol O-acyltransferase 1 (SOAT1) or sterol O-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2) in various cell types, and lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) in plasma. Esterified cholesterol (EC) and triacylglycerol (TAG) contained in lipoproteins cleared from the circulation via receptor-mediated or bulk-phase endocytosis are hydrolyzed by lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) within the late endosomal/lysosomal (E/L) compartment. Then, through the successive actions of Niemann-Pick C2 (NPC2) and Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1), unesterified cholesterol (UC) is exported from the E/L compartment to the cytosol...
June 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878846/the-role-of-insulin-at-brain-liver-axis-in-the-control-of-glucose-production
#19
Izabela Mr Ribeiro, Vagner Roberto Antunes
Glucose is an essential metabolic substrate for all mammalian cells and its availability in the circulation is carefully controlled to avoid wide variations. Different mechanisms are involved in the glucose disposal, such as an adequate pancreatic and hepatic function. Insulin is the main hormone in glycemic control, and its action occurs directly in the cells, as well as in the liver, as in an indirect way, to ultimately control the glycemia. Insulin has also an important action within the central nervous system, more precisely in the hypothalamus that project directly to pre-autonomic nuclei in the brainstem to control hepatic glucose production...
June 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29878845/lifestyle-intervention-for-morbid-obesity-effects-on-liver-steatosis-inflammation-and-fibrosis
#20
Simon Hohenester, Simon Christiansen, Jutta M Nagel, Ralf Wimmer, Renate Artmann, Gerald Denk, Monika Bischoff, Gert Bischoff, Christian Rust
Background The prevalence of obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rising. NAFLD may result in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), progressing to liver cirrhosis. Weight loss is recommended to treat obesity-related NASH. Lifestyle intervention may improve NASH. However, pertinent trials have so far focused on overweight patients, while patients with obesity are at highest risk of developing NAFLD. Furthermore, reports of effects on liver fibrosis are scarce. We evaluated the effect of lifestyle intervention on NAFLD in a real-life cohort of morbidly obese patients...
June 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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