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American Journal of Epidemiology

Ran S Rotem, Gabriel Chodick, Michael Davidovitch, Russ Hauser, Brent A Coull, Marc G Weisskopf
Androgens have an extensive influence on brain development in regions of the brain that are relevant for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet their etiological involvement remains unclear. Hypospadias (abnormal positioning of the urethral opening) and cryptorchidism (undescended testes) are 2 relatively common male birth defects that are strongly associated with prenatal androgen deficiencies. Having either disorder is a proxy indicator of atypical gestational androgen exposure, yet the association between these disorders and autism has not been extensively studied...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Laura A Schieve, Stuart K Shapira
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a prevalent developmental disorder. Studies indicate that while ASD etiology has a genetic component, the risk is polygenic, with gene-environment interactions being likely. The prenatal period is a critical exposure window for nongenetic risk factors. Previous studies have found positive associations between congenital malformations (all types) and ASD; a few also found specific associations between genitourinary system malformations and ASD; and one study found an association between hypospadias and ASD...
February 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Andreas M Neophytou, Sally Picciotto, Daniel M Brown, Lisa E Gallagher, Harvey Checkoway, Ellen A Eisen, Sadie Costello
Prolonged exposures can have complex relationships with health outcomes, as timing, duration, and intensity of exposure are all potentially relevant. Summary measures such as cumulative exposure or average intensity of exposure may not fully capture these relationships. We applied penalized and unpenalized distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) with flexible exposure-response and lag-response functions in order to examine the association between crystalline silica exposure and mortality from lung cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease in a cohort study of 2,342 California diatomaceous earth workers, followed 1942-2011...
February 13, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Jessie K Edwards, Stephen R Cole, Richard D Moore, W Christopher Mathews, Mari Kitahata, Joseph J Eron
Cause-specific mortality is an important outcome in studies of interventions to improve survival, yet causes of death can be misclassified. Here, we present an approach to perform sensitivity analyses for misclassification of cause of death in the parametric g-formula. The g-formula is useful method to estimate effects of interventions in epidemiologic research because it appropriately accounts for time-varying confounding affected by prior treatment and can estimate risk under dynamic treatment plans. We illustrate our approach using an example comparing acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related mortality under immediate and delayed treatment strategies in a cohort of therapy-naïve adults entering care for human immunodeficiency virus in the United States...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
T Sugiyama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Scott A McDonald, Maarten van Wijhe, Liselotte van Asten, Wim van der Hoek, Jacco Wallinga
We estimated the influenza mortality burden in adults 60 years of age and older in the Netherlands in terms of years of life lost, taking into account competing mortality risks. Weekly laboratory surveillance data for influenza and other respiratory pathogens and weekly extreme temperature served as covariates in Poisson regression models fitted to weekly age-group specific mortality data for the period 1999/2000 through 2012/13. Burden for age-groups 60-64 through 85-89 years was computed as years of life lost before age 90 (YLL90) using restricted mean lifetimes survival analysis and accounting for competing risks...
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Laura N Anderson, Jonathon L Maguire
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Alexander P Keil, Stephen J Mooney, Michele Jonsson Funk, Stephen R Cole, Jessie K Edwards, Daniel Westreich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Kara A Michels, Louise A Brinton, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Britton Trabert
Although use of oral contraceptives (OC) is common, their influence on carcinogenesis is not fully understood. We used Cox proportional hazards models to examine OC use (never/<1 year (reference), 1-4, 5-9, 10+ years) and development of incident cancers across body sites within the same base population: women in the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (enrolled 1995-1996, followed until 2011). Adjustment for confounding varied by outcome; all models accounted for age, race, body mass index, and smoking status and included ≥100,000 women...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Foteini Tseliou, Michael Rosato, Aideen Maguire, David Wright, Dermot O'Reilly
Due to the focus of studies about caregiving responsibilities on older caregivers, there has been a deficit of research on young caregivers. We aimed to investigate the association between caregiving and health/mortality risk in young caregivers when compared with their non-caregiving peers and older caregivers. A census-based record linkage was implemented linking all residents enumerated in the 2011 Northern Ireland Census with subsequently registered deaths data, until the end of 2015. Among those aged 5-24 years at the 2011 Census, approximately 4...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Rachel G Miller, Stewart J Anderson, Tina Costacou, Akira Sekikawa, Trevor J Orchard
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but hyperglycemia, measured by HbA1c (%), which characterizes T1D has itself been an inconsistent CVD predictor. However, only baseline HbA1c or a summary measure (e.g., mean over follow-up) is usually analyzed. Joint models allow longitudinal repeated covariates, modeled using random effects, and time-to-event data to be modeled simultaneously. Data are from the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications (EDC) study, an ongoing, prospective cohort study of childhood-onset T1D followed beginning in 1986-1988 that has repeatedly reported little association between baseline or mean follow-up HbA1c and coronary artery disease incidence...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
M Fernanda Lima-Costa, Fabíola Bof de Andrade, Paulo Roberto Borges de Souza, Anita Liberalesso Neri, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira Duarte, Erico Castro-Costa, Cesar de Oliveira
Brazil is experiencing one of the world's fastest demographic aging worldwide. This demographic transition is occurring in a context of few resources and great social inequalities. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSI-Brazil) is a nationally representative study of 9,412 people aged 50 years and over, residing in 70 municipalities across the 5 great Brazilian regions. The study allows investigations of the aging process, its health, psychosocial and economic determinants and societal consequences...
January 31, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
David B Richardson, Alan C Kinlaw, Alexander P Keil, Ashley I Naimi, Jay S Kaufman, Stephen R Cole
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Stephen A Haddad, Edward A Ruiz-Narváez, Yvette C Cozier, Hanna Gerlovin, Lynn Rosenberg, Julie R Palmer
Circulating levels of vitamin D are generally lower in African Americans compared to U.S. whites, and one prior analysis in a small number of African Americans suggested that, within this population, vitamin D levels may be related to the degree of genetic admixture. We assessed the association of percent European ancestry with serum vitamin D levels in 2183 African American women from the Black Women's Health Study in 2013-2015, whose DNA had been genotyped for ancestry informative markers. ADMIXMAP software was used to estimate percent European versus African ancestry in each individual...
January 30, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Yuan-Hua Chen, Fang-Biao Tao, De-Xiang Xu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Jiaqi Huang, Stephanie J Weinstein, Steven C Moore, Andriy Derkach, Xing Hua, Linda M Liao, Fangyi Gu, Alison M Mondul, Joshua N Sampson, Demetrius Albanes
Tobacco use, hypertension, hyperglycemia, overweight, and inactivity are leading causes of overall and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality worldwide, yet the relevant metabolic alterations responsible are largely unknown. We conducted a serum metabolomic analysis of 620 men in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (1985-2013). During 28 years of follow-up, there were 435 deaths (197 CVD and 107 cancer). The analysis included 406 known metabolites measured with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry...
January 30, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Tianyi Huang, Brian M Lin, Susan Redline, Gary C Curhan, Frank B Hu, Shelley S Tworoger
Despite established sex differences and longstanding hypotheses of sex hormones in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) etiology, no studies have evaluated type of menopause and age at menopause, which affect postmenopausal hormonal milieu, in relation to OSA risk in women. We followed 50,473 postmenopausal women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) between 2002-2012 and 53,827 postmenopausal women from the NHSII between 1995-2013, with 1,712 and 2,560 incident OSA diagnoses, respectively. Compared with natural menopause, the pooled HR for OSA was 1...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Joseph M Braun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Pingsheng Wu, Gabriel J Escobar, Tebeb Gebretsadik, Kecia N Carroll, Sherian X Li, Eileen M Walsh, Edward F Mitchel, Chantel Sloan, William D Dupont, Chang Yu, Jeffrey R Horner, Tina V Hartert
We sought to determine the real-world effectiveness of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) immunoprophylaxis in a population-based cohort to inform policy. The study population included infants born 1996-2008 and enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California. During the RSV season (November-March), RSV immunoprophylaxis administration and the following 30 days were defined as RSV immunoprophylaxis protected period(s), and all other days as unprotected period(s). Bronchiolitis hospitalizations were determined using the International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision codes during RSV season...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
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