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Davide De Francesco, Ferdinand W Wit, Alexander Bürkle, Sebastian Oehlke, Neeltje A Kootstra, Alan Winston, Claudio Franceschi, Paolo Garagnani, Chiara Pirazzini, Claude Libert, Tilman Grune, Daniela Weber, Eugène H J M Jansen, Caroline A Sabin, Peter Reiss
OBJECTIVES: Despite successful antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, people living with HIV (PLWH) may show signs of premature/accentuated aging. We compared established biomarkers of aging in PLWH, appropriately-chosen HIV-negative individuals, and blood donors, and explored factors associated with biological age advancement. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of 134 PLWH on suppressive ARV therapy, 79 lifestyle-comparable HIV-negative controls aged ≥45 years from the Co-morBidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) cohort, and 35 age-matched blood donors (BD)...
October 16, 2018: AIDS
Jordan Aldersley, David R Lorenz, Vikas Misra, Hajime Uno, Dana Gabuzda
OBJECTIVE(S): HIV-positive individuals have elevated rates of anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and sexually transmitted infections with its causative agent, high-risk human papillomavirus, and other oncoviruses including hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV infection can cause liver cancer, and has been associated with increased risk of some extra-hepatic cancers including biliary tract cancer, pancreatic cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Whether HBV is associated with anal SCC risk is unknown...
October 16, 2018: AIDS
Nicolás Merchante, Blanca Figueruela, Miguel Rodríguez-Fernández, Francisco Rodríguez-Arrondo, Boris Revollo, Sofía Ibarra, María J Galindo, Esperanza Merino, Marta Montero, Francisco Téllez, Miguel García-Deltoro, Antonio Rivero-Juárez, Marcial Delgado-Fernández, María J Ríos-Villegas, Koldo Aguirrebengoa, María A García, Joseba Portu, Francisco J Vera-Méndez, Marina Villalobos, Carlos Mínguez, Ignacio De Los Santos, Miguel A López-Ruz, Mohamed Omar, Carlos Galera, Juan Macías, Juan A Pineda
OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of ultrasound (US) surveillance for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: The GEHEP-002 cohort recruits HCC cases diagnosed in HIV-infected patients from 32 centers across Spain. The proportion of 'US lack of detection', defined as HCC diagnosed within the first 3 months after a normal surveillance US, and the proportion of 'surveillance failure', defined as cases in which surveillance failed to detect HCC at early stage, were assessed...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Olivier Lucar, Mariama Sadjo Diallo, Charles Bayard, Assia Samri, Nadine Tarantino, Patrice Debré, Rodolphe Thiébaut, Françoise Brun-Vézinet, Sophie Matheron, Rémi Cheynier, Vincent Vieillard
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1 and HIV-2 differ notably in their epidemiology, with worldwide HIV-1 spread and HIV-2 mainly confined to West Africa. Natural killer (NK) cells are critical antiviral effectors of the immune system; however, limited information is available about these innate effector cells during HIV-2 infection. METHOD: In this study, 24 untreated HIV-2-infected patients were analyzed and compared with 21 long-term nonprogressor and 10 controller HIV-1 patients, and healthy donors...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Suman Srinivasa, Kathleen V Fitch, Martin Torriani, Markella V Zanni, Christopher Defilippi, Robert Christenson, Patrick Maehler, Sara E Looby, Janet Lo, Steven K Grinspoon
OBJECTIVE: Persons living with HIV (PLWH) well-treated on antiretroviral therapies remain at risk for ensuing arterial disease. We investigated the relationship between adipose depots and biomarkers of arterial injury and inflammation to gain insight into the link between body composition and CVD risk. DESIGNS/METHODS: 155 HIV-infected and 70 non-HIV-infected individuals were well-phenotyped for body composition. Adipose depots were assessed via single-slice abdominal CT...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Romain Palich, Jade Ghosn, Antoine Chaillon, Valérie Boilet, Marie-Laure Nere, Marie-Laure Chaix, Pierre Delobel, Jean-Michel Molina, Frédéric Lutch, Olivier Bouchaud, Véronique Rieux, Rodolphe Thiebaut, Yves Levy, Constance Delaugerre, Jean-Daniel Lelievre
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the timing and level of HIV rebound in blood and seminal plasma and to characterize the HIV rebounding populations after antiretroviral treatment interruption (ATI) in HIV-1-infected participants enrolled in a therapeutic vaccine trial. DESIGN: A twelve-week (W) ATI period was proposed at W36 to patients enrolled in the VRI02/ANRS149-LIGHT trial. Paired blood and semen samples were collected before (W32 or W36) and during ATI (W38, W40, W42, W44 and W48)...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Carolyn A Fahey, Prosper F Njau, William H Dow, Ntuli Kapologwe, Sandra I McCoy
OBJECTIVE: Food insecurity (FI) impedes antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. We previously demonstrated that short-term cash and food incentives increased ART possession and retention in HIV services in Tanzania. To elucidate potential pathways that led to these achievements, we examined whether incentives also improved FI. DESIGN: Three-arm randomized controlled trial. METHODS: From 2013 to 2015, 805 food-insecure adult ART initiates (≤90 days) at three clinics were randomized to receive cash or food transfers (∼$11/month for ≤6 months, conditional on visit attendance) or standard-of-care (SOC) services...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Neta S Zuckerman, Zohar Mor, Efrat Bucris, Marina Wax, Ella Mendelson, Orna Mor
OBJECTIVES: Men who have sex with men (MSM) comprise ∼30% of new HIV infections in Israel, a country with mixed Jewish and Arab populations. We molecularly characterized HIV-1 in the Arab and Jewish MSM (AMSM, JMSM) populations to reveal possible inter-ethnical connections. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study METHODS:: All Israeli-born, HIV-1-infected MSM diagnosed between 2005 and 2016 (n = 1143) were cross-matched with the National Civil Registry to identify religion (Jews/Muslim/Christian)...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Lediya T Cheru, Kathleen V Fitch, Charles F Saylor, Michael Lu, Udo Hoffmann, Janet Lo, Steven K Grinspoon
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of mild renal impairment and coronary plaque in people living with HIV (PLHIV). METHODS: PLHIV and non-HIV controls with serum creatinine <1.5 mg/dL were investigated. eGFR (calculated by CKD-EPI formula) was related to coronary plaque indices obtained by CT angiography. RESULTS: 184 PLHIV (HIV viral load, 49 [47,49] copies/mL, CD4+ count, median 536 [370, 770] cells/mm, duration HIV, 15 ± 7 years) and 72 HIV-negative controls without known cardiovascular disease (CVD) were studied...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Emily A Kendall, Andrew S Azman, Gary Maartens, Andrew Boulle, Robert J Wilkinson, David W Dowdy, Molebogeng X Rangaka
OBJECTIVE: Both isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduce tuberculosis risk in individuals living with HIV. We sought to estimate the broader, population-wide impact of providing a pragmatically-implemented 12-month IPT regimen to ART recipients in a high-burden community. DESIGN: Dynamic transmission model of a tuberculosis-HIV epidemic, calibrated to site-specific, historical epidemiologic and clinical trial data from Khayelitsha, South Africa...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Catherine R Lesko, Bryan Lau, Geetanjali Chander, Richard D Moore
OBJECTIVE: Describe all-cause mortality associated with history of injection drug use (IDU) after a validated diagnosis of four non-communicable disease (NCD) diagnoses: 1) end-stage liver disease (ESLD); 2) end-stage renal disease (ESRD); 3) cancer; or 4) myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke. DESIGN: We followed 4 cohorts of persons in continuity HIV care in the Johns Hopkins HIV Clinic with a validated diagnosis of ESLD (n = 67), ESRD (n = 187), cancer (n = 424), and MI or stroke (n = 213) from 1996 through approximately 2014...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Héloïse M Delagreverie, Laurence Gerard, Antoine Chaillon, Marie Roelens, Lounes Djerroudi, Maud Salmona, Jérôme Larghero, Lionel Galicier, François Simon, Eric Oksenhendler, Hélène Moins-Teisserenc, Constance Delaugerre
OBJECTIVES: autologous stem cell transplantation following high-dose chemotherapy (HDC/ASCT) is the prime model to study the impact of HDC in HIV-1-infected participants. We analyzed the impact of HDC/ASCT on the resurgent reservoir composition and origin. DESIGN: We included retrospectively a homogenous group of HIV-1-infected patients treated for high-risk lymphoma in a reference center with consistent chemotherapy regimen. METHODS: Thirteen participants treated with HDC/ASCT from 2012 to 2015 were included...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Wenjia Zhu, Samuel Bazzi, Angela R Bazzi
OBJECTIVES: To identify the ways in which HIV seroconversion impacts subsequent health behaviors in the context of evolving HIV treatment technologies. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: We assessed changes in health and HIV risk behaviors following HIV seroconversion both before and after HIV treatment access (i.e., highly active antiretroviral therapy; HAART) in the United States by drawing from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, which collected data from men who have sex with men (n = 4616) in four U...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Anna Schultze, Carlo Torti, Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri, Anne-Mieke Vandamme, Maurizio Zazzi, Helen Sambatakou, Andrea De Luca, Anna Maria Geretti, Anders Sonnerborg, Lidia Ruiz, Laura Monno, Simona Di Giambenedetto, Andrea Gori, Giuseppe Lapadula
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of primary resistance and selected polymorphic amino-acid substitutions in HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) on the CD4 count and viral load (VL) set point before the start of ART. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: 6,180 individuals with a resistance test prior to starting ART accessing care in HIV clinics across Europe who had at least 1 VL and 1 CD4 test available were included in the analysis...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: to investigate whether specific nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbones are associated with risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes among pregnant women starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) DESIGN:: Seven observational studies across eight European countries of pregnancies in HIV-positive women METHODS:: Individual-level data were pooled on singleton pregnancies conceived off-ART in which a single combination ART regimen was initiated ≥2 weeks before delivery, and ending in a live birth in 2008-2014...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Daniela K van Santen, Jannie J van der Helm, Giota Touloumi, Nikos Pantazis, Roberto Muga, Barbara Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, M John Gill, Eduard Sanders, Anthony Kelleher, Robert Zangerle, Kholoud Porter, Maria Prins, Ronald B Geskus
BACKGROUND: Most studies on hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HIV co-infection do not account for the order and duration of these two infections. We aimed to assess the effect of incident HCV infection, and its timing relative to HIV seroconversion (HIVsc) in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) on their subsequent CD4 T-cell count (CD4) and HIV-RNA viral load (VL) trajectories. METHODS: We included MSM with well-estimated dates of HIVsc from 17 cohorts within the CASCADE Collaboration...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Madeleine J Nichols, Thomas M Gates, James R Soares, Kirsten J Moffat, Caroline D Rae, Bruce J Brew, Lucette A Cysique
OBJECTIVE: There is a lack of evidence for the neurobiological underpinning of Asymptomatic Neurocognitive Impairment (ANI) and Mild Neurocognitive disorders (MND) in virally-suppressed HIV + persons. We hypothesized that such mild impairment would be associated with focal brain atrophy. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. METHODS: 85 virally-suppressed HIV + and 44 geographically, demographically, and lifestyle comparable HIV- men underwent anatomical MRI, neuropsychological evaluation, and HIV laboratory tests...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Vinicius A Vieira, Peter Zuidewind, Maximilian Muenchhoff, Julia Roider, Jane Millar, Margaret Clapson, Anriette Van Zyl, Delane Shingadia, Emily Adland, Rohin Athavale, Nicholas Grayson, M Azim Ansari, Christian Brander, Claudia Fortuny Guash, Lars Naver, Thanyawee Puthanakit, Wipaporn Natalie Songtaweesin, Jintanat Ananworanich, Denise Peluso, Beatriz Thomé, Jorge Pinto, Pieter Jooste, Gareth Tudor-Williams, Mark F Cotton, Philip Goulder
BACKGROUND: Reports of posttreatment control following antiretroviral therapy (ART) have prompted the question of how common immune control of HIV infection is in the absence of ART. In contrast to adult infection, where elite controllers have been very well characterized and constitute approximately 0.5% of infections, very few data exist to address this question in paediatric infection. METHODS: We describe 11 ART-naïve elite controllers from 10 cohorts of HIV-infected children being followed in South Africa, Brazil, Thailand, and Europe...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Morgane Gossez, Genevieve Elizabeth Martin, Matthew Pace, Gita Ramjee, Anamika Premraj, Pontiano Kaleebu, Helen Rees, Jamie Inshaw, Wolfgang Stöhr, Jodi Meyerowitz, Emily Hopkins, Mathew Jones, Jacob Hurst, Kholoud Porter, Abdel Babiker, Sarah Fidler, John Frater
INTRODUCTION: There are few data on the frequency of virological remission in African individuals after treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART) in primary HIV infection (PHI). METHODS: We studied participants (n = 82) from South Africa and Uganda in SPARTAC, the first trial of treatment interruption (TI) in African individuals with PHI randomized to deferred ART or 48 weeks of immediate ART. All were female and infected with non-B HIV subtypes, mainly C...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
Zabrina Brumme, Hanwei Sudderuddin, Carrie Ziemniak, Katherine Luzuriaga, Bradley R Jones, Jeffrey B Joy, Coleen K Cunningham, Thomas Greenough, Deborah Persaud
OBJECTIVE: Timely initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) limits latent HIV reservoir size and should also limit reservoir genetic complexity. However, the relationship between these two factors remains unclear, particularly among HIV-infected youth. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of replication-competent latent HIV clones serially isolated by limiting-dilution culture from resting CD4+ T-cell reservoirs from ART-suppressed, young adult participants of a historic phase I therapeutic vaccine trial (PACTG/IMPAACT-P1059)...
October 15, 2018: AIDS
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