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American Journal of Epidemiology

Jonathan Chevrier, Stephen Rauch, Madelein Crause, Muvhulawa Obida, Fraser Gaspar, Riana Bornman, Brenda Eskenazi
Although effective in controlling malaria, Indoor Residual Spraying results in elevated exposure to insecticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and pyrethroids. These chemicals cross the placenta but no studies have examined their associations with birth outcomes in populations residing in indoor residual spraying areas. We investigated this question in the Venda Health Examination of Mothers, Babies and their Environment (VHEMBE), a birth cohort study of 751 South African children born between 2012 and 2013...
July 9, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
A Baylin, H Guyer
Chahal et al (Am J Epidemiol. XXXX;XXX(XX):XXXX-XXXX)) assessed the risk of placental abruption due to physical exertion using a case-crossover design. The authors found an increased risk of placental abruption following increased physical exertion in the hour prior to the abruption. The risk was greater among women who were primarily sedentary during pregnancy or prior to being pregnant compared to those who were more physically active. The authors utilize a case-crossover design to assess the association of an intermittent exposure on an acute event...
July 9, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Harpreet S Chahal, Bizu Gelaye, Michelle A Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 9, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Patricia Louie, Blair Wheaton
The tendency for Blacks to report similar or lower rates of mental disorder than Whites is well-established. However, whether these disparities are stable across cohorts of Black and White Americans is not well understood. In the current study, we examined Black-White differences in the lifetime prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition mood, anxiety, impulse control, substance use and any disorders across 3 cohorts of Blacks and Whites aged 4 to 18. Using merged data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (2001-2003) and the National Comorbidity Survey Adolescent Supplement (2001-2004), we observed a change in the Black-White patterning of mental disorder between 1957 and 2004...
July 9, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Harpreet S Chahal, Bizu Gelaye, Elizabeth Mostofsky, Sixto E Sanchez, Murray A Mittleman, Malcolm Maclure, Percy Pacora, Jose A Torres, Roberto Romero, Cande V Ananth, Michelle A Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 9, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Günther Fink, Kathryn G Andrews, Helena Brentani, Sandra Grisi, Ana Paula Scoleze Ferrer, Alexandra Brentani
A growing body of epigenetic research suggests that in-utero adaptations to environmental changes display important sex-specific variation. We test this heterogeneous adaptation hypothesis using data from 900 children born at the University Hospital in São Paulo, Brazil, between October 2013 and April 2014. Adjusted and unadjusted linear models were used to quantify the associations between prematurity, small for gestational age and children's physical and mental development at 12 months of age. Prematurity was negatively associated with neuropsychological development in fully adjusted models (z-score difference -0...
July 2, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Elizabeth C Oelsner, Pallavi P Balte, Pat Cassano, David Couper, Paul L Enright, Aaron R Folsom, John Hankinson, David R Jacobs, Ravi Kalhan, Robert Kaplan, Richard Kronmal, Leslie Lange, Laura R Loehr, Stephanie J London, Ana Navas Acien, Anne B Newman, George T O'Connor, Joseph E Schwartz, Lewis J Smith, Fawn Yeh, Yiyi Zhang, Andrew E Moran, Stanford Mwasongwe, Wendy B White, Sachin Yende, R Graham Barr
Chronic lower respiratory diseases (CLRD) are the fourth leading cause-of-death in the US. To support investigations into CLRD risk determinants and new approaches to primary prevention, we aimed to harmonize and pool respiratory data from US general population-based cohorts. Data were obtained from prospective cohorts that performed pre-bronchodilator spirometry, which was harmonized following 2005 ATS/ERS standards. In cohorts conducting follow-up for non-cardiovascular events, CLRD events were defined as hospitalizations/deaths adjudicated as CLRD-related or assigned relevant administrative codes...
June 30, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Carlos A Celis-Morales, Fanny Petermann, Lewis Steell, Jana Anderson, Paul Welsh, Daniel F Mackay, Stamatina Iliodromiti, Donald M Lyall, Mike E Lean, Jill P Pell, Naveed Sattar, Jason M R Gill, Stuart R Gray
Adequate dietary protein intake is important for the maintenance of fat-free mass (FFM) and muscle strength: optimal requirements remain unknown. The aim of the current study was to explore the associations of protein intake with FFM and grip strength. We used baseline data from the UK Biobank (146,816 participants aged 40-69 years with data collected 2007-2010 across the UK) to examine the associations of protein intake with FFM and grip strength. Protein intake was positively associated with FFM (men 5.1% [95% CI: 5...
June 29, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Natalie D Crawford, Kari Moore, Paul J Christine, Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutierrez, Teresa Seeman, Ana V Diez Roux
The US Great Recession resulted in an alarming number of home foreclosures that weakened the social and physical environment of thousands of neighborhoods. Few studies have evaluated whether these neighborhood changes were related to changes in individual behaviors. We examined the relationship between changes in neighborhood-level home foreclosure within a quarter-mile (0.4-km) buffer of the residence and changes in cigarette smoking and alcohol use among 3,807 adults enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis during 2005-2012, using econometric individual-level fixed-effects models...
June 29, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Yiqiang Zhan, Xing-Rong Liu, Chandra A Reynolds, Nancy L Pedersen, Sara Hägg, Mark S Clements
Although previous studies examining leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and all-cause mortality controlled for several confounders, the observed association could be biased due to unmeasured confounders, including familial factors. We aimed to examine the association of LTL with all-cause mortality in a Swedish twin sample adjusting for familial factors and allowing for time dependent effects. Three hundred and sixty-six participants were recruited from the Swedish Twin Registry. LTL was assessed using the Southern blot method...
June 29, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Fabienne Pradella, Reyn van Ewijk
While prenatal exposure to Ramadan has been shown to be negatively associated with general physical and mental health, studies on specific organs remain scarce. This study explores whether Ramadan during pregnancy has impacts on the occurrence of wheezing, a main symptom for obstructive airways diseases. Using data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey collected between 1993 and 2008 (waves 1 to 4), we compare wheezing occurrence among adult Muslims who had been in utero during Ramadan with adult Muslims who had not been in utero during Ramadan...
June 29, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Alison W Rebman, Lin Wang, Ting Yang, Jill A Marsteller, Shannon M E Murphy, Maria Uriyo, Erica A Mihm, Eric R Weinstein, Peter Fagan, John N Aucott
The epidemiology of Lyme disease has been examined utilizing insurance claims from privately insured individuals; however, it is unknown whether reported patterns vary among the publically insured. We examined incidence rate trends of first Lyme disease diagnosis among 384,652 Maryland Medicaid members enrolled from July 2004-June 2011. Age, gender, county, season, and year-specific incidence rates were calculated, and mixed effects multiple logistic regression models were used to study the relationship between diagnosis and these variables...
June 27, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Katherine C Horton, Tom Sumner, Rein M G J Houben, Elizabeth L Corbett, Richard G White
Globally, men have a higher epidemiological burden of tuberculosis (incidence, prevalence, mortality) than women, possibly due to differences in disease incidence, treatment initiation, self-cure and/or untreated-tuberculosis mortality rates. Using a simple, gender-stratified compartmental model, we employed a Bayesian approach to explore which factors most likely explain men's higher burden. We applied the model to smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Viet Nam (2006-07) and Malawi (2013-14). Posterior estimates were consistent with gender-specific prevalence and notifications in both countries...
June 27, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Tarik Benmarhnia, John P Pierce, Eric Leas, Martha M White, David R Strong, Madison L Noble, Dennis R Trinidad
Many smokers believe that electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) and pharmaceutical cessation aids can help them quit smoking or reduce cigarette consumption, but the evidence for e-cigarettes to aid quitting is limited. Examining 3,093 quit attempters in the nationally-representative US Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study between 2013 and 2015, we evaluated the influence of ENDS and pharmaceutical cessation aids on persistent abstinence (≥30 days) from cigarettes, and reduced cigarette consumption, using Propensity Score Matching to balance comparison groups on potential confounders and multiple imputation to handle missing data...
June 27, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
José A Tapia Granados, Paul J Christine, Edward L Ionides, Mercedes R Carnethon, Ana V Diez Roux, Catarina I Kiefe, Pamela J Schreiner
Research has shown that recessions are associated with lower cardiovascular mortality but unemployed individuals have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or death. We used data from eight consecutive exams (1985-2011) of the CARDIA cohort, modeled in fixed-effect panel regressions, to investigate simultaneously the associations of CVD risk factors with (a) the employment status of individuals, and (b) macroeconomic conditions prevalent at the state where the individual lives. We found that unemployed individuals had lower levels of blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, and physical activity, and significantly higher depression scores, but they were like their counterparts in smoking status, alcohol consumption, LDL cholesterol levels, body mass index, and waist circumference...
June 27, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Alpa V Patel, Maret L Maliniak, Erika Rees-Punia, Charles E Matthews, Susan M Gapstur
The majority of leisure-time is spent in sedentary behaviors such as television viewing. Studies have documented that prolonged leisure-time sitting is associated with higher risk of total, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and "all other causes" of mortality, but few have examined the "other" causes of death in detail. To examine associations of leisure-time sitting with risk of specific causes of death, data were analyzed from the CPS-II Nutrition Cohort, a prospective U.S. cohort including 127,554 men and women who were free of major chronic disease at study entry and among whom 48,784 died during 21 years of follow-up (1993-2014; median=20...
June 26, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Rishi J Desai, Richard Wyss, Yinzhu Jin, Justin Bohn, Sengwee Toh, Austin Cosgrove, Adee Kennedy, Jessica Kim, Clara Kim, Rita Ouellet-Hellstrom, Sara Karami, Jacqueline M Major, Aaron Niman, Shirley V Wang, Joshua J Gagne
Use of disease risk score (DRS)-based confounding adjustment when estimating treatment effects on multiple outcomes is not well studied. Using an empirical example comparing dabigatran versus warfarin on ischemic stroke and major bleeding risk in 12 sequential monitoring periods (90 days each) using the Truven Marketscan database, we compared two approaches for combining DRS for multiple outcomes: (1) 1:1 matching on prognostic propensity scores (PPS), created using DRS for bleeding and stroke as independent variables in a propensity score (PS) model; and (2) simultaneous 1:1 matching on DRS for bleeding and stroke using Mahalanobis (M)-distance, against traditional PS-matching...
June 26, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Laurence S Freedman, Douglas Midthune, Lenore Arab, Ross L Prentice, Amy F Subar, Walter Willett, Marian L Neuhouser, Lesley F Tinker, Victor Kipnis
Improving estimates of individuals' dietary intakes is key to obtaining more reliable evidence for diet-health relationships from nutritional cohort studies. One approach to improvement is combining information from different self-report instruments. Previous work evaluated the gains obtained from combining information from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and multiple 24-hour recalls (24HRs), based on assuming that 24HRs provide unbiased measures of individual intakes. Here, we evaluate the same approach of combining instruments, but based on the better assumption that recovery biomarkers provide unbiased measures of individual intakes...
June 18, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Cindy W Leung, Teresa T Fung, Claire T McEvoy, Jue Lin, Elissa S Epel
Aging is the biggest risk factor for the development of chronic diseases. Telomere length may represent one important mechanism by which dietary intake influences age-related diseases; however, it is unknown which diet pattern is most strongly related to telomere length. We compared the relations between four evidence-based diet quality indices and leukocyte telomere length in a nationally representative sample of healthy adults, and the extent to which these associations differ between men and women. Data came from 4,758 adults, aged 20-65 years, with no prior diagnosis of major chronic disease, from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES)...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Corina J Teister, Patricia O Chocano-Bedoya, Endel J Orav, Bess Dawson-Hughes, Ursina Meyer, Otto W Meyer, Gregor Freystaetter, Michael Gagesch, Rene Rizzoli, Andreas Egli, Robert Theiler, John A Kanis, Heike A Bischoff-Ferrari
There is no consensus on most reliable falls ascertainment method. Therefore, we investigated which method captures most falls among pre-frail and frail seniors from two randomized controlled trials conducted in Zurich, Switzerland, a 18-month trial (2009-2010) including 200 community-dwelling pre-frail seniors with a prior fall and a 12-month trial (2005-2008) including 173 frail seniors with acute hip fracture. Both included the same fall ascertainment methods: monthly active-asking, daily self-report diary, and a call-in hotline...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
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