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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135584/concomitant-medication-polypharmacy-interactions-and-imperfect-adherence-are-common-in-australian-adults-on-suppressive-art
#1
Krista J Siefried, Limin Mao, Lucette A Cysique, John Rule, Michelle L Giles, Don E Smith, James Mcmahon, Tim R Read, Catriona Ooi, Ban K Tee, Mark Bloch, John de Wit, Andrew Carr
OBJECTIVES: We quantified concomitant medication (CM) polypharmacy, pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) interactions, adverse effects and adherence in Australian adults on effective ART. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: Patients recruited into a nation-wide cohort and assessed for prevalence and type of CM (including polypharmacy, defined as ≥5 CMs), PK or PD interactions, potential CM adverse effects and CM adherence. Factors associated with CM polypharmacy and with imperfect adherence were identified using multivariable logistic regression...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135583/effect-of-immediate-initiation-of-antiretroviral-treatment-on-the-risk-of-acquired-hiv-drug-resistance
#2
Sara Lodi, Huldrych F Günthard, David Dunn, Federico Garcia, Roger Logan, Sophie Jose, Heiner C Bucher, Alexandra U Scherrer, Marie-Paule Schneider, Matthias Egger, Tracy R Glass, Peter Reiss, Ard van Sighem, T Sonia Boender, Andrew N Phillips, Kholoud Porter, David Hawkins, Santiago Moreno, Susana Monge, Dimitrios Paraskevis, Metallidis Simeon, Georgia Vourli, Caroline Sabin, Miguel A Hernán
OBJECTIVE: We estimated and compared the risk of clinically identified acquired drug resistance under i) immediate initiation (the currently recommended ART initiation strategy), ii) initiation with CD4 < 500, and iii) initiation with CD4 < 350 cells/mm. DESIGN: Cohort study based on routinely collected data from the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration. METHODS: For each individual, baseline was the earliest time when all eligibility criteria (ART-naïve, AIDS-free, and others) were met after 1999...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135582/hiv-is-associated-with-airway-obstruction-a-matched-controlled-study
#3
Alain Makinson, Maurice Hayot, Sabrina Eymard-Duvernay, Céline Ribet, François Raffi, Gilles Pialoux, David Zucman, Isabelle Poizot-Martin, Fabrice Bonnet, Sophie Abgrall, Pierre Tattevin, Antoine Cheret, Tristan Ferry, Jean-Marc Mauboussin, Lucie Marchand, Claire Rouzaud, Jacques Reynes, Marie Zins, Vincent Le Moing
OBJECTIVE: to explore whether airway obstruction (AO) is associated with HIV in a cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected smokers. METHODS: People living with HIV (PLWHIV) participated in the ANRS EP48 HIV CHEST study, an early lung cancer diagnosis study with low dose Chest Tomography. HIV-uninfected subjects were from the CONSTANCES cohort. Inclusion criteria were an age > 40 years, a smoking history ≥20 pack-years, and for PLWHIV, a CD4 T-lymphocyte nadir < 350/μl and last CD4 cell count > 100 cells/μl...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135581/high-rates-of-hypertension-diabetes-elevated-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-hiv-infected-patients-results-from-a-cross-sectional-survey-in-malawi
#4
Sekai C Mathabire Rücker, Alia Tayea, Joseph Bitilinyu-Bangoh, Elkin H Bermúdez-Aza, Leon Salumu, Isabel A Quiles, Elisabeth Szumilin, Zengani Chirwa, Fernanda Rick, David Maman
OBJECTIVES: Data on cardiovascular disease risks among HIV-infected patients taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) over long periods of time are lacking in Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Chiradzulu, Malawi from December 2015 to June 2016. HIV-infected persons on ART for more than 10 years (patients) and HIV-negative individuals (controls) from selected clinics participated. Following informed consent, a standardized questionnaire, clinical and laboratory examinations were performed...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135580/wake-me-up-before-you-go-a-strategy-to-reduce-the-latent-hiv-reservoir
#5
Nicolas Chomont, Afam A Okoye, David Favre, Lydie Trautmann
: In the quest to eliminate or reduce the HIV reservoir, shock and kill strategies require the combined administration of a latency reversing agent (LRA) to reactivate the latent reservoir and an intervention to boost effector functions to clear this reservoir. Both parts of this strategy are quite inefficient when LRAs are administered to HIV-infected individuals on suppressive ART for several years, possibly due to low levels of induced antigen expression, negative impact of LRAs on clearance mechanisms, and very low number of effective cytotoxic T cells (CTLs)...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135579/markers-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-are-associated-with-mortality-in-people-living-with-hiv
#6
Matthew Triplette, Amy Justice, Engi F Attia, Janet Tate, Sheldon T Brown, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Joon W Kim, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas, Guy W Soo Hoo, Cherry Wongtrakool, Kathleen Akgün, Kristina Crothers
OBJECTIVE: Aging people living with HIV (PLWH) face an increased burden of comorbidities, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The impact of COPD on mortality in HIV remains unclear. We examined associations between markers of COPD and mortality among PLWH and uninfected subjects. DESIGN: Longitudinal analysis of the Examinations of HIV-Associated Lung Emphysema (EXHALE) cohort study. METHODS: EXHALE includes 196 PLWH and 165 uninfected smoking-matched subjects who underwent pulmonary function testing and CT scans to define COPD and were followed...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135578/when-prevention-of-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-fails-preventing-pretreatment-drug-resistance-in-african-children
#7
Seth C Inzaule, Raph L Hamers, Job Calis, Ragna Boerma, Kim Sigaloff, Clement Zeh, Peter Mugyenyi, Sulaimon Akanmu, Tobias F Rinke de Wit
: The scale-up of antiretroviral prophylaxis to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV has significantly reduced new pediatric infections in sub-Saharan Africa. However, among infants who become HIV-infected despite prevent mother-to-child transmission, more than 50% have drug-resistant HIV. Given high levels of resistance, WHO recommends the use of protease inhibitors as part of first-line pediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) to optimize treatment response, but costs and logistic challenges restrict access...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135577/protease-inhibitors-and-preterm-delivery-another-piece-in-the-puzzle
#8
Graziella Favarato, Claire L Townsend, Heather Bailey, Helen Peters, Pat Tookey, Graham P Taylor, Claire Thorne
BACKGROUND: Questions remain regarding preterm delivery (PTD) risk in HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy (ART), including the role of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r), timing of ART initiation and immune status. METHODS: We examined data from the UK/Ireland National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood on women with HIV delivering a singleton live infant in 2007-2015, including those pregnancies receiving PI/r-based (n=4184) or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI)-based regimens (n = 1889)...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135576/assisted-partner-notification-services-are-cost-effective-for-decreasing-hiv-burden-in-western-kenya-a-mathematical-modeling-analysis
#9
Monisha Sharma, Jennifer A Smith, Carey Farquhar, Roger Ying, Peter Cherutich, Matthew Golden, Beatrice Wamuti, David Bukusi, Hans Spiegel, Ruanne V Barnabas
BACKGROUND: Assisted partner services (aPS) or provider notification for sexual partners of persons diagnosed HIV-positive can increase HIV testing and linkage in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and is a high yield strategy to identify HIV-positive persons. However, its cost-effectiveness is not well-evaluated. METHODS: Using effectiveness and cost data from an aPS trial in Kenya, we parameterized an individual-based, dynamic HIV transmission model. We estimated costs for both a program scenario and a task-shifting scenario using community health workers to conduct the intervention...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135575/chronic-kidney-disease-incidence-and-survival-of-thai-hiv-infected-patients
#10
Wannarat Pongpirul, Krit Pongpirul, Jintanat Ananworanich, Virat Klinbuayaem, Anchalee Avihingsanon, Wisit Prasithsirikul
OBJECTIVES: As data on chronic kidney disease (CKD) incidence among Asian HIV patients has been limited, the present study aimed to estimate the CKD incidence in HIV-infected patients who received standard antiretroviral therapy in Thailand and to compare baseline demographics and clinical characteristics of the patients who developed CKD with those who do not. DESIGN: A multicenter, observational prospective cohort of HIV patients with normal kidney functions who received standard antiretroviral therapy...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135574/interferon-free-therapy-for-treating-hcv-in-difficult-to-treat-hiv-coinfected-patients-as-implemented-in-routine-medical-practice
#11
Carlos Mínguez, Miguel García-Deltoro, Juan Flores, Maria-José Galindo, Marta Montero, Sergio Reus, Jorge Carmena, Mar Masiá, Concepción Amador, Enrique Ortega
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Data regarding the use of all-oral direct-acting antivirals (DAA) in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with advanced liver fibrosis are required, because they are generally under-represented in clinical trials. This study sought to evaluate the use of these drugs in a cohort of coinfected patients, mostly with factors that have previously been recognised as predictors of treatment failure. METHODS: COINFECOVA-2 is an observational, multicenter study conducted in Eastern Spain...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135573/evidence-of-inflammasome-activation-and-formation-of-monocyte-derived-apoptosis-associated-speck-like-protein-containing-a-caspase-recruitment-domain-specks-in-hiv-1-positive-patients
#12
Fareed Ahmad, Neha Mishra, Gerrit Ahrenstorf, Bernardo S Franklin, Eicke Latz, Reinhold E Schmidt, Lukas Bossaller
OBJECTIVE: The formation of large intracellular protein aggregates of the inflammasome adaptor apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain (ASC) (PYCARD) is a hallmark of inflammasome activation. ASC speck-forming cells release the highly proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β in addition to ASC specks into the extracellular space during pyroptotic cell death. There ASC specks can propagate inflammation to other nonactivated cells or tissues. HIV-1 retroviral infection triggers inflammasome activation of abortively infected CD4 T cells in secondary lymphatic tissues...
November 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112060/where-is-the-greatest-impact-of-uncontrolled-hiv-infection-on-aids-and-non-aids-events-in-hiv
#13
Amanda Mocroft, Kamilla Laut, Peter Reiss, Jose Gatell, Vidar Ormaasen, Matthias Cavassini, V Hadziosmanovic, K Mansinho, C Pradier, M Vasylyev, V Mitsura, L Vandekerckhove, L Ostergaard, A Clarke, O Degen, F Mulcahy, A Lazzarin, Z Sthoeger, L Flamholc, D Sedláček, I Mozer-Lisewska, J D Lundgren, Antonella Castagna
OBJECTIVE: The extent to which controlled and uncontrolled HIV interact with ageing, European region of care and calendar year of follow-up is largely unknown. METHODS: EuroSIDA particpants were followed after 1/1/2001 and grouped according to current HIV progression risk; high risk [CD4 ≤350/mm, viral load ≥10,000 copies/ml], low risk [CD4 ≥500/mm, viral load <50 copies/ml], and intermediate [other combinations]. Poisson regression investigated interactions between HIV progression risk, age, European region of care, and year of follow-up and incidence of AIDS or non-AIDS events...
November 3, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112076/virologic-suppression-and-cd4-cell-count-recovery-after-initiation-of-raltegravir-or-efavirenz-containing-hiv-treatment-regimens
#14
Jessie K Edwards, Stephen R Cole, H Irene Hall, W Christopher Mathews, Richard D Moore, Michael J Mugavero, Joseph J Eron
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effectiveness of raltegravir-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) on treatment response among ART-naive patients seeking routine clinical care. DESIGN: Cohort study of adults enrolled in HIV care in the United States. METHODS: We compared virologic suppression and CD4 cell count recovery over a 2.5 year period after initiation of an ART regimen containing raltegravir or efavirenz using observational data from a US clinical cohort, generalized to the US population of people with diagnosed HIV...
November 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112074/toll-like-receptor-tlr-9-polymorphism-is-associated-with-increased-epstein-barr-virus-and-cytomegalovirus-acquisition-in-hiv-exposed-infants
#15
Kristin Beima-Sofie, Dalton Wamalwa, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Jairam R Lingappa, Romel Mackelprang, Soren Gantt, Grace John-Stewart, Corey Casper, Jennifer A Slyker
Polymorphisms in the Toll-Like Receptor (TLR9) 1635 locus have been associated with HIV-1 acquisition and progression. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) acquisition were compared between Kenyan HIV-exposed infants by 1635 genotype. Having 1 or more copies of the 1635A allele was associated with increased CMV acquisition in HIV-infected infants (42% vs 11%, p = 0.03) and increased risk of EBV acquisition in HIV-exposed uninfected infants (HR = 4.2, p = 0.02) compared to 1635GG. Additionally, 1635A was associated with 0...
November 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112073/benefits-and-risks-of-rapid-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Nathan Ford, Chantal Migone, Alexandra Calmy, Bernhard Kerschberger, Steve Kanters, Sabin Nsanzimana, Edward J Mills, Graeme Meintjes, Marco Vitoria, Meg Doherty, Zara Shubber
BACKGROUND: More recent attention has focused on the question of how quickly ART should be started once HIV diagnosis is confirmed. We assessed whether rapid ART initiation improves patient outcomes. METHODS: We searched 5 databases from inception up to August 2017. Rapid ART initiation was defined as initiation within 14 days of HIV diagnosis. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: Across the randomized trials, ART start on the same day increased viral suppression at 12 months (3 trials: RR 1...
November 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112072/an-advanced-blt-humanized-mouse-model-for-extended-hiv-1-cure-studies
#17
Kerry J Lavender, Craig Pace, Kathrin Sutter, Ronald J Messer, Dakota L Pouncey, Nathan W Cummins, Sekar Natesampillai, Jim Zheng, Joshua Goldsmith, Marek Widera, Erik S Van Dis, Katie Phillips, Brent Race, Ulf Dittmer, George Kukolj, Kim J Hasenkrug
OBJECTIVE: Although BLT-humanized mice provide a robust model for HIV-1 infection and enable evaluation of cure strategies dependent on endogenous immune responses, most mice develop graft versus host disease (GVHD), limiting their utility for extended HIV cure studies. This study aimed to: 1) Evaluate the GVHD-resistant C57BL/6 Rag2γcCD47 triple knockout (TKO)-BLT mouse as a model to establish HIV-1 latency. 2) Determine whether TKO-BLT mice could be maintained on ART for extended periods of time...
November 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112071/the-role-of-menopause-in-tenofovir-diphosphate-and-emtricitabine-triphosphate-concentrations-in-cervical-tissue
#18
Melanie R Nicol, Lindsey M Brewers, Angela Dm Kashuba, Craig Sykes
OBJECTIVE: Although postmenopausal women have behavioral and biological risk factors for HIV infection, the activity of pre-exposure prophylaxis agents in older adults has not been well studied. DESIGN: We used an ex-vivo approach to compare the tissue concentrations of tenofovir diphosphate (TFVdp) and emtricitabine triphosphate (FTCtp) in cervical tissues from premenopausal and postmenopausal women. METHOD: Cervical explants from 16 premenopausal and 11 postmenopausal women were incubated in 10-300 μg/mL tenofovir or emtricitabine for 24 hours...
November 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112069/neuropsychological-performance-in-african-children-with-hiv-enrolled-in-a-multi-site-anti-retroviral-clinical-trial
#19
Michael J Boivin, Linda Barlow-Mosha, Miriam Chernoff, Barbara Laughton, Bonnie Zimmer, Celeste Joyce, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Mmule Ratswana, Nasreen Abrahams, Lee Fairlie, Hermien Gous, Portia Kamthunzi, Katie McCarthy, Itziar Familiar-Lopez, Patrick Jean-Phillippe, Joan Coetzee, Avy Violari, Mark Cotton, Paul Palumbo
OBJECTIVE & DESIGN: Children with HIV infection (HIV+) are at neuropsychological risk, but few studies have evaluated this at multiple sites in low and middle income countries (LMICs). We compared neuropsychological outcomes at enrollment (>5 yrs age) among HIV+, HIV-uninfected perinatally-exposed (HEU), and HIV unexposed (HU) children from 4 sub-Saharan countries. METHODS: IMPAACT P1060 compared Nevirapine (NVP) versus Lopinavir/Ritonavir (LPVr)-based ART in HIV-infected children 6 to 35 months of age...
November 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112068/initial-treatment-response-among-hiv-subtype-f-infected-patients-who-started-antiretroviral-therapy-based-on-integrase-inhibitors
#20
Purificación Cid-Silva, Luis Margusino-Framiñán, Vanesa Balboa-Barreiro, Isabel Martín-Herranz, Ángeles Castro-Iglesias, Berta Pernas-Souto, Josep M Llibre, Eva Poveda
HIV-1 subtype B (54.4%) and subtype F (27.2%) are the most prevalent variants in patients who started antiretroviral therapy including an integrase inhibitor (INI) in the last two years in Northwest Spain. Virological response rates to antiretroviral therapy based on INI were significantly lower among F subtypes compared to B subtypes at weeks 12 (25.0% vs. 75.0%), and 24 (59.1% vs. 95.0%). Subtype F was independently associated with virological response at 24 weeks [OR 11.8 (95%CI 1.1-119.9); p = 0.037]...
November 2, 2017: AIDS
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