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Zachery J Harter, Stuti Agarwal, Pranjali Dalvi, Norbert F Voelkel, Navneet K Dhillon
: Improved survival among HIV-1 infected individuals with the advent of antiretroviral therapy has clearly led to a greater prevalence of non-infectious complications. One of the most devastating sequelae in these individuals is the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Various epidemiological studies suggest a worse survival of HIV-PAH patients when compared to other forms of PAH. Given that only a subset and not all HIV-infected individuals develop HIV-PAH, suggests that an additional second hit of genetic or environmental triggers is needed for the development of PAH...
September 18, 2018: AIDS
Donald N Forthal, Andrés Finzi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 17, 2018: AIDS
Harry E Taylor, Nina A Calantone, Richard T D'Aquila
: Chronic elevation of plasma cytokines is a key feature of HIV infection. The physiological consequence of this response to infection and its role in HIV persistence is not fully understood. Here, we show that common gamma chain (γc)-cytokines induce both proliferation and expression of T cell exhaustion markers in a mTOR-dependent fashion, suggesting a possible therapeutic target that, if inhibited, could diminish HIV reservoir expansion, persistence, and resistance to immune surveillance.
September 17, 2018: AIDS
Chris Kenyon
Numerous PrEP guidelines recommend 3 monthly screening for gonorrhoea and chlamydia. To quantify the risk of antimicrobial resistance this may induce, we conducted a literature review of the incidence of gonorrhoea and chlamydia in PrEP studies that conducted 3 site, 3 monthly screening. We found that screening could result in macrolide consumption rates that exceed those in high macrolide consumption populations where consumption has been strongly associated with macrolide resistance.
September 17, 2018: AIDS
Marla J Keller, Robert D Burk, L Stewart Massad, Isam-Eldin Eltoum, Nancy A Hessol, Kathryn Anastos, Xianhong Xie, Howard Minkoff, Xiaonan Xue, Laura L Reimers, Mark Kuniholm, Gypsyamber DʼSouza, Christine Colie, Bradley Aouizerat, Joel M Palefsky, Howard D Strickler
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies reported lower human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) prevalence in cervical precancer among African American than Caucasian women in the general population. We assessed this relationship in women with HIV. DESIGN: Women living with or at risk for HIV in the Women's Interagency HIV Study were followed semi-annually with Pap tests, colposcopy/histology (if indicated), and collection of cervicovaginal lavage samples for HPV testing by PCR. Racial and ethnic groups were defined using genomic Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs)...
September 17, 2018: AIDS
Stéphanie Bibert, Agnieszka Wojtowicz, Patrick Taffé, Philip E Tarr, Enos Bernasconi, Hansjakob Furrer, Huldrych F Günthard, Matthias Hoffmann, Laurent Kaiser, Michael Osthoff, Jacques Fellay, Matthias Cavassini, Pierre-Yves Bochud
BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), the most common AIDS related cancer, represents a major public concern in resource-limited countries. Single nucleotide polymorphisms within the Interferon lambda 3/4 region (IFNL3/4) determine the expression, function of IFNL4, and influence the clinical course of an increasing number of viral infections. OBJECTIVES: To analyze whether IFNL3/4 variants are associated with susceptibility to AIDS-related KS among men who have sex with men (MSM) enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS)...
September 17, 2018: AIDS
Eliane Rohner
OBJECTIVE: To compare non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) incidence rates in adults who started antiretroviral therapy (ART) across the Asia-Pacific, South Africa, Europe, Latin, and North America. METHODS: We included cohort data of adults living with HIV who started ART after 1995 within the framework of the International epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) and the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research in Europe (COHERE). We used flexible parametric survival models to compare regional NHL rates at 2 years after ART start and to identify risk factors for NHL...
September 17, 2018: AIDS
Arnoo Shaiykova, Armelle Pasquet, Cécile Goujard, Georges Lion, Emmanuel Durand, Tatiana Bayan, Marie Lachâtre, Philippe Choisy, Faïza Ajana, Katia Bourdic, Nathalie Viget, Bertrand Riff, Yann Quertainmont, Bernard Cortet, Faroudy Boufassa, Antoine Chéret
OBJECTIVE: Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is a frequent comorbidity observed in people living with HIV (PLHIV). We aimed to determine the prevalence of reduced BMD and its associated factors among young PLHIV men, virologically controlled by combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). DESIGN: Bicentric cross-sectional study. METHODS: We selected men, aged<50 years, treated by cART, with HIV-RNA<50 copies/mL. BMDs of lumbar spine and hip were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
September 17, 2018: AIDS
Themba Mzembe, Estelle Mclean, Palwasha Y Khan, Olivier Koole, Lifted Sichali, Venance Mwinuka, Michael Kayange, Peter Mzumara, Andrew Dimba, Amelia C Crampin, Judith R Glynn
OBJECTIVE: The risk of transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics is recognised, particularly when HIV and tuberculosis services are unified, but the degree of potential exposure to patients with infectious tuberculosis has not been measured. We aimed to quantify this clinic exposure. METHODS: Over one year we recorded all visits to a clinic in northern Malawi that offers HIV testing and counselling, HIV care, ART, and TB diagnostic and treatment services...
September 17, 2018: AIDS
Bryna J Harrington, Brian W Pence, Madalitso Maliwichi, Allan N Jumbe, Ntchindi A Gondwe, Shaphil D Wallie, Bradley N Gaynes, Joanna Maselko, William C Miller, Mina C Hosseinipour
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the association of probable antenatal depression with postpartum HIV care engagement among pregnant women in Malawi. DESIGN: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 299 women who were initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) through Option B+ at a government antenatal clinic in Malawi. METHODS: Probable antenatal depression was assessed on the day of ART initiation with the validated Chichewa version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)...
September 17, 2018: AIDS
Ashley A Leech, James F Burgess, Meg Sullivan, Wendy Kuohung, Michal Horný, Mari-Lynn Drainoni, Cindy L Christiansen, Benjamin P Linas
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of co-formulated Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for conception in the U.S. and to identify scenarios in which "Undetectable = Untransmittable" (U = U) may not be adequate, and rather, PrEP or assisted reproduction would improve outcomes. DESIGN: We developed a Markov cohort simulation model to estimate the incremental benefits and cost-effectiveness of PrEP compared to alternative safer conception strategies including cART alone for the HIV-infected partner and assisted reproductive technologies...
September 17, 2018: AIDS
Jacqueline Hoare, Jean-Paul Fouche, Nicole Phillips, John A Joska, Landon Myer, Heather J Zar, Dan J Stein
OBJECTIVE: To describe the structural brain changes, neurocognitive and mental health associations in adolescents perinatally infected with HIV-1 infection. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: 204 adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV and 44 uninfected frequency matched controls aged 9 to 11 years were enrolled within the Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort. Diffusion tensor imaging and structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was done to determine fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), gray and white matter volumes, cortical thickness and cortical surface area...
September 17, 2018: AIDS
Alessandra Bandera, Elisa Colella, Mario Clerici, Giuliano Rizzardini, Andrea Gori
: The widespread use of antiretroviral treatment (ART) results in a significant improvement in immunological condition of people living with HIV (PLWH), that nevertheless experience a significantly increased risk to develop non-Hodgkin lymphoma compared with general population. Despite many literature observations regarding Multiple Myeloma (MM) in PLWH, a consensus on its relevance in HIV infection does not exist.A number of large population studies on Multiple Myeloma in PLWH gave contrasting results, fluctuating from increased standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) to the lack of observed cases of MM...
September 17, 2018: AIDS
Zhenwu Luo, Elizabeth Ogunrinde, Min Li, Lumin Zhang, Lisa Martin, Zejun Zhou, Zhiliang Hu, Tao Zhang, Zhen Li, Jiafeng Zhang, Bin Su, Tong Zhang, Hao Wu, Lei Ma, Guoyang Liao, Allison Ross Eckard, Maria Anna Julia Westerink, Sonya Heath, Wei Jiang
: It is recommended that HIV-infected individuals receive annual influenza vaccination due to their high susceptibility to influenza infection, especially among females. However, there have been few studies investigating sex-related responses to influenza vaccine in antiretroviral (ART)-treated HIV-infected subjects. In this study, 26 aviremic ART-treated HIV-infected subjects and 16 healthy controls were enrolled in the current study. Blood was collected prior to vaccination (D0), on days 7-10 (D7), and on days 14-21 (D14) following administration of the 2013-2014 seasonal influenza vaccine...
September 17, 2018: AIDS
Starley B Shade, Thomas Osmand, Alex Luo, Ronald Aine, Elly Assurah, Betty Mwebaza, Daniel Mwai, Asiphas Owaraganise, Florence Mwangwa, James Ayieko, Douglas Black, Lillian B Brown, Tamara D Clark, Dalsone Kwarisiima, Harsha Thirumurthy, Craig R Cohen, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Edwin D Charlebois, Laura Balzer, Moses R Kamya, Maya L Petersen, Diane V Havlir, Vivek Jain
OBJECTIVES/DESIGN: As antiretroviral therapy (ART) rapidly expands in Sub-Saharan Africa using new efficient care models, data on costs of these approaches are lacking. We examined costs of a streamlined HIV care delivery model within a large HIV test-and-treat study in Uganda and Kenya. METHODS: We calculated observed per-person-per-year (ppy) costs of streamlined care in 17 health facilities in SEARCH Study intervention communities (NCT:01864603) via micro-costing techniques, time-and-motion studies, staff interviews, and administrative records...
August 20, 2018: AIDS
Christophe Toukam Tchakoute, Kristin Lynn Sainani, Sophia Osawe, Pam Datong, Agano Kiravu, Kenneth L Rosenthal, Clive M Gray, D William Cameron, Alash'le Abimiku, Heather B Jaspan
OBJECTIVE: The effects of in-utero HIV-exposure on infectious morbidity and mortality in settings with universal maternal treatment and high breastfeeding rates are unclear. Further, the benefits of exclusive feeding options have not been assessed in the Option B+ era. We investigated these in two African settings with high breastfeeding uptake and good HIV treatment infrastructure during the first year of life. METHODS: Cox regression with time-changing variables in a birth cohort of 749 HIV-exposed uninfected and HIV-unexposed uninfected infants from Cape Town, South Africa and Jos, Nigeria...
August 20, 2018: AIDS
Kristine M Erlandson, Samantha MaWhinney, Melissa Wilson, Lilyana Gross, Sean A McCandless, Thomas B Campbell, Wendy M Kohrt, Robert Schwartz, Todd T Brown, Catherine M Jankowski
OBJECTIVE: Whether older people living with HIV (PLWH) can achieve similar functional benefits with exercise as their uninfected peers and the ideal intensity of exercise needed for these benefits are not known. DESIGN: Sedentary adults (50-75 years) with or without HIV were recruited for 24-weeks of supervised endurance/resistance exercise. After 12 weeks of moderate-intensity exercise, participants were randomized to continue moderate- or advance to high-intensity exercise for an additional 12 weeks...
August 20, 2018: AIDS
Thibaut Davy-Mendez, Joseph J Eron, Laurence Brunet, Oksana Zakharova, Ann M Dennis, Sonia Napravnik
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of HIV drug resistance over time and identify risk factors for multi-class resistance. DESIGN: Prospective clinical cohort of HIV-infected patients at the University of North Carolina. METHODS: Among ART-experienced patients in care 2000-2016, we estimated annual prevalences of cumulative resistance, defined as ≥1 major mutation, by drug class. Clinical data and multiple imputation were used when genotypic data was missing, and mutations were carried forward in time...
August 20, 2018: AIDS
Jeremiah D Momper, Brookie M Best, Jiajia Wang, Edmund V Capparelli, Alice Stek, Emily Barr, Martina L Badell, Edward P Acosta, Murli Purswani, Elizabeth Smith, Nahida Chakhtoura, Kyunghun Park, Sandra Burchett, David E Shapiro, Mark Mirochnick
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate elvitegravir and cobicistat pharmacokinetics during pregnancy compared to postpartum and in infant washout samples after delivery. DESIGN: Nonrandomized, open-label, parallel-group, multi-center phase-IV prospective study of antiretroviral pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected pregnant women and their children in the U.S. METHODS: Intensive steady-state 24 hour pharmacokinetic profiles after 150 mg of elvitegravir and 150 mg of cobicistat given orally in fixed dose combination once-daily were performed during the second trimester, third trimester, and postpartum...
August 20, 2018: AIDS
Annegret Pelchen-Matthews, Lene Ryom, Álvaro H Borges, Simon Edwards, Claudine Duvivier, Christoph Stephan, Helen Sambatakou, Katarzyna Maciejewska, José Joaquín Portu, Jonathan Weber, Olaf Degen, Alexandra Calmy, Dag Henrik Reikvam, Djordje Jevtovic, Lothar Wiese, Jelena Smidt, Tomasz Smiatacz, Gamal Hassoun, Anastasiia Kuznetsova, Bonaventura Clotet, Jens Lundgren, Amanda Mocroft
OBJECTIVES: To describe changes in the prevalence of comorbidities and risk factors among HIV-positive individuals in the EuroSIDA study. DESIGN: Comparison of two cross-sectional cohorts of HIV-positive adults under active follow-up in 2006 and 2014. METHODS: Baseline demographics and prevalence of comorbidities were described. Factors associated with the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) were assessed by logistic regression modelling using generalised estimating equations...
August 20, 2018: AIDS
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