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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609404/infant-child-rapid-serology-tests-fail-to-reliably-assess-hiv-exposure-among-sick-hospitalized-infants
#1
Anjuli D Wagner, Irene N Njuguna, Ruth Andere, Lisa M Cranmer, Helen M Okinyi, Sarah Benki-Nugent, Bhavna Chohan, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Dalton C Wamalwa, Grace C John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: The WHO guidelines for infant and child HIV diagnosis recommend the use of maternal serology to determine child exposure status in ages 0-18 months, but suggest that infant serology can reliably be used to determine exposure for those less than 4 months. There is little evidence about the performance of these recommendations among hospitalized sick infants and children. METHODS: Within a clinical trial (NCT02063880) in Kenya, among children ≤18 months, maternal and child rapid serologic HIV tests were performed in tandem...
June 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609403/early-antiretroviral-therapy-reduces-hiv-dna-following-perinatal-hiv-infection
#2
Caroline Foster, Matthew Pace, Steve Kaye, Emily Hopkins, Mathew Jones, Nicola Robinson, Sarah Fidler, John Frater
: The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the size of the HIV reservoir has implications for virological remission in adults, but is not well characterised in perinatally acquired infection (PaHIV). In a prospective observational study of 20 children with PaHIV and sustained viral suppression on ART for >5 years, proviral DNA was significantly higher in deferred (>4 years) versus early (first year of life) ART recipients (p = 0.0062), and correlated with age of initiation (p = 0.13; r = 0...
June 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609402/hiv-associated-kaposi-sarcoma-and-related-diseases
#3
Priscila H Gonçalves, Thomas S Uldrick, Robert Yarchoan
The search for the etiologic agent for Kaposi sarcoma (KS) led to the discovery of Kaposi sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) in 1994. KSHV, also called human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) has since been shown to be the etiologic agent for several other tumors and diseases, including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), an extracavitary variant of PEL, KSHV-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, a form of multicentric Castleman disease (MCD), and KSHV inflammatory cytokine syndrome (KICS). KSHV encodes several genes that interfere with innate and specific immunity, thwart apoptosis, enhance cell proliferation and cytokine production, and promote angiogenesis, and these play important roles in the disease pathogenesis...
June 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609401/randomized-controlled-trial-of-caregiver-training-for-hiv-infected-child-neurodevelopment-and-caregiver-well-being
#4
Judith K Bass, Robert Opoka, Itziar Familiar, Noeline Nakasujja, Alla Sikorskii, Jorem Awadu, Deborah Givon, Cilly Shohet, Sarah M Murray, Jura Augustinavicius, Tamar Mendelson, Michael Boivin
OBJECTIVES: HIV infection places children at neurodevelopmental risk; for young children in poverty, risk is compounded by compromised caregiving quality. The Mediational Intervention for Sensitizing Caregivers (MISC) program trained caregivers on fostering daily interactions with young children. We hypothesized that MISC could (1) enhance neurodevelopment of rural Ugandan HIV-infected children and (2) improve mental health outcomes of their caregivers, which might mediate improved caregiving quality...
June 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609400/cytomegalovirus-viraemia-is-associated-with-poor-growth-and-t-cell-activation-with-an-increased-burden-in-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#5
Miguel A Garcia-Knight, Eunice Nduati, Amin S Hassan, Irene Nkumama, Timothy J Etyang, Naseem J Hajj, Faith Gambo, Denis Odera, James A Berkley, Sarah L Rowland-Jones, Britta Urban
OBJECTIVE: Factors associated with poor health in HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU) infants are poorly defined. We describe the prevalence and correlates of CMV viraemia in HEU and HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) infants, and quantify associations with anthropometric, haematological and immunological outcomes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, including HEU and HUU infants from rural coastal Kenya. METHODS: Infants aged 2-8 months were studied. The primary outcome was CMV viraemia and viral load, determined by quantitative PCR...
June 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591079/genetic-analyses-of-hiv-env-associated-with-uveitis-in-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-individuals
#6
Corey A Williams-Wietzikoski, Isaac D So, Marta E Bull, Tanawan Samleerat, Kessara Pathanapitoon, Paradee Kunavisarut, Natedao Kongyai, Nicole Ngo-Giang-Huong, Lisa M Frenkel, Wasna Sirirungsi
OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV) env sequences from the eye to those from the blood of individuals with uveitis attributed to HIV with the goal of gaining insight into the pathogenesis of HIV-associated eye disease. DESIGN: A prospective case series of five HIV-infected antiretroviral (ARV)-naïve individuals with uveitis negative for other pathogens. METHODS: RNA from blood plasma and ocular aqueous humor was reverse transcribed using random hexamers...
June 6, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590334/a-decade-of-learning-about-the-hiv-reservoir-new-insights-into-latent-infection
#7
Kristin N Harper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590333/impact-of-long-term-antiretroviral-therapy-interruption-and-resumption-on-viral-reservoir-in-hiv-1-infected-patients
#8
Marta Montserrat, Montserrat Plana, Alberto C Guardo, Cristina Andrés, Nuria Climent, Teresa Gallart, Lorna Leal, Josep M Gatell, Sonsoles Sánchez-Palomino, Felipe García
: We assessed if the increase on viral reservoir after long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption (ATI) is reversible upon ART resumption in chronic HIV-1 infected patients. Total HIV-1 DNA increased to pre-ART levels after 48 weeks of ATI to return to pre-ATI levels after 104 weeks of ART resumption. Conversely, integrated HIV-1 DNA remained elevated after ART reinitiation. These data suggest that the increase in reservoir after long-term ART discontinuation might not be reversible at mid-term.
June 5, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590332/hiv-positive-youth-who-are-perinatally-infected-have-impaired-endothelial-function
#9
Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo, Abdus Sattar, Manjusha Kulkarni, Emily Bowman, Nicholas Funderburg, Grace A Mccomsey
OBJECTIVE: Evaluating cardiovascular (CVD) risk in children and youth 13-24 years old who are facing a life time exposure to both HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a research priority. This study compares endothelial function measured by Peripheral Arterial Tonometry in HIV+ youth infected perinatally and behaviorally as well as HIV- controls. METHODS: Three groups of participants aged 8-30 yo were enrolled; HIV+ perinatally-infected, HIV+ behaviorally-infected on ART with HIV-1 RNA <1,000 copies/mL, and HIV- controls...
June 5, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590331/multimodal-analysis-of-drug-transporter-expression-in-gastrointestinal-tissue
#10
Corbin G Thompson, John K Fallon, Michelle Mathews, Paige Charlins, Leila Mulder, Martina Kovarova, Lourdes Adamson, Nithya Srinivas, Amanda Schauer, Craig Sykes, Paul Luciw, J Victor Garcia, Ramesh Akkina, Philip C Smith, Angela D M Kashuba
OBJECTIVES: Drug transporters affect ART tissue disposition, but quantitative measures of drug transporter protein expression across pre-clinical species are not available. Our objective was to use proteomics to obtain absolute transporter concentrations and assess agreement with corresponding gene and immunometric protein data. DESIGN: In order to make interspecies comparisons, two humanized mouse (hu-HSC-Rag (n = 41); BLT (n = 13)) and one primate (rhesus macaque, (NHP, n = 12)) models were dosed to steady-state with combination ART...
June 5, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590330/hiv-birth-testing-and-linkage-to-care-for-hiv-infected-infants-workshop-synopsis
#11
Patrick Jean-Philippe, Hans Spiegel, Devasena Gnanashanmugam, Joseph Fitzgibbon, Patricia DʼSouza, Keith W Crawford, Lakshmi Jayashankar, Melanie C Bacon, Shaffiq M Essajee, Grace M Aldrovandi, Mark Cotton, Elaine J Abrams
On May 5-6, 2016, the Division of AIDS of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases convened a workshop on "HIV Birth Testing and Linkage to Care for HIV Infected Infants". The goal of the workshop was to evaluate birth testing for early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV, delineate technological resources for advancing a point of care (POC) HIV test implementable at birth and chart out the implementation hurdles for initiating early antiretroviral therapy (ART) to HIV-infected infants diagnosed at birth...
June 5, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590329/antiretroviral-initiation-is-associated-with-increased-skeletal-muscle-area-and-fat-content
#12
Kristine M Erlandson, Suzanne Fiorillo, Fadzai Masawi, Ann Scherzinger, Grace A McComsey, Jordan E Lake, James H Stein, Judith S Currier, Todd T Brown
OBJECTIVE: A greater burden of physical function impairment occurs in HIV-infected adults; the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation on muscle density (less dense = more fat), a measure of muscle quality, is unknown. DESIGN: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study A5260 s, a cardiometabolic substudy of A5257, randomized HIV-infected, ART-naïve adults to ritonavir-boosted atazanavir, darunavir, or raltegravir with tenofovir/emtricitabine backbone. Single-slice abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans from baseline and week 96 were reanalyzed for lean muscle area and density...
June 5, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590328/sexual-partnership-age-pairings-and-risk-of-hiv-acquisition-in-rural-south-africa-a-population-based-cohort-study
#13
Adam Akullian, Anna Bershteyn, Daniel Klein, Alain Vandormael, Till Bärnighausen, Frank Tanser
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the contribution of specific sexual partner age groups to the risk of HIV acquisition in men and women in a hyper-endemic region of South Africa. DESIGN: We conducted a population-based cohort study among women (15-49 years of age) and men (15-55 years of age) between 2004 and 2015 in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. METHODS: Generalized additive models (GAM) were used to estimate smoothed HIV incidence rates across partnership age-pairings in men and women...
June 5, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590327/pregnancy-incidence-and-outcomes-in-women-with-perinatal-hiv-infection
#14
Laura Byrne, Rebecca Sconza, Caroline Foster, Pat A Tookey, Mario Cortina-Borja, Claire Thorne
OBJECTIVE(S): To estimate the incidence of first pregnancy in women living with perinatally-acquired HIV (PHIV) in the UK and to compare pregnancy management and outcomes with age-matched women with behaviourally-acquired HIV (BHIV). DESIGN: The National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC) is a comprehensive, population-based surveillance study that collects demographic and clinical data on all pregnant women living with HIV, their children, and all HIV-infected children in the UK & Ireland...
June 5, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590326/assisted-hiv-partner-notification-services-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Shona Dalal, Cheryl Johnson, Virginia Fonner, Caitlin E Kennedy, Nandi Siegfried, Carmen Figueroa, Rachel Baggaley
OBJECTIVE: Despite the enormous expansion of HIV testing services (HTS), an estimated 40% of people with HIV infection remain undiagnosed. To enhance the efficiency of HTS new approaches are needed. The World Health Organization (WHO) conducted a systematic review on the effectiveness of assisted partner notification in improving HIV test uptake and diagnosis, and the occurrence of adverse events, to inform the development of normative guidelines. METHODS: We systematically searched five electronic databases through June 2016...
June 5, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537936/zidovudine-use-in-pregnancy-and-congenital-malformations-meta-analysis-and-bayesian-incorporation-of-medicaid-data
#16
Kathryn Rough, Jenny W Sun, George R Seage, Paige L Williams, Krista F Huybrechts, Brian T Bateman, Sonia Hernandez-Diaz
OBJECTIVE: There is inconsistent evidence that zidovudine use during pregnancy increases overall, cardiac, and male genital malformations. DESIGN: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of zidovudine use and malformations and, using Bayesian methods, combined it with data from a cohort study of mother-infant pairs in the nationwide Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX). METHODS: Using MAX data (2000-2010), we identified pregnant women with HIV treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
May 23, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537935/cardiovascular-toxicity-of-abacavir-a-clinical-controversy-in-need-of-a-pharmacological-explanation
#17
Angeles Alvarez, Samuel Orden, Isabel Andújar, Victor Collado-Diaz, Sara Núñez-Delgado, Maria Jose Galindo, Vicente Estrada, Nadezda Apostolova, Juan V Esplugues
: There is a long-lasting controversy surrounding an association between Abacavir (ABC) and an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease in HIV-positive subjects. While differing in their specifics, a number of published cohort studies and clinical trials support such an association, usually relating it to recent exposure to the drug, independently of traditional predisposing factors. However, other clinical trials have failed to reveal such a relation, and have pointed to methodological differences to explain discrepancies...
May 23, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514282/recent-progress-in-anti-hiv-broadly-neutralizing-antibody-research
#18
Stacey C Tobin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514281/acute-hyperinsulinemia-effects-on-systemic-markers-of-immune-activation-in-hiv
#19
Timothy K O'malley, Tricia H Burdo, Jake A Robinson, Kathleen V Fitch, Steven K Grinspoon, Suman Srinivasa
: The well-treated HIV population remains at risk for insulin resistance and chronic immune activation. We tested the effects of acute hyperinsulinemia on inflammation in HIV. Twenty HIV-infected and 10 non-HIV-infected individuals well-matched for BMI underwent oral glucose tolerance testing to stimulate insulin secretion and assess for changes in circulating sCD163, sCD14, and MCP-1. sCD14 decreased significantly after stimulation of hyperinsulinemia and no significant changes in sCD163 or MCP-1 were demonstrated in HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected groups...
May 16, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514280/ten-year-trends-in-anti-retroviral-therapy-persistence-among-us-medicaid-beneficiaries-2001-2010
#20
Bora Youn, Theresa I Shireman, Yoojin Lee, Omar Galárraga, Aadia I Rana, Amy C Justice, Ira B Wilson
OBJECTIVE: Whether the rate of HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) persistence has improved over time in the U.S. is unknown. We examined ART persistence trends between 2001 and 2010, using non-HIV medications as a comparator. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using Medicaid claims. We defined persistence as the duration of treatment from the first to the last fill date before a 90-day permissible gap, and used Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models to assess crude and adjusted non-persistence...
May 16, 2017: AIDS
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