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Acta Tropica

Giovanni Benelli, Donato Romano
Lucilia sericata is well known for causing myiasis in humans, livestock, pets and wildlife. It also vectors various pathogens, including paratuberculosis agents. This species can be exploited in maggot therapy to treat necrotic wounds, particularly those infected by multidrug-resistant pathogens. Despite the high medical and veterinary importance of this species, our knowledge about its courtship and mating behavior is still limited. In this study, we quantified the courtship and mating behavior of L. sericata, shedding light on the impact of lateralization of selected behavioral traits during sexual interactions...
August 13, 2018: Acta Tropica
Patrick D Mathews, Omar Mertins, José O L Pereira, Antonio A M Maia, Edson A Adriano
Myxosporean are endoparasitic cnidarians of wide distribution and responsible for important economic losses in fisheries and aquaculture. A new myxosporean species, Henneguya peruviensis n. sp., is herein described as obtained from the gill filaments of Hyphessobrycon loretoensis caught in the Nanay River, Department of Loreto, Peru. The parasite was found in 37 of 45 (82.2%) examined H. loretoensis. The new species was characterized based on morphological features and 18S rDNA gene sequence data. The sequencing of the 18S rDNA gene from the spores of H...
August 11, 2018: Acta Tropica
E González, R Molina, M Jiménez
Phlebotomine sand flies are known vectors of several pathogens. In Spain, Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus ariasi are the proven vectors of Leishmania infantum. Since 2010 a human leishmaniasis outbreak has been notified in Madrid region, central Spain. Studies have shown that P. perniciosus is the only vector confirmed in the focus area and that rabbits and hares are the wild reservoirs incriminated in the cycle of the parasite in the outbreak. Trypanosoma nabiasi is a trypanosomatid found in wild rabbits and its presence has been reported in wild rabbits from southern Spain...
August 11, 2018: Acta Tropica
Wanlapa Chaibangyang, Amornrat Geadkaew-Krenc, Peter M Smooker, Smarn Tesana, Rudi Grams
The multifunctional calreticulin (CALR) was identified as a major calcium-binding protein of the endoplasmic reticulum before being recognized as a chaperone in the same place. Only later were activities of calreticulin outside the endoplasmic reticulum described that for example affect cell proliferation and the innate immune system. In the present work we have investigated those extracellular activities of CALR from the cancerogenic human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini (OvCALR), as they might be important in host/parasite interaction...
August 9, 2018: Acta Tropica
Mehdi Farhadi, Ali Haniloo, Kobra Rostamizadeh, Soghrat Faghihzadeh
None of the existing drugs can effectively treat the human cystic echinococcosis. This study aimed to improve the efficacy of flubendazole (FLBZ) against the protoscoleces and cysts of Echinococcus granulosus by preparing polymeric FLBZ-loaded methoxy polyethylene glycol-polycaprolactone (mPEG-PCL) nanoparticles. The protoscoleces and microcysts were treated with FLBZ-loaded mPEG-PCL nanoparticles (FLBZ-loaded nanoparticles) and free FLBZ at the final concentrations of 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL for 27 and 14 days, respectively...
August 9, 2018: Acta Tropica
Hallysson D A de Araújo, Ana M M A Melo, Williams N Siqueira, Mônica C B Martins, André L Aires, Mônica C P A Albuquerque, Nicácio H da Silva, Vera L M Lima
The snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the most important vector for Schistosoma mansoni. Control of this vector to prevent the spread of schistosomiasis is currently performed with the application of a niclosamide molluscicide, which is highly toxic to the environment. Screening of substances that show embryotoxic molluscicidal potential as well as have detrimental effects on cercariae is very relevant for the control of schistosomiasis, as the efficacy of prevention of the disease is increased if it acts as a molluscicide as well as on the cercariae of S...
August 8, 2018: Acta Tropica
Sufang Dong, Wu Lixian, Fuquan Long, Wu Qiang, Xiang Liu, Hua Pei, Xu Ke, Lu Yajun, Ying Wang, Yingzi Lin, Qianfeng Xia
Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, mainly found in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. In Hainan, sporadic cases were first described in 1990; since then, more cases have been identified. No systematic study has yet been done to detect the environmental source of the organism and its true extent in Hainan. This study is aimed to confirm the prevalence of B. pseudomallei in soil samples in Hainan. 1080 soil samples from 18 different counties were collected from 3 sampling points of 360 sites...
August 7, 2018: Acta Tropica
Eva Bártová, Radka Lukášová, Roman Vodička, Jiří Váhala, Lukáš Pavlačík, Marie Budíková, Kamil Sedlák
Toxoplasma gondii is protozoan parasite with ability of causing disease in wide-spectrum of animals; many species of animals in captivity died of clinical toxoplasmosis. The monitoring of T. gondii antibodies in zoo animals can be an important indicator of T. gondii circulation in zoo. The aim of this study was to examine sera of animals from eight Czech zoos by latex agglutination test with statistical evaluation and detect T. gondii DNA in stray cats and rodents captured in the zoos. T. gondii antibodies were detected in 33 % of 1043 zoo animals without statistical difference between birds (27 %, n = 74) and mammals (33 %, n = 969)...
August 7, 2018: Acta Tropica
Edmundo González-Santillán, Lourival D Possani
Scorpionism is a severe threat to public health in North America. Historically, few species of Centruroides have been considered to be the offending taxa, but we know now that their diversity is greater and our knowledge incomplete. Current distribution maps are inadequate for some species. Epidemiologic studies are sporadic and local, and a complete synthesis for North America is missing. We analyze historical and recent knowledge about the identity, distribution and epidemiology of species of medical importance in North America...
August 6, 2018: Acta Tropica
Angel A Escobedo, Pedro Almirall, Eduardo González-Fraile, Javier Ballesteros
Mebendazole (MBZ), a benzimidazole compound, has received attention in treating patients with giardiasis because it has shown beneficial effects both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to assess with a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) the efficacy of MBZ compared to other antigiardial agents in children. We searched RCTs of MBZ for the treatment of Giardia infections published in PubMed and EBSCOhost. Application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, data extraction, and assessment of methodological quality were independently performed in duplicate...
August 6, 2018: Acta Tropica
Elsy Nalleli Loría-Cervera, Erika Ivett Sosa-Bibiano, Nicole R Van Wynsberghe, Fernando José Andrade-Narváez
For more than four decades, the murine model has been employed extensively to understand immunological mechanisms associated with Leishmania infection. Although the use of laboratory mice has been very informative, mainly for L. (L.) major infection, the extrapolation to other Leishmania species and more importantly to human disease has been limited. Particularly in the case of L. (L.) mexicana, most infected mouse strains are highly susceptible and never presented asymptomatic infection, which is the main outcome in human...
August 6, 2018: Acta Tropica
Kasinathan Gunasekaran, Sudhansu Sekhar Sahu, Tharmalingam Vijayakumar, Swaminathan Subramanian, Purushothaman Jambulingam
LifeNet, a deltamethrin incorporated long-lasting insecticidal (polypropylene) net (LLIN), was qualified by the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) for Phase-II trial in India. The purpose of this trial was to assess the bio-efficacy of unwashed and 20 and 30 times washed LifeNet in comparison to the nets conventionally treated with deltamethrin against the natural population of Anopheles fluviatilis, a major malaria vector, in terms of deterring hut entry, inhibiting blood feeding, inducing exophily and causing mortality...
August 6, 2018: Acta Tropica
Shingo Asakura, George Makingi, Rudovick Kazwala, Kohei Makita
Brucellosis is endemic in Tanzania, particularly in agro-pastoral areas. This study investigated the herd-level sero-prevalence and risk factors for Brucella sero-positivity in cattle, and perception and behaviours associated with brucellosis control among agro-pastoralists in Morogoro Region, Tanzania. A cross-sectional study involving herd milk diagnosis by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and questionnaire survey was conducted in 124 farms. Questions included potential risk factors, knowledge of brucellosis, willingness-to-pay for cattle vaccination, and item count technique (ICT) for selling behaviour of cows that experienced abortion...
August 1, 2018: Acta Tropica
Soanandrasana Rahelinirina, Mireille Harimalala, Thomas Margueron, Tojo Ramihangihajason, François Mansotte, Minoarisoa Rajerison, Fréderic Pagès, Sébastien Boyer
Plague is a rodent-borne disease caused by Yersinia pestis. Most human infections are bubonic plague, as a result of being bitten by infected rodent fleas. Madagascar, Democratic Republic of Congo and Peru are the three most affected countries. Plague was introduced into eastern Madagascar in 1898 by boat from India. It is estimated that the risk of introduction of plague from Madagascar to neighboring islands is very high due to the maritime links. We conducted a study of plague reservoirs and vectors in Longoni Port in Mayotte and Mahajanga Port in Madagascar during two seasons to highlight a non-negligible risk of introduction of Y...
July 31, 2018: Acta Tropica
Philip K Stoddard
The African Zika virus swept across the Pacific, reaching the New World in 2014. In July, 2016, Miami-Dade County, Florida became the locus of the first mosquito-borne Zika transmission zones in the continental United States. Control efforts were guided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, including aerial and truck sprays of adulticides and larvicides. To improve our understanding of how best to fight Zika transmission in an urban environment in the developed world, trap counts of adult Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L...
July 31, 2018: Acta Tropica
Joshua Kamani, Shimon Harrus, Yaarit Nachum-Biala, Ricardo Gutiérrez, Kosta Y Mumcuoglu, Gad Baneth
Using polymerase chain reaction targeting the 18S rRNA gene and DNA sequencing the prevalence and diversity of Apicomplexa and Piroplasmida infections in rodents from Nigeria was studied. Overall, 13 of 194 (7.7%) rodent blood samples tested were positive for Hepatozoon spp. while 2 (1.0%) were positive for Sarcocystis dispersa. Hepatozoon spp. DNA was detected in all the rodent species tested except Neotoma spp., and was most prevalent (50%) in the African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus), followed by Mus musculus (18...
July 30, 2018: Acta Tropica
Xiao-Xuan Zhang, Wei-Xin Ren, Guangyu Hou, Qing Liu, Tong-Qiang Yu, Quan Zhao, Hong-Bo Ni
Toxoplasmosis is caused by the protozoon Toxoplasma gondii that can infect almost all warm-blooded hosts including horses and humans. Horse meat is one of the most important meat products for human consumption. However, data on seroprevalence of T. gondii in horses intended for human consumption in Northern China is scarce. Thus, a total of 614 serum samples were collected from Jilin Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR) between 2015 and 2017, and were detected the seroprevalence for T. gondii by indirect hemagglutination assay test...
July 30, 2018: Acta Tropica
Pietra Lemos Costa, Reginaldo Peçanha Brazil, Andressa Alencastre Fuzari, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Giada Annoscia, Viviana Domenica Tarallo, Gioia Capelli, Domenico Otranto, Sinval Pinto Brandão-Filho, Filipe Dantas-Torres
Lutzomyia migonei is incriminated as a vector of Leishmania braziliensis, the main causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazil. Recently, this phlebotomine sand fly species has been suggested as a vector for Leishmania infantum, which causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis. Considering the widespread distribution of Lu. migonei in South America, the existence of isolated populations has been hypothesized. Three Lu. migonei populations, two from north-eastern Brazil (Machados, Pernambuco State, and Baturité, Ceará State) and other from the south-eastern region (Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State) were analysed both morphologically and genetically...
July 28, 2018: Acta Tropica
Lavinia Ciuca, Fernando Simòn, Laura Rinaldi, Laura Kramer, Marco Genchi, Giuseppe Cringoli, Dumitru Acatrinei, Liviu Miron, Rodrigo Morchon
The present study aimed to evaluate the extent of Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens exposure in humans from eastern and southern areas of Romania and central Moldova by serological methods. The serological screening was performed on a total of 450 serum samples (187 from Romania and 263 from Moldova). The sera were collected using a convenience sampling with the help of physicians from the hospitals of the study areas. All samples were analysed by a non-commercial ELISA test for the detection of IgG antibodies against adult somatic antigens of D...
July 26, 2018: Acta Tropica
Majda Laboudi, Hamid Sahibi, Mohamed Elabandouni, Haddou Nhammi, Sanaa Ait Hamou, Abderrahim Sadak
Leishmaniasis is considered one of the most neglected diseases worldwide. In Morocco, cutaneous leishmaniasis is an important public health problem. Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica are the two major species in this country. Despite all efforts, monitoring and control of the cutaneous leishmaniasis is still challenging. We used for the first time a vertical analysis of the control of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Morocco from the document review and publications. This analysis allowed us to develop an epidemiological model that emphasized key possible interventions...
July 26, 2018: Acta Tropica
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