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American Journal of Epidemiology

Shivani A Patel, Mohammed K Ali, K M Venkat Narayan, Neil K Mehta
We examined factors responsible for variation in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality across US counties in 2009-2013. We linked county-level census, survey, administrative, and vital statistics data to examine 4 sets of features: demographic factors, social and economic factors, health-care utilization and features of the environment, and population health indicators. County-level associations of these features (standardized to a mean of 0 with a standard deviation of 1) with cardiovascular deaths per 100,000 person-years among adults aged 45-74 years was modeled using 2-level hierarchical linear regression with random intercept for state...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Thomas Astell-Burt, Xiaoqi Feng, Gregory S Kolt, Bin Jalaludin
Does a rise in crime result in increased sitting time and a reduction in physical activity? We used unobserved ("fixed")-effects models to examine associations between change in objectively measured crime (nondomestic violence, malicious damage, breaking and entering, and stealing, theft, and robbery) in Australia and measures of sitting time, walking, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in a residentially stable sample of 17,474 men and 19,688 women at baseline (2006-2008) and follow-up (2009-2010)...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Alexis Hure, Christopher Oldmeadow, John Attia
In this issue of the Journal, Isanaka et al. (Am J Epidemiol 2016;000(00):000-000) set out to update an incidence correction factor used for estimating numbers of cases of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in children aged 6-59 months. The total number of current SAM cases (prevalent cases) increases by the number of new (incident) cases and decreases as a result of recovery or death. Prevalence estimates are obtained from cross-sectional surveys. Calculation of incidence typically requires longitudinal data, which evidently are rarely collected for SAM, and so a correction factor is applied instead...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Chenan Zhang, Diane S Lauderdale, Brandon L Pierce
Inconsistent associations between smoking and telomere length (TL) have been reported in epidemiologic studies, perhaps because of the time-varying nature of smoking behaviors. We estimated the associations of TL, which was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction using saliva DNA, with concurrent and past smoking status reported biennially for up to 16 years before TL measurement in 5,624 participants in the Health and Retirement Study (1992-2008). Smoking was associated with reduced TL when we used prospective data on smoking statuses among men and women, but the association was strongly attenuated among men in cross-sectional analyses...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Martha M Werler, Samantha E Parker, Klaus Hedman, Mika Gissler, Annukka Ritvanen, Heljä-Marja Surcel
Gastroschisis risk is highest in offspring of young women and is increasing in prevalence, suggesting that exposures that are increasingly common among younger females may be causal. Some infections by viruses in the herpes family are more common in the earlier childbearing years and have been increasing in prevalence over time. Data from the Finnish Maternity Cohort were linked to Finnish malformation and birth registers (1987-2012) for this study, a nested case-control study of mothers of offspring with gastroschisis and age-matched controls...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Sheila Isanaka, Ellen O'Neal Boundy, Rebecca F Grais, Mark Myatt, André Briend
Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is reported to affect 19 million children worldwide. However, this estimate is based on prevalence data from cross-sectional surveys and can be expected to miss some children affected by an acute condition such as SAM. The burden of acute conditions is more appropriately represented by cumulative incidence data. In the absence of incidence data, a method for burden estimation has been proposed that corrects available prevalence estimates to account for incident cases using an "incidence correction factor...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Sarah A Aroner, Kenneth J Mukamal, David E St-Jules, Matthew J Budoff, Ronit Katz, Michael H Criqui, Matthew A Allison, Ian H de Boer, David S Siscovick, Joachim H Ix, Majken K Jensen
Fetuin-A is a hepatic secretory protein and a novel risk factor for diabetes. However, it remains unclear whether the association between high levels of fetuin-A and diabetes can be attributed to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We conducted a case-cohort study among 1,957 subcohort members and 455 incident diabetes cases in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a multicenter US study of Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, and Chinese-American adults aged 45-84 years. Serum fetuin-A and computed tomography-determined liver fat content were measured from samples collected at baseline (2000-2002)...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Christelle Clary, Daniel J Lewis, Ellen Flint, Neil R Smith, Yan Kestens, Steven Cummins
Studies that explore associations between the local food environment and diet routinely use global regression models, which assume that relationships are invariant across space, yet such stationarity assumptions have been little tested. We used global and geographically weighted regression models to explore associations between the residential food environment and fruit and vegetable intake. Analyses were performed in 4 boroughs of London, United Kingdom, using data collected between April 2012 and July 2012 from 969 adults in the Olympic Regeneration in East London Study...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Jennifer J Vasterling, Mihaela Aslan, Susan P Proctor, John Ko, Brian P Marx, Matthew Jakupcak, Paula P Schnurr, Theresa Gleason, Grant D Huang, John Concato
The mental health toll of the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars on military veterans has been considerable, yet little is known about the persistence of these adverse outcomes, especially relative to predeployment status. We prospectively examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a long-term consequence of warzone deployment, integrating data collected from 2003-2014. In the Neurocognition Deployment Health Study, we measured PTSD symptoms in US Army soldiers before and shortly after Iraq War deployment. We used the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version and a structured clinical interview (i...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Benjamin A Goldstein, Nrupen A Bhavsar, Matthew Phelan, Michael J Pencina
Electronic health records (EHRs) are an increasingly utilized resource for clinical research. While their size allows for many analytical opportunities, as with most observational data there is also the potential for bias. One of the key sources of bias in EHRs is what we term informed presence-the notion that inclusion in an EHR is not random but rather indicates that the subject is ill, making people in EHRs systematically different from those not in EHRs. In this article, we use simulated and empirical data to illustrate the conditions under which such bias can arise and how conditioning on the number of health-care encounters can be one way to remove this bias...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Mohammad Ehsanul Karim, Paul Gustafson, John Petkau, Helen Tremlett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Martin Wolkewitz, Jan Beyersmann, Kristin Ohneberg, Martin Schumacher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Jonathan D Newman, Ana Navas-Acien, Chin-Chi Kuo, Eliseo Guallar, Barbara V Howard, Richard R Fabsitz, Richard B Devereux, Jason G Umans, Kevin A Francesconi, Walter Goessler, Lyle T Best, Maria Tellez-Plaza
At high levels, inorganic arsenic exposure is linked to peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and cardiovascular disease. To our knowledge, no prior study has evaluated the association between low-to-moderate arsenic exposure and incident PAD by ankle brachial index (ABI). We evaluated this relationship in the Strong Heart Study, a large population-based cohort study of American Indian communities. A total of 2,977 and 2,966 PAD-free participants who were aged 45-74 years in 1989-1991 were reexamined in 1993-1995 and 1997-1999, respectively, for incident PAD defined as either ABI <0...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Kathrine Grell, Kirsten Frederiksen, Joachim Schüz, Elisabeth Cardis, Bruce Armstrong, Jack Siemiatycki, Daniel R Krewski, Mary L McBride, Christoffer Johansen, Anssi Auvinen, Martine Hours, Maria Blettner, Siegal Sadetzki, Susanna Lagorio, Naohito Yamaguchi, Alistair Woodward, Tore Tynes, Maria Feychting, Sarah J Fleming, Anthony J Swerdlow, Per K Andersen
When investigating the association between brain tumors and use of mobile telephones, accurate data on tumor position are essential, due to the highly localized absorption of energy in the human brain from the radio-frequency fields emitted. We used a point process model to investigate this association using information that included tumor localization data from the INTERPHONE Study (Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom)...
November 3, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Joanna Kaluza, Susanna C Larsson, Anders Linden, Alicja Wolk
Consumption of both processed and unprocessed red meat has been associated with a higher risk of major chronic diseases. However, only processed meat consumption has been studied in relation to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, we endeavored to determine the association between the risk of COPD and consumption of processed and unprocessed red meat while taking into account smoking status. The population-based prospective Cohort of Swedish Men included 43,848 men who were 45-79 years of age and had no history of COPD or cancer at baseline...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Yi Wang, Gregory A Wellenius, DeMarc A Hickson, Annie Gjelsvik, Charles B Eaton, Sharon B Wyatt
To our knowledge, no study has investigated the association of long-term exposure to traffic pollution with markers of atherosclerosis in 4 vascular beds simultaneously in an all-African-American cohort. Among participants in the Jackson Heart Study (Jackson, Mississippi; baseline mean age = 55.5 (standard deviation, 12.7) years), we used linear regression to estimate percent differences in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) at baseline (2004) and used modified Poisson regression (robust error variance) to estimate prevalence ratios for peripheral artery disease (PAD), coronary artery calcification (CAC), and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) at the first follow-up visit (2005-2008) for persons living less than 150 m (versus more than 300 m) from major roadways, adjusting for confounders...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Varun K Phadke, Mark C Steinhoff, Saad B Omer, Noni E MacDonald
Maternal influenza immunization can reduce influenza-attributable morbidity and mortality among pregnant women and infants who are too young to be vaccinated. Data from empirical studies also support the hypothesis that immunization can protect the fetus against adverse outcomes if the mother is exposed to influenza. In their theoretical analysis in the Journal, Hutcheon et al. (Am J Epidemiol 2016;184(3):227-232) critiqued the existing evidence of the fetal benefits of maternal influenza immunization by calculating the sample sizes needed to demonstrate hypothetical reductions in risk and concluded that the benefits observed in empirical studies are likely implausible...
October 26, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Jennifer A Hutcheon, Deshayne B Fell, Michael L Jackson, Michael S Kramer, Justin R Ortiz, David A Savitz, Robert W Platt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Ester Rita Alessandrini, Massimo Stafoggia, Annunziata Faustini, Giovanna Berti, Cristina Canova, Aldo De Togni, Katiuscia Di Biagio, Bianca Gherardi, Simone Giannini, Paolo Lauriola, Paolo Pandolfi, Giorgia Randi, Andrea Ranzi, Lorenzo Simonato, Stefano Zauli Sajani, Ennio Cadum, Francesco Forastiere
We performed a multisite study to evaluate demographic and clinical conditions as potential modifiers of the particulate matter (PM)-mortality association. We selected 228,619 natural deaths of elderly persons (ages ≥65 years) that occurred in 12 Italian cities during the period 2006-2010. Individual data on causes of death, age, sex, location of death, and preexisting chronic and acute conditions from the previous 5 years' hospitalizations were collected. City-specific conditional logistic regression models were applied within the case-crossover "time-stratified" framework, followed by random-effects meta-analysis...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
Jesper Hallas, Anton Pottegård, Shirley Wang, Sebastian Schneeweiss, Joshua J Gagne
Studying the effect of chronic medication exposure by means of a case-crossover design may result in an upward-biased odds ratio. In this study, our aim was to assess the occurrence of this bias and to evaluate whether it is remedied by including a control group (the case-time-control design). Using Danish data resources from 1995-2012, we conducted case-crossover and case-time-control analyses for 3 medications (statins, insulin, and thyroxine) in relation to 3 outcomes (retinal detachment, wrist fracture, and ischemic stroke), all with assumed null associations...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
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