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American Journal of Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541521/informative-patterns-of-health-care-utilization-prior-to-the-diagnosis-of-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#1
Gregory A Coté, Huiping Xu, Jeffery J Easler, Timothy D Imler, Evgenia Teal, Stuart Sherman, Murray Korc
Early detection tests for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are needed. Since a hypothetical screening test would be applied during antecedent clinical encounters, we sought to define the variability in health care utilization leading up to the PDAC diagnosis. This was a retrospective cohort study that included patients diagnosed with PDAC in the Indianapolis area between 1999-2013 with at least one health care encounter during the 36-month antecedent period (n = 1,023). Patients were classified by unique patterns of care utilization using a group-based trajectory model...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541454/comprehensive-analysis-of-prevalence-epidemiological-and-clinical-characteristics-of-mono-infections-and-co-infections-in-diarrhoeal-diseases-in-children-in-tanzania
#2
Sabrina J Moyo, Øyvind Kommedal, Bjorn Blomberg, Kurt Hanevik, Marit Gjerde Tellevik, Samuel Y Maselle, Nina Langeland
The role of interactions between intestinal pathogens in diarrheal disease is uncertain. From August 2010 to July 2011, we collected stool samples from 723 children admitted with diarrhoea (cases) to three major hospitals in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and from 564 non-diarrheic children (controls). We analysed the samples for 17 pathogens and assessed interactions between co-infections in additive and multiplicative models. At least one pathogen was detected in 86.9% of the cases and 62.8%, of the controls. Prevalence of co-infections was 58...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541410/contribution-of-socioeconomic-status-at-three-lifecourse-periods-to-late-life-memory-function-and-decline-early-and-late-predictors-of-dementia-risk
#3
Jessica R Marden, Eric J Tchetgen Tchetgen, Ichiro Kawachi, M Maria Glymour
Both early life and adult socioeconomic status (SES) predict late life level of memory; however, evidence is mixed on the relationship between SES and rate of memory decline. Further, the relative importance of different lifecourse periods for rate of late life memory decline has not been evaluated. We examined associations between lifecourse SES and late life memory function and decline. Health and Retirement Study participants (n = 10,781) were interviewed biennially from 1998-2012. SES measures for childhood (composite score including parents' educational attainment), early adulthood (high school or college completion), and older adulthood (income, mean age 66) were all dichotomized...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541391/rotating-night-shift-work-and-risk-of-breast-cancer-in-the-nurses-health-studies
#4
Lani R Wegrzyn, Rulla M Tamimi, Bernard A Rosner, Susan B Brown, Richard G Stevens, A Heather Eliassen, Francine Laden, Walter C Willett, Susan E Hankinson, Eva S Schernhammer
In 2007, the International Agency for Research on Cancer declared shift work involving circadian disruption to be a "probable" carcinogen (group 2A), noting that human evidence was limited. This study examined associations between rotating night shift work and breast cancer risk in two prospective cohorts, the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS: 1988-2012, n = 78,516; NHS2: 1989-2013, n = 114,559), with 9,541 incident invasive breast malignancies and 24 years of follow-up. Women in NHS with 30+ years of shift work had no increased risk of breast cancer (Hazard ratio (HR) = 0...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541385/long-term-pm2-5-exposures-and-respiratory-cancer-and-cardiovascular-mortality-in-american-older-adults
#5
Vivian C Pun, Fatemeh Kazemiparkouhi, Justin Manjourides, Helen H Suh
The impact of chronic exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on respiratory disease and lung cancer mortality is poorly understood. In a cohort of 18.9 million Medicare beneficiaries (4.2 million deaths) living across the conterminous United States between 2000 to 2008, we examined the association of chronic PM2.5 exposure and cause-specific mortality, and evaluated confounding through adjustment of neighborhood behavioral covariates and decomposition of PM2.5 into two spatiotemporal scales. We found significantly positive associations of 12-month moving average PM2...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541384/hispanic-segregation-and-poor-health-it-s-not-just-black-and-white
#6
D Phuong Do, Reanne Frank, Cheng Zheng, John Iceland
Despite the importance of understanding the fundamental determinants of Hispanic health, few studies have investigated how metropolitan segregation shapes the health of the fastest growing population in the U.S. Using the 2006-2013 National Health Interview Survey, we 1) examined the relationship between Hispanic metropolitan segregation and respondent-rated health for U.S. and foreign-born Hispanics and 2) assessed whether neighborhood poverty mediates this relationship. Results indicated that segregation has a consistent, detrimental effect on the health of U...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541378/what-does-a-single-semen-sample-tell-you-implications-for-male-factor-infertility-research
#7
Yu-Han Chiu, Regina Edifor, Bernard A Rosner, Feiby L Nassan, Audrey J Gaskins, Lidia Minguez-Alarcon, Paige L Williams, Cigdem Tanrikut, Russ Hauser, Jorge E Chavarro
Semen parameters are variable within-man but it is unclear whether one sample could represent a man's long-term average in epidemiologic studies. Between 2005 and 2014, 329 men from a fertility clinic provided 768 semen samples in the EARTH study in Boston, Massachusetts.Total sperm count, concentration, morphology, motility, and ejaculate volume were assessed. We used linear mixed models to compare men's first samples to their long-term averages, and calculate intraclass correlation coefficients for each parameter...
May 24, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535308/invited-commentary-the-contribution-to-the-field-of-nutritional-epidemiology-of-the-landmark-1985-publication-by-willett-et-al
#8
Amy F Subar, Lawrence H Kushi, Jennifer L Lerman, Laurence S Freedman
The semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) has been the primary source of dietary exposure data in epidemiology for decades. Although frequency instruments had been evaluated before the 1985 publication "Reproducibility and Validity of a Semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire" by Willett et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 1985;122(1):51-65), that paper was the prototype for the development and validation of what was then a highly innovative method for collecting dietary data. This approach was adopted in nearly all subsequent cohort studies of diet and disease...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535293/invited-commentary-a-landmark-study-launched-in-a-public-health-maelstrom
#9
Eric A Engels, Charles S Rabkin, James J Goedert
The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic was first recognized in 1981, and it quickly became a public health emergency. In a 1987 paper in the American Journal of Epidemiology (Am J Epidemiol. 1987;126(2): 310-318), Richard Kaslow et al. described the launch of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), a cohort study of homosexual men in 4 US cities, the purpose of which was to better understand the natural history of AIDS and its determinants. The MACS enrolled participants through a range of community contacts...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535291/invited-commentary-continuing-to-loosen-the-constraints-on-epidemiology-in-an-age-of-change-a-comment-on-mcmichael-s-prisoners-of-the-proximate
#10
Sandro Galea
Published in 1999, McMichael's "Prisoners of the Proximate: Loosening the Constraints on Epidemiology in an Age of Change" (Am J Epidemiol. 1999;149(10):887-897) outlined an exciting vision for epidemiology as the field that that can help us better understand the drivers of population health so that we may intervene, paving the way for healthier populations. McMichael's paper remains today what it was when it was first published: clear, thoughtful, provocative, and usefully prescriptive in its call to action...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535290/dietary-quality-and-ovarian-cancer-risk-in-african-american-women
#11
Bo Qin, Patricia G Moorman, Linda E Kelemen, Anthony J Alberg, Jill S Barnholtz-Sloan, Melissa Bondy, Michele L Cote, Ellen Funkhouser, Edward S Peters, Ann G Schwartz, Paul Terry, Joellen M Schildkraut, Elisa V Bandera
This study evaluated 3 index-based dietary patterns-Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2005, HEI-2010, and Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)-2010-in relation to ovarian cancer risk in African-American women. The study was conducted among 415 ovarian cancer cases and 629 age- and site-matched controls of African-American descent recruited from the population-based African American Cancer Epidemiology Study. Multivariable unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals between quartiles of dietary quality indices and ovarian cancer risk, adjusting for potential confounders...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535286/invited-commentary-is-strenuous-activity-good-for-you-the-legacy-of-ralph-paffenbarger
#12
Lewis H Kuller
Ralph Paffenbarger, Jr, MD, DrPH (1922-2007), was initially trained as an infectious disease epidemiologist at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health (now the Bloomberg School of Public Health). He was the first Epidemiology Intelligence Service officer in the first Epidemiology Intelligence Service class. He joined the National Heart Institute (now the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) in its very early days and later became a faculty member at Stanford University and Harvard University...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535280/invited-commentary-the-enduring-role-of-place-in-health-a-historic-perspective
#13
Yvette C Cozier
In public health, it has long been observed that "place"-specifically, where one lives-affects individual health, with the main research question distinguishing between the effects of "context" (defined as area characteristics) and "composition" (the characteristics of inhabitants) on health outcomes. There have been many studies in which the spatial patterning of disease has been explored, but they were often ecological in design, used broad census geographic levels, lacked individual-level data, or when available, did not simultaneously analyze community- and individual-level risk factors using appropriate modeling techniques...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535275/transportability-of-trial-results-using-inverse-odds-of-sampling-weights
#14
Daniel Westreich, Jessie K Edwards, Catherine R Lesko, Elizabeth Stuart, Stephen R Cole
Increasingly, the statistical and epidemiologic literature is turning its attention beyond issues of internal validity to questions of external validity. Here, we discuss some of the challenges of transporting a causal effect from a trial to a specific target population. We present an inverse odds weighting approach that can easily operationalize transportability. We derive these weights in closed form and illustrate their use with a simple numerical example. We discuss how the conditions required for the identification of internally valid causal effects are translated to apply to the identification of externally valid causal effects...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535260/editorial-the-50th-anniversary-of-the-society-for-epidemiologic-research
#15
Bernard L Harlow, Moyses Szklo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535258/invited-commentary-beyond-individuals-area-poverty-and-health-or-the-search-for-an-impactful-epidemiology
#16
Ana V Diez Roux
In this commentary, I reflect on the paper "Poverty and Health: Prospective Evidence From the Alameda County Study" by Haan et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 1987;125(6):989-998), which together with supporting work ushered in a surge of epidemiologic interest in the impact of social contexts on health. I discuss why the paper was influential and how the premise of this type of work influenced theories and methods in epidemiology. The paper is placed in the broader context of the nature of evidence in epidemiology and the ultimate purpose of epidemiologic inquiry...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535254/invited-commentary-cassel-s-the-contribution-of-the-social-environment-to-host-resistance-a-modern-classic
#17
Sherman A James
John Cassel's 1976 paper "The Contribution of the Social Environment to Host Resistance" (Am J Epidemiol. 1976;104(2):107-123) is widely regarded as a classic in epidemiology. He makes the compelling argument that the quality of a person's social relationships, that is, the degree to which her relationships are more stressful than supportive (or vice versa) influences her susceptibility to disease independent of genetic endowment, diet, physical activity, etc. Cassel's provocative thesis was anchored in a cogent synthesis of findings from animal experiments and observational studies on diverse human populations...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535245/invited-commentary-the-continuing-need-for-the-sufficient-cause-model-today
#18
Tyler J VanderWeele
In this commentary, I review the insights that have been gained using Rothman's sufficient cause model (Am J Epidemiol. 1976;104(6):587-592). Discussion pertains to the relations of the model to similar conceptualizations in other fields of study, the advances and extensions that have been made to the model since the paper's publication, and its relation to questions of actual causation, along with questions concerning the use of the model in the future of epidemiology.
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535192/learning-through-chain-event-graphs-the-role-of-maternal-factors-in-childhood-type-i-diabetes
#19
Claire Keeble, Peter Adam Thwaites, Paul David Baxter, Stuart Barber Pgclthe, Roger Charles Parslow, Graham Richard Law
Chain event graphs are a graphical representation of a statistical model derived from event trees, previously applied to cohort studies but not to case-control studies. We apply the chain event graph framework to a Yorkshire case-control study of childhood type I diabetes, to examine four exposure variables associated with the mother, three of which are fully observed (her school-leaving-age, amniocenteses during pregnancy and delivery type) and one with missing values (her rhesus factor), while incorporating previous type I diabetes knowledge...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535187/serum-levels-of-1-5-anhydroglucitol-and-risk-of-incident-end-stage-renal-disease
#20
Casey M Rebholz, Morgan E Grams, Yuan Chen, Alden L Gross, Yingying Sang, Josef Coresh, Elizabeth Selvin
Glycemic excursions, independent of average glucose, have been implicated in the development of diabetic implications. It is unknown if low 1,5-anyhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) are associated with advanced stages of kidney disease independent of kidney function and glycemia. In the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (N = 13,277), we used structural equation modeling to estimate the association between serum 1,5-AG levels and end-stage renal disease from baseline (1990-1992) through 2013 with adjustment for demographics, risk factors, a latent variable for glycemia (diabetes status, fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, fructosamine, glycated albumin), and a latent variable for kidney function (creatinine, cystatin C, β2-microglobulin)...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
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