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American Journal of Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194475/analysis-of-the-strength-of-legal-firearms-restrictions-for-perpetrators-of-domestic-violence-and-their-association-with-intimate-partner-homicide
#1
April M Zeoli, Alexander McCourt, Shani Buggs, Shannon Frattaroli, David Lilley, Daniel W Webster
In this research, we estimate the association of firearm restrictions for domestic violence offenders with intimate partner homicides (IPHs), based on the strength of the policies. We posit that the association of firearm laws with IPHs depends on the laws': 1) breadth of coverage of high-risk individuals and situations restricted; 2) power to compel firearm surrender or removal from prohibited persons; and 3) systems of accountability that prevent prohibited persons from obtaining guns. We conducted a quantitative policy evaluation using annual state-level data from 1980 through 2013 for 45 US states...
November 29, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186311/unequal-exposure-or-unequal-vulnerability-contributions-of-neighborhood-conditions-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-to-socioeconomic-inequality-in-incident-cardiovascular-disease-in-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#2
Mustafa Hussein, Ana V Diez Roux, Mahasin S Mujahid, Theresa A Hastert, Kiarri N Kershaw, Alain G Bertoni, Ana Baylin
Risk factors can drive socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) through differential exposure and differential vulnerability. We show how econometric decomposition directly enables simultaneous, policy-oriented assessment of these two mechanisms. We specifically estimated contributions via these mechanisms of neighborhood environment and proximal risk factors to socioeconomic inequality in CVD incidence. We followed 5,608 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2012) until the first CVD event (median follow-up 12...
November 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186303/maternal-and-neonatal-vitamin-d-status-are-not-associated-with-risk-of-childhood-type-1-diabetes-a-scandinavian-case-cohort-study
#3
Steffen U Thorsen, Karl Mårild, Sjurdur F Olsen, Klaus K Holst, German Tapia, Charlotta Granström, Thorhallur I Halldorsson, Arieh S Cohen, Margaretha Haugen, Marika Lundqvist, Torild Skrivarhaug, Pål R Njølstad, Geir Joner, Per Magnus, Ketil Størdal, Jannet Svensson, Lars C Stene
Studies on vitamin D status during pregnancy and risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D) lack consistency, and are limited by small sample sizes or single measures of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). We investigated whether average maternal 25(OH)D plasma concentrations during pregnancy are associated with risk of childhood T1D. In a case-cohort design, we identified 459 children with T1D and a random sample (n = 1,561) from the Danish National Birth Cohort (n = 97,127) and Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (n = 113,053)...
November 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165572/principled-approaches-to-missing-data-in-epidemiologic-studies
#4
Neil J Perkins, Stephen R Cole, Ofer Harel, Eric J Tchetgen Tchetgen, BaoLuo Sun, Emily M Mitchell, Enrique F Schisterman
Principled methods to appropriately analyze missing data have long existed; however, broad implementation of these methods remains challenging. In this and companion papers, we discuss issues of missing data in the epidemiologic literature. We provide details regarding missing data mechanisms and nomenclature and motivate principled analyses through a detailed comparison of multiple imputation and inverse probability weighting. We do so in the setting of a masked data-analytic challenge with missing data induced by known mechanisms to data from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a multisite US study conducted from 1959 to 1974...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165557/inverse-probability-weighted-estimation-for-monotone-and-nonmonotone-missing-data
#5
BaoLuo Sun, Neil J Perkins, Stephen R Cole, Ofer Harel, Emily Mitchell, Enrique F Schisterman, Eric J Tchetgen Tchetgen
Missing data is of common occurrence in epidemiologic research. In this paper, three data sets with induced missing values from the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a multisite United States study conducted from 1959 to 1974, are provided as examples of prototypical epidemiologic studies with missing data. Our goal is to estimate the effect of maternal smoking behavior on spontaneous abortion while adjusting for numerous confounders. At the same time, we do not necessarily wish to evaluate the joint distribution among potentially unobserved covariates, which is seldom the subject of substantive scientific interest...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165547/multiple-imputation-for-incomplete-data-in-epidemiologic-studies
#6
Ofer Harel, Emily M Mitchell, Neil J Perkins, Stephen R Cole, Eric J Tchetgen Tchetgen, BaoLuo Sun, Enrique F Schisterman
Epidemiologic studies are frequently susceptible to missing information. Omitting observations with missing variables remains a common strategy in epidemiologic studies, yet this simple approach can often severely bias parameter estimates of interest if the values are not missing completely at random. Even when missingness is completely random, complete case analysis can reduce efficiency of estimated parameters, because large amounts of available data are simply tossed out with the incomplete observations...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155931/long-term-risk-of-cardiovascular-death-with-use-of-clarithromycin-and-roxithromycin-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#7
Malin Inghammar, Olof Nibell, Björn Pasternak, Mads Melbye, Henrik Svanström, Anders Hviid
Recent studies have raised concern that macrolide antibiotics may be associated with a long-term increased risk of cardiovascular death. This study examines the one-year risk associated with treatment with clarithromycin (n = 751,543) and roxithromycin (n = 698,899) compared with penicillin V (n = 2,721,538), matched 1:4 on propensity score, in a nationwide registry-based cohort study in Danish outpatients, 1997-2011. Among clarithromycin courses, the rate ratio (RR) of cardiovascular death was 1.24; 95% CI: 0...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155925/exposure-biomarkers-indicate-more-than-just-exposure
#8
David A Savitz, Gregory A Wellenius
Biomarkers of environmental exposures have notable strengths in integrating across diverse sources and routes of exposure and providing a marker reflecting biological dose. However, the physiologic determinants of biomarker toxicokinetics and measured levels may also affect or be affected by disease determinants and thus introduce confounding. Sagiv et al. (1) sought empirical evidence on the role of renal clearance in biasing the association between perfluoroalkyl compounds measured in plasma during pregnancy and infant birth weight and found little empirical support for such bias...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155924/accounting-for-time-varying-confounding-in-the-relation-between-obesity-and-coronary-heart-disease-analysis-with-g-estimation-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-aric-study
#9
Maryam Shakiba, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Arsalan Salari, Hamid Soori, Nasrin Mansournia, Jay S Kaufman
In longitudinal studies, standard analysis may yield biased estimates of exposure effect in the presence of time-varying confounders that are also intermediate variables. We aimed to quantify the relationship between obesity and coronary heart disease (CHD) by appropriately adjusting for time-varying confounders. This study performed on a subset of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (1987-2010). General obesity defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m2, abdominal obesity (AOB) defined as waist circumference ≥102 cm in men and ≥88 cm in women, and waist to hip ratio categorized at ≥0...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155920/early-pregnancy-perfluoroalkyl-substance-plasma-concentrations-and-birth-outcomes-in-project-viva-confounded-by-pregnancy-hemodynamics
#10
Sharon K Sagiv, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Abby F Fleisch, Thomas F Webster, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Matthew W Gillman, Emily Oken
Associations of prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), ubiquitous chemicals used in stain and water resistant products, with adverse birth outcomes may be confounded by pregnancy hemodynamics. We measured plasma concentrations of four PFASs in early pregnancy (median, 9 weeks) among 1,645 women in Project Viva, a Boston-area cohort recruited 1999-2002. We fit multivariable models to estimate PFAS associations with birth weight-for-gestational age z score and gestation length adjusting for sociodemographic confounders and two hemodynamic markers: 1) plasma albumin, a measure of plasma volume expansion, and 2) plasma creatinine, used to estimate glomerular filtration rate...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155919/neonatal-outcomes-in-a-medicaid-population-with-opioid-dependence
#11
Susan B Brogly, Sonia Hernández-Diaz, Emily Regan, Ela Fadli, Kristen A Hahn, Martha M Werler
Confounding may account for the apparent improved infant outcomes after prenatal exposure to buprenorphine versus methadone. We used Massachusetts Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) data to identify a cohort of opioid dependent mother-infant pairs (2006-2011) supplemented with confounder data from an external Boston cohort (2015-2016). Associations between prenatal buprenorphine versus methadone exposure and infant outcomes in the MAX Cohort were adjusted for measured MAX confounders, and unmeasured confounders with bias analysis using External Cohort data...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155917/associations-between-divorce-and-onset-of-drug-abuse-in-a-swedish-national-sample
#12
Alexis C Edwards, Sara Larsson Lönn, Jan Sundquist, Kenneth S Kendler, Kristina Sundquist
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155916/a-novel-strategy-to-address-unmeasured-confounding-when-comparing-opioid-agonist-therapies-in-pregnancy
#13
Lara S Lemon
Opioid addiction in pregnancy is a growing concern that has recently received a lot of attention. When comparing recommended opioid agonist therapies, many currently published studies guiding practice may be impacted by unmeasured confounding by indication. Populations of women who receive methadone are generally different from those treated with buprenorphine. Women treated with methadone frequently have more severe and uncontrolled addiction compared with buprenorphine treated patients; however, these factors are typically unmeasured or unavailable in large observational data sets...
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149257/eleven-telomere-epigenetic-clock-and-biomarker-composite-quantifications-of-biological-aging-do-they-measure-the-same-thing
#14
Daniel W Belsky, Terrie E Moffitt, Alan A Cohen, David L Corcoran, Morgan E Levine, Joseph A Prinz, Jonathan Schaefer, Karen Sugden, Benjamin Williams, Richie Poulton, Avshalom Caspi
The geroscience hypothesis posits that therapies to slow biological processes of aging can prevent disease and extend healthy years of life. To test such "gero-protective" therapies in humans, outcome measures are needed that can assess extension of disease-free lifespan. This need has spurred development of different methods to quantify biological aging. But different methods have not been systematically compared in the same humans. We implemented seven methods to quantify biological aging using repeated-measures physiological and genomic data in 964 middle-aged humans in the Dunedin Study...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145581/prospective-epidemiological-research-studies-in-iran-the-persian-cohort-rationale-objectives-and-design
#15
Hossein Poustchi, Sareh Eghtesad, Farin Kamangar, Arash Etemadi, Abbas-Ali Keshtkar, Azita Hekmatdoost, Zahra Mohammadi, Zahra Mahmoudi, Amaneh Shayanrad, Farzin Roozafzai, Mahdi Sheikh, Alireza Jalaeikhoo, Mohammad Hossein Somi, Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei, Farid Najafi, Ehsan Bahramali, Amirhoushang Mehrparvar, Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam, Ahmad Ali Enayati, Ali Esmaeili Nadimi, Abbas Rezaianzadeh, Nader Saki, Fatemeh Alipour, Roya Kelishadi, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Nayyereh Aminisani, Paolo Boffetta, Reza Malekzadeh
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) account for 76% of deaths in Iran and this number is on the rise, parallel to global rates. Many risk factors associated with NCDs are preventable; however it is first necessary to conduct observational studies to identify relevant risk factors, and the most appropriate approach to control them. Iran is a multi-ethnic country, therefore the Ministry of Health and Medical Education sought to launch a nationwide cohort study-the Prospective Epidemiological Research Studies in IrAN (PERSIAN)-in order to identify the most prevalent NCDs among Iranian ethnicities, and to investigate effective methods of prevention...
November 14, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140427/sudden-unexpected-cardiac-death-on-monday-in-younger-and-older-men-the-manitoba-follow-up-study
#16
Robert B Tate, Philip D St John
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140421/decomposition-of-the-total-effect-in-the-presence-of-multiple-mediators-and-interactions
#17
Andrea Bellavia, Linda Valeri
Mediation analysis allows decomposing a total effect into a direct effect of the exposure on the outcome and an indirect effect operating through a number of possible hypothesized pathways. Recent studies have provided formal definitions of direct and indirect effects when multiple mediators are of interest, and have described parametric and semi-parametric methods for their estimation. Investigating direct and indirect effects with multiple mediators, however, can be challenging in the presence of multiple exposure-mediator and mediator-mediator interactions...
November 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140420/growth-trajectories-breast-size-and-breast-tissue-composition-in-a-british-pre-birth-cohort-of-young-women
#18
Rachel Denholm, Bianca De Stavola, John H Hipwell, Simon J Doran, Marta C Busana, Martin O Leach, David J Hawkes, Isabel Dos-Santos-Silva
Mammographic % density, the proportion of fibroglandular tissue in the breast, is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but its determinants in young women are unknown. We examined associations between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) breast-tissue composition at age 21 years and prospectively-collected measures of body size and composition from birth to early adulthood, and markers of puberty (all standardized), in a sample of 500 nulliparous women from a pre-birth cohort of children born in Avon, England, in 1991-1992 and followed up to 2011-2014...
November 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140407/targeted-treatment-of-yaws-with-household-contact-tracing-how-much-do-we-miss
#19
Louise Dyson, Michael Marks, Oliver M Crook, Oliver Sokana, Anthony W Solomon, Alex Bishop, David C W Mabey, T Déirdre Hollingsworth
Yaws is a disabling bacterial infection primarily found in warm and humid tropical areas. The World Health Organisation strategy mandates an initial round of total community treatment (TCT) with single-dose azithromycin followed either by further TCT or active case finding and treatment of cases and their contacts (the Morges strategy). We wish to investigate the effectiveness of the Morges strategy. We employ a stochastic household model to study the transmission of infection using data collected from a pre-TCT survey conducted in the Solomon Islands...
November 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126260/association-between-risk-of-bias-assessments-and-results-of-randomized-trials-in-cochrane-reviews-the-robes-meta-epidemiologic-study
#20
Jelena Savovic, Rebecca M Turner, David Mawdsley, Hayley E Jones, Rebecca Beynon, Julian P T Higgins, Jonathan A C Sterne
Flaws in trial design may bias intervention effect estimates and increase between-trial heterogeneity. Empirical evidence suggests that these problems are greatest for subjectively assessed outcomes. For the ROBES study, we extracted risk-of-bias judgements (for sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding and incomplete data) from a large collection of meta-analyses published in the Cochrane Library, issue 4, 2011. We categorized outcome measures as mortality, other objective or subjective, and estimated associations of bias judgements with intervention effect estimates using Bayesian hierarchical models...
November 8, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
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