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Acta Tropica

Solomon Yared, Araya Gebresilassie, Essayas Akililu, Meshesha Balkew, Alon Warburg, Asrat Hailu, Teshome Gebre-Michael
Visceral leishmaniasis is a significant public health problem in northwest Ethiopia, particularly in Kafta Humera district. The study was designed to determine the species composition and population dynamics of sand flies in five villages representing urban and semi-urban areas of Kafta Humera district namely, Setit Humera, Mykadra, Rawyan, Bereket and Adebay. Sand flies were collected for two to three nights monthly from May 2011 to April 2012 using CDC light-traps and sticky traps. Traps were placed in villages, at periphery of villages and farm fields...
October 19, 2016: Acta Tropica
Elizabete de Jesus Inês, Mônica Lopes Sampaio Silva, Joelma Nascimento de Souza, Alana Alcântara Galvão, Márcia Cristina Aquino Teixeira, Neci Matos Soares
The objective of this study was to investigate paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, cortisol levels, and the lipid profile in the sera of alcoholic and non-alcoholic Strongyloides stercoralis-infected and uninfected individuals in a sample of 276 individuals attended at the National Health System in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The activity of PON1 was measured by the Beltowski method, serum lipids, and cortisol levels using commercial kits. PON1 activity was low in both alcoholic and non-alcoholic individuals infected with S...
October 19, 2016: Acta Tropica
Juliana Mt Bezerra, Raphaela Gp Araújo, Fabrício F Melo, Caroline M Gonçalves, Bárbara A Chaves, Breno M Silva, Luciana D Silva, Silvana T Brandão, Nágila Fc Secundino, Douglas E Norris, Paulo Fp Pimenta
Brazil reported the majority of the dengue cases in Americas during the last two decades, where the occurrence of human dengue cases is exclusively attributed to the Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus). Nowadays, other recognized Dengue virus (DENV) vector in Asian countries, Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), has been detected in more than half of the 5,565 Brazilian municipalities. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of, and determine the Ae. albopictus' dynamics influenced by spatiotemporal characteristics in a dengue-endemic risk city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State's capital...
October 19, 2016: Acta Tropica
Eric Liow, Rosemin Kassam, Richard Sekiwunga
BACKGROUND: A large number of caregivers in Uganda rely on the private drug delivery sector to manage childhood illnesses such as malaria. In rural settings where the formal private sector is scarce, unlicensed retail drug outlets are an important initial source of care for households. Despite their abundance, little is known about them. This study explores unlicensed retail drug outlet vendors' perceptions of their practice and social environment in one rural district of Uganda. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A qualitative design using semi-structured interviews was conducted with vendors from unlicensed retail drug outlets across all 10 sub-counties of Butaleja District...
October 19, 2016: Acta Tropica
Jan Hattendorf, Kevin Louis Bardosh, Jakob Zinsstag
Surveillance of zoonotic disease requires special attention because the animal and human health sectors are involved. A proliferation of scholarly literature and technical guidelines exist for early detection of exotic and re-emerging diseases and to demonstrate freedom from disease as part of international trade agreements. In contrast, literature focussing on surveillance of endemic zoonotic diseases is relatively rare. In this article, we describe and discuss the main aspects to consider when planning a surveillance system for endemic zoonotic diseases in a resource-limited country...
October 18, 2016: Acta Tropica
Rafaella Paola Meneguete Dos Guimarães-Peixoto, Paulo Sérgio de Arruda Pinto, Marcus Rebouças Santos, Marcelo Depólo Polêto, Letícia Ferreira da Silva, Abelardo Silva Júnior
Bovine cysticercosis is a zoonotic infection widely spread throughout Brazil, creating a burden on hygiene maintenance and the economy. Diagnosis of cysticercosis usually relies on post mortem inspection of carcasses in slaughterhouses. This detection method provides only low sensitivity. Recent advancements have improved the performance of serologic tests, such as ELISA, providing greater sensitivity and specificity. The objective of the current study was to identify and evaluate a synthetic peptide derived from the Taenia saginata 18kDa oncospheric surface protein for the diagnosis of bovine cysticercosis in ELISA...
October 16, 2016: Acta Tropica
Laura Mosimann, Abdallah Traoré, Stephanie Mauti, Monique Léchenne, Brigit Obrist, René Véron, Jan Hattendorf, Jakob Zinsstag
In the framework of the research network on integrated control of zoonoses in Africa (ICONZ) a dog rabies mass vaccination campaign was carried out in two communes of Bamako (Mali) in September 2014. A mixed method approach, combining quantitative and qualitative tools, was developed to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention towards optimization for future scale-up. Actions to control rabies occur on one level in households when individuals take the decision to vaccinate their dogs. However, control also depends on provision of vaccination services and community participation at the intermediate level of social resilience...
October 14, 2016: Acta Tropica
Jung Yoon, Seung Gyu Yun, Jeeyong Kim, Yoo Na Jung, Young Eun Koh, Jeong Hun Nam, Eun Taek Han, Chae Seung Lim
We evaluated the diagnostic usefulness of the LH780 Coulter blood cell counter for detection and therapeutic monitoring of malaria including cross-reactivity with nucleated RBC (NRBC) samples. A total of 405 patients (43 patients with Plasmodium vivax malaria and the control group of 120 healthy subjects, 111 patients with fever, and 131 patients with NRBCs) were analyzed with routine CBC using the LH780. We analyzed the CBC results according to three selected parameters: an abnormal peak in the WBC histogram before 35fL, the presence of red dots in the nonwhite cell zone of 2D WBC Diff Dataplot, and platelet-related flags suggesting platelet clumps or giant platelets...
October 14, 2016: Acta Tropica
Chamraj Kaewraemruaen, Rasana W Sermswan, Surasakdi Wongratanacheewin
Opisthorchis viverrini, a human liver fluke, is still an endemic parasitic infection in Thailand and nearly all countries in Southeast Asia. O. viverrini induces a chronic stage of infection in hamsters. During the first 2 weeks of infection, Th1 inducing cytokine, IL-12, increased but was down regulated in chronic infection. In this study it was found that unmethylated-CpG ODN (oligodeoxynucleotides) 1826 increased hamster mononuclear cell proliferation and stimulated IFN-γ production in vitro. The IFN-γ levels in hamster sera were significantly increased in hamsters injected with CpG ODN 1826 alone or plus crude somatic antigens (CSAg)...
October 11, 2016: Acta Tropica
Marie J Ducrotoy, Kevin L Bardosh
Brucellosis is a major neglected zoonotic disease, whose burden both in animals and humans is severely under-reported. Diagnosis in humans identifies cases in order to treat the disease at the individual level. In animals diagnosis is implemented at the population level in the context of appropriate control or eradication strategies. Molecular and bacteriological diagnosis are rarely undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa, at least outside research projects, due to cost, skills and laboratory infrastructure issues...
October 7, 2016: Acta Tropica
D Bravo-Barriga, R Parreira, C Maia, M O Afonso, J Blanco-Ciudad, F J Serrano, J E Pérez-Martín, L Gómez-Gordo, L Campino, D Reina, E Frontera
Leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is present in Mediterranean countries, with high prevalence in areas of the center and south of Spain. However, in some regions such as Extremadura (in southwest of Spain), data has not been updated since 1997. The aim of this work was (i) to provide information about the distribution of phlebotomine sand fly species in western of Spain (Extremadura region), (ii) to determine risk factors for the presence of sand fly vectors and (iii) to detect Leishmania DNA and identify blood meal sources in wild caught females...
October 5, 2016: Acta Tropica
Pon Arunachalam Boopathi, Amit Kumar Subudhi, Sheetal Middha, Jyoti Acharya, Raja Chinnadurai Mugasimangalam, Sanjay Kumar Kochar, Dhanpat Kumar Kochar, Ashis Das
High density oligonucleotide microarrays have been used on Plasmodium vivax field isolates to estimate whole genome expression. However, no microarray platform has been experimentally optimized for studying the transcriptome of field isolates. In the present study, we adopted both bioinformatics and experimental testing approaches to select best optimized probes suitable for detecting parasite transcripts from field samples and included them in designing a custom 15K P. vivax microarray. This microarray has long oligonucleotide probes (60mer) that were in-situ synthesized onto glass slides using Agilent SurePrint technology and has been developed into an 8×15K format (8 identical arrays on a single slide)...
October 5, 2016: Acta Tropica
Erik M Blosser, Tanise Stenn, Carolina Acevedo, Nathan D Burkett-Cadena
Culex (Melanoconion) iolambdis (Dyar, 1918) is a mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species found throughout much of tropical America, including southern Florida. Relatively few reports are available regarding the ecology of Cx. iolambdis, despite its widespread distribution and putative involvement in transmission of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. To quantify habitat and host utilization, adults of Cx. iolambdis were sampled from resting shelters at a field site in Vero Beach, Florida, over a 12-month period...
October 3, 2016: Acta Tropica
K E Benallal, A Allal-Ikhlef, K Benhamouda, F Schaffner, Z Harrat
The increasing globalisation of trades, human movements and environmental changes facilitate the introduction and the establishment of the invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus outside its native geographical area. Alerted by the complaints about mosquito biting which occurred daytime for the inhabitants of the seaside town Ain Turk (West of Algeria), an entomological survey was conducted in December 2015 to determine the origin of this nuisance. Among the collected mosquitoes, specimens of Ae. albopictus (2 males, 3 females and 3 pupae) were collected...
September 30, 2016: Acta Tropica
Zeynep Koloren, Onuralp Seferoğlu, Panagiotis Karanis
A total of 420 environmental water samples and 120 drinking water samples from 45 different sampling sites of the Black Sea in Turkey were collected between 2012 and 2014. Genomic DNA was isolated from all the investigated water samples and comparativelly analyzed by Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of the elongation factor 1 Alfa (EF1α) gene, and by nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (nPCR) of the small subunit (SSU) rRNA and semi-nested PCR (snPCR) of the glutamate dehydrogenase gene (GDH). 141 (58...
September 30, 2016: Acta Tropica
Eva Iniguez, Armando Varela-Ramirez, Alberto Martínez, Caresse L Torres, Roberto A Sánchez-Delgado, Rosa A Maldonado
In previous studies we reported a novel series of organometallic compounds, Ru(II) complexed with clotrimazole, displaying potent trypanosomatid activity with unnoticeable toxicity toward normal mammalian cells. In view of the promising activity of Ru-clotrimazole complexes against Leishmania major (L. major), the present work sought to investigate the anti-leishmanial activity of the AM162 complex in the murine model of cutaneous leishmaniasis. In addition, to facilitate the design of new therapeutic strategies against this disease, we investigated the mode of action of two Ru-clotrimazole complexes in L...
September 30, 2016: Acta Tropica
Moses John Chimbari
Ecohealth projects are designed to garner ownership among all stakeholders, such as researchers, communities, local leadership and policy makers. Ideally, designs should ensure that implementation goes smoothly and that findings from studies benefit the stakeholders, bringing changes particularly to the communities researched. Paradoxically, the process is fraught with challenges associated with implementation. Notwithstanding the challenges, evidence from projects implemented in southern Africa justify the need to invest in ecohealth...
September 28, 2016: Acta Tropica
Alicia Castro, Eugenia Carrillo, Juan V San Martín, Laura Botana, Laura Molina, Belén Matía, Laura Fernandez, Luis Horrillo, Ana Ibarra-Meneses, Carmen Sanchez, Jose M Ruiz-Giardin, Javier Moreno
The introduction of HAART resulted in the decrease of Leishmania/HIV co-infection cases; nevertheless, the number of relapses remains high and secondary prophylaxis is recommended. However, secondary prophylaxis is not necessary in all patients, and presents a high risk of toxicity and an elevated cost. Our aim was to study whether specific cellular response to Leishmania infantum (measured by cell proliferation response after stimulation with soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA)), could be a useful tool to attempt a secondary prophylaxis withdrawal...
September 28, 2016: Acta Tropica
Leonardo Suveges Moreira Chaves, Ivy Luizi Rodrigues de Sá, Denise Pimentel Bergamaschi, Maria Anice Mureb Sallum
On the ecological scale of an organism, a homogeneous geographical landscape can represent a mosaic of heterogeneous landscapes. The bionomy of Kerteszia mosquitoes can contribute to foundation landscape ecology by virtue of in the role of the configuration and composition of the habitat played in the distribution of mosquito species. Thus, this study aimed: to compare the abundance of Kerteszia in dense tropical rainforest, restinga and rural area, to assess the bioecological characteristics of the main bromeliads hosting Kerteszia, and to associate the bioecological arrangement of the bromeliads with Kerteszia distribution...
September 27, 2016: Acta Tropica
Yan-Zi Wen, Bi-Xiu Su, Shu-Shen Lyu, Geoff Hide, Zhao-Rong Lun, De-Hua Lai
Trehalose, a non-permeating cryoprotective agent (CPA), has been documented as less toxic and highly efficient at cryopreserving different kinds of cells or organisms. In the present study, trehalose was evaluated for its application in cryopreservation of both Trypanosoma brucei procyclic and bloodstream form cells. The cryopreservation efficiency was determined by the motility of trypanosomes after thawing, as well as a subsequent recovery and infectivity assessment. The viability of trypanosomes from cultivation that were frozen in a serial concentrations of trehalose showed similar results to classical CPAs of glycerol and DMSO...
September 27, 2016: Acta Tropica
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