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American Journal of Clinical Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028120/ccnd1-igh-fusion-amplification-and-myc-copy-number-gain-in-a-case-of-pleomorphic-variant-mantle-cell-lymphoma
#1
Yuan Miao, Pei Lin, Wei Wang, L Jeffrey Medeiros, Xinyan Lu
OBJECTIVES: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) may present de novo or undergo progression to a clinically aggressive variant, known as a blastoid or pleomorphic variant. We report an unusual case of classic MCL in a 78-year-old man with a typical immunophenotype, including CD5 positivity, who subsequently relapsed with CD5-negative pleomorphic variant MCL. METHODS: Biopsy specimens were evaluated using Wright-Giemsa-stained or H&E-stained sections, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, conventional cytogenetic, next-generation sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization...
December 27, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028119/inactivating-mutations-of-rb1-and-tp53-correlate-with-sarcomatous-histomorphology-and-metastasis-recurrence-in-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumors
#2
Larissa Merten, Abbas Agaimy, Evgeny A Moskalev, Johannes Giedl, Claudia Kayser, Helene Geddert, Inga-Marie Schaefer, Silke Cameron, Martin Werner, Philip Ströbel, Arndt Hartmann, Florian Haller
OBJECTIVES: Loss-of-function mutations in TP53 and CDKN2A have been found at varying frequencies in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), while no mutations of RB1 have been reported to date. The aim of the current study was to determine the mutation frequency of TP53, RB1, and CDKN2A in GISTs. METHODS: A cohort of 83 primary untreated GISTs was analyzed for mutations in TP53, RB1, and CDKN2A by massive parallel sequencing. Tumors with mutations in TP53 and RB1 were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization for the corresponding gene loci...
December 27, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028118/rapid-evaluation-of-platelet-function-with-t2-magnetic-resonance
#3
Adam Cuker, Holleh Husseinzadeh, Tatiana Lebedeva, Joseph E Marturano, Walter Massefski, Thomas J Lowery, Michele P Lambert, Charles S Abrams, John W Weisel, Douglas B Cines
OBJECTIVES: The clinical diagnosis of qualitative platelet disorders (QPDs) based on light transmission aggregometry (LTA) requires significant blood volume, time, and expertise, all of which can be barriers to utilization in some populations and settings. Our objective was to develop a more rapid assay of platelet function by measuring platelet-mediated clot contraction in small volumes (35 µL) of whole blood using T2 magnetic resonance (T2MR). METHODS: We established normal ranges for platelet-mediated clot contraction using T2MR, used these ranges to study patients with known platelet dysfunction, and then evaluated agreement between T2MR and LTA with arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, epinephrine, and thrombin receptor activator peptide...
December 27, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028117/standard-operating-procedure-utilization-for-tuberculosis-microscopy-in-mekelle-city-north-ethiopia
#4
Yemane Weldu, Hagos Gebru, Getahun Kahsay, Gebremichael Teweldemedhn, Yifter Hagos, Amlsha Kahsay
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the utilization of standard operating procedures for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy. METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted in select health institutions in Mekelle City, Ethiopia, from July 1, 2015, through August 30, 2015. Using a simple random sampling technique, 18 health facilities were included in the study. Data were collected using a standard checklist and entered into Epi Info version 3...
December 27, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028116/measures-of-completeness-and-accuracy-of-clinical-information-in-skin-biopsy-requisition-forms-an-analysis-of-249-cases
#5
Ryan C Romano, Paul J Novotny, Jeff A Sloan, Nneka I Comfere
OBJECTIVES: To define indices of completeness and accuracy of clinical information in the skin biopsy requisition form (RF) and correlate them with health care delivery outcomes and pathology service utilization. METHODS: RFs in our pathology information system were reviewed and assessed for the presence of 10 clinical elements considered critical for dermatopathologic diagnosis. Accuracy was determined by reviewing corresponding clinical notes. RESULTS: In total, 249 RFs were reviewed...
December 27, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028115/epidemiologic-analysis-of-respiratory-viral-infections-mainly-in-hospitalized-children-and-adults-in-a-midwest-university-medical-center-after-the-implementation-of-a-14-virus-multiplex-nucleic-acid-amplification-test
#6
Sophie Arbefeville, Patricia Ferrieri
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the etiology of viral respiratory tract infections mainly in hospitalized children and adults over a 12-month consecutive period after implementation of a 14-virus multiplex nucleic acid amplification test. METHODS: From January 2014 to January 2015, a total of 2,237 respiratory samples were analyzed with the US Food and Drug Administration-cleared eSensor Respiratory Viral Panel (GenMark Diagnostics, Carlsbad, CA). RESULTS: Of the 2,237 specimens tested, 788 specimens were positive for at least one virus, giving a positivity rate of 35...
December 27, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028114/distinct-gata1-point-mutations-in-monozygotic-twins-with-down-syndrome-and-transient-abnormal-myelopoiesis-from-a-triplet-pregnancy-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#7
Liqun Yin, Mark A Lovell, Michael L Wilson, Qi Wei, Xiayuan Liang
OBJECTIVES: Down syndrome (DS)-associated transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) or acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) in monozygotic twins is exceedingly rare and has not been well characterized. METHODS: We describe a unique case of monozygotic twins with simultaneous TAM from a triplet pregnancy at 34 weeks' gestation. Previously reported cases of TAM and DS-AMKL in monozygotic twins have been reviewed to compare with our cases. The current concept of a sequential multistep process in leukemogenesis and disease evolution of TAM into DS-AMKL through the collaboration among trisomy 21, GATA1, and other gene mutations is also reviewed...
December 27, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013226/disseminated-intravascular-coagulation
#8
Benjamin M Boral, Dennis J Williams, Leonard I Boral
OBJECTIVES: To provide a review of the definition, pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, and treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). METHODS: A case scenario and a review of the literature related to the pertinent facts concerning DIC are provided. RESULTS: DIC is a systemic pathophysiologic process and not a single disease entity, resulting from an overwhelming activation of coagulation that consumes platelets and coagulation factors and causes microvascular fibrin thrombi, which can result in multiorgan dysfunction syndrome from tissue ischemia...
December 24, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007703/immunohistochemistry-is-rarely-justified-for-the-diagnosis-of-viral-infections
#9
Isaac H Solomon, Jason L Hornick, Alvaro C Laga
OBJECTIVES: To determine the utility of immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the diagnosis of viral infections in surgical pathology specimens lacking characteristic viral cytopathic effects. METHODS: Five years of cases at an academic medical center were reviewed for the use of IHC to detect cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), adenovirus, or polyomavirus (ie, BK or JC). RESULTS: In total, 1,636 viral IHC stains were ordered on 1,099 specimens from 957 cases...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007702/immunohistochemical-detection-of-ros1-fusion
#10
Yuhua Su, Theodore Goncalves, Dora Dias-Santagata, Mai P Hoang
OBJECTIVES: Patients whose tumors harbor ROS1 translocation may benefit from targeted therapy. Detection of ROS1 rearrangement can be done by three methods: immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and molecular assays. Immunohistochemistry would be a cost-effective means to screen for ROS1 translocation, which is uncommon. METHODS: ROS1 immunostain was performed on cases with known ROS1 translocation status detected either by fluorescence in situ hybridization or next-generation sequencing...
December 21, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940426/laboratory-tests-ordering-pattern-by-medical-residents-from-a-brazilian-university-hospital
#11
Maria M Sales, Leandro U Taniguchi, Luiz A M Fonseca, Mario Ferreira-Junior, Francisco J B Aguiar, Nairo M Sumita, Arnaldo Lichtenstein, Alberto J S Duarte
OBJECTIVES: The adequacy of laboratory test orders by medical residents is a longstanding issue. The aim of this study is to analyze the number, types, and pattern of repetition of tests ordered by medical residents. METHODS: We studied all tests ordered over a 1-year period for inpatients of an internal medicine ward in a university hospital. Types, results, and repetition pattern of tests were analyzed in relation to patients' diagnoses. RESULTS: We evaluated 117,666 tests, requested for 1,024 inpatients...
December 10, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940425/where-the-wild-things-aren-t-loss-of-biodiversity-emerging-infectious-diseases-and-implications-for-diagnosticians
#12
EDITORIAL
Scott R Granter, Richard S Ostfeld, Danny A Milner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 10, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864182/pleuromediastinal-epithelial-myoepithelial-carcinomas-a-clinicopathologic-and-immunohistochemical-study-of-two-cases
#13
Annikka Weissferdt, Neda Kalhor, Cesar A Moran
OBJECTIVES: Two cases of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma are presented, one arising in the pleura and the other in the anterior mediastinum. The cases represent a unique distribution of these tumors within the thoracic cavity. METHODS: Both patients were men aged 25 and 68 years, respectively, who had chest pain and dyspnea. Imaging revealed an anterior mediastinal mass in one patient and a pleural-based tumor in the other. Neither patient had any history of malignancy, and physical examination did not disclose any tumor elsewhere...
November 17, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806941/coexpressed-high-levels-of-vegf-c-and-active-mmp-9-are-associated-with-lymphatic-spreading-and-local-invasiveness-of-papillary-thyroid-carcinoma
#14
Sonja Šelemetjev, Ilona Đorić, Ivan Paunović, Svetislav Tatić, Dubravka Cvejić
OBJECTIVES: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) usually has a good prognosis, but some patients develop an aggressive course of the disease, leading to a poor outcome. Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) have been shown to play roles in tumor progression in various human malignancies. METHODS: We analyzed VEGF-C and active MMP-9 expression profiles in PTC samples using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for VEGF-C and active MMP-9 in 83% and 57% of PTCs, respectively (n = 60), with a positive correlation between their expression levels (Spearman, P < ...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780797/prognostic-value-of-e-cadherin-and-%C3%AE-catenin-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#15
Tiansheng Shen, Kui Zhang, Gene P Siegal, Shi Wei
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) to assess their prognostic significance. METHODS: The expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin was examined semiquantitatively and correlated with other pathologic factors and survival outcomes. RESULTS: Of 72 consecutive TNBCs, 56% showed reduced membranous expression of E-cadherin or β-catenin, with a strong correlation to each other...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773873/performance-characteristics-of-the-reverse-syphilis-screening-algorithm-in-a-population-with-a-moderately-high-prevalence-of-syphilis
#16
Angela R Rourk, Frederick S Nolte, Christine M Litwin
OBJECTIVES: With the recent introduction of automated treponemal tests, a new reverse syphilis algorithm has been proposed and now used by many clinical laboratories. We analyzed the impact of instituting the reverse screening syphilis algorithm in a laboratory that serves a geographic area with a moderately high prevalence of syphilis infection. METHODS: Serum samples sent for syphilis testing were tested using a treponemal enzyme immunoassay (EIA) as the screening assay...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773872/inconsistent-results-with-different-secondary-reflex-assays-for-resolving-her2-status
#17
Carlynn Willmore-Payne, Kristy Damjanovich-Colmenares, Alexandra V Pasi, Theresa L Werner, H Evin Gulbahce, Erinn Downs-Kelly, Katherine B Geiersbach
OBJECTIVES: Guidelines suggest that secondary reflex testing may be useful for resolving HER2 status in breast cancers with equivocal results by both immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH). We compared two reflex ISH assays and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for this application. METHODS: Twenty-nine breast cancers with equivocal IHC and ISH results were retested two ways: (1) ISH using differentially labeled probes targeting ERBB2 (HER2, 17q12) and either RAI1 (17p11...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077401/acknowledgments
#18
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077400/differential-expression-of-hedgehog-and-snail-in-cutaneous-fibrosing-disorders-implications-for-targeted-inhibition
#19
Amrita Goyal, Katy R Linskey, Jonathan Kay, Lyn M Duncan, Rosalynn M Nazarian
OBJECTIVES: To examine Hedgehog signaling in cutaneous fibrosing disorders for which effective approved therapies are lacking, expand our knowledge of pathophysiology, and explore the rationale for targeted inhibition. METHODS: Stain intensity and percentage of cells staining for Sonic hedgehog (Shh), Indian hedgehog (Ihh), Patched (Ptch), glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK3-β), β-catenin, and Snail were evaluated in human skin biopsy specimens of keloid, hypertrophic scar (Hscar), scleroderma, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), scar, and normal skin using a tissue microarray...
December 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077399/her2-testing-and-clinical-decision-making-in-gastroesophageal-adenocarcinoma-guideline-from-the-college-of-american-pathologists-american-society-for-clinical-pathology-and-american-society-of-clinical-oncology
#20
REVIEW
Angela N Bartley, Mary Kay Washington, Christina B Ventura, Nofisat Ismaila, Carol Colasacco, Al B Benson, Alfredo Carrato, Margaret L Gulley, Dhanpat Jain, Sanjay Kakar, Helen J Mackay, Catherine Streutker, Laura Tang, Megan Troxell, Jaffer A Ajani
CONTEXT: ERBB2 (erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 or HER2) is currently the only biomarker established for selection of a specific therapy for patients with advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (GEA). However, there are no comprehensive guidelines for the assessment of HER2 in patients with GEA. OBJECTIVES: To establish an evidence-based guideline for HER2 testing in patients with GEA, to formalize the algorithms for methods to improve the accuracy of HER2 testing while addressing which patients and tumor specimens are appropriate, and to provide guidance on clinical decision making...
December 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
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