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AIDS Patient Care and STDs

David B Hanna, Molly Jung, Xiaonan Xue, Kathryn Anastos, Jennifer M Cocohoba, Mardge H Cohen, Elizabeth T Golub, Nancy A Hessol, Alexandra M Levine, Tracey E Wilson, Mary A Young, Robert C Kaplan
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasingly common among women with HIV, but literature on nonlipid CVD risk factor management is lacking. We examined semiannual trends from 2006 to 2014 in hypertension treatment and control (blood pressure <140/90 mmHg), diabetes treatment and control (fasting glucose <130 mg/dL), and smoking quit rates in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Unadjusted and adjusted Poisson regression models tested time trends and differences between HIV+ and HIV- women. Among antiretroviral therapy (ART) users, we examined the association of ART adherence and virologic suppression with each outcome...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Julia L Marcus, Roger Baxter, Wendy A Leyden, Dharushana Muthulingam, Arnold Yee, Michael A Horberg, Daniel B Klein, William J Towner, Chun R Chao, Charles P Quesenberry, Michael J Silverberg
It is unclear whether HIV-infected individuals remain at higher risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) compared with HIV-uninfected individuals. We conducted a cohort study of HIV-infected and demographically matched HIV-uninfected adults within Kaiser Permanente Northern California during the period 1996-2011. We used Poisson models to obtain rate ratios (RRs) for incident IPD associated with HIV infection and other risk factors. Among 13,079 HIV-infected and 137,643 HIV-uninfected adults, the IPD rate per 100,000 person-years was 160 (n = 109 events) for HIV-infected and 8 (n = 75 events) for HIV-uninfected subjects, with an adjusted RR of 13...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Matthew J Mimiaga, Elizabeth F Closson, Shanice Battle, Jeffrey H Herbst, Damian Denson, Nicole Pitts, Jeremy Holman, Stewart Landers, Gordon Mansergh
Men who have sex with men (MSM) of color are disproportionately affected by HIV in the United States. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using antiretroviral medications is a newer biomedical prevention modality with established efficacy for reducing the risk of acquiring HIV. We conducted formative qualitative research to explore audience reactions and receptivity to message concepts on PrEP as part of the development of prevention messages to promote PrEP awareness among black and Latino MSM in the United States...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Caroline Kingori, Camila LeMaster Esquivel, Qorsho Hassan, Abdul Elmi, Bakali Mukasa, Michael Reece
African-born immigrants and refugees have HIV infection rates six times higher than any other minority groups in the United States. Despite the increase in the population size and diversity of Somali immigrants and refugees in the United States, Somalis are one of the medically underserved population subgroups in this region. The lack of aggregate HIV infection rates among African-born immigrants, for example, Somali refugees, is a cause for alarm and calls for more research to be conducted in this subgroup...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Zulfa Abrahams, Naomi Levitt, Maia Lesosky, Gary Maartens, Joel Dave
Long-term use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) increases the risk of developing lipodystrophy. Few studies from Africa have used longitudinal data to assess the development of lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy. We use clinical anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) to describe changes in body fat distribution over a 24-month period in individuals initiated on ART. A convenience sample of black South Africans (55 men and 132 women) were recruited and followed for 24 months after commencing ART...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Ennio Polilli, Federica Sozio, Paola Di Stefano, Antonina Sciacca, Tamara Ursini, Maurizio Paoloni, Jacopo Vecchiet, Dante Di Giammartino, Maria Pina Sciotti, Alessandro Grimaldi, Valerio Cortesi, Paolo Fazii, Elena Ricci, Claudio D'Amario, Giuseppe Ippolito, Lucio Pippa, Giustino Parruti
Undiagnosed cases of HIV infection in developed countries are estimated at 20-30% of individuals living with HIV. Web-based strategies may represent a new approach to easier, wider, and unrestricted access to early testing. The Abruzzo Region, Italy, developed a Web-based tool to recruit persons at high risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). At the Website , browsers found information on STIs (HIV, hepatitis B and C, and syphilis), a structured questionnaire called "risk calculator" to assess one's own risk behaviors and direct booking of their test at one of six sites throughout the region...
October 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Virginia Bond, Graeme Hoddinott, Lario Viljoen, Melvin Simuyaba, Maurice Musheke, Janet Seeley
Gauging community responses to the WHO 2015 recommendation to provide antiretroviral treatment (ART) to all people living with HIV (PLHIV) is critical. There is limited qualitative evidence on the acceptability of this Universal Test and Treat (UTT) strategy or community understanding of the impact of ART on reducing HIV transmission, promoted as Treatment as Prevention (TasP). This article explores early understanding of UTT and TasP in 21 urban communities in South Africa and Zambia in 2013 before a community randomized trial of combination prevention-HPTN 071 (PopART)...
September 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Carmen H Logie, Ashley Lacombe-Duncan, Ying Wang, Nicolette Jones, Kandasi Levermore, Ava Neil, Tyrone Ellis, Nicolette Bryan, Sheldon Harker, Annecka Marshall, Peter A Newman
Transgender women are overrepresented in the Caribbean HIV epidemic. The study objective was to examine correlates of HIV infection and HIV testing among transgender women in Jamaica. We implemented a cross-sectional survey with transgender women in Kingston and Ocho Rios, Jamaica. We conducted multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with HIV testing and HIV infection. Among 137 transgender women [mean age 24.0; standard deviation (SD) 5.5], three-quarters (n = 103, 75.7%) had received an HIV test...
September 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Eva A Enns, Cavan S Reilly, Beth A Virnig, Karen Baker, Nicholas Vogenthaler, Keith Henry
Retention in care is essential to the health of people living with HIV and also for their communities. We sought to quantify the value of integrating HIV surveillance data with clinical records for improving the accuracy of retention-in-care estimates and the efficiency of efforts to re-engage out-of-care patients. Electronic medical records (EMRs) of HIV+ patients ≥18 years old from a public, hospital-based clinic in Minneapolis, MN between 2008 and 2014 were merged with state surveillance data on HIV-related laboratory tests, out-of-state relocation, and mortality...
September 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Raphael J Landovitz, Katherine A Desmond, Jennifer L Gildner, Arleen A Leibowitz
The role of HIV specialists in providing primary care to persons living with HIV/AIDS is evolving, given their increased incidence of comorbidities. Multivariate logit analysis compared compliance with sentinel preventive screening tests and interventions among publicly insured Californians with and without access to HIV specialists in 2010. Quality-of-care indicators [visit frequency, CD4 and viral load (VL) assessments, influenza vaccine, tuberculosis (TB) testing, lipid profile, glucose blood test, and Pap smears for women] were related to patient characteristics and provider HIV caseload...
September 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Mona Loutfy, Margaret Johnson, Sharon Walmsley, Anna Samarina, Patricia Vasquez, He Hao-Lan, Tshepiso Madihlaba, Marisol Martinez-Tristani, Jean van Wyk
Generally, women are less likely than men to disclose their HIV status. This analysis examined the relationship between HIV disclosure and (1) perceived barriers to care and (2) quality of life (QoL) for women with HIV. The ELLA (EpidemioLogical study to investigate the popuLation and disease characteristics, barriers to care, and quAlity of life for women living with HIV) study enrolled HIV-positive women aged ≥18 years. Women completed the 12-item Barriers to Care Scale (BACS) questionnaire. QoL was assessed using the Health Status Assessment...
September 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Kelsey B Loeliger, Linda M Niccolai, Lillian N Mtungwa, Anthony Moll, Sheela V Shenoi
With a 19.2% HIV prevalence, South Africa has the largest HIV/AIDS epidemic worldwide. Despite a recent scale-up of public sector HIV resources, including community-based programs to expand HIV care, suboptimal rates of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and adherence persist. As community stakeholders with basic healthcare training, community health workers (CHWs) are uniquely positioned to provide healthcare and insight into potential strategies to improve HIV treatment outcomes. The study goal was to qualitatively explore the self-perceived role of the CHW, unmet CHW needs, and strategies to improve HIV care in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
August 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Pedro Batista, Sherry Deren, Angela Banfield, Evelyn Silva, Mario Cruz, Preston Garnes, Charles M Cleland, Saurabh Mehandru, Melissa LaMar, Martin Markowitz
Recruitment of people who use drugs (PWUD) for HIV-related research has been undertaken since early in the epidemic. In early studies, recruitment was often performed by outreach workers with familiarity with the target population, who distributed risk reduction materials, and administered the surveys being conducted on drug use and risk behaviors. The evolution of effective treatments for HIV has provided opportunities for PWUD to participate in biobehavioral studies testing the efficacy of medical treatment advances and exploring the underlying biomedical basis for prevention and treatment efforts...
August 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Lindsey K Reif, Vanessa Rivera, Bianca Louis, Rachel Bertrand, Mireille Peck, Benedict Anglade, Grace Seo, Elaine J Abrams, Jean W Pape, Daniel W Fitzgerald, Margaret L McNairy
Adolescents account for 40% of new HIV infections, and HIV testing strategies to increase uptake of testing are needed. A community-based adolescent and youth HIV and health testing campaign was conducted in seven slum neighborhoods of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, from December 2014 to September 2015. Community health workers provided community sensitization and recruited 10- to 24-year-olds to test for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea/chlamydia, and to screen for tuberculosis (TB) and pregnancy. HIV-infected individuals were escorted to the GHESKIO HIV clinic for same-day enrollment in care...
August 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Ran Hu, Weiwei Mu, Xin Sun, Hao Wu, Lin Pang, Liming Wang, Qingxia Zhao, Yasong Wu, Decai Zhao, Meiling Chen, Ye Ma, Fujie Zhang
Malnutrition and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related complications are commonly seen in HIV-infected children, and these have been shown in high-prevalent areas such as Africa. Antiviral therapy (ART) has notably controlled disease progression, whereas it effectively reverses underweight and growth retardation in HIV-infected children. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth status after initiation of ART in HIV-infected children in China. A retrospective cohort study was conducted based on the National Science and Technology Major Project...
August 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Karim R Saab, Sonia Elhadad, Dennis Copertino, Jeffrey Laurence
Before the modern era of HIV/AIDS therapeutics, which enabled a cascade of early recognition of infection, prompt initiation of effective antiretroviral therapies, and close follow-up, severe forms of microvascular clotting disorders known as thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) were frequent in the setting of advanced HIV disease. Their incidence was as high as 7% in the period 1984-1999, but fell dramatically, to <0.5%, by 2002. This profound change was predicated on one critical development: availability of new classes of anti-HIV drugs, enabling reduction and maintenance of HIV viral loads to undetectable levels...
August 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
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July 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Faith Fletcher, Lucy Annang Ingram, Jelani Kerr, Meredith Buchberg, Libby Bogdan-Lovis, Sean Philpott-Jones
African American women bear a disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS in the United States. Although they constitute only 13% of the US population, African Americans account for nearly 65% of all new HIV infections among American women. In addition, this population suffers comparatively greater adverse health outcomes related to HIV status. African American women living with HIV in the South may be further burdened by HIV/AIDS stigma, which is comparatively more pronounced in this region. To further explore this burden, we used narrative data and the Social Ecological Model to explore how African American women living with HIV in the US South recount, conceptualize, and cope with HIV/AIDS stigma at interpersonal, community, and institutional levels...
July 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Tanya L Kowalczyk Mullins, Gregory Zimet, Michelle Lally, Jessica A Kahn
Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention is currently indicated for use in adults in the United States and may soon be indicated for minor adolescents. However, implementation of PrEP use among minors may present unique barriers. We conducted 15 individual, semi-structured interviews among US clinicians caring for HIV-infected and at-risk youth. The theory-driven interview guide assessed demographics, perceived role of oral PrEP in HIV prevention among adolescents, perceived barriers to and facilitating factors for use of PrEP in adolescents, and clinician-reported likelihood of prescribing PrEP...
July 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Israel Moses Gross, Sybil Hosek, Maryse Heather Richards, M Isabel Fernandez
Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is crucial for thwarting HIV disease progression and reducing secondary HIV transmission, yet youth living with HIV (YLH) struggle with adherence. The highest rates of new HIV infections in the United States occur in young African American men. A sample of 387 HIV-positive young African American males on ART was selected from a cross-sectional assessment of (YLH) receiving medical care within the Adolescent Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN) from 2010 to 2012 (12-24 years old, median 22...
July 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
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