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Acta Tropica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219669/combined-phylogenetic-and-morphometric-information-to-delimit-and-unify-the-triatoma-brasiliensis-species-complex-and-the-brasiliensis-subcomplex
#1
Jader Oliveira, Paula L Marcet, Daniela M Takiya, Vagner J Mendonça, Tiago Belintan, M D Bargues, Lucia Mateo, Vivian Chagas, Elaine Folly-Ramos, Pedro Cordeiro-Estrela, Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves, Jane Costa, João A Rosa, Carlos E Almeida
"Triatoma brasiliensis species complex" was defined as a monophyletic group of the species: T. brasiliensis, T. juazeirensis, T. melanica, and T. sherlocki. An alternative grouping scheme proposed the concept of "Brasiliensis subcomplex" which included the former species together with T. melanocephala, T. petrocchiae, T. lenti, T. tibiamaculata, and T. vitticeps. To evaluate the relationship among these taxa we combined the results obtained with four mitochondrial genes (12S, 16S, COI and Cytb, adding to 1,811bp) and geometric morphometric analysis of wings and heads...
February 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219668/outbreak-of-dengue-virus-type-3-in-malakand-pakistan-2015-a-laboratory-perspective
#2
Muhammad Suleman, Rani Faryal, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Adnan Khurshid, Salmaan Sharif, Shahzad Shaukat, Mehar Angez, Massab Umair, Mian Muhammad Sufian, Yasir Arshad, Tanveer Inam, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
An outbreak of dengue fever was reported in Malakand district, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan during 2015. Detection of viral RNA by real-time PCR confirmed dengue virus serotype-3 (DENV-3) to be the causative agent causing the outbreak. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial E-NS1 gene sequences showed that the DENV-3 viruses belonged to genotype III with maximum homology with the dengue-3 strains previously reported from Pakistan and India. Our current report provides updated information on molecular epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of dengue virus serotypes responsible for 2015 outbreak in KP...
February 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216369/role-of-socio-cultural-and-economic-factors-in-cyprinid-fish-distribution-networks-and-consumption-in-lawa-lake-region-northeast-thailand-novel-perspectives-on-opisthorchis-viverrini-transmission-dynamics
#3
Christina Sunyoung Kim, John F Smith, Apiporn Suwannatrai, Pierre Echaubard, Bruce Wilcox, Sasithorn Kaewkes, Paiboon Sithithaworn, Banchob Sripa
Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov) is a fish-borne parasite endemic in parts of Lao PDR, Cambodia, southern Vietnam and Northeast Thailand (Isaan) where an estimated 10 million people are infected. Human Ov infection, associated with hepatobiliary complications, including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), occurs when infected fish are consumed raw or undercooked, a longstanding cultural tradition in the region. This mixed- methods descriptive study was carried out in Isaan villages around Lawa Lake, Khon Kaen Province, known for their Ov endemicity...
February 16, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216368/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-cysticidal-activity-of-extracts-and-isolated-flavanone-from-the-bark-of-prunus-serotina-a-bio-guided-study
#4
Francisca Palomares-Alonso, Irma Susana Rojas-Tomé, Guadalupe Palencia Hernández, María Adelina Jiménez-Arellanes, Martha Lydia Macías-Rubalcava, Angélica González-Maciel, Andrea Ramos-Morales, Rosalba Santiago-Reyes, Nelly Castro, Iliana González-Hernández, Yadira Rufino-González, Helgi Jung-Cook
Currently, neurocysticercosis treatment involves two drugs: albendazole and praziquantel; however, their efficacy is suboptimal and new cysticidal drugs are needed. The present paper reports the cysticidal activity of extracts of the bark from Prunus serotina against Taenia crassiceps cysts and the isolation and identification of the main components of the most active extract. Results showed that all extracts displayed in vitro cysticidal activity (EC50=17.9-88.5μg/mL), being the methanolic the most active and selective...
February 16, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214519/detection-and-quantification-of-soil-transmitted-helminths-in-environmental-samples-a-review-of-current-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#5
REVIEW
Isaac Dennis Amoah, Gulshan Singh, Thor Axel Stenström, Poovendhree Reddy
It is estimated that over a billion people are infected with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) globally with majority occurring in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworm (Trichuris trichiura), and hookworms (Anclostoma duodenale and Necator americanus) are the main species infecting people. These infections are mostly gained through exposure to faecally contaminated water, soil or contaminated food and with an increase in the risk of infections due to wastewater and sludge reuse in agriculture...
February 15, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212848/major-vectors-and-vector-borne-diseases-in-small-ruminants-in-ethiopia-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Kassahun Asmare, Takele Abayneh, Berhanu Sibhat, Dessie Shiferaw, Barbara Szonyi, Randi I Krontveit, Eystein Skjerve, Barbara Wieland
Vector-borne diseases are among major health constraints of small ruminant in Ethiopia. While various studies on single vector-borne diseases or presence of vectors have been conducted, no summarized evidence is available on the occurrence of these diseases and the related vectors. This systematic literature review provides a comprehensive summary on major vectors and vector-borne diseases in small ruminants in Ethiopia. Search for published and unpublished literature was conducted between 8th of January and 25th of June 2015...
February 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212847/risk-mapping-of-west-nile-virus-circulation-in-spain-2015
#7
Amaya Sánchez-Gómez, Carmen Amela, Eduardo Fernández-Carrión, Marta Martínez-Avilés, José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno, María José Sierra-Moros
West Nile fever is an emergent disease in Europe. The objective of this study was to conduct a predictive risk mapping of West Nile Virus (WNV) circulation in Spain based on historical data of WNV circulation. Areas of Spain with evidence of WNV circulation were mapped based on data from notifications to the surveillance systems and a literature review. A logistic regression-based spatial model was used to assess the probability of WNV circulation. Data were analyzed at municipality level. Mean temperatures of the period from June to October, presence of wetlands and presence of Special Protection Areas for birds were considered as potential predictors...
February 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209553/intraspecific-genetic-variability-in-a-population-of-moroccan-leishmania-infantum-revealed-by-pcr-rflp-of-kdna-minicircles
#8
Adil El Hamouchi, Rajaa Ejghal, Moustapha Hida, Meryem Lemrani
In Morocco, Leishmania infantum is the main etiologic agent of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (VL). This species has been proven to be an opportunistic agent in HIV+ patients and is also responsible of sporadic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL).This work aims to evaluate the genetic variability of Moroccan L. infantum strains based on PCR-RFLP analysis of the kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA) minicircles. A total of 75 DNA samples extracted from positive Giemsa-stained smears (n=32) and from L. infantum cultures (n=43) was studied...
February 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209551/sero-prevalence-risk-factors-and-distribution-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-in-ethiopia
#9
REVIEW
Nejash Abdela
Foot and mouth disease (FMD), world's most important highly infectious and contagious trans-boundary animal diseases, is responsible for huge global losses of livestock production as well as severe impacts on international trade. This vesicular disease is caused by foot and mouth disease virus of the genus Aphthovirus, family Picornaviridae. Currently FMD is major global animal health problem and endemic in Africa including Ethiopia. This paper systematically reviewed the sero-prevalence reports, associated risk factors and distribution of FMD in Ethiopia with the main aim of making compressive document on prevalence, risk factor and distribution of the disease thus helping as a basis for designing effective control strategies...
February 14, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209552/detection-of-giardia-duodenalis-assemblage-e-infections-at-the-tibetan-plateau-area-yaks-are-suitable-hosts
#10
Wang Guang-Hua, Wang Ge-Ping, Li Xiu-Ping, Ma Li-Qing, Gabriele Karanis, Eleni Christodoulou-Vafeiadou, Panagiotis Karanis
The prevalence of Giardia duodenalis (G. duodenalis) assemblages in yaks is poorly known. The present study examined 297 fecal samples from weaned yak, 4 to 7 months of age, from 3 different farms, in Tibetan Plateau Area (TPA) of the Qinghai Province in Western China. The prevalence of infection was determined by light and immunofluorescence microscopy, and nested-PCR. PCR was performed for the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU) amplified 16 positive for G. duodenalis products. The prevalence of Giardia species was 5...
February 13, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209550/pathogenicity-of-mexican-isolates-of-aeromonas-sp-in-immersion-experimentally-infected-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-walbaum-1792
#11
Andrea Paloma Zepeda-Velázquez, Vicente Vega-Sánchez, César Ortega-Santana, Miguel Rubio-Godoy, Dany Montes de Oca-Mira, Edgardo Soriano-Vargas
Ten species of Aeromonas have been previously identified in farmed rainbow trout from Mexico. The aim of the current study was to investigate the pathogenicity of 10 Aeromonas isolates belonging to 10 different Aeromonas species in immersion experimentally-infected rainbow trout fry. Isolates of A. bestiarum, A. hydrophila, A. salmonicida, and A. veronii produced significant mortality (8.8%, 12.2%, 18.8%, and 8.8%, respectively). Isolates of A. caviae and A. sobria produced no significantly mortality (3.3% and 1...
February 13, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192081/cryptosporidium-oocysts-and-giardia-cysts-a-practical-and-sensitive-method-for-counting-and-manipulating-small-numbers
#12
Jerry E Ongerth, Frhat M A Saaed
A rapid and inexpensive method is described for accurate and reproducible counting and manipulating small numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts. From a suspension of oocysts or cysts at concentration from 1000 to 5000/mL (1-5/μL), replicate 5μL droplets are micro pipetted onto the edge of a microscope slide. Unstained oocysts or cysts in each droplet can be counted in a few minutes and replicated for statistical strength. The concentration of the suspension can then be verified by pipetting desired volumes containing approximately desired numbers onto confined 13mm membranes for IFA staining and counting with replication as desired...
February 10, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188767/social-network-analysis-of-food-sharing-among-households-in-opisthorchiasis-endemic-villages-of-lawa-lake-thailand
#13
Waraphon Phimpraphai, Sirikachorn Tangkawattana, Piya Sereerak, Suwicha Kasemsuwan, Banchob Sripa
Consumption of raw fish is a well-documented risk factor for Opisthorchis viverrini infection. Sharing of food, especially raw fish recipes may influence the spread of disease through a community. Using social network analysis of an ego network, we investigated food sharing among households in an Opisthorchis-endemic area. Network centrality properties were used to explain the differences in O. viverrini transmission and control between villages with a low and high prevalence of infection. Information on demography and O...
February 8, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188766/leptolegnia-chapmanii-straminipila-peronosporomycetes-as-a-future-biorational-tool-for-the-control-of-aedes-aegypti-l
#14
REVIEW
A C Gutierrez, M E Rueda Páramo, M L Falvo, C C López Lastra, J J García
The aim of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge about Leptolegnia chapmanii as a pathogen of mosquito larvae. To this end, we present data on its identification, distribution, host range and effects on non-target organisms, effects of environmental factors, in vitro growth, release and persistence in anthropic environments, and effect combined with other insecticides. The data presented allow confirming its potential as a biocontrol agent.
February 8, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188768/frequency-of-toxocara-spp-antibodies-in-umbilical-cords-of-newborns-attended-atthe-university-hospital-in-southern-brazil-and-factors-associated-with-infection
#15
Paula Costa Santos, Paula Lima Telmo, Lis Maurente Lehmann, Carolina Lorenzi, Carolina Hirsch, Gabriela Torres Mattos, Gabriel Baracy Klafke, Maria Elisabeth Aires Berne, Carla Vitola Gonçalves, Carlos James Scaini
Toxocariasis is a neglected and geographically widespread parasitic disease. The detection of specific antibodies associated with this disease is required to confirm its clinical diagnosis and to aid in prevention. Although helminth infection during pregnancy can promote foetal immune responses with long-term effects, specific information regarding the risk of Toxocara spp. infection to the human foetus during pregnancy is lacking.Therefore,the present study aimed to investigate the frequency of antibodies against Toxocara spp...
February 7, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188765/predicting-the-potential-distribution-of-main-malaria-vectors-anopheles-stephensi-an-culicifacies-s-l-and-an-fluviatilis-s-l-in-iran-based-on-maximum-entropy-model
#16
Kamran Pakdad, Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd, Hassan Vatandoost, Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat, Ahmad Raeisi, Abdolreza Salahi Moghaddam, Abbas Rahimi Foroushani
Malaria is considered as a major public health problem in southern areas of Iran. The goal of this study was to predict best ecological niches of three main malaria vectors of Iran: Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles culicifacies s.l. and Anopheles fluviatilis s.l. A databank was created which included all published data about Anopheles species of Iran from 1961 to 2015. The suitable environmental niches for the three above mentioned Anopheles species were predicted using maximum entropy model (MaxEnt). AUC (area under Roc curve) values were 0...
February 7, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185825/amazonian-waters-harbour-an-ancient-freshwater-ceratomyxa-lineage-cnidaria-myxosporea
#17
Suellen A Zatti, Stephen D Atkinson, Jerri L Bartholomew, Antônio A M Maia, Edson A Adriano
A new species of Ceratomyxa parasitizing the gall bladder of Cichla monoculus, an endemic cichlid fish from the Amazon basin in Brazil, is described using morphological and molecular data. In the bile, both immature and mature myxospores were found floating freely or inside elongated plasmodia: length 304 (196-402) μm and width 35.7 (18.3-55.1) μm. Mature spores were elongated and only slightly crescent-shaped in frontal view with a prominent sutural line between two valve cells, which had rounded ends. Measurements of formalin-fixed myxospores: length 6...
February 7, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185824/uncovering-the-mask-of-the-simulium-feuerborni-complex-diptera-simuliidae-description-of-a-new-pseudocryptic-species-simulium-pairoti-from-malaysia
#18
Zubaidah Ya'cob, Hiroyuki Takaoka, Van Lun Low, Mohd Sofian-Azirun
A black fly species of the Simulium feuerborni species-group of Simulium (Nevermannia) from Cameron Highland, Peninsular Malaysia, previously regarded as S. feuerborni Edwards, originally described from East Java, is described as Simulium pairoti sp. nov. based on complete life stages. High intraspecific variations in the arrangement of the six pupal gill filaments, length of the stalk of the ventral paired filaments, and length of the anterodorsal projection of the cocoon, are noted in this species. This new species is readily distinguished from its congeners by having the characters of male genitalia with simple lamellate ventral plate, short inwardly-twisted styles, several parameral hooks, and a simple narrow median sclerite...
February 7, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185826/chaetocin-a-histone-methyltransferase-inhibitor-impairs-proliferation-arrests-cell-cycle-and-induces-nucleolar-disassembly-in-trypanosoma-cruzi
#19
Aline Araujo Zuma, Jean de Oliveira Santos, Isabela Mendes, Wanderley de Souza, Carlos Renato Machado, E Maria Cristina M Motta
The Trypanosomatidae family includes pathogenic species of medical and veterinary interest. Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America, and about 8 million people are infected worldwide. There is a need for more effective drugs for the acute, undetermined and chronic phases of the disease that, in addition, do not cause side effects, stimulating the search for identification of new drug targets, as well as new chemotherapeutic targets. Trypanosomatids contain characteristic structures, such as the nucleus that undergoes a closed mitosis without chromosome formation and variations of chromatin packing in the different protozoa developmental stages...
February 6, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167053/seroprevalence-and-risk-factors-of-coxiella-burnetii-infection-among-high-risk-population-in-center-of-iran-a-neglected-health-problem
#20
Zary Nokhodian, Behrooz Ataei, Abdolreza Moradi, Majid Yaran, Shervin Gaffari Hoseini, Awat Feizi, Roya Sherkat
In order to evaluate the prevalence of antibodies against phase I and II antigens of Coxiella Burnetii and to identify related risk factors among high-risk groups in the center of Iran, a serological survey was performed in Isfahan County. In a cross-sectional study, 401 sera were collected from slaughterhouse workers, butchers, farmers and veterinarians in spring 2015. Samples were tested for specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against phase I and II of C. burnetii by indirect immunofluorescence assay...
February 5, 2017: Acta Tropica
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