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American Journal of Epidemiology

Ying Chen, Tyler J VanderWeele
This study prospectively examined the associations between religious involvement in adolescence (including religious service attendance and prayer or meditation) and a wide array of psychosocial well-being, mental health, health behaviors, physical health and character strengths outcomes in young adulthood. Longitudinal data from the Growing Up Today Study (Ns ranged from 5,681 to 7,458, depending on outcome; mean baseline age was 14.74 years) with 8-14 year follow-up (1999-2010/2013/2007 questionnaire wave) were analyzed using generalized estimating equations...
September 10, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Yusuke Matsuyama, Hendrik Jürges, Stefan Listl
Associations between education and oral health have frequently been reported, but until now there is no causal evidence. Exploiting exogenous variation in years of schooling due to 1947 and 1972 reforms in mandatory schooling in the UK; we examined the causal relationship between education and tooth loss in older age. A cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (waves 3, 5 and 7). A Two-Stage Least Squares instrumental variables approach was employed. 5,667 respondents (average age = 67...
September 7, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Hamid Ferdosi, Karen A Schwab, Andrea Metti, Lisa A Brenner, Heidi Terrio, Renee M Pazdan, Wesley R Cole, Ann I Scher
Postconcussive symptoms are believed to resolve in days or months in most instances for civilian injuries, though recent evidence suggests that recovery may be slower for injuries sustained during military deployment. The present study is based on a cohort of recently deployed soldiers from two US Army military bases (Fort Carson and Fort Bragg, followed from 2009-2015). Soldiers with and without a recent history of a deployment mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) were evaluated within days of return and at 3, 6, and 12-months...
September 7, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Peter Spreeuwenberg, Madelon Kroneman, John Paget
Mortality estimates of the 1918 influenza pandemic vary considerably, and recent estimates have suggested that there were 50-100 million deaths worldwide. We investigated the global mortality burden using an indirect estimation approach and two publically available datasets: the Human Mortality Database (13 countries) and data extracted from the records of the Statistical Abstract for British India. The all-cause Human Mortality Database allowed us to estimate mortality annually in 1916-1921 for detailed age groups...
September 7, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Wen Yang, Molly Steele, Ben Lopman, Juan S Leon, Aron J Hall
Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and of foodborne disease in the United States. The Food and Drug Administration recommends foodworkers infected with norovirus be excluded from work while symptomatic and 48 hours after their symptoms subside. Compliance with this recommendation is not ideal and the population-level impacts of changes in foodworker compliance have yet to be quantified. We aimed to assess population impacts of varying degrees of compliance with the current recommendation through a compartmental model...
September 7, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Andreas Ernst, Nis Brix, Lea L B Lauridsen, Jørn Olsen, Erik T Parner, Zeyan Liew, Lars H Olsen, Cecilia H Ramlau-Hansen
This study explored the association between exposure to acetaminophen during pregnancy and pubertal development using data from 15,822 boys and girls in the longitudinal Puberty Cohort, nested within The Danish National Birth Cohort. Use of acetaminophen was reported three times during pregnancy and six months postpartum. In total, 54% of mothers indicated use at least once during pregnancy. Between 2012 and 2017, sons and daughters provided information on a wide range of pubertal milestones, including Tanner stages, axillary hair growth and age at menarche or voice break and first ejaculation, every six months from 11 years of age until full sexual maturation...
September 7, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Brian Downer, Marc A Garcia, Mukaila Raji, Kyriakos S Markides
Research suggests the prevalence and incidence of cognitive impairment among older adults is decreasing. This analysis used data from nine waves (1993-2016) of the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to assess the cognitive status and cognitive decline for two cohorts of Mexican-Americans aged ≥75 in 1993/94 versus 2004/05. Logistic regression, joint longitudinal-survival models, and illness-death models for interval-censored data were used to examine cohort differences in the odds of prevalent cognitive impairment, trajectories of cognitive decline, and the risk for 10-year incident cognitive impairment, respectively...
September 7, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Per Damkier
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Ellen T Chang, Edmund C Lau, Cynthia Van Landingham, Kenny S Crump, Roger O McClellan, Suresh H Moolgavkar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Ilan Matok, Reem Masarwa, Hagai Levine, Amichai Perlman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Maarten van Wijhe, Mathias Mølbak Ingholt, Viggo Andreasen, Lone Simonsen
In the century since the 1918 influenza pandemic, insights have been sought to explain the pandemic's signature pattern of high death rates in young adults and low death rates in the elderly and infants. Our understanding of the origin and evolution of the pandemic has shifted considerably. We review evidence of the characteristic age-related pattern of death during the 1918 pandemic relative to the "original antigenic sin" hypothesis. We analyze age-stratified mortality data from Copenhagen around 1918 to identify break points associated with unusual death risk...
September 6, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Fan Li, Laine E Thomas, Fan Li
The popular inverse probability weighting method in causal inference is often hampered by extreme propensity scores, resulting in biased estimates and excessive variance. A common remedy is to trim patients with extreme scores. However, such methods are often sensitive to the choice of cutoff points and discard a large proportion of the sample. The implications to bias and precision of the treatment effect estimate are unclear. These problems are mitigated by the newly developed overlap weighting method. Overlap weights emphasize the target population with the most overlap in observed characteristics between treatments, by continuously down-weighting the units in the tails of the propensity score distribution...
September 5, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Annette K Regan, Stephen J Ball, Joshua L Warren, Eva Malacova, Cicely Marston, Natasha Nassar, Helen Leonard, Nicholas de Klerk, Gavin Pereira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Travis Salway, Martin Plöderl, Juxin Liu, Paul Gustafson
Multiple epidemiologic studies demonstrate a disparity in suicide risk between sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual) and heterosexual populations; however, both 'exposure' (sexual minority status) and outcome (suicide attempts) may be affected by information bias related to errors in self-reporting. We therefore applied a Bayesian misclassification correction method to account for possible information biases. A systematic literature search identified studies of lifetime suicide attempts in sexual minority and heterosexual adults, and frequentist meta-analysis was used to generate unadjusted estimates of relative risk...
September 5, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Jennifer A Hutcheon, Sam Harper
Numerous observational studies have shown that infants born after short interpregnancy intervals (the interval between birth and subsequent conception) are more likely to experience adverse perinatal outcomes than infants born following longer intervals. Yet, it remains controversial whether the link between short interpregnancy interval and adverse outcomes is causal, or confounded by factors such as low socio-economic position, inadequate access to healthcare, and unintended pregnancy. Sibling comparison studies, which use a woman as her own control by comparing exposure and outcome status of her different pregnancies (i...
September 5, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
James Y Dai, Ulrike Peters, Xiaoyu Wang, Jonathan Kocarnik, Jenny Chang-Claude, Martha L Slattery, Andrew Chan, Mathieu Lemire, Sonja I Berndt, Graham Casey, Mingyang Song, Mark A Jenkins, Hermann Brenner, Aaron P Thrift, Emily White, Li Hsu
Diagnosing pleiotropy is critical for assessing the validity of Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses. The popular MR-Egger method evaluates whether there is evidence of bias-generating pleiotropy among a set of candidate genetic instrumental variables. In this article, we propose GLIDE, GLobal and Individual tests for Direct Effects, a statistical method to systematically evaluate pleiotropy among the set of genetic variants, e.g., single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), used for MR. As a global test, simulation experiments suggest that GLIDE is nearly uniformly more powerful than the MR-Egger method...
September 5, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Annette K Regan, Stephen J Ball, Joshua L Warren, Eva Malacova, Amy Padula, Cicely Marston, Natasha Nassar, Fiona Stanley, Helen Leonard, Nicholas de Klerk, Gavin Pereira
The association between a single interpregnancy interval (IPI) on birth outcomes has not yet been explored using matched methods. We modelled the odds of preterm birth, small-for-gestational age and low birthweight in a second, liveborn infant in a cohort of 192,041 sibling pairs born in Western Australia between 1980 and 2010. The association between IPI and birth outcomes was estimated from the interaction between birth order and IPI (with 18-23 months as the reference category), using conditional logistic regression...
September 5, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Jack Bowden, Gibran Hemani, George Davey Smith
Mendelian randomization (MR) is gaining in recognition and popularity as a method for strengthening causal inference in epidemiology by utilizing genetic variants as instrumental variables. Concurrently with the explosion in empirical MR studies there has been the steady production of new approaches for MR-analysis. The recently proposed Global and Individual tests of Direct Effects (GLIDE) approach fits into a family of methods that aim to detect horizontal pleiotropy - at the individual SNP level and at the global level - and to adjust the analysis by removing outlying SNPs...
September 5, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Rita Hamad, Daniel F Collin, David H Rehkopf
The earned income tax credit (EITC) is the largest U.S. poverty alleviation program, yet few studies examine its effects on the health of recipients' children. We employed quasi-experimental techniques to test the hypothesis that EITC refund receipt is associated with short-term improvements in child health. The data set included children surveyed in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (N=7,444). We employed a difference-in-differences approach, exploiting the seasonal nature of EITC refund receipt...
September 5, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
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