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Acta Tropica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923556/moniezia-benedeni-and-moniezia-expansa-are-distinct-cestode-species-based-on-complete-mitochondrial-genomes
#1
Aijiang Guo
Moniezia spp. parasitize the intestines of ruminants, causing monieziasis. In this study, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of M. benedeni and M. expansa have been determined, characterized and employed to test the hypothesis that M. benedeni and M. expansa are distinct species by phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated amino acid sequences derived from 12 protein-coding genes, inferred with Bayesian and Maximum-likelihood methods. The complete mt genomes of M. benedeni and M. expansa were 13,958bp and 13,934bp in size, respectively...
December 3, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923555/scorpions-and-scorpionism-in-iran-s-central-desert
#2
Jalil Nejati, Abedin Saghafipour, Ehsan Mozaffari, Amir Keyhani, Nahid Jesri
Venomous scorpions have extreme importance in field of medicine and public health. This descriptive - analytic study was done to identify scorpion fauna, their ecological aspects as well as scorpionism for risk management and prevention of this health problem in Iran's central desert. Four urban and fifteen rural areas with various climates and topography locations were selected for monthly scorpion collection through a randomly cluster sampling in 2013.The clinical data was obtained from questionnaires provided in 2009-2014...
December 3, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919689/seasonal-dynamics-of-human-retinol-status-in-mobile-pastoralists-in-chad
#3
Lisa Crump, Mahamat Béchir, Bongo Naré Richard Ngandolo, Doumagoum Moto Daugla, Jan Hattendorf, Jakob Zinsstag
Vitamin A deficiency is a prevalent public health problem in Africa and South-East Asia, although national population based surveys are lacking in many countries. This study investigated seasonal variation of human retinol concentrations in Chadian mobile pastoralists to identify critical time periods for interventions addressing vitamin A deficiency. The repeated cross-sectional study design used convenience sampling during three seasons to include 327 Fulani, Gorane and Arab adult mobile pastoralists in nine camps in the Lake Chad area...
December 2, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919688/leishmaniases-in-ecuador-comprehensive-review-and-current-status
#4
REVIEW
Yoshihisa Hashiguchi, Lenin N Velez, Nancy V Villegas, Tatsuyuki Mimori, Eduardo A L Gomez, Hirotomo Kato
This article reviews current knowledge about leishmaniases in Ecuador, proceeding from 1920, when the first human case was described, to the present, mainly focusing on the recent research events published. Regarding basic situations, it appears that 23 of Ecuador's 24 provinces have leishmaniasis-case reports. The disease is one of the mandatory notification infectious diseases in the country since 2005. All the 21,305 cases notified to the Ministry of Public Health, during the period from 2001 through 2014, were said to involve different clinical features of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) but not visceral (VL)...
December 2, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916503/riggia-puyensis-n-sp-isopoda-cymothoidae-parasitizing-chaetostoma-breve-and-chaetostoma-microps-siluriformes-loricariidae-from-ecuador
#5
C Rodríguez Haro, M M Montes, P Marcotegui, S R Martorelli
A new isopod was found parasitizing Chaetostoma breve and Chaetostoma microps from the Puyo and Bobonaza rivers. The parasite found belongs to the Cymothoidae family and could be located within the genus Riggia instead of Artystone by the presence of abdominal plates fused with the telson. The specimens found represent a new species, Riggia puyensis n. sp., and could be distinguished from Riggia cryptocularis by the presence of developed eyes. The main difference of the new specie from Riggia nana and Riggia brasiliensis is the size, bigger compared with the first and smaller compared with the last species...
December 1, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914666/reprint-of-spatial-modeling-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-in-iran-from-1983-to-2013
#6
Kourosh Holakouie-Naieni, Ehsan Mostafavi, Ali Darvishi Boloorani, Mehdi Mohebali, Reza Pakzad
INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous Leshmaniasis (CL), a parasitic skin infection caused by Leishmania species, is endemic in some regions of Iran. In this study, the effect of location on the incidence and distribution of CL in Iran was studied. METHODS: We collected datas including the number of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis cases and populations at-risk of disease in Iran's different provinces reported by the Iranian ministry of health and the National Bureau of Statistics, respectively...
November 30, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908747/tci-tcii-and-tcvi-trypanosoma-cruzi-samples-from-chagas-disease-patients-with-distinct-clinical-forms-and-critical-analysis-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-behavior-response-to-treatment-and-infection-evolution-in-murine-model
#7
Maykon Tavares de Oliveira, Renata Tupinambá Branquinho, Gláucia Diniz Aléssio, Carlos Geraldo Campos Mello, Nívia Carolina Nogueira de Paiva, Cláudia Martins Carneiro, Max Jean de Ornelas Toledo, Alexandre Barbosa Reis, Olindo Assis Martins Filho, Marta de Lana
The clonal evolution of Trypanosoma cruzi sustains scientifically the hypothesis of association between parasite's genetic, biological behavior and possibly the clinical aspects of Chagas disease in patients from whom they were isolated. This study intended to characterize a range of biological properties of TcI, TcII and TcVI T. cruzi samples in order to verify the existence of these associations. Several biological features were evaluated, including in vitro epimastigote-growth, "Vero"cells infectivity and growth, along with in vivo studies of parasitemia, polymorphism of trypomastigotes, cardiac inflammation, fibrosis and response to treatment by nifurtimox during the acute and chronic murine infection...
November 28, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908746/willingness-to-pay-for-a-dengue-vaccine-and-its-associated-determinants-in-indonesia-a-community-based-cross-sectional-survey-in-aceh
#8
Harapan Harapan, Samsul Anwar, Aslam Bustamam, Arsil Radiansyah, Pradiba Angraini, Riny Fasli, Salwiyadi Salwiyadi, Reza Akbar Bastian, Ade Oktiviyari, Imaduddin Akmal, Muhammad Iqbalamin, Jamalul Adil, Fenni Henrizal, Darmayanti Darmayanti, Mahmuda Mahmuda, Mudatsir Mudatsir, Allison Imrie, R Tedjo Sasmono, Ulrich Kuch, Ziv Shkedy, Setia Pramana
Vaccination strategies are being considered as a part of dengue prevention programs in endemic countries. To accelerate the introduction of dengue vaccine into the public sector program and private markets, understanding the private economic benefits of a dengue vaccine is therefore essential. The aim of this study was to assess the willingness to pay (WTP) for a dengue vaccine among community members in Indonesia and its associated explanatory variables. A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted in nine regencies of Aceh province, Indonesia, from November 2014 to March 2015...
November 28, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908745/effect-of-temperature-and-search-area-on-the-functional-response-of-anisops-sardea-hemiptera-notonectidae-against-anopheles-stephensi-in-laboratory-bioassay
#9
Rajendra Prasad Mondal, Goutam Chandra, Subhasis Bandyopadhyay, Anupam Ghosh
Present study was carried out to establish the influence of abiotic factors on foraging activities of a predatory hemipteran insect Anisops sardea against Anopheles stephensi larvae. The functional response of A. sardea was evaluated in variable density of prey items with variation in search area (100, 250, 500 and 1000ml water volume) and temperatures (20, 25 and 30°C). The results of laboratory bioassay revealed that prey consumption rate of predator species was positively related with increasing temperature and inversely related with increasing search area...
November 28, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894608/brucellosis-in-cattle-and-micro-scale-spatial-variability-of-pastoral-household-income-from-dairy-production-in-south-western-uganda
#10
Pius Mbuya Nina, Samuel Mugisha, Herwig Leirs, Gilbert Isabirye Basuta, Patrick Van Damme
Brucellosis in cattle and humans has received world-wide research attention as a neglected and re-emerging zoonotic disease with many routes of transmission. Studies of brucellosis in Uganda have emphasized occupational exposures and also revealed variations in prevalence levels by region and cattle production systems. To date, research linking pastoralist household income from dairy production to brucellosis and its transmission risk pathways do not exist in Uganda. We assessed whether spatial differences in unit milk prices can be explained by brucellosis prevalence in cattle along a distance gradient from Lake Mburo National Park in Uganda...
November 25, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890608/speciation-faunal-affinities-and-geographical-dispersal-of-black-flies-diptera-simuliidae-in-the-oriental-region
#11
REVIEW
Hiroyuki Takaoka
The simuliid fauna of the Oriental Region is reviewed in comparison with those in five other zoogeographical regions. It is relatively young, represented by only one genus Simulium, which is regarded as the most specialized among 26 genera of the family Simuliidae. The Oriental Region has the second largest simuliid fauna with 524 species or 23.8% of the world total of 2204 extant species. This species richness is associated with a high speciation index (15.4), reflected especially by the high speciation rates of two dominant subgenera Gomphostilbia and Simulium although the number of lineages in the Oriental Region is moderate (34 or 20...
November 24, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889225/cost-estimate-and-proposal-for-a-development-impact-bond-for-canine-rabies-elimination-by-mass-vaccination-in-chad
#12
Franziska Anyiam, Monique Lechenne, Rolande Mindekem, Assandi Oussigéré, Service Naissengar, Idriss Oumar Alfaroukh, Celine Mbilo, Daugla Doumagoum Moto, Paul G Coleman, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Jakob Zinsstag
Close to 960,000 humans humans die of rabies each year, most of them in Africa and Asia. Clinical rabies can be prevented by post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). However, PEP is commonly not available or not affordable in developing countries. Another strategy besides treating exposed humans is the vaccination of vector species. In developing countries, 8.36 vector is the domestic canine, that, once infected, is a serious threat to humans. After a successful mass vaccination of 70% of the dogs in N'Djaména, we report here a cost-estimate for a national rabies elimination campaign for Chad...
November 23, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888125/initiating-ntd-programs-targeting-schistosomiasis-and-soil-transmitted-helminthiasis-in-two-provinces-of-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-establishment-of-baseline-prevalence-for-mass-drug-administration
#13
Achille Kabore, Moudachirou Ibikounle, Jean Jacques Tougoue, Sylvain Mupoyi, Martin Ndombe, Scott Shannon, Eric A Ottesen, Faustin Mukunda, Naomi Awaca
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis (SCH) and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are widely distributed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and constitute a serious public health problem. As recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), before launching mass chemotherapy to control these diseases, parasitological surveys were conducted in sentinel sites in six health zones (HZs) in Bandundu and Maniema provinces. Baseline prevalence and intensity of infection for SCH and STH were determined to establish the appropriate treatment plan using Praziquantel (PZQ) and Albendazole (ALB)...
November 22, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887696/reprint-of-neurocysticercosis-related-mortality-in-brazil-2000-2011-epidemiology-of-a-neglected-neurologic-cause-of-death
#14
Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo, Alberto Novaes Ramos, Marta Guimarães Cavalcanti, Carlos Henrique Alencar, Jorg Heukelbach
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is an important cause of severe neurological disease mainly in low- and middle-income countries, but data on NCC mortality from endemic areas are scarce. Here we analysed the epidemiological patterns of NCC-related mortality in Brazil. We included all deaths recorded in Brazil between 2000 and 2011, in which NCC was mentioned on death certificates, either as underlying or as associated cause of death. NCC was identified in 1829/12,491,280 deaths (0.015%), 1130 (61.8%) as underlying cause, and 699 (38...
November 22, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887695/reprint-of-echinococcus-granulosus-sensu-stricto-s-s-from-the-critically-endangered-antelope-addax-nasomaculatus-in-tunisia
#15
Belgees Boufana, Yousra Saïd, Mokhtar Dhibi, Philip S Craig, Samia Lahmar
Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia...
November 22, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887694/reprint-of-assessing-the-impact-of-a-joint-human-porcine-intervention-package-for-taenia-solium-control-results-of-a-pilot-study-from-northern-lao-pdr
#16
Anna L Okello, Lian Thomas, Phouth Inthavong, Amanda Ash, Boualam Khamlome, Chattouphone Keokamphet, Kim Newberry, Charles G Gauci, Sarah Gabriël, Pierre Dorny, Rc Andrew Thompson, Marshall W Lightowlers, John Allen
Following confirmation that a remote village of approximately 300 inhabitants in northern Lao PDR was hyperendemic for the Neglected Tropical Disease Taenia solium, a pilot human-porcine therapeutic control intervention was implemented between October 2013 and November 2014. Mass drug administration with a three day albendazole 400mg protocol was offered to all eligible humans in October 2013 and March 2014. At these times, and again in October 2014, eligible village pigs received the anti-cysticercosis TSOL18 vaccination and an oral dose of oxfendazole anthelmintic at 30mg/kg, both repeated one month later...
November 22, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887693/reprint-of-survey-and-first-molecular-characterization-of-echinococcus-granulosus-sensu-stricto-g1-in-pampas-fox-lycalopex-gymnocercus-in-buenos-aires-province-argentina
#17
Nathalia Paula Scioscia, Romina Sandra Petrigh, Pablo Martín Beldomenico, Martín Fugassa, Guillermo María Denegri
Echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s. l.) has a world-wide distribution and its transmission is primarily maintained in a synanthropic cycle with dogs as definitive hosts and livestock species as intermediate hosts. However, many wild canids also function as definitive hosts for E. granulosus s. l. Echinococcosis in humans is mainly caused by E. granulosus sensu stricto (s. s.) G1 genotype. In the present work, we expanded the epidemiological study on echinococcosis reported cases in Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) to provide a prevalence estimate for rural areas of southern Buenos Aires province, Argentina...
November 22, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880877/association-of-the-occurrence-of-brazilian-spotted-fever-and-atlantic-rain-forest-fragmentation-in-the-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-metropolitan-region-brazil
#18
Claudia A Scinachi, Gabriela A C G Takeda, Luís Filipe Mucci, Adriano Pinter
Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF) is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. In the São Paulo Metropolitan Region (SPMR) it is transmitted by Amblyomma aureolatum ticks. In this region, annual lethality of the disease can reach 80% and spatial occurrence depends on environmental factors and more particularly on the presence and interaction of domestic and wild carnivores as well as the presence and characteristics of the remnant Atlantic Rain Forest patches. This study analyzed the association between forest fragmentation and its influence on the risk of occurrence of the disease in the human population...
November 21, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880878/neurocysticercosis-infection-and-disease-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Lucy B Gripper, Susan C Welburn
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common parasitic disease of the human central nervous system (CNS), a pleomorphic disease with a diverse array of clinical manifestations. The infection is pleomorphic and dependent on a complex range of interconnecting factors, including number and size of the cysticerci, their stage of development and localisation within the brain with resulting difficulties in accurate diagnosis and staging of the disease. This review examines the factors that contribute to the accurate assessment of NCC distribution and transmission that are critical to achieving robust disease burden calculations...
November 20, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876650/viruses-of-parasites-as-actors-in-the-parasite-host-relationship-a-m%C3%A3-nage-%C3%A3-trois
#20
REVIEW
Amaranta Gómez-Arreaza, Anne-Lise Haenni, Irene Dunia, Luisana Avilán
The complex parasite-host relationship involves multiple mechanisms. Moreover, parasites infected by viruses modify this relationship adding more complexity to the system that now comprises three partners. Viruses infecting parasites were described several decades ago. However, until recently little was known about the viruses involved and their impact on the resulting disease caused to the hosts. To clarify this situation, we have concentrated on parasitic diseases caused to humans and on how virus-infected parasites could alter the symptoms inflicted on the human host...
November 19, 2016: Acta Tropica
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