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AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813200/brain-microstructural-abnormalities-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-without-overt-hepatic-encephalopathy-a-voxel-based-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-study
#1
Hua-Jun Chen, Peng-Fei Liu, Qiu-Feng Chen, Hai-Bin Shi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whole-brain microstructural abnormalities and their correlation with cognitive impairment in patients with cirrhosis using diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Eighteen patients with cirrhosis and 17 healthy control subjects underwent DKI. Cognition was measured using psychometric hepatic encephalopathy (HE) scores. Whole-brain voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate between-group differences in DKI-derived parameters, including mean kurtosis, axial kurtosis, and radial kurtosis...
August 16, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813199/hypoglossal-canal-lesions-distinctive-imaging-features-and-simple-diagnostic-algorithm
#2
Steven M Weindling, Christopher P Wood, Joseph M Hoxworth
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to compare the prevalence of hypoglossal canal lesions and identify differentiating imaging features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 15-year retrospective review of lesions of the hypoglossal nerve and hypoglossal canal, excluding those in patients with metastasis or prior head and neck cancer and those treated with radiation or surgery, was performed. Clinical findings and lesion imaging features were documented. The contrast-enhanced T1-weighted non-enhancing cystic component of hypoglossal schwannomas was compared with size-matched pathologically proven vestibular schwannomas...
August 16, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813198/radial-scars-of-the-breast-encountered-at-core-biopsy-review-of-histologic-imaging-and-management-considerations
#3
Michael A Cohen, Mary S Newell
OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this article are to place the controversy over the management of radial scars diagnosed at core biopsy in perspective and to define reasonable management options. CONCLUSION: The management of radial scars after image-guided core biopsy of the breast for diagnosis remains controversial. Although current literature suggests no premalignant potential of these lesions, it does not fully explain the small but real percentage of these lesions that are upgraded to malignancy after surgical excision...
August 16, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813197/split-bolus-injection-producing-simultaneous-late-arterial-and-portal-venous-phases-in-ct-enterography-preliminary-results
#4
Johannes Boos, Jieming Fang, Christina M Chingkoe, Michele Perillo, Martin Smith, Vassilios Raptopoulos, Olga R Brook
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to evaluate the image quality and added value of split-bolus contrast agent injection combining late arterial and portal venous phases compared with single-bolus contrast agent injection late arterial phase CT enterography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients who underwent CT enterography before and after implementation of a single-bolus CT enterography protocol were included. Attenuation and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were assessed by ROI measurements of the bowel wall and arterial and venous structures...
August 16, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813196/hepatic-parenchymal-heterogeneity-as-a-marker-for-oxaliplatin-induced-sinusoidal-obstruction-syndrome-correlation-with-treatment-response-of-colorectal-cancer-liver-metastases
#5
Na Yeon Han, Beom Jin Park, Kyung Sook Yang, Min Ju Kim, Deuk Jae Sung, Ki Choon Sim, Sung Bum Cho
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate the influence of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy (OBC)-induced hepatic parenchymal heterogeneity detected on contrast-enhanced CT scans on response of liver metastasis. We chose to study hepatic parenchymal heterogeneity on the basis of the assumption that hepatic parenchymal heterogeneity may indicate the presence of chemotherapy-induced sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this retrospective study, 104 patients with hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer (male-female ratio, 66:38; age range, 20-80 years) who had undergone OBC and serial CT studies were consecutively registered...
August 16, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813195/prediction-of-therapeutic-response-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-to-transcatheter-arterial-chemoembolization-based-on-pretherapeutic-dynamic-ct-and-textural-findings
#6
Hyun Jeong Park, Jung Hoon Kim, Seo-Youn Choi, Eun Sun Lee, Sang Joon Park, Jae Young Byun, Byung Ihn Choi
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to assess the value of CT texture analysis for prediction of therapeutic response of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) with pretherapeutic dynamic CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 132 HCCs in 96 patients treated with TACE who underwent dynamic CT before initial TACE. Imaging findings and arterial enhancement ratios were analyzed. All HCCs were manually segmented, and their texture features were quantitatively extracted using in-house software...
August 16, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813194/characterization-of-small-4-cm-focal-renal-lesions-diagnostic-accuracy-of-spectral-analysis-using-single-phase-contrast-enhanced-dual-energy-ct
#7
Bhavik N Patel, Alex Bibbey, Kingshuk R Choudhury, Richard A Leder, Rendon C Nelson, Daniele Marin
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine whether single-phase contrast-enhanced dual-energy quantitative spectral analysis improves the accuracy of diagnosis of small (< 4.0 cm) renal lesions, compared with conventional single-energy attenuation measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective study, 136 consecutive patients (95 men and 41 women; mean age, 54 years) with 144 renal lesions (111 benign and 33 malignant) underwent single-energy unenhanced and dual-energy contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen...
August 16, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796552/diagnostic-accuracy-of-mri-versus-ct-for-the-evaluation-of-acute-appendicitis-in-children-and-young-adults
#8
Sonja Kinner, Perry J Pickhardt, Erica L Riedesel, Kara G Gill, Jessica B Robbins, Douglas R Kitchin, Timothy J Ziemlewicz, John B Harringa, Scott B Reeder, Michael D Repplinger
OBJECTIVE: Appendicitis is frequently diagnosed in the emergency department, most commonly using CT. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced MRI with that of contrast-enhanced CT for the diagnosis of appendicitis in adolescents when interpreted by abdominal radiologists and pediatric radiologists. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Our study included a prospectively enrolled cohort of 48 patients (12-20 years old) with nontraumatic abdominal pain who underwent CT and MRI...
August 10, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796551/lateral-cortical-thickening-and-bone-heterogeneity-of-the-subtrochanteric-femur-measured-with-quantitative-ct-as-indicators-for-early-detection-of-atypical-femoral-fractures-in-long-term-bisphosphonate-users
#9
Seung Hyun Lee, Young Han Lee, Jin-Suck Suh
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to compare subtrochanteric femur bone mineral density (BMD) and bone quality of long-term bisphosphonate (BP) users who sustained an atypical femoral fracture (AFF) with BP users who did not sustain a femoral fracture and BP-naïve patients with no history of femoral fracture using quantitative CT (QCT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen female BP users with an AFF (mean age, 72.6 years; mean duration of BP use, 6.2 years; mean body mass index, 21...
August 10, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796550/elbow-injuries-in-pediatric-overhead-athletes
#10
Tony T Wong, Dana J Lin, Rama S Ayyala, Jonathan K Kazam
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to discuss common elbow injuries found in pediatric athletes who participate in sports that entail overhead movements with focus on mechanism, clinical features, imaging appearance, and treatment options. CONCLUSION: Elbow injuries are commonly seen in pediatric overhead athletes and have been on the rise owing to the increased participation in and demand of youth sports. Imaging plays a critical role in identifying the type and severity of injury, which helps to determine appropriate treatment options...
August 10, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796549/association-of-brca-mutation-types-imaging-features-and-pathologic-findings-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-with-brca1-and-brca2-mutations
#11
Su Min Ha, Eun Young Chae, Joo Hee Cha, Hak Hee Kim, Hee Jung Shin, Woo Jung Choi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the relationships between the BRCA mutation types, imaging features, and pathologic findings of breast cancers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified patients with breast cancer with BRCA gene mutations from January 2000 to December 2014. After excluding patients who underwent lesion excision before MRI, 99 BRCA1 and 103 BRCA2 lesions in 187 women (mean age, 39...
August 10, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796548/changes-in-breast-density-reporting-patterns-of-radiologists-after-publication-of-the-5th-edition-bi-rads-guidelines-a-single-institution-experience
#12
Abid Irshad, Rebecca Leddy, Madelene Lewis, Abbie Cluver, Susan Ackerman, Dag Pavic, Heather Collins
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to determine the impact of 5th edition BI-RADS breast density assessment guidelines on density reporting patterns in our clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PenRad reporting system was used to collect mammographic breast density data reported by five radiologists: 16,907 density assignments using 5th edition BI-RADS guidelines were compared with 19,066 density assessments using 4th edition guidelines. Changes in the density assessment pattern were noted between the 4th and 5th edition guidelines, and agreement in density distribution was compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient...
August 10, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796547/do-superior-or-inferior-interlaminar-approach-or-bevel-orientation-predispose-to-nonepidural-needle-penetration
#13
Nicholas A Koontz, Richard H Wiggins, Gregory J Stoddard, Lubdha M Shah
OBJECTIVE: There is a paucity of evidence-based literature regarding the advantages and disadvantages of the interlaminar approach and needle bevel orientation for performing a lumbar interlaminar epidural steroid injection (ESI). The purpose of this study was to determine if superior versus inferior lamina approach, needle bevel tip orientation, or both may predispose to inadvertent nonepidural penetration during lumbar interlaminar ESI. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A prospective study was performed of patients with low back pain with or without radicular pain or neurogenic claudication referred for lumbar interlaminar ESI...
August 10, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796546/shear-wave-elastography-for-detection-of-prostate-cancer-a-systematic-review-and-diagnostic-meta-analysis
#14
Sungmin Woo, Chong Hyun Suh, Sang Youn Kim, Jeong Yeon Cho, Seung Hyup Kim
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to review the diagnostic performance of shear-wave elastography (SWE) in the detection of prostate cancer (PCa). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases were searched up to December 23, 2016. We included diagnostic accuracy studies that used SWE for PCa detection with prostatectomy or biopsy used as the reference standard. The methodologic quality of the studies was evaluated by two independent reviewers using the revised Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) tool...
August 10, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796545/use-of-mdct-to-assess-the-results-of-bronchial-thermoplasty
#15
Matheus Zanon, Débora L Strieder, Adalberto S Rubin, Guilherme Watte, Edson Marchiori, Paulo F G Cardoso, Bruno Hochhegger
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of MDCT to assess response to bronchial thermoplasty treatment for severe persistent asthma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MDCT data from 26 patients with severe persistent asthma who underwent imaging before and after bronchial thermoplasty were analyzed retrospectively. Changes in the following parameters were assessed: total lung volume, mean lung density, airway wall thickness, CT air trapping index (attenuation < -856 HU), and expiratory-inspiratory ratio of mean lung density (E/I index)...
August 10, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796544/journal-club-doubling-time-of-thymic-epithelial-tumors-correlates-with-world-health-organization-histopathologic-classification
#16
Dong Young Jeong, Kyung Soo Lee, Myung Jin Chung, Jae Ill Zo, Young Mog Shim, Jung Won Moon
OBJECTIVE: Awareness of volume doubling times (VDTs) of different thymic epithelial tumors (TETs), including low- and high-grade thymomas and thymic carcinomas, is important for their management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the VDTs of incidentally found TETs using 3D volumetry (3D-VDT) and longest diameter (LD-VDT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 50 patients (30 men, 20 women) who had histologically proven TETs and who underwent at least two serial CT studies at greater than 2-month intervals...
August 10, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796543/metal-artifact-reduction-for-orthopedic-implants-o-mar-usefulness-in-ct-evaluation-of-reverse-total-shoulder-arthroplasty
#17
Euddeum Shim, Yusuhn Kang, Joong Mo Ahn, Eugene Lee, Joon Woo Lee, Joo Han Oh, Heung Sik Kang
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of the metal artifact reduction algorithm for orthopedic implants (O-MAR) on CT image quality for patients with reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA), with emphasis placed on the evaluation of bone in the vicinity of prostheses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-five patients who underwent CT scanning after RTSA were enrolled in the study. Two radiologists analyzed the images reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) with or without O-MAR processing...
August 10, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796542/cine-mri-of-tracheal-dynamics-in-healthy-volunteers-and-patients-with-tracheobronchomalacia
#18
Pierluigi Ciet, Phillip M Boiselle, Benedikt Heidinger, Eleni-Rosalina Andrinopoulou, Carl O'Donnel, David C Alsop, Diana E Litmanovich
OBJECTIVE: Bronchoscopy and MDCT are routinely used to assess tracheobronchomalacia (TBM). Recently, dynamic MRI (cine MRI) has been proposed as a radiation-free alternative to MDCT. In this study, we tested cine MRI assessment of airway dynamics during various breathing conditions and compared cine MRI and MDCT measurements in healthy volunteers and patients with suspected TBM. CONCLUSION: Cine MRI was found to be a technically feasible alternative to MDCT for assessing central airway dynamics...
August 10, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777663/frondlike-synovitis-on-mri-and-correlation-with-polyethylene-surface-damage-of-total-knee-arthroplasty
#19
Angela E Li, Christine C Johnson, Darryl B Sneag, Chelsea N Koch, Kara Fields, Theodore T Miller, Timothy M Wright, Douglas E Padgett, Hollis G Potter
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine the association between polyethylene surface damage and the severity of frondlike hypertrophied synovitis, joint distention, capsular thickness, and osteolysis on MRI compared with other patient factors. Another goal of this study is to ascertain the interobserver reliability in MRI evaluation of synovitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR images of 61 patients who had undergone revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were retrospectively reviewed...
August 4, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777655/trainees-may-add-value-to-patient-care-by-decreasing-addendum-utilization-in-radiology-reports
#20
Patricia Balthazar, Christina Konstantopoulos, Carson A Wick, Ariadne K DeSimone, Srini Tridandapani, Stephen Simoneaux, Kimberly E Applegate
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of trainee involvement and other factors on addendum rates in radiology reports. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was performed in a tertiary care pediatric hospital. From the institutional radiology data repository, we extracted all radiology reports from January 1 to June 30, 2016, as well as trainee (resident or fellow) involvement, imaging modality, patient setting (emergency, inpatient, or outpatient), order status (routine vs immediate), time of interpretation (regular work hours vs off-hours), radiologist's years of experience, and sex...
August 4, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
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