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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099191/long-acting-combination-anti-hiv-drug-suspension-enhances-and-sustains-higher-drug-levels-in-lymph-node-cells-than-in-blood-cells-and-plasma
#1
John C Kraft, Lisa A McConnachie, Josefin Koehn, Loren Kinman, Carol Collins, Danny D Shen, Ann C Collier, Rodney J Y Ho
OBJECTIVE: To determine if a combination of anti-HIV drugs-tenofovir (TFV), lopinavir (LPV), and ritonavir (RTV)-in a lipid-stabilized nanosuspension (called TLC-ART101) could enhance and sustain intracellular drug levels and exposures in lymph node and blood cells above those in plasma. DESIGN: Four macaques were given a single dose of TLC-ART101 subcutaneously. Drug concentrations in plasma and mononuclear cells of the blood (PBMCs) and lymph nodes (LNMCs) were analyzed using a validated combination LC-MS/MS assay...
January 17, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099190/coagulation-imbalance-and-neurocognitive-functioning-in-older-hiv-adults-on-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#2
Jessica L Montoya, Jennifer Iudicello, Hannah A Oppenheim, Pariya L Fazeli, Michael Potter, Qing Ma, Paul J Mills, Ronald J Ellis, Igor Grant, Scott L Letendre, David J Moore
OBJECTIVES: To compare plasma biomarkers of coagulation between HIV-infected individuals and HIV-uninfected controls and to assess the impact of disturbances in coagulation on neurocognitive functioning in HIV. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 66 antiretroviral therapy-treated virally suppressed HIV-infected and 34 HIV-uninfected older (≥50 years of age) adults. METHODS: Participants completed standardized neurobehavioral and neuromedical assessments...
January 17, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099189/productive-infection-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells-by-r5-tropic-hiv-1-opiate-co-exposure-heightens-infectivity-and-functional-vulnerability
#3
Joyce M Balinang, Ruturaj R Masvekar, Kurt F Hauser, Pamela E Knapp
OBJECTIVE: Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) causes a spectrum of CNS complications; many are worsened by opiate co-exposure. Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) give rise to all CNS neurons and macroglia. We tested the hypothesis that hNPC maturation and fate are altered by HIV and opiates, contributing to HIV-1-related neuropathology. Since reports that hNPCs are infectable remain controversial, we rigorously examined hNPC infection and ability to propagate infection, and determined whether HIV effects on hNPC function required infection...
January 17, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099188/hepatitis-b-incidence-and-prevention-with-antiretroviral-therapy-among-hiv-positive-individuals-in-rakai-uganda
#4
Emmanuel Seremba, Victor Ssempijja, Sarah Kalibbala, Ronald H Gray, Maria J Wawer, Fred Nalugoda, Corey Casper, Warren T Phipps, Ponsiano Ocama, David Serwadda, David L Thomas, Steven Reynolds
OBJECTIVE: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) may interfere with replication of hepatitis B (HBV) raising the hypothesis that HBV infection might be prevented by ART. We investigated the incidence and risk factors associated with HBV among HIV-infected adults in Rakai, Uganda. METHODS: We screened stored sera from 944 HIV-infected adults enrolled in the Rakai Community Cohort Study between September 2003 and March 2015 for evidence of HBV exposure. Serum from participants who tested anti-HBc negative (497) at baseline were tested over 3-7 consecutive survey rounds for incident HBV...
January 17, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060020/significant-association-between-statin-associated-myalgia-and-vitamin-d-deficiency-among-treated-hiv-infected-patients
#5
Leonardo Calza, Eleonora Magistrelli, Vincenzo Colangeli, Marco Borderi, Ilaria Contadini, Isabella Bon, Maria Carla Re, Pierluigi Viale
BACKGROUND.: Several studies have shown a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of statin-related symptomatic myalgia in the general population, but there are no data among HIV-infected persons. METHODS.: A retrospective, cohort study was conducted to assess the incidence of symptomatic myalgia and elevation in serum creatine kinase (CK) level among HIV-positive adults on cART and treated with atorvastatin or rosuvastatin for at least 12 months between 2011 and 2015 in our Outpatient Unit...
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060019/defining-the-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-care-continuum
#6
A S Nunn, L Brinkley-Rubinstein, C E Oldenburg, K H Mayer, M Mimiaga, R Patel, P A Chan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060018/association-between-engagement-in-care-and-mortality-in-hiv-positive-persons-a-cohort-study
#7
Caroline A Sabin, Alison Howarth, Sophie Jose, Teresa Hill, Vanessa Apea, Steve Morris, Fiona Burns
OBJECTIVE: To assess associations between engagement in-care and future mortality. DESIGN: UK-based observational cohort study. METHODS: HIV-positive participants with >1 visit after 1/1/2000 were identified. Each person-month was classified as being in- or out-of-care based on the dates of the expected and observed next care visits. Cox models investigated associations between mortality and a) the cumulative proportion of months spent in-care (%IC, lagged by 1 year), and b) cumulative %IC prior to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in those attending clinic for >1 year, with adjustment for age, CD4/viral load (VL), year, sex, infection mode, ethnicity, and receipt/type of ART...
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060017/determinants-of-virological-outcome-and-adverse-events-in-african-children-treated-with-paediatric-nevirapine-fixed-dose-combination-tablets
#8
Andrzej Bienczak, Paolo Denti, Adrian Cook, Lubbe Wiesner, Veronica Mulenga, Cissy Kityo, Addy Kekitiinwa, Diana M Gibb, David Burger, A Sarah Walker, Helen Mcilleron
BACKGROUND: Nevirapine is the only non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor currently available as a paediatric fixed-dose combination tablet and is widely used in African children. Nonetheless, the number of investigations into pharmacokinetic determinants of virological suppression in African children is limited and the predictive power of the current therapeutic range was never evaluated in this population, thereby limiting treatment optimisation. METHODS: We analysed data from 322 African children (aged 0...
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060016/excess-respiratory-viral-infections-and-low-antibody-responses-among-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#9
Adriana Weinberg, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Qilu Yu, Rachel A Cohen, Volia C Almeida, Fabiana Amaral, Jorge Pinto, Maria L B Teixeira, Regina C M Succi, Laura Freimanis, Jennifer S Read, George Siberry
OBJECTIVE: HIV-exposed uninfected infants (HEUs) have frequent severe infection, hospitalization and death. We performed a serologic investigation to determine the role of common childhood respiratory pathogens in the excess incidence of infections in HEUs. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of mother-infant pairs. METHODS: Among 247 HEUs and 88 HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infant-mother pairs, we measured maternal antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and pneumococcus (PNC 1, 5, 6B, 14); infant antibodies to RSV, influenza A (Flu), parainfluenza viruses (PIV 1, 2, 3), and PNC 1, 5, 6B and 14 were measured at 0 and 6 months, and anti-tetanus antibodies at 6 months...
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060015/ifn-%C3%AE-augments-nk-mediated-antibody-dependent-cellular-cytotoxicity-adcc-of-hiv-1-infected-autologous-cd4-t-cells-regardless-of-mhc-i-downregulation
#10
Costin Tomescu, Pablo Tebas, Luis J Montaner
DESIGN: We have previously shown that IFN-α stimulation augments direct NK cell lysis of autologous CD4 primary T cells infected with certain HIV-1 isolates based upon MHC-I downregulation capacity. Here, we investigated if Antibody Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (ADCC) could trigger lysis of HIV-1 isolates that were resistant to direct NK lysis and if IFN-α pre-stimulation of NK cells could further enhance ADCC. METHODS: Using broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against gp120 (VRC01 or PGV04) or plasma from HIV-1 infected subjects (ART-suppressed or Elite Controller) to trigger ADCC, we measured NK cell chromium release cytotoxicity against HIV-1 infected autologous CD4 primary T cells and NK cell CD107a degranulation against gp120-coated CD4 T cells...
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060014/outcomes-of-cervical-cancer-among-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-women-treated-at-the-brazilian-national-institute-of-cancer-2001-2013
#11
Mariana P Ferreira, Anna E Coghill, Claudia B Chaves, Anke Bergmann, Luiz C Thuler, Esmeralda A Soares, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Eric A Engels, Marcelo A Soares
OBJECTIVE: We assessed mortality, treatment response, and relapse among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women with cervical cancer in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. DESIGN: Cohort study of 87 HIV-infected and 336 HIV-uninfected women with cervical cancer. METHODS: Patients at the Brazilian National Institute of Cancer (2001-2013) were matched on age, calendar year of diagnosis, clinical stage, and tumor histology. Staging and treatment with surgery, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy followed international guidelines...
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060013/behavioral-economic-incentives-to-improve-adherence-to-antiretrovirals-early-evidence-from-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-uganda
#12
Sebastian Linnemayr, Chad Stecher, Barbara Mukasa
OBJECTIVE: Fixed incentives have been largely unsuccessful in improving adherence to antiretroviral (ARV) medication. Therefore we evaluate whether small incentives based on behavioral economic theory can increase adherence to ARV medication among treatment-mature adults in Kampala, Uganda. DESIGN: A randomized control trial design tests whether providing small incentives based on either attending timely clinic visits (intervention group 1) or achieving high medication adherence (intervention group 2) can increase ARV adherence...
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060012/post-treatment-control-or-treated-controllers-viral-remission-in-treated-and-untreated-primary-hiv-infection
#13
Genevieve E Martin, Morgane Gossez, James P Williams, Wolfgang Stöhr, Jodi Meyerowitz, Ellen M Leitman, Philip Goulder, Kholoud Porter, Sarah Fidler, John Frater
OBJECTIVE(S): An HIV cure will impose aviraemia which is sustained following the withdrawal of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Understanding the efficacy of novel interventions aimed at curing HIV requires characterisation of both natural viral control and the effect of ART on viral control after treatment interruption. DESIGN: Analysis of transient viral control in recent seroconverters in the SPARTAC trial. METHODS: We compared untreated and treated HIV seroconverters (n = 292) and identified periods of control (plasma VL<400 copies/mL for ≥16 weeks off therapy) in 7...
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060011/topical-tenofovir-protects-against-vaginal-shiv-infection-in-macaques-co-infected-with-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-trichomonas-vaginalis
#14
Natalia Makarova, Tara Henning, Andrew Taylor, Chuong Dinh, Jonathan Lipscomb, Rachael Aubert, Debra Hanson, Christi Phillips, John Papp, James Mitchell, Janet Mcnicholl, Gerardo J Garcia-Lerma, Walid Heneine, Ellen Kersh, Charles Dobard
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), two prevalent sexual transmitted infections, are known to increase HIV risk in women and could potentially diminish pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) efficacy, particularly for topical interventions that rely on local protection. We investigated in macaques whether co-infection with CT/TV reduces protection by vaginal TFV gel. METHODS: Vaginal TFV gel dosing previously shown to provide 100% or 74% protection when applied either 30 minutes or 3 days before SHIV challenge was assessed in pigtailed macaques co-infected with CT/TV and challenged twice-weekly with SHIV162p3 for up to 10 weeks (2 menstrual cycles)...
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060010/predictors-of-longitudinal-change-in-bone-mineral-density-in-a-cohort-of-hiv-positive-and-negative-subjects
#15
Willard Tinago, Aoife G Cotter, Caroline Sabin, Alan Macken, Eoin Kavanagh, Jennifer Brady, Geraldine McCarthy, Juliet Compston, Patrick W G Mallon
OBJECTIVE: Although low bone mineral density (BMD) is prevalent in HIV, changes in BMD over time remain unclear. We aimed to compare rates of, and factors associated with, BMD change between HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects. METHODS: In a prospective, 3-year cohort, HIV-positive and HIV-negative subjects provided annual demographic and clinical data, fasting bloods and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Using longitudinal mixed models we compared and determined predictors of rate of change in BMD...
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060009/drug-interactions-between-hormonal-contraceptives-and-antiretrovirals-a-systematic-review
#16
Kavita Nanda, Gretchen S Stuart, Jennifer Robinson, Andrew L Gray, Naomi K Tepper, Mary E Gaffield
OBJECTIVE: To summarize published evidence on drug interactions between hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals. DESIGN: Systematic review of the published literature. METHODS: We searched PUBMED, POPLINE, and EMBASE for peer-reviewed publications of studies (in any language) from inception through September 21, 2015. We included studies of women using hormonal contraceptives and antiretrovirals concurrently. Outcomes of interest were effectiveness of either therapy, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics...
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060008/acute-hiv-1-infection-is-associated-with-increased-plasma-levels-of-heme-oxygenase-1-ho-1-and-presence-of-ho-1-specific-regulatory-t-cells
#17
Mathieu Angin, Anahita Fathi, Melanie King, Mary B Ledoux, Alicja Piechocka-Trocha, Marcus Altfeld, Marylyn M Addo
OBJECTIVE: Heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible stress-response protein with potent anti-inflammatory activity and recent data suggest a potentially beneficial role in HIV pathogenesis. We here investigated the impact of HO-1 and a novel subset of HO-1-specific CD8 regulatory T cells on virus-specific T cell immunity in HIV-1-infected individuals. METHODS: HO-1 protein levels were quantified in plasma from individuals at different stages of HIV-1 disease and longitudinally following primary HIV infection...
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005686/transcriptome-analyses-identify-key-cellular-factors-associated-with-hiv-1-associated-neuropathogenesis-in-infected-men
#18
Narasimhan J Venkatachari, Siddhartha Jain, Leah Walker, Shalmali Bivalkar-Mehla, Ansuman Chattopadhyay, Ziv Bar-Joseph, Charles Rinaldo, Ann Ragin, Eric Seaberg, Andrew Levine, James Becker, Eileen Martin, Ned Sacktor, Velpandi Ayyavoo
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1 viral proteins and host inflammatory factors have a direct role in neuronal toxicity in in vitro, however, the contribution of these factors in vivo in HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is not fully understood. We applied novel Systems Biology approaches to identify specific cellular and viral factors and their related pathways that are associated with different stages of HAND. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of individuals enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) including HIV-1 seronegative (N = 36) and HIV-1 seropositive individuals without neurocognitive symptoms (N = 16), or with mild neurocognitive disorder (MND) (N = 8) or HIV-associated dementia (HAD) (N = 16)...
December 21, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005685/is-response-to-anti-hcv-treatment-predictive-of-mortality-in-hcv-hiv-positive-patients
#19
Lars Peters, Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri
BACKGROUND: Long-term clinical outcomes after HCV treatment of HIV/HCV patients are not well described. We aimed to compare the risk of all-cause and liver-related death according to HCV treatment response in HIV/HCV patients in the multi-cohort study COHERE. METHODS: All patients who had started PEG-interferon + ribavirin (baseline) and followed for ≥72 weeks after baseline were included. Patients were categorized into three response groups depending on treatment duration and HCV-RNA measured in the window 24-72 weeks after baseline...
December 21, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005684/large-cluster-outbreaks-sustain-the-hiv-epidemic-among-men-having-sex-with-men-msm-in-quebec-from-2002-to-2015
#20
Bluma G Brenner, Ruxandra-Ilinca Ibanescu, Isabelle Hardy, David Stephens, Joanne Otis, Erica Moodie, Zehava Grossman, Anne-Mieke Vandamme, Michel Roger, Mark A Wainberg
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1 epidemics among men having sex with men (MSM) remain unchecked despite advances in treatment and prevention paradigms. This study combined viral phylogenetic and behavioural risk data to better understand underlying factors governing the temporal growth of the HIV epidemic among MSM in Quebec (2002-2015). METHODS: Phylogenetic analysis of pol sequences was used to deduce HIV-1 transmission dynamics (cluster size, size distribution and growth rate) in first genotypes of treatment-naïve MSM (2004-2015, n = 3901)...
December 21, 2016: AIDS
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