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American Journal of Epidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100466/associations-of-accelerometer-measured-and-self-reported-sedentary-time-with-leukocyte-telomere-length-in-older-women
#1
Aladdin H Shadyab, Caroline A Macera, Richard A Shaffer, Sonia Jain, Linda C Gallo, Michael J LaMonte, Alexander P Reiner, Charles Kooperberg, Cara L Carty, Chongzhi Di, Todd M Manini, Lifang Hou, Andrea Z LaCroix
Few studies have assessed the association of sedentary time with leukocyte telomere length (LTL). In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2012-2013, we examined associations of accelerometer-measured and self-reported sedentary time with LTL in a sample of 1,481 older white and African-American women from the Women's Health Initiative and determined whether associations varied by level of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). The association between sedentary time and LTL was evaluated using multiple linear regression models...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100465/prevalence-of-masked-hypertension-among-us-adults-with-nonelevated-clinic-blood-pressure
#2
Y Claire Wang, Daichi Shimbo, Paul Muntner, Andrew E Moran, Lawrence R Krakoff, Joseph E Schwartz
Masked hypertension (MHT), defined as nonelevated blood pressure (BP) in the clinic setting and elevated BP assessed by ambulatory monitoring, is associated with increased risk of target organ damage, cardiovascular disease, and mortality. Currently, no estimate of MHT prevalence exists for the general US population. After pooling data from the Masked Hypertension Study (n = 811), a cross-sectional clinical investigation of systematic differences between clinic BP and ambulatory BP (ABP) in a community sample of employed adults in the New York City metropolitan area (2005-2012), and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; 2005-2010; n = 9,316), an ongoing nationally representative US survey, we used multiple imputation to impute ABP-defined hypertension status for NHANES participants and estimate MHT prevalence among the 139 million US adults with nonelevated clinic BP, no history of overt cardiovascular disease, and no use of antihypertensive medication...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093386/association-of-facebook-use-with-compromised-well-being-a-longitudinal-study
#3
Holly B Shakya, Nicholas A Christakis
Face-to-face social interactions enhance well-being. With the ubiquity of social media, important questions have arisen about the impact of online social interactions. In the present study, we assessed the associations of both online and offline social networks with several subjective measures of well-being. We used 3 waves (2013, 2014, and 2015) of data from 5,208 subjects in the nationally representative Gallup Panel Social Network Study survey, including social network measures, in combination with objective measures of Facebook use...
January 16, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087514/the-influence-of-meteorological-factors-and-atmospheric-pollutants-on-the-risk-of-preterm-birth
#4
Lise Giorgis-Allemand, Marie Pedersen, Claire Bernard, Inmaculada Aguilera, Rob M J Beelen, Leda Chatzi, Marta Cirach, Asta Danileviciute, Audrius Dedele, Manon van Eijsden, Marisa Estarlich, Ana Fernández-Somoano, Mariana F Fernández, Francesco Forastiere, Ulrike Gehring, Regina Grazuleviciene, Olena Gruzieva, Barbara Heude, Gerard Hoek, Kees de Hoogh, Edith H van den Hooven, Siri E Håberg, Carmen Iñiguez, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Michal Korek, Aitana Lertxundi, Johanna Lepeule, Per Nafstad, Wenche Nystad, Evridiki Patelarou, Daniela Porta, Dirkje Postma, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Peter Rudnai, Valérie Siroux, Jordi Sunyer, Euripides Stephanou, Mette Sørensen, Kirsten Thorup Eriksen, Derek Tuffnell, Mihály J Varró, Tanja G M Vrijkotte, Alet Wijga, John Wright, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Göran Pershagen, Bert Brunekreef, Manolis Kogevinas, Rémy Slama
Atmospheric pollutants and meteorological conditions are suspected to be causes of preterm birth. We aimed to characterize their possible association with the risk of preterm birth (defined as birth occurring before 37 completed gestational weeks). We pooled individual data from 13 birth cohorts in 11 European countries (71,493 births from the period 1994-2011, European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)). City-specific meteorological data from routine monitors were averaged over time windows spanning from 1 week to the whole pregnancy...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087513/how-accurate-is-a-single-cutpoint-to-identify-high-blood-pressure-in-adolescents
#5
Paolo Brambilla, Anita Andreano, Laura Antolini, Giorgio Bedogni, Alessandro Salvatoni, Lorenzo Iughetti, Luis Alberto Moreno, Angelo Pietrobelli, Simonetta Genovesi
In 2007 the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) proposed single blood pressure (BP) cutpoints (systolic: ≥130 mm Hg and diastolic: ≥85 mm Hg) for the diagnosis of high blood pressure (HBP) in adolescents. Before this proposal, HBP had been defined as BP at or above the 95th percentile for age, sex, and height percentile (reference standard). In this study, we evaluated the risk for misclassification when using the IDF single-cutpoints criteria. We first applied the IDF criteria to a reconstructed population with the same age, sex, and height distribution as the population used to develop the reference standard...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087512/giorgis-allemand-et-al-respond-to-ambient-environment-and-preterm-birth
#6
Lise Giorgis-Allemand, Marie Pedersen, Rob M J Beelen, Ulrike Gehring, Gerard Hoek, Xavier Basagana, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Bert Brunekreef, Manolis Kogevinas, Rémy Slama
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087511/invited-commentary-ambient-environment-and-the-risk-of-preterm-birth
#7
Sandie Ha, Pauline Mendola
Preterm birth is a common adverse birth outcome known to be associated with increased infant mortality, and it often results in a higher burden of offspring morbidity in both the short and long terms. The potential for environmental factors, particularly air pollution and meteorological parameters, to increase preterm birth risk has received significant attention worldwide, but the findings are generally inconsistent, with variations in study designs and methods across populations and geographic locations. In the current issue of the Journal, Giorgis-Allemand et al...
January 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077361/ghiasvand-et-al-respond-to-indoor-tanning-a-melanoma-accelerator
#8
Reza Ghiasvand, Corina S Rueegg, Elisabete Weiderpass, Adele C Green, Eiliv Lund, Marit B Veierød
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077360/invited-commentary-indoor-tanning-a-melanoma-accelerator
#9
Marianne Berwick, Jean-François Doré
In this issue of the Journal, Ghiasvand et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2017;185(00):000-000) present results from a longitudinal study of the association between indoor tanning and melanoma in a large cohort of Norwegian women. These new data further support previous findings on the damaging effects of tanning bed exposure on women, particularly young women. The authors present compelling evidence that early exposure to tanning beds advances the date of diagnosis of melanoma by at least 2 years. With a strong design and a large cohort followed for a mean of 13...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077359/indoor-tanning-and-melanoma-risk-long-term-evidence-from-a-prospective-population-based-cohort-study
#10
Reza Ghiasvand, Corina S Rueegg, Elisabete Weiderpass, Adele C Green, Eiliv Lund, Marit B Veierød
Indoor tanning is associated with increased risk of melanoma, but most evidence comes from case-control studies. Using data from the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study, a large prospective cohort study, we investigated the associations of age at initiation of indoor tanning, duration of tanning-device use, and dose response with melanoma risk and examined the role of indoor tanning in age at melanoma diagnosis. We used Poisson regression to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for the relationship of indoor tanning to melanoma risk and linear regression to examine age of indoor tanning initiation in relation to age at diagnosis...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073767/analyses-of-sensitivity-to-the-missing-at-random-assumption-using-multiple-imputation-with-delta-adjustment-application-to-a-tuberculosis-hiv-prevalence-survey-with-incomplete-hiv-status-data
#11
Finbarr P Leacy, Sian Floyd, Tom A Yates, Ian R White
Multiple imputation with delta adjustment provides a flexible and transparent means to impute univariate missing data under general missing-not-at-random mechanisms. This facilitates the conduct of analyses assessing sensitivity to the missing-at-random (MAR) assumption. We review the delta-adjustment procedure and demonstrate how it can be used to assess sensitivity to departures from MAR, both when estimating the prevalence of a partially observed outcome and when performing parametric causal mediation analyses with a partially observed mediator...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073766/a-comprehensive-model-of-colorectal-cancer-by-risk-factor-status-and-subsite-using-data-from-the-nurses-health-study
#12
Esther K Wei, Graham A Colditz, Edward L Giovannucci, Kana Wu, Robert J Glynn, Charles S Fuchs, Meir Stampfer, Walter Willett, Shuji Ogino, Bernard Rosner
We expanded and updated our colon cancer risk model to evaluate colorectal cancer (CRC) and whether subsite-specific risk models are warranted. Using data from 1980-2010 for 90,286 women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study, we performed competing-risks regression and tests for subsite heterogeneity (proximal colon: n = 821; distal colon: n = 521; rectum: n = 376). Risk factors for CRC were consistent with those in our colon cancer model. Processed meat consumption was associated with a higher risk of distal (hazard ratio (HR) = 1...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073765/tracing-a-path-to-the-past-exploring-the-use-of-commercial-credit-reporting-data-to-construct-residential-histories-for-epidemiologic-studies-of-environmental-exposures
#13
Susan Hurley, Andrew Hertz, David O Nelson, Michael Layefsky, Julie Von Behren, Leslie Bernstein, Dennis Deapen, Peggy Reynolds
Large-scale environmental epidemiologic studies often rely on exposure estimates based on linkage to residential addresses. This approach, however, is limited by the lack of residential histories typically available for study participants. Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility of using address data from LexisNexis (a division of RELX, Inc., Dayton, Ohio), a commercially available credit reporting company, to construct residential histories for participants in the California Teachers Study (CTS), a prospective cohort study initiated in 1995-1996 to study breast cancer (n = 133,479)...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073764/causal-effect-of-genetic-variants-associated-with-body-mass-index-on-multiple-sclerosis-susceptibility
#14
Milena A Gianfrancesco, M Maria Glymour, Stefan Walter, Brooke Rhead, Xiaorong Shao, Ling Shen, Hong Quach, Alan Hubbard, Ingileif Jónsdóttir, Kári Stefánsson, Pernilla Strid, Jan Hillert, Anna Hedström, Tomas Olsson, Ingrid Kockum, Catherine Schaefer, Lars Alfredsson, Lisa F Barcellos
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Recent studies indicate that childhood and adolescent obesity double the risk of MS, but this association may reflect unmeasured confounders rather than causal effects of obesity. We used separate-sample Mendelian randomization to estimate the causal effect of body mass index (BMI) on susceptibility to MS. Using data from non-Hispanic white members of the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Plan of Northern California (KPNC) (2006-2014; 1,104 cases of MS and 10,536 controls) and a replication data set from Sweden (the Epidemiological Investigation of MS (EIMS) and the Genes and Environment in MS (GEMS) studies, 2005-2013; 5,133 MS cases and 4,718 controls), we constructed a weighted genetic risk score using 97 variants previously established to predict BMI...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073763/maternal-concentrations-of-perfluoroalkyl-substances-and-fetal-markers-of-metabolic-function-and-birth-weight-the-maternal-infant-research-on-environmental-chemicals-mirec-study
#15
Jillian Ashley-Martin, Linda Dodds, Tye E Arbuckle, Maryse F Bouchard, Mandy Fisher, Anne-Sophie Morriset, Patricia Monnier, Gabriel D Shapiro, Adrienne S Ettinger, Renee Dallaire, Shayne Taback, William Fraser, Robert W Platt
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are ubiquitous, persistent chemicals that have been widely used in the production of common household and consumer goods for their nonflammable, lipophobic, and hydrophobic properties. Inverse associations between maternal or umbilical cord blood concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctanesulfonate and birth weight have been identified. This literature has primarily examined each PFAS individually without consideration of the potential influence of correlated exposures...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062393/proportion-of-tubal-factor-infertility-due-to-chlamydia-finite-mixture-modeling-of-serum-antibody-titers
#16
A E Ades, M J Price, D Kounali, V A Akande, G S Wills, M O McClure, P Muir, P J Horner
In this study, we examined whether the proportion of tubal factor infertility (TFI) that is attributable to Chlamydia trachomatis, the population excess fraction (PEF), can be estimated from serological data using finite mixture modeling. Whole-cell inclusion immunofluorescence serum antibody titers were recorded among infertile women seen at St. Michael's Hospital in Bristol, United Kingdom, during the period 1985-1995. Women were classified as TFI cases or controls based on laparoscopic examination. Finite mixture models were used to identify the number of component titer distributions and the proportion of serum samples in each, from which estimates of PEF were derived...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998891/inflammatory-cytokines-and-lung-cancer-risk-in-3-prospective-studies
#17
Darren R Brenner, Anouar Fanidi, Kjell Grankvist, David C Muller, Paul Brennan, Jonas Manjer, Graham Byrnes, Allison Hodge, Gianluca Severi, Graham G Giles, Mikael Johansson, Mattias Johansson
To further investigate the role of inflammation in lung carcinogenesis, we evaluated associations between proinflammatory cytokines and lung cancer risk. We conducted a case-control study nested within 3 prospective cohort studies-the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (1990-1994), the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (1991-1996), and the Northern Sweden Health and Disease Study (initiated in 1985)-involving 807 incident lung cancer cases and 807 smoking-matched controls. Conditional logistic regression models adjusting for serum cotinine concentrations were used to estimate odds ratios for lung cancer risk associated with concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor α, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor...
December 20, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988492/cytochrome-p-450-2d6-cyp2d6-genotype-and-breast-cancer-recurrence-in-tamoxifen-treated-patients-evaluating-the-importance-of-loss-of-heterozygosity
#18
Thomas P Ahern, Daniel L Hertz, Per Damkier, Bent Ejlertsen, Stephen J Hamilton-Dutoit, James M Rae, Meredith M Regan, Alastair M Thompson, Timothy L Lash, Deirdre P Cronin-Fenton
Tamoxifen therapy for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer reduces the risk of recurrence by approximately one-half. Cytochrome P-450 2D6, encoded by the polymorphic cytochrome P-450 2D6 gene (CYP2D6), oxidizes tamoxifen to its most active metabolites. Steady-state concentrations of endoxifen (4-hydroxy-N-desmethyltamoxifen), the most potent antiestrogenic metabolite, are reduced in women whose CYP2D6 genotypes confer poor enzyme function. Thirty-one studies of the association of CYP2D6 genotype with breast cancer survival have yielded heterogeneous results...
December 17, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986705/exposure-to-neighborhood-foreclosures-and-changes-in-cardiometabolic-health-results-from-mesa
#19
Paul J Christine, Kari Moore, Natalie D Crawford, Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutierrez, Brisa N Sánchez, Teresa Seeman, Ana V Diez Roux
Home foreclosures can precipitate declines in health among the individuals who lost their homes. Whether home foreclosures can "spillover" to affect the health of other neighborhood residents is largely unknown. Using longitudinal data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis that were linked to foreclosure data from 2005 to 2012, we assessed whether greater exposure to neighborhood foreclosures was associated with temporal changes in 3 objectively measured cardiometabolic risk factors: body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and fasting glucose level...
December 16, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986704/comparison-of-collection-methods-for-fecal-samples-in-microbiome-studies
#20
Emily Vogtmann, Jun Chen, Amnon Amir, Jianxin Shi, Christian C Abnet, Heidi Nelson, Rob Knight, Nicholas Chia, Rashmi Sinha
Prospective cohort studies are needed to assess the relationship between the fecal microbiome and human health and disease. To evaluate fecal collection methods, we determined technical reproducibility, stability at ambient temperature, and accuracy of 5 fecal collection methods (no additive, 95% ethanol, RNAlater Stabilization Solution, fecal occult blood test cards, and fecal immunochemical test tubes). Fifty-two healthy volunteers provided fecal samples at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, in 2014...
December 16, 2016: American Journal of Epidemiology
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