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Acta Tropica

Caroline J Stephenson, Matthew E Rossheim, Cara L Frankenfeld, Jacques Boncy, Bernard O Okech, Michael E von Fricken
INTRODUCTION: The governments of Haiti and the Dominican Republic have a binational agreement to work towards malaria elimination for the island of Hispaniola by the year 2020. Understanding malaria-related knowledge and behaviors can help inform elimination efforts. This study examined the association between social-behavioral factors, like bedtime and bed net ownership, with malaria seroconversion status among people in the Ouest and Sud-Est departments of Haiti. METHODS: In 2013, cross-sectional survey data (n=377) and blood samples were collected from a convenience sample of individuals within community, clinic and school settings...
August 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
Simone Frédérique Brenière, Rosio Buitrago, Etienne Waleckx, Stéphanie Depickère, Victor Sosa, Christian Barnabé, David Gorla
BACKGROUND: For several years, the wild populations of Triatoma infestans, main vector of Trypanosoma cruzi causing Chagas disease, have been considered or suspected of being a source of reinfestation of villages. The number of sites reported for the presence of wild T. infestans, often close to human habitats, has greatly increased, but these data are scattered in several publications, and others obtained by our team in Bolivia have not been published yet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein is compiled the largest number of wild sites explored for the presence of T...
August 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
Lidiany da Paixão Siqueira, Danilo Augusto Ferreira Fontesa, Cindy Siqueira Britto Aguilera, Taysa Renata Ribeiro Timoteo, Matheus Alves Angelos, Laysa Creusa Paes Barreto Barros Silva, Camila Gomes de Melo, Larissa Araújo Rolim, Rosali Maria Ferreira da Silva, Pedro José Rolim Neto
Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) affect millions of people in different geographic regions, especially the poorest and most vulnerable. Currently NTDs are prevalent in 149 countries, seventeen of these neglected tropical parasitic diseases are classified as endemic. One of the most important of these diseases is schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia, a disease caused by the genus Schistosoma. It presents several species, such as S. haematobium, S. japonicum and S. mansoni, the latter being responsible for parasitosis in Brazil...
August 10, 2017: Acta Tropica
Kwankamol Limsopatham, Dheerawan Boonyawan, Chanchai Umongno, Kabkaew L Sukontason, Tarinee Chaiwong, Rattana Leksomboon, Kom Sukontason
Non-thermal plasma has been used in many medical applications, including treatment of living cells, blood coagulation, wound healing, and sterilization. The process uses an environmentally friendly gas (e.g., argon, helium, oxygen, nitrogen, or hydrogen) to destroy bacteria cells with no serious adverse effect on humans or animals. However, information on the effect of argon plasma on blow fly eggs is lacking. In this study, we explored the ability of cold argon plasma to destroy the eggs of the Australian sheep blow fly, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann, 1830); its larvae are a myiasis-producing agent in both human and animals...
August 9, 2017: Acta Tropica
Amjad Islam Aqib, Muhammad Ijaz, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Abdul Rauf Malik, Khalid Mehmood, Shahid Hussain Farooqi, Kashif Hussain
The study was designed to investigate bovine milk for prevalence of an emerging zoonotic pathogen Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and in-vitro therapeutic response of various antibiotics against MRSA. Nine hundred (900) milk samples were collected (half from cattle and half from buffalo) from private and public farms located in various tehsils of district Faisalabad, using the convenient sampling method. Milk samples were put to biochemical identification of Staphylococcus aureus and later oxacilline disk sensitivity testing for confirmation of MRSA...
August 7, 2017: Acta Tropica
Lei Liu, Li-Na Liu, Peng Wang, Tian-Tian Lv, Yin-Guang Fan, Hai-Feng Pan
Clinical toxoplasmosis in AIDS/HIV patients is a great public health concern around the world. Untreated Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii)-infections are often fatal in AIDS/HIV patients. This study aims to assess the seroprevalence and odds ratio (OR) of T. gondii in AIDS/HIV patients, as well as the potential influential factors. Studies published from December 1, 1983 to December 1, 2016 in English, which comparing the seroprevalence of T. gondii between AIDS/HIV patients and control group were searched in PubMed, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library databases...
August 4, 2017: Acta Tropica
Gediminas Valkiūnas, Helene Pendl, Philipp Olias
Haemoproteus infections can cause fatal disease in parrots (Psittaciformes), one of the most endangered groups of birds. The great diversity of parrots in tropical and subtropical ecosystems has been markedly understudied in terms of their parasite diversity. Only two psittacine Haemoproteus species have been described. Here we report a new Haemoproteus parasite, H. (Parahaemoproteus) homohandai n. sp. (lineage hARCHL01) found in erythrocytes of a Red-and-green macaw Ara chloropterus. We morphologically and genetically characterize the parasite based on a segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, which can be used for identification and diagnosis of infection...
August 4, 2017: Acta Tropica
Ikramul Haq, Aneela Zameer Durrani, Muhammad Sarwar Khan, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq, Imtiaz Ahmad
Antimicrobial resistance results in selective colonization in animals. In the present study, 447 diarrheic foals (235 horse foals, 165 donkey foals and 47 mule foal) were selected from Lahore and Sahiwal districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Fresh fecal and blood samples from diarrheic foals were collected for isolation and confirmation of Salmonella Polymerase chain reaction. Results revealed that 50 (11.25%) foals (horse n=29, donkey n=12 and mule n=9) were positive. Fifty Salmonella enterica isolates belonging to 7 serovars S...
August 4, 2017: Acta Tropica
Choo Huck Ooi, Mohamad Adam Bujang, Tg Mohd Ikhwan Tg Abu Bakar Sidik, Romano Ngui, Yvonne Ai-Lian Lim
Malaria is still of great public health concern, especially in Malaysian Borneo. The aim of this study was to determine the trends of P. knowlesi infection in Sarawak, Malaysia and to forecast the incidence of P. knowlesi until the year 2040. Data on P. knowlesi malaria cases from 1992 to the year 2014 were obtained from the Sarawak Health Department, Malaysia. ARIMA model was applied to forecast the future incidence of P. knowlesi infection. The data for the whole of Sarawak and subsequently the selected six districts which have high incidence rates of P...
July 30, 2017: Acta Tropica
Richard M Poché, Naftaly Githaka, Frans van Gool, Rebekah C Kading, Daniel Hartman, Larisa Polyakova, Edward Okoth Abworo, Vishvanath Nene, Saul Lozano-Fuentes
Globally, malaria remains one of the most important vector-borne diseases despite the extensive use of vector control, including indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). These control methods target endophagic vectors, whereas some malaria vectors, such as Anopheles arabiensis, preferentially feed outdoors on cattle, making it a complicated vector to control using conventional strategies. Our study evaluated whether treating cattle with a capsule containing the active ingredient (AI) fipronil could reduce vector density and sporozoite rates, and alter blood feeding behavior, when applied in a small-scale field study...
July 29, 2017: Acta Tropica
Fabiana de Oliveira Lara-Silva, Érika Monteiro Michalsky, Consuelo Latorre Fortes-Dias, Vanessa de Oliveira Pires Fiuza, Edelberto Santos Dias
Leishmaniases are vector-borne diseases that are transmitted to humans through the bite of Leishmania-infected phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera:Psychodidae). The main proved vector of visceral leishmaniais (VL) in the New World - Lutzomyia longipalpis - is well-adapted to urban areas and has extensive distribution within the five geographical regions of Brazil. Integrated public health actions directed for the vector, domestic reservoir and humans for the control of VL are preferentially applied in municipalities with higher epidemiological risk of transmission...
July 29, 2017: Acta Tropica
Muhammad Taslim Ghori, Muhammad Sarwar Khan, Jawaria Ali Khan, Masood Rabbani, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Haroon Rashid Chaudhry, Muhammad Asad Ali, Javed Muhammad, Mandy Carolina Elschner, Bhushan M Jayarao
Glanders is an infectious and contagious bacterial disease of equines. A little is known about its seroprevalence and risk factors in working equines in countries where the disease is endemic. Also, there are no reports on prevalence of the disease in areas where there is a prior evidence of Burkholderia (B.) mallei detection in soil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in selected districts (n=09) of Punjab province of Pakistan during 2014-2015. A total of 1008 serum samples were screened for detection of antibodies to B...
July 29, 2017: Acta Tropica
Juana P Correa, Sergio A Bucarey, Pedro E Cattan, Carlos Landaeta-Aqueveque, Juan Ramírez-Estrada
We evaluated the renal carriage of Leptospira species in rodent communities from Mediterranean Chile using a PCR technique. We found that animals inhabiting agricultural areas were almost three times more infected than in wild areas (14.4% vs. 4.4%). The Norwegian rat (Rattus norvegicus), an invasive murid ubiquitous in the country, was the most infected species (38.1%).
July 29, 2017: Acta Tropica
Meysam Sharifdini, Sedigheh Drakhshani, Safar Ali Alizadeh, Laleh Ghanbarzadeh, Hamed Mirjalali, Mehrzad Saraei
Human infections with Trichostrongylus species have been reported in most parts of Iran. The aim of this study was the identification, molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of human Trichostrongylus species based on ITS2 region of ribosomal DNA from Guilan Province, northern Iran. Stool samples were collected from rural inhabitants and examined by formalin-ether concentration and agar plate culture techniques. After anthelmintic treatment, male adult worms were collected from five infected cases...
July 28, 2017: Acta Tropica
Samar M Alhusseiny, Samar N El-Beshbishi, Maha M Abu Hashim, Hosam El-Dein E El-Nemr, Aya E Handoussa
Schistosomiasis is a remarkable public health problem in developing countries. Presently, praziquantel is the optional drug for all human schistosomiasis. Owing to the increased praziquantel resistance, there is an urgent need to develop new alternatives. This study aims at determining the anti-schistosomal and/or the hepatoprotective effects of the anti-inflammatory drug; vinpocetine, and the vasodilator and the nitric oxide donor; isosorbide-5-mononitrate, in comparison to praziquantel. In the present research, the therapeutic efficacies of these drugs were assessed in Swiss albino female mice (CD-I strain) experimentally infected with an Egyptian strain of Schistosoma mansoni, using some general, parasitological, and histopathological parameters...
July 27, 2017: Acta Tropica
Patrick D Mathews, Juliana Naldoni, Edson A Adriano
A new species of Myxosporea, Henneguya loreotoensis n. sp. is described parasitizing the gill filaments from 17 of 35 specimens (48.5%) of Corydoras leucomelas (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae) caught in the Nanay River, near village Ninarumi, in the Loreto state, Peru. Mature spores were ellipsoidal in shape from the frontal view, measuring 36.2±0.1μm (36.1-36.3) in total length, 14.3±0.1μm (14.2-14.4) in body length, 5.1±0.1μm (4.9-5.3) in width and 21.9±0.1μm (21.8-22.0) in the caudal process. The two polar capsules were symmetrical and elongated, measuring 5...
July 25, 2017: Acta Tropica
Tahir Yaqub, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Nadia Mukhtar, Zarfishan Tahir, Tariq Abbas, Ehab Amir, Gabriel Defang
Surveillance is a valuable tool for understanding prevailing and previously undiagnosed infections in a geographic area. We examined 480 archived serum samples from patients with history of persistent fever (>40°C, 60-72h) who were referred to hospitals in Rawalpindi/Islamabad, Lahore, and Faisalabad districts for dengue antibody detection in 2014-15. Each sample was processed for detection of antigens and seroconversion, using real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, against dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) virus serotypes 1-4, West Nile virus fever (WNVF), Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), and Chikungunya virus (CGV)...
July 25, 2017: Acta Tropica
Anon Thammasittirong, Kanchana Prigyai, Sutticha Na-Ranong Thammasittirong
Control of larval stages of Aedes aegypti is considered an effective approach for preventing outbreaks of dengue fever. In this work, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized using the supernatant and insecticidal proteins from local isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti). Mosquitocidal activity assays against A. aegypti larvae revealed that the highest toxicity was obtained from the Ag NPs synthesized using supernatant of Bti K55 and the inclusion proteins of Bti K46 with a lethal concentration 50 (LC50) of 0...
July 25, 2017: Acta Tropica
Damilare Olatunji Famakinde
Schistosoma mansoni, being transmitted by some freshwater Biomphalaria snails, is a major causative agent of human schistosomiasis. In the absence of effective vaccine and alternative drug designs to fight against the disease, and with the limitations of molluscicide application, developing more efficient strategies to interrupt the snail-mediated parasite transmission is being emphasized as potentially instrumental in the efforts toward schistosomiasis elimination, hence, necessitating thorough and comprehensive understanding of the fundamental mechanisms involved in the transmission process...
July 25, 2017: Acta Tropica
Mahdi Fakhar, Mehdi Karamian, Mohammad Amin Ghatee, Walter Robert Taylor, Hossein Pazoki Ghohe, Sayed Abobakar Rasooli
Anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), caused by Leishmania tropica, is the main cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the Herat province, Western Afghanistan. We investigated the role of environmental factors on ACL distribution in Herat. Epidemiological data from 2457 patients were retrieved from the local WHO sub-office. Shapefile layers of districts, cities, villages, land cover, soil type and digital elevation model (DEM) of the Herat province were used to assess, by logistic regression modelling, the effects of land cover, soil types, elevation, and proximity to the Harirud river on the distribution of ACL...
July 25, 2017: Acta Tropica
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