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American Journal of Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407488/the-role-of-comorbidity-on-mortality-after-hip-fracture-a-nationwide-norwegian-study-of-38-126-women-with-hip-fracture-matched-to-a-general-population-comparison-cohort
#1
Astrid Lunde, Grethe S Tell, Alma Becic Pedersen, Thomas Scheike, Ellen M Apalset, Vera Ehrenstein, Henrik Toft Sørensen
Hip fracture patients often have comorbidities. We investigated whether the combination of comorbidity and hip fracture could explain the previously observed excess mortality among hip fracture patients compared to the general population. Using a population-based matched design with 38,126 Norwegian women suffering a hip fracture in the period 2009-2015 and the same number women in a matched comparison cohort, we matched on pre-fracture comorbidity, age, and education. We estimated relative survival, and additive and multiplicative comorbidity-hip fracture interaction...
November 8, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407487/a-healthy-lifestyle-index-in-relation-to-risk-of-endometrial-and-ovarian-cancer-among-women-in-the-women-s-health-initiative-study
#2
Rhonda Arthur, Theodore M Brasky, Tracy E Crane, Ashley S Felix, Andrew Kaunitz, Aladdin H Shadyab, Lihong Qi, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Thomas E Rohan
Lifestyle-related factors influence risk of endometrial and ovarian cancers, but few studies have examined their joint associations with risk of these cancers. Using multivariable Cox regression models, we assessed the association of a healthy lifestyle index ((HLI) - a composite score (range 0-20) involving diet, alcohol consumption, physical activity, body mass index and smoking; higher scores represent healthier behavior) - with risk of endometrial and ovarian cancers among 108,136 postmenopausal women who were recruited in the Women's Health Initiative study between 1993 and 1998...
November 8, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30407481/trajectories-of-nonagenarian-health-gender-age-and-period-effects
#3
Michelle C Odden, William Jen Hoe Koh, Alice M Arnold, Andreea M Rawlings, Bruce M Psaty, Anne B Newman
The US population aged 90 years and older is growing rapidly and there are limited data on their health. The Cardiovascular Health Study is a prospective study of black and white adults ≥65 years recruited in two waves (1989-90 and 1992-93) from Medicare eligibility lists in Forsyth County, North Carolina; Sacramento County, California; Washington County, Maryland; and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. We created a synthetic cohort of the 1,889 participants who had reached age 90 at baseline or during follow-up through July 16th, 2015...
November 8, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30383202/do-birthweight-and-weight-gain-during-infancy-and-early-childhood-explain-variation-in-mammographic-density-in-women-in-midlife-results-from-cohort-and-sibling-analyses
#4
Mary Beth Terry, Barbara A Cohn, Mandy Goldberg, Julie D Flom, Ying Wei, Lauren C Houghton, Parisa Tehranifar, Jasmine A McDonald, Angeline Protacio, Piera Cirillo, Karin B Michels
High birthweight is associated with increased breast cancer risk, and less consistently with higher mammographic density (MD). In contrast, adolescent body size has been consistently, inversely associated with both MD and breast cancer risk. It is unclear when the direction of these associations change and whether weight gain in infancy is associated with MD. We evaluated the associations of birthweight and postnatal weight (measured at 4 months, 1 year and 4 years) by absolute and velocity measures (relative within-cohort percentile changes) with adult MD, assessed using Cumulus, using linear regression models with GEE to account for correlation between siblings in the Early Determinants of Mammographic Density (EDMD) study (1959-2008, n = 700 women and 116 sibling sets, mean age = 44...
November 1, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30380005/re-socioeconomic-position-and-dna-methylation-age-acceleration-across-the-lifecourse
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30380002/the-authors-reply
#6
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30371732/mortality-and-chronic-disease-risk-associated-with-poor-life-satisfaction-a-population-based-cohort-study
#7
Laura C Rosella, Longdi Fu, Emmalin Buajitti, Vivek Goel
Life satisfaction is increasingly recognized as an important determinant of health; however, prospective population-based studies are limited. The objective was to estimate the risk of developing chronic disease and death according to life satisfaction among a population-based cohort in Ontario, Canada (N = 73,904). The cohort included three pooled cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (2003-2008), linked to 6 years of follow-up (to 2015) using population-based health databases and validated disease-specific registries...
October 27, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30358846/estimating-the-severity-profile-of-enterovirus-a71-infections-in-children-a-bayesian-synthesis-framework
#8
Bingyi Yang, Eric H Y Lau, Benjamin J Cowling
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is responsible for the majority of severe hand- foot-and-mouth disease, but little evidence is available on the severity profile of EV-A71 infections. We formulated a hierarchical Bayesian model which synthesized data on EV-A71 associated diseases/events and EV-A71 antibody responses to infection among unvaccinated children from large clinical trials of EV-A71 vaccination which were conducted in Jiangsu and Beijing during 2012 and 2013, to reconstruct the severity profile in a unified framework...
October 24, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30358825/restrictive-immigration-law-and-birth-outcomes-of-immigrant-women
#9
Florencia Torche, Catherine Sirois
Unauthorized immigration is one of the most contentious policy issues in the United States. In an attempt to curb unauthorized migration, many states have considered restrictive laws intended to make life so difficult for unauthorized immigrants that they would choose to leave the country. Arizona's Senate Bill 1070, enacted in 2010, pioneered these efforts. Using population-level natality data and causal inference methods, we examine the effect of SB1070 on infants exposed before birth in Arizona. Prenatal exposure to the bill resulted in lower birthweight among Latina immigrant women, but not among US-born white, black, or Latina women...
October 24, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30358819/a-prospective-cohort-study-examining-the-association-between-maternal-arsenic-exposure-fetal-loss-and-neonatal-mortality
#10
Sharia M Ahmed, Brie N Noble, Sakila Afroz Joya, Omar Sharif Ibn Hasan, Pi-I Lin, Mohammad L Rahman, Golam Mostofa, Quazi Quamruzzaman, Mahmudur Rahman, David C Christiani, Molly L Kile
Arsenic crosses the placenta, possibly increasing the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes. We aimed to examine the association between maternal arsenic exposure and fetal/neonatal survival using a prospective cohort of 1,616 maternal-infant pairs recruited at ≤ 16 weeks gestational age in Bangladesh (2008-2011). Arsenic concentration was measured in maternal drinking water at enrollment. Extended Cox regression (both time-dependent coefficients and step functions) was used to estimate the time-varying association between maternal arsenic exposure and fetal/neonatal death (all mortality between enrollment and one month after birth)...
October 24, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30358803/is-the-black-white-mental-health-paradox-consistent-across-gender-and-psychiatric-disorders
#11
Christy L Erving, Courtney S Thomas, Cleothia Frazier
This study assessed whether the Black-White mental health epidemiological paradox (i.e. Blacks' lower or similar rates of mental disorder relative to Whites) extends across 12 lifetime and past-year psychiatric disorders and varies by gender. We used data from the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R) and National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2001-2003 (N=4,584 African Americans; 6,668 non-Hispanic Whites). Results showed overwhelming evidence of the paradox across lifetime and past-year disorders for women and men...
October 24, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30358801/propensity-score-based-estimators-with-multiple-error-prone-covariates
#12
Hwanhee Hong, David A Aaby, Juned Siddique, Elizabeth A Stuart
Propensity score methods are an important tool to help reduce confounding in non-experimental studies. Most propensity score methods assume that covariates are measured without error. However, covariates are often measured with error, which leads to biased causal effect estimates if the true underlying covariates are the actual confounders. Although some studies have investigated the impact of a single mismeasured covariate on estimating a causal effect and proposed methods for handling the measurement error, even fewer papers have investigated the case where multiple covariates are mismeasured, and none discussed correlated measurement errors...
October 24, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30351349/the-development-and-validation-of-a-clinical-prediction-rule-to-predict-transmission-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-nursing-homes
#13
Sarah S Jackson, Alison D Lydecker, Laurence S Magder, Mary-Claire Roghmann
The prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization among nursing home residents is high. Healthcare workers (HCWs) often serve as a vector in the transmission of MRSA. The ability to identify residents who are likely to transmit MRSA to HCWs' hands and clothing during clinical care is important so that infection control measures, such as Contact Precautions, can be employed. We developed a clinical prediction rule with demographics and clinical characteristics as predictors of MRSA transmission to HCWs' gowns collected from residents of community nursing homes in Maryland and Michigan between 2012-2014...
October 22, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30351340/integrating-clinical-and-epidemiological-data-on-allergic-diseases-across-birth-cohorts-a-medall-harmonization-study
#14
Marta Benet, Richard Albang, Mariona Pinart, Cynthia Hohmann, Christina G Tischer, Isabella Annesi-Maesano, Nour Baïz, Carsten Bindslev-Jensen, Karin C Lødrup Carlsen, Kai-Hakon Carlsen, Lourdes Cirugeda, Esben Eller, Maria Pia Fantini, Ulrike Gehring, Beatrix Gerhard, Davide Gori, Eva Hallner, Inger Kull, Jacopo Lenzi, Rosemary McEachan, Eleonora Minina, Isabelle Momas, Silvia Narduzzi, Emily S Petherick, Daniela Porta, Fanny Rancière, Marie Standl, Maties Torrent, Alet H Wijga, John Wright, Manolis Kogevinas, Stefano Guerra, Jordi Sunyer, Thomas Keil, Jean Bousquet, Dieter Maier, Josep M Anto, Judith Garcia-Aymerich
International collaborations among birth cohorts to better understand asthma and allergies have increased in the last years. However, differences in definitions and methods preclude direct pooling of original individual participant data. We harmonized data from 14 birth cohorts, with three to 20 follow-ups, from nine European countries, as part of the Mechanisms of the Development of Asthma and Allergies (MeDALL) project. The harmonization process followed six steps: organization of the harmonization panel; identification of variables relevant to MeDALL objectives (candidate variables); proposal of a definition for each candidate variable (reference definition); assessment of the compatibility of each cohort variable to its reference definition (inferential equivalence) and classifications of this inferential equivalence as complete, partial, or impossible; workshop to agree on the reference definitions and classifications of inferential equivalence; and data preparation and delivery through a knowledge management portal...
October 22, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30346477/the-1918-influenza-pandemic-looking-back-looking-forward
#15
Cécile Viboud, Justin Lessler
In commemoration of the centennial of the 1918 influenza pandemic, the American Journal of Epidemiology has convened a collection of 12 articles that further illuminate the epidemiology of that pandemic and consider whether we would be more prepared if an equally deadly influenza virus were to emerge again. In the present commentary, we place these 12 articles in the context of a growing body of work on the archeo-epidemiology of past pandemics, the socioeconomic and geographic drivers of influenza mortality and natality impact, and renewed interest in immune imprinting mechanisms and the development of novel influenza vaccines...
October 20, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339180/general-relative-rate-models-for-the-analysis-of-case-cohort-designs
#16
David B Richardson, Bryan Langholz, Kaitlin Kelly-Reif
A standard approach to analysis of case-cohort data involves fitting log-linear models. We describe how standard statistical software can be used to fit a broad class of general relative rate models to case-cohort data and derive confidence intervals. We focus on a case-cohort design in which a roster has been assembled and events ascertained, but additional information needs to be collected on explanatory variables. The additional information is ascertained just for individuals who experience the event of interest and for a sample of the cohort members enumerated at study entry...
October 19, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329134/analyzing-vaccine-trials-in-epidemics-with-mild-and-asymptomatic-infection
#17
Rebecca Kahn, Matt Hitchings, Rui Wang, Steven Bellan, Marc Lipsitch
Vaccine efficacy against susceptibility to infection (VES), regardless of symptoms, is an important endpoint of vaccine trials for pathogens with a high proportion of asymptomatic infection, as such infections may contribute to onward transmission and long-term sequelae such as Congenital Zika Syndrome. However, estimating VES is resource-intensive. We aim to identify approaches to accurately estimate VES when limited information is available and resources are constrained. We model an individually randomized vaccine trial by generating a network of individuals and simulating an epidemic...
October 17, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329006/a-dynamic-model-for-evaluation-of-the-bias-of-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-estimates-from-observational-studies
#18
Kylie E C Ainslie, Meng Shi, Michael Haber, Walter A Orenstein
As influenza vaccination is now widely recommended in the United States, observational studies based on patients with acute respiratory illness (ARI) remain the only option to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE). We developed a dynamic probability model to evaluate bias of VE estimates from passive surveillance cohort, test-negative, and traditional case-control studies. The model includes two covariates (health status and health awareness), which may affect the probabilities of vaccination, developing ARI, and seeking medical care...
October 17, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325415/identification-of-the-fraction-of-indolent-tumors-and-associated-overdiagnosis-in-breast-cancer-screening-trials
#19
Marc D Ryser, Roman Gulati, Marisa C Eisenberg, Yu Shen, E Shelley Hwang, Ruth B Etzioni
It is generally accepted that some screen-detected breast cancers are overdiagnosed and would not progress to symptomatic cancer if left untreated. However, precise estimates of the fraction of non-progressive cancers remain elusive. In recognition of the weaknesses of overdiagnosis estimation methods based on excess incidence, there is a need for model-based approaches that accommodate non-progressive lesions. Here, we present an in-depth analysis of a generalized breast cancer natural history model that allows for a mixture of progressive and indolent lesions...
October 16, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30325407/social-isolation-and-mortality-in-us-black-and-white-men-and-women
#20
Kassandra I Alcaraz, Katherine S Eddens, Jennifer L Blase, W Ryan Diver, Alpa V Patel, Lauren R Teras, Victoria L Stevens, Eric J Jacobs, Susan M Gapstur
Social isolation is associated with higher mortality in studies of mostly white adults, yet associations among black adults is unclear. This prospective cohort study evaluated whether associations of social isolation with all-cause, cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality differ by race and sex. Adults enrolled into Cancer Prevention Study-II in 1982/1983 were followed for mortality through 2012 (n = 580,182). Sex- and race-specific multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for associations of a five-point social isolation score with risk of death...
October 16, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
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