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Acta Tropica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648790/larval-stress-alters-dengue-virus-susceptibility-in-aedes-aegypti-l-adult-females
#1
David S Kang, Yehonatan Alcalay, Diane D Lovin, Joanne M Cunningham, Matthew W Eng, Dave D Chadee, David W Severson
In addition to genetic history, environmental conditions during larval stages are critical to the development, success and phenotypic fate of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. In particular, previous studies have shown a strong genotype-by-environment component to adult mosquito body size in response to optimal vs stressed larval conditions. Here, we expand upon those results by investigating the effects of larval-stage crowding and nutritional limitation on the susceptibility of a recent field isolate of Aedes aegypti to dengue virus serotype-2...
June 22, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648789/detection-of-west-nile-virus-and-other-common-equine-viruses-in-three-locations-from-the-leeward-islands-west-indies
#2
Pompei Bolfa, Isaac Jeon, Amanda Loftis, Teresa Leslie, Silvia Marchi, Fortune Sithole, Cecile Beck, Sylvie Lecollinet, Stephan Zientara, Aymeric Hans, Charles J Issel
Equines in the West Indies are used for recreational purposes, tourism industry, racing and agriculture or can be found in feral populations. Little is known in the Caribbean basin about the prevalence of some major equine infectious diseases, some with zoonotic potential, listed as reportable by the OIE. Our objective was to study the prevalence of antibodies for West Nile Virus (WNV), Equine Herpes Virus-1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4), Equine Influenza (EI), Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) and Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV) using a retrospective serological convenience study...
June 22, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647427/first-molecular-detection-of-leishmania-infantum-in-sergentomyia-minuta-diptera-psychodidae-in-alentejo-southern-portugal
#3
S Pereira, D Pita-Pereira, T Araujo-Pereira, C Britto, T Costa-Rego, J Ferrolho, M Vilhena, E F Rangel, M L Vilela, M O Afonso
Protozoan parasites, such as Leishmania spp., are the causative agents of many insect-borne infectious diseases with medical and veterinary importance. Leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania spp., is transmitted by female phlebotomine sand flies. In the Alentejo region of Portugal, located at the north of Algarve, cases of human and canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum have been notified. However, no recent studies regarding the sand fly fauna in the region are available. We therefore aimed to explore the phlebotomine sand fly species found in both, Évora and Beja Districts, to gain an insight about the leishmaniasis epidemiology in these areas...
June 21, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595822/a-multiplex-restriction-enzyme-pcr-for-unequivocal-identification-and-differentiation-of-trichostrongylus-species-in-human-samples
#4
Azadeh Mizani, Pooria Gill, Ahmad Daryani, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Afsaneh Amouei, Ali Bakooie Katrimi, Eissa Soleymani, Siavash Mirshafiee, Sara Gholami, Seyed Abdollah Hosseini, Shirzad Gholami, Mohammad-Taghi Rahimi, Mohammad Bagher Hashemi-Soteh, Mehdi Sharif
Trichostrongylus species remain one of the major health challenges in the tropical and summer rainfall regions worldwide. Identification of strongylid species diagnostic methods is vital for obtaining a deep understanding of the epidemiology, population biology, anthelmintic treatment efficacy, and drug resistance in order to design effective parasite control strategies. We evaluated a multiplex RE-PCR for the diagnosis of key Trichostrongylus spp. Genomic DNA amplification of Trichostrongylus colubriformis, Trichostrongylus axei and Trichostrongylus vitrinus was achieved as standard sample using specific primers located in the second internal transcribed spacer (ITSII) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA)...
June 21, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634145/taeniasis-caused-by-taenia-saginata-in-gianyar-townand-taenia-solium-in-karangasem-villagesof-bali-indonesia-2011-2016-how-to-detect-tapeworm-carriers-anamnesis-or-microscopy
#5
Kadek Swastika, Toni Wandra, Nyoman Sadra Dharmawan, I Made Sudarmaja, John Master Saragih, Luh Putu Eka Diarthini, Luh Ariwati, Putu Ayu Asri Damayanti, Dewa Ayu Agus Sri Laksemi, Nengah Kapti, Putu Sutisna, Tetsuya Yanagida, Akira Ito
From January 2011 until September 2016, screening of taeniasis carriers was carried out in a town in Gianyar District (Taenia saginata) and in villages which consisted of several Banjars (the smallest community units) on the eastern slope of Mt. Agung, Karangasem District (Taenia solium) in Bali, Indonesia. Fecal samples from all community members who chose to participate were examined microscopically for detection of taeniid eggs each person completedwith a questionnaire to determine if they had seen whitish, noodle-like proglottids (anamnesis) in their feces...
June 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634144/development-of-a-multiplex-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-and-differentiation-of-burkholderia-pseudomallei-burkholderia-mallei-burkholderia-thailandensis-and-burkholderia-cepacia-complex
#6
Irina Zakharova, Natalya Teteryatnikova, Andrey Toporkov, Dmitry Viktorov
Two species of Burkholderia pseudomallei complex (Bpc), B. pseudomallei and B. mallei, can cause severe life-threatening infections. Rapidly discerning individual species within the group and separating them from other opportunistic pathogens of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is essential to establish a correct diagnosis and for epidemiological surveillance. In this study, a multiplex PCR assay based on the detection of an individual set of chromosomal beta-lactamase genes for single-step identification and differentiation of B...
June 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634143/pcr-based-verification-of-positive-rapid-diagnostic-tests-for-intestinal-protozoa-infections-with-variable-test-band-intensity
#7
Sören L Becker, Ivan Müller, Pascal Mertens, Mathias Herrmann, Leyli Zondie, Lindsey Beyleveld, Markus Gerber, Rosa du Randt, Uwe Pühse, Cheryl Walter, Jürg Utzinger
Stool-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for pathogenic intestinal protozoa (e.g. Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis) allow for prompt diagnosis and treatment in resource-constrained settings. Such RDTs can improve individual patient management and facilitate population-based screening programmes in areas without microbiological laboratories for confirmatory testing. However, RDTs are difficult to interpret in case of 'trace' results with faint test band intensities and little is known about whether such ambiguous results might indicate 'true' infections...
June 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624513/biodiversity-of-simulium-metallicum-sensu-lato-diptera-simuliidae-a-complex-of-neotropical-vectors-associated-with-human-onchocerciasis
#8
Peter H Adler, Art Borkent, Neusa Hamada, John W McCreadie
The polytene chromosomes of 130 larvae of the Neotropical Simulium metallicum complex from Brazil, Costa Rica, and Ecuador revealed five cytoforms, including three ('M', 'N', and 'O') that are new and two ('B' and 'J') that represent range extensions of up to 850km. The discovery of three new cytoforms brings the total number in the complex to 17. Cytoforms 'B', 'J', and 'N' are reproductively isolated from one another, and their species status is corroborated by morphological evidence. None of the three new cytoforms is known from current or historical onchocerciasis foci, although 'M' inhabits the periphery of the former Ecuadorian Santiago onchocerciasis focus a mere 30km to the west...
June 15, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624512/epidemiological-investigation-and-risk-factors-of-echinococcus-granulosus-in-yaks-bos-grunniens-tibetan-pigs-and-tibetans-on-qinghai-tibetan-plateau
#9
Kun Li, Lihong Zhang, Hui Zhang, Zhixin Lei, Houqiang Luo, Khalid Mehmood, Muhammad Shahzad, Yanfang Lan, Meng Wang, Jiakui Li
Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus) is a diverse zoonotic parasite and causes Cystic echinococcosis (CE) disease in humans and livestock. However, scare information is available about the epidemic situation of E. granulosus infection in yaks, Tibetan pigs and native Tibetans on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau. Therefore, a study was carried out to find prevalence and risk factors of E. granulosus in yaks, Tibetan pigs and Tibetans. Serum samples from yaks (1371), Tibetan pigs (454) and Tibetans (600) were collected and assessed by commercial ELISA kits...
June 15, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619673/molecular-characterization-of-blastocystis-from-pigs-in-shaanxi-province-of-china
#10
Jun-Ke Song, Rui-Si Hu, Xian-Cheng Fan, Sha-Sha Wang, Hui-Jun Zhang, Guang-Hui Zhao
Blastocystis is an enteric eukaryote of mystery for its ubiquitous presence in animals and humans worldwide and a broad diversity genetically. The animals have been suggested to be an important reservoir to transmit Blastocystis to humans because of high colonization frequency and the presence of zoonotic subtypes. In the present study, the prevalence and subtypes of Blastocystis in pigs in Shaanxi province of China were determined using the molecular technique based on the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene fragment...
June 12, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619672/point-of-care-diagnosis-of-multiple-schistosome-parasites-species-specific-dna-detection-in-urine-by-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp
#11
Nilanjan Lodh, Kei Mikita, Kwabena M Bosompem, William K Anyan, Joseph K Quartey, Joseph Otchere, Clive J Shiff
Schistosomes are easily transmitted and high chance of repeat infection, so if control strategies based on targeted mass drug administration (MDA) are to succeed it is essential to have a test that is sensitive, accurate and simple to use. It is known and regularly demonstrated that praziquantel does not always eliminate an infection so in spite of the successes of control programs a residual of the reservoir survives to re-infect snails. The issue of diagnostic sensitivity becomes more critical in the assessment of program effectiveness...
June 12, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619671/combination-of-five-diagnostic-tests-to-estimate-the-prevalence-of-hookworm-infection-among-school-aged-children-from-a-rural-area-of-colombia
#12
Rafael E Barreto, Javier Narváez, Natalia A Sepúlveda, Fabián C Velásquez, Sandra C Díaz, Myriam Consuelo López, Patricia Reyes, Ligia I Moncada
BACKGROUND: Public health programs for the control of soil-transmitted helminthiases require valid diagnostic tests for surveillance and parasitic control evaluation. However, there is currently no agreement about what test should be used as a gold standard for the diagnosis of hookworm infection. Still, in presence of concurrent data for multiple tests it is possible to use statistical models to estimate measures of test performance and prevalence. The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of five parallel tests (direct microscopic examination, Kato-Katz, Harada-Mori, modified Ritchie-Frick, and culture in agar plate) to detect hookworm infections in a sample of school-aged children from a rural area in Colombia...
June 12, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610938/toxoplasmosis-seroprevalence-in-pregnant-women-and-serological-and-molecular-screening-in-neonatal-umbilical-cord-blood
#13
Mahshad Shieh, Mojtaba Didehdar, Reza Hajihossein, Farzam Ahmadi, Zahra Eslamirad
Toxoplasmosis is a common zoonotic disease that can also be transmitted from the mother to the embryo, with the risk of congenital infection varying around the world. The aim of this study was to screen pregnant women and their neonates for toxoplasmosis by serologic and molecular methods and assess the impact of risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis on the rate of congenital infection. This study was conducted at a regional maternity hospital in Arak, the capital of the Markazi Province in Iran, during a period of six months...
June 10, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610937/hookworm-infections-among-migrant-workers-in-malaysia-molecular-identification-of-necator-americanus-and-ancylostoma-duodenale
#14
Norhidayu Sahimin, Yvonne Ai Lian Lim, Benacer Douadi, Mohd Khairul Nizam Mohd Khalid, John-James Wilson, Jerzy M Behnke, Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain
Ongoing urbanisation of the working population as well as cross-border migration of workers particularly into large cities has contributed to the development and growth of urban slums. These deprived areas are conducive for the transmission of intestinal pathogens including hookworm. The aim of this study was to determine both the prevalence and species identity of hookworm infections among the migrant worker community in Malaysia. A total of 388 faecal samples were collected from migrant workers between September 2014 and August 2015, representing workers from five employment sectors: construction, manufacturing, agriculture and plantations, food services and domestic services...
June 10, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606821/analysis-of-synonymous-codon-usage-in-zika-virus
#15
Snawar Hussain, Sahibzada Tasleem Rasool
Zika virus is a zoonotic pathogen, which have made frequent incursion into the human population in Africa and South East Asia over the course of several decades but never reached to the pandemic proportions until the most recent outbreak. Viruses are solely dependent on host synthetic machinery for their replication cycle; therefore, replication and persistence in a host species of different genetic background requires certain degree of adaptation. These adaptations are necessary to avoid detection from host immune surveillance and maximize the utilization of available resources for efficient viral replication...
June 9, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606820/analysis-of-population-structure-and-insecticide-resistance-in-mosquitoes-of-the-genus-culex-anopheles-and-aedes-from-different-environments-of-greece-with-a-history-of-mosquito-borne-disease-transmission
#16
Max Fotakis, Alexandra Chaskopoulou, Linda Grigoraki, Alexandros Tsiamantas, Stella Kounadi, Loukas Georgiou, John Vontas
Greece has been recently affected by several mosquito borne diseases with the West Nile Virus (WNV) outbreak in 2010 being one of the largest reported in Europe. Currently at the epicenter of an economic and refugee crisis and visited by over 16 million tourists a year the integrated management of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes is a public health and economic priority. Vector control programs rely mainly on insecticides, however data on insecticide resistance and the mosquito fauna is essential for successful applications...
June 9, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606819/cytotoxicity-of-cerastes-cerastes-snake-venom-involvement-of-imbalanced-redox-status
#17
Hayet Kebir-Chelghoum, Fatima Laraba-Djebari
Envenomation caused by Cerastes cerastes snake venom is characterized by a local and a systemic tissue damage due to myonecrosis, hemorrhage, edema and acute muscle damage. The present study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the pro/anti-oxidants status and the cytotoxicity of C. cerastes snake venom. The in vivo cytotoxicity analysis was undertaken by the injection of C. cerastes venom (48μg/20g body weight) by i.p. route, mice were then sacrificed at 3, 24 and 48h post injection, organs were collected for further analysis...
June 9, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606818/investigating-unlicensed-retail-drug-vendors-preparedness-and-knowledge-about-malaria-an-exploratory-study-in-rural-uganda
#18
Eric Liow, Rosemin Kassam, Richard Sekiwunga
BACKGROUND: Despite major efforts to increase the uptake of preventive measures and timely use of the first line antimalarial treatment artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT), Uganda continues to fall short of meeting its national malaria control targets. One of the challenges has been scaling up effective measures in rural and remote areas where the unlicensed private retail sector remains the first point of contact and a common source of treatment. The current paper discusses unlicensed vendors' (1) training related to malaria case management for children aged five and under, and (2) knowledge related to the cause of malaria, preventive measures, common signs, and symptoms, diagnostic procedures, and best treatment options...
June 9, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606817/phylogenetic-analysis-of-g1p-8-and-g12p-8-rotavirus-a-samples-obtained-in-the-pre-and-post-vaccine-periods-and-molecular-modeling-of-vp4-and-vp7-proteins
#19
Tâmera Nunes Vieira Almeida, Teresinha Teixeira de Sousa, Roosevelt Alves da Silva, Fabíola Souza Fiaccadori, Menira Souza, Kareem Rady Badr, Divina das Dôres de Paula Cardoso
Reduction in morbimortality rates for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) by Rotavirus A (RVA) has been observed after the introduction of vaccines, however the agent continues to circulate. The present study described the genomic characterization of the 11 dsRNA segments of two RVA samples G1P[8] obtained in the pre- and post-vaccination periods and one of G12P[8] sample (post-vaccine), compared to Rotarix™ vaccine. Analysis by molecular sequencing of the samples showed that the three samples belonged to genogroup I...
June 9, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606816/altered-distribution-of-peripheral-blood-dendritic-cell-subsets-in-patients-with-pulmonary-paracoccidioidomycosis
#20
James Venturini, Ricardo Souza Cavalcante, Daniela Vanessa Moris, Márjorie de Assis Golim, Adriele Dandara Levorato, Karoline Hagatha Dos Reis, Maria Sueli Parreira de Arruda, Rinaldo Poncio Mendes
Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic mycosis caused by fungi from the genus Paracoccidioides in Latin America. PCM-patients (PCM-p) are classified as having acute/subacute or chronic (CF) clinical forms. CF is responsible for 75% - 90% of all cases, affects mainly adults over 30 years old and the clinical manifestation are associated mainly with lungs and mucosa of upper airdigestive tract. In addition, the CF patients exhibit fibrosis of the lungs, oral mucous membranes and adrenals, and pulmonary emphysema...
June 9, 2017: Acta Tropica
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