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American Journal of Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771274/identification-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-axes-that-predict-all-cause-mortality-the-copdgene-study
#1
Gregory L Kinney, Stephanie A Santorico, Kendra A Young, Michael H Cho, Peter J Castaldi, Raul San José Estépar, James C Ross, Jennifer G Dy, Barry J Make, Elizabeth A Regan, David A Lynch, Douglas C Everett, Sharon M Lutz, Edwin K Silverman, George R Washko, James D Crapo, John E Hokanson
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a syndrome caused by damage to the lungs resulting in decreased pulmonary function and reduced structural integrity. Pulmonary function testing (PFT) is currently used to diagnose and stratify COPD into severity groups and chest computed tomography (CT) imaging is often used to assess structural changes in the lungs. We hypothesized that the combination of PFT and CT phenotypes would provide a more powerful tool for assessing underlying morphologic differences associated with pulmonary function in COPD than PFT alone...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767681/drug-side-effects-and-retention-on-hiv-treatment-a-regression-discontinuity-study-of-tenofovir-implementation-in-south-africa-and-zambia
#2
Alana T Brennan, Jacob Bor, Mary-Ann Davies, Gilles Wandeler, Hans Prozesky, Geoffrey Fatti, Robin Wood, Kathryn Stinson, Frank Tanser, Till Bärnighausen, Andrew Boulle, Izukanji Sikazwe, Arianna Zanolini, Matthew P Fox
Tenofovir is less toxic than other nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors used in antiretroviral therapy (ART) and may improve retention of HIV-infected patients on ART. We assessed the impact of national guideline changes in South Africa (2010) and Zambia (2007) recommending tenofovir in first-line ART. We applied regression discontinuity in a prospective cohort of 52,294 HIV-infected adults initiating first-line ART within ±12-months of each guideline change. We compared outcomes in patients presenting just before/after the guideline changes using local linear regression and estimated intention-to-treat effects on initiation of tenofovir, retention in care, and other treatment outcomes at 24-months...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767678/identification-of-etiology-specific-diarrhea-associated-with-linear-growth-faltering-in-bangladeshi-infants
#3
Amanda E Schnee, Rashidul Haque, Mami Taniuchi, Jashim Uddin, Masud Alam, Jie Liu, Elizabeth T Rogawski, Beth Kirkpatrick, Eric R Houpt, William A Petri, James A Platts-Mills
Childhood diarrhea in low-resource settings has been variably linked to linear growth shortfalls. However, the association between etiology-specific diarrhea and growth has not been comprehensively evaluated. We tested diarrheal stools collected from the Performance of Rotavirus and Oral Polio Vaccines in Developing Countries study from 2011-2013 in Dhaka, Bangladesh by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for a broad range of enteropathogens to characterize diarrhea etiology and examine the association between etiology-specific diarrhea and linear growth and systemic inflammation...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767694/shorter-time-to-pregnancy-with-increasing-preconception-carotene-concentrations-among-women-with-1-to-2-previous-pregnancy-losses
#4
Keewan Kim, Enrique F Schisterman, Robert M Silver, Brian D Wilcox, Anne M Lynch, Neil J Perkins, Richard W Browne, Laurie L Lesher, Joseph B Stanford, Aijun Ye, Jean Wactawski-Wende, Sunni L Mumford
Although maternal nutrition may impact fecundity, associations between preconception micronutrients and time to pregnancy (TTP) has not been examined. We assessed the relationship between preconception fat-soluble micronutrient concentrations and TTP among women with 1-2 prior pregnancy losses. This is a prospective cohort study of 1,228 women set in the EAGeR Trial (US, 2007-2011), which assessed the effect of preconception-initiated daily low dose aspirin on reproductive outcomes. We measured preconception zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, lycopene, α- and β-carotene, and α- and γ-tocopherol in serum...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767676/complete-streets-and-adult-bicyclist-fatalities-applying-g-computation-to-evaluate-an-intervention-that-affects-the-size-of-a-population-at-risk
#5
Stephen J Mooney, Caroline Magee, Kolena Dang, Julie C Leonard, Jingzhen Yang, Frederick P Rivara, Beth E Ebel, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, D Alex Quistberg
"Complete Streets" policies require transportation engineers to make provisions for pedestrians, cyclists and transit users. These policies may make bicycling safer for individual cyclists while increasing overall bicycle fatalities if more individuals cycle due to improved infrastructure. We merged county-level records of Complete Streets policies with Fatality Analysis Reporting System counts of cyclist fatalities occurring between January 2000 and December 2015. Because comprehensive county cycling estimates were not available, we used bicycle commute estimates from the American Community Survey and US Census as a proxy for the cycling population, and limited analysis to 183 counties (accounting for over half the US population) for which cycle commute estimates were consistently non-zero...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762657/prospects-for-tuberculosis-elimination-in-the-united-states-results-of-a-transmission-dynamic-model
#6
Nicolas A Menzies, Ted Cohen, Andrew N Hill, Reza Yaesoubi, Kara Galer, Emory Wolf, Suzanne M Marks, Joshua A Salomon
We estimated long-term tuberculosis (TB) trends in the US population and assessed prospects for TB elimination. We used a detailed simulation model allowing for changes in TB transmission, immigration, and other TB risk determinants. We evaluated 5 hypothetical scenarios from 2017 to 2100: 1) maintain current TB prevention and treatment activities (base-case), 2) provision of latent TB infection testing and treatment for new legal immigrants, 3) increased uptake of latent TB infection screening and treatment among high-risk populations, including a 3-month isoniazid-rifapentine regimen, 4) improved TB case detection, 5) improved TB treatment quality...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762655/longitudinal-physical-activity-patterns-among-older-adults-a-latent-transition-analysis
#7
Stephen J Mooney, Spruha Joshi, Magdalena Cerdá, Gary J Kennedy, John R Beard, Andrew G Rundle
Most epidemiologic studies of physical activity measure either total energy expenditure or engagement in a single activity type, such as walking. These approaches may gloss over important nuances in activity patterns. We performed a latent transition analysis to identify patterns of activity types as well as neighborhood and individual determinants of changes in those activity patterns over two years in a cohort of 2,023 older adult residents of New York City, NY, surveyed between 2011 and 2013. We identified seven latent classes: 1) Mostly Inactive, 2) Walking, 3) Exercise, 4) Household Activities and Walking, 5) Household Activities and Exercise, 6) Gardening and Household Activities, and 7) Gardening, Household Activities, and Exercise...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762649/residential-racial-isolation-and-spatial-patterning-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-durham-north-carolina
#8
Mercedes A Bravo, Rebecca Anthopolos, Rachel T Kimbro, Marie Lynn Miranda
Neighborhood characteristics such as racial segregation may be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, but studies have not examined these relationships using spatial models appropriate for geographically patterned health outcomes. We construct a local, spatial index of racial isolation (RI) for blacks, which measures the extent to which blacks are exposed to only one another, to estimate associations of diabetes with RI and examine how RI relates to spatial patterning in diabetes. We obtained 2007-2011 electronic health records from the Duke Medicine Enterprise Data Warehouse...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762643/educational-mobility-across-generations-and-depressive-symptoms-over-10-years-among-us-latinos
#9
Julia B Ward, Whitney R Robinson, Brian W Pence, Joanna Maselko, Sandra S Albrecht, Mary N Haan, Allison E Aiello
Few studies have collected intergenerational data to assess the association between educational mobility across multiple generations and offspring depression. Using data from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (1998-2008), we assessed the influence of intergenerational education on depressive symptoms over 10 years among 1,786 Latino individuals (mean age = 70.6 years). Educational mobility was classified: stable-low (low parent/low offspring education), upwardly mobile (low parent/high offspring education), stable-high (high parent/high offspring education), or downwardly mobile (high parent/low offspring education)...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762636/association-of-maternal-exposure-to-childhood-abuse-with-elevated-risk-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-offspring
#10
Andrea L Roberts, Zeyan Liew, Kristen Lyall, Alberto Ascherio, Marc G Weisskopf
Children whose mothers experienced childhood abuse are more likely to suffer various neurodevelopmental deficits. Whether an association exists specifically for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is unknown. We examined the association of maternal experience of childhood abuse with ADHD in offspring, assessed by maternal report of diagnosis and validated with the ADHD Rating Scale-IV in a subsample, in the Nurses' Health Study II (n = 49,497 mothers, N offspring cases = 7,607, N offspring controls = 102,151)...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762635/an-epigenome-wide-association-study-ewas-of-obesity-related-traits
#11
Klodian Dhana, Kim V E Braun, Jana Nano, Trudy Voortman, Ellen W Demerath, Weihua Guan, Myriam Fornage, Joyce B J van Meurs, Andre G Uitterlinden, Albert Hofman, Oscar H Franco, Abbas Dehghan
We conducted an epigenome-wide association study on obesity-related traits. We used data from two prospective, population-based cohort studies: the Rotterdam Study (RS) (2006-2013) and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (1990-1992). We used RS (n = 1,454) as the discovery panel and ARIC (n = 2,097) as replication panel. Linear mixed-effect models were used to assess the cross-sectional association between genome-wide DNA methylation in leukocytes with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) adjusting for sex, age, smoking, leukocyte proportions, array number and position on array...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762633/using-a-mixture-of-bivariate-regression-model-to-explore-heterogeneity-of-effects-of-use-of-inhaled-corticosteroids-on-gestational-age-and-birthweight-among-pregnant-women-with-asthma
#12
Mariia Samoilenko, Lucie Blais, Isabelle Boucoiran, Geneviève Lefebvre
Asthma is a heterogeneous disease, and responses to asthma medications vary noticeably among patients. A substantively oriented objective of this study was to explore the potential heterogeneous effects of maternal inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) exposure on gestational age (GA) at delivery and birthweight (BW) using a cohort of 6,197 pregnancies from women with asthma (Quebec, Canada, 1998-2008). A methodologically oriented objective was to comprehensively describe the application of a Bayesian two-component mixture of bivariate regressions to address this issue and estimate the effects of ICS on GA and BW jointly...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762630/acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-in-china-rationale-for-developing-a-patient-registry-and-baseline-characteristics
#13
Wen-Yi Gu, Bao-Yan Xu, Xin Zheng, Jinjun Chen, Xian-Bo Wang, Yan Huang, Yan-Hang Gao, Zhong-Ji Meng, Zhi-Ping Qian, Feng Liu, Xiao-Bo Lu, Jia Shang, Hai Li, Shao-Yang Wang, Xin Sun, Hai Li
Definitions and descriptions of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) vary between Western and Eastern types, and alcoholism and hepatitis B virus(HBV) are the main etiologies, respectively. To determine whether there are unified diagnostic criteria and common treatment programs for different etiologies of ACLF, a multicenter prospective cohort with the same inclusion criteria and disease indicators as those used in the European CANONIC (Chronic liver failure-ACLF in Cirrhosis) study is urgently needed in Asia, where the prevalence of HBV is high...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757352/evaluation-of-the-impact-of-a-rotavirus-vaccine-program-on-pediatric-acute-gastroenteritis-hospitalizations-estimating-the-overall-effect-attributable-to-the-program-as-a-whole-and-as-a-per-unit-change-in-rotavirus-vaccine-coverage
#14
Margaret K Doll, Caroline Quach, David L Buckeridge
Estimation of the overall effect of a vaccine program is essential, but the effect is typically estimated for a whole program. We estimate the overall effect of the Quebec rotavirus vaccine program launched in November 2011, and the effect for each 10% increase in rotavirus vaccine coverage on pediatric, all-cause acute gastroenteritis hospitalizations. We implemented negative binomial regressions adjusted for seasonality, long-term trends, and infection dynamics, to estimate the effect of the vaccine program as: 1) a dichotomous variable, representing program presence/absence, and linear term to account for changes in trend in the post-program period, or 2) a continuous variable, representing rotavirus vaccine coverage...
May 11, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757345/does-socioeconomic-status-modify-the-association-between-preterm-birth-and-children-s-early-cognitive-ability-and-kindergarten-academic-achievement-in-the-united-states
#15
Jennifer L Beauregard, Carolyn Drews-Botsch, Jessica M Sales, W Dana Flanders, Michael R Kramer
Being born preterm and being raised in poverty are each linked with adverse cognitive outcomes. Using data from 5,250 singletons born in the US in 2001 and enrolled in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, we examined whether household socioeconomic status (SES) modified the association between preterm birth (PTB) and children's scores on cognitive assessments at 2 years and reading and mathematics assessments at kindergarten age. Gestational age was measured from birth certificates and categorized as early preterm, moderate preterm, late preterm, early term, and term...
May 11, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750409/implications-of-the-propensity-score-matching-paradox-in-pharmacoepidemiology
#16
John E Ripollone, Krista F Huybrechts, Kenneth J Rothman, Ryan E Ferguson, Jessica M Franklin
Recent work demonstrated that propensity score matching may lead to increased covariate imbalance, even with the corresponding decrease in propensity score distance between matched units. The extent to which this paradoxical phenomenon might harm causal inference in real epidemiologic studies has not been explored. We evaluated the effect of this phenomenon using insurance claims data from the Pharmaceutical Assistance Contract for the Elderly (1999-2002) and Medicaid Analytic eXtract (2000-2007) databases...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741576/cluster-randomized-test-negative-design-cr-tnd-trials-a-novel-and-efficient-method-to-assess-the-efficacy-of-community-level-dengue-interventions
#17
Katherine L Anders, Zoe Cutcher, Immo Kleinschmidt, Christl A Donnelly, Neil M Ferguson, Citra Indriani, Scott L O'Neill, Nicholas P Jewell, Cameron P Simmons
Cluster randomized trials are the gold standard for assessing efficacy of community-level interventions, such as vector control strategies against dengue. We describe a novel cluster randomized trial methodology with a test-negative design, which offers advantages over traditional approaches. It utilizes outcome-based sampling of patients presenting with a syndrome consistent with the disease of interest, who are subsequently classified as test-positive cases or test-negative controls on the basis of diagnostic testing...
May 7, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741574/ramadan-exposure-in-utero-and-child-mortality-in-burkina-faso-analysis-of-a-population-based-cohort-including-41-025-children
#18
Anja Schoeps, Reyn van Ewijk, Gisela Kynast-Wolf, Eric Nebié, Pascal Zabré, Ali Sié, Sabine Gabrysch
Ramadan exposure in utero can be regarded as a natural experiment to study how nutritional conditions in utero influence susceptibility to disease later in life. We analyzed data from rural Burkina Faso on 41,025 children born between 1993 and 2012, of which 25,093 to Muslim mothers. Ramadan exposure was assigned based on overlap between Ramadan dates and gestation, creating seven exclusive categories. We used proportional hazards regression with difference-in-differences to estimate the association between Ramadan exposure at different gestational ages and under-five mortality...
May 5, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741572/authors-response-to-commentaries
#19
Sabine Gabrysch, Reyn van Ewijk
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741567/a-matter-of-survival-the-detrimental-consequences-of-adverse-early-life-conditions
#20
Susanne R de Rooij
Studies across different species have shown that moderate dietary restriction is associated with longer lifespan. Surprisingly however, when diet is restricted in prenatal life, the effect is completely the opposite. Animal work and human epidemiologic data have shown that undernutrition in utero negatively affects health in later life and reduces lifespan considerably. In this issue of the American Journal of Epidemiology, Schoeps et al. provide new evidence that variations in nutritional conditions during pregnancy relate to the future health of the unborn child (1)...
May 5, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
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