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Acta Tropica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108370/application-of-environmental-dna-analysis-for-the-detection-of-opisthorchis-viverrini-dna-in-water-samples
#1
Hiroki Hashizume, Megumi Sato, Marcello Otake Sato, Sumire Ikeda, Tippayarat Yoonuan, Surapol Sanguankiat, Tiengkham Pongvongsa, Kazuhiko Moji, Toshifumi Minamoto
Opisthorchiasis, which can lead to cholangiocarcinoma in cases of chronic infection, is a major public health problem in Southeast Asian countries. The trematode, Opisthorchis viverrini, is the causative agent of the disease. Accurate and rapid monitoring of O. viverrini is crucial for disease prevention and containment. Therefore, in this study we sought to develop a novel species-specific real-time PCR assay for detecting O. viverrini using environmental DNA (eDNA). The diagnostic sensitivity of the newly developed real-time PCR assay was similar to that of the traditional PCR assay for 50 fecal samples collected in Lao PDR (21 and 19 samples were positive by real-time PCR and traditional PCR, respectively)...
January 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108369/jaburetox-affects-gene-expression-and-enzyme-activities-in-rhodnius-prolixus-a-chagas-disease-vector
#2
Leonardo L Fruttero, Natalia R Moyetta, Monique Siebra Krug, Valquiria Broll, Matheus V Coste Grahl, Rafael Real-Guerra, Fernanda Stanisçuaski, Celia R Carlini
Jaburetox, a recombinant peptide of ∼11kDa derived from one of the Canavalia ensiformis (Jack Bean) urease isoforms, is toxic and lethal to insects belonging to different orders when administered orally or via injection. Previous findings indicated that Jaburetox acts on insects in a complex fashion, inhibiting diuresis and the transmembrane potential of Malpighian tubules, interfering with muscle contractility and affecting the immune system. In vitro, Jaburetox forms ionic channels and alters permeability of artificial lipid membranes...
January 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099874/igm-lgg-and-il-6-profiles-in-the-trypanosoma-brucei-brucei-monkey-model-of-human-african-trypanosomiasis
#3
Maxwell W Waema, Naomi W Maina, Maina Ngotho, Simon M Karanja, Beatrice M Gachie, Dawn N Maranga, John M Kagira
Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) patients manifest immunological profiles, whose variations over time can be used to indicate disease progression. However, monitoring of these biomarkers in human patients is beset by several limitations which can be offset by using chronic animal models. A recent improved monkey model of HAT using a Trypanosoma brucei brucei isolate has been developed but the immunological profile has not been elucidated. The objectives of the current study was to determine the IgM, IgG and IL-6 profiles in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in vervet monkeys infected with T...
January 15, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089603/melatonin-inhibits-snake-venom-and-antivenom-induced-oxidative-stress-and-augments-treatment-efficacy
#4
Rachana D Sharma, Gajanan D Katkar, Mahalingam S Sundaram, Basavarajaiah Swethakumar, Kesturu S Girish, Kempaiah Kemparaju
Snakebite is a neglected health hazard, its patho-physiology had been focused on systemic and local toxicities; but, venom and antivenom induced oxidative stress has been ignored for a long time. Antivenom therapy although neutralizes venom lethality and saves many lives it remains ineffective against oxidative stress. This prompted us to complement antivenom with an antioxidant molecule melatonin that would protect against oxidative stress and increase the efficacy of the existing snakebite therapy. Here we show that D...
January 12, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088334/subtype-identification-of-human-blastocystis-spp-isolated-from-lao-people-s-democratic-republic
#5
Oranuch Sanpool, Sakhone Laymanivong, Tongjit Thanchomnang, Rutchanee Rodpai, Lakkhana Sadaow, Issarapong Phosuk, Wanchai Maleewong, Pewpan M Intapan
Blastocystis sp. is the most common protist found in the intestinal tract of humans and animals. Blastocystis subtypes (STs) are classified based on the molecular phylogeny of the small subunit rRNA gene (SSU rDNA). At least 17 Blastocystis STs have been reported and, of these, STs 1-9 have been found in humans. This study revealed the presence of human Blastocystis STs in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). Fecal samples were collected from apparently healthy people from the central province of Khammouane and the southern province of Champasak...
January 11, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087198/cloning-characterization-and-transmission-blocking-potential-of-midgut-carboxypeptidase-a-in-anopheles-stephensi
#6
V VenkatRao, Surendra K Kumar, P Sridevi, Vijaykumar Yogesh Muley, R K Chaitanya
Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBV) interrupt malaria parasite transmission and hence form an important component for malaria eradication. Mosquito midgut exopeptidases such as aminopeptidase N & carboxypeptidase B have demonstrated TBV potential. In the present study, we cloned and characterized carboxypeptidase A (CPA) from the midgut of an important malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi. ClustalW amino acid alignment and in silico 3-dimensional structure analysis of CPA predicted the presence of active sites involved in zinc and substrate binding that are conserved among all the known mosquito species...
January 10, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077317/zoonotic-pathogens-in-atlantic-forest-wild-rodents-in-brazil-bartonella-and-coxiella-infections
#7
Tatiana Rozental, Michelle Santos Ferreira, Alexandro Guterres, Maria Angélica Mares-Guia, Bernardo R Teixeira, Jonathan Gonçalves, Cibele Rodrigues Bonvicino, Paulo Sergio D'Andrea, Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos
Zoonotic pathogens comprise a significant and increasing fraction of all emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases that plague humans. Identifying host species is one of the keys to controlling emerging infectious diseases. From March 2007 until April 2012, we collected a total of 131 wild rodents in eight municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We investigated these rodents for infection with Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella spp. and Rickettsia spp. In total, 22.1% (29/131) of the rodents were infected by at least one pathogen; co-infection was detected in 1...
January 8, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069326/modelling-the-association-of-dengue-fever-cases-with-temperature-and-relative-humidity-in-jeddah-saudi-arabia-a-generalised-linear-model-with-break-point-analysis
#8
Ibrahim Alkhaldy
The aim of this study was to examine the role of environmental factors in the temporal distribution of dengue fever in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The relationship between dengue fever cases and climatic factors such as relative humidity and temperature was investigated during 2006-2009 to determine whether there is any relationship between dengue fever cases and climatic parameters in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. A generalised linear model (GLM) with a break-point was used to determine how different levels of temperature and relative humidity affected the distribution of the number of cases of dengue fever...
January 6, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063871/new-trends-in-human-and-animal-leptospirosis-in-croatia-2009-2014
#9
Josipa Habus, Zdenka Persic, Silvio Spicic, Silvijo Vince, Zrinka Stritof, Zoran Milas, Zeljko Cvetnic, Matko Perharic, Nenad Turk
Leptospirosis is a geographically widespread and globally underestimated zoonosis that affects humans and variety of animals. To identify trends and possible risk factors, joined medical and veterinary teams investigated epidemiology and epizootiology of leptospirosis in Croatia. Retrospective analysis of data obtained from referent diagnostic laboratories included a total of 1917 human and 123964 animal sera tested in the period from 2009 to 2014. We found high human leptospirosis average incidence rate of 1...
January 4, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062234/in-vitro-antiprotozoal-activity-of-s-cis-verbenol-against-leishmania-spp-and-trypanosoma-cruzi
#10
Gloria Yaluff, Celeste Vega, Nelson Alvarenga
(S)-cis-Verbenol, a monoterpene frequently found as a component of essential oils, was assayed against Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania infantum, Leishmania brasiliensis and against two strains of Trypanosoma cruzi. The cytotoxicity of the compound was also assayed against human fibroblast cells using a colorimetric method. Benznidazole was used as reference drug against T. cruzi and amphotericin B was used against Leishmania spp. The compound showed good activity against the trypanosomes, being more active against the CL Brenner strain, with an IC50 value of 8...
January 3, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062233/spatio-temporal-and-neighborhood-characteristics-of-two-dengue-outbreaks-in-two-arid-cities-of-mexico
#11
Pablo A Reyes-Castro, Robin B Harris, Heidi E Brown, Gary L Christopherson, Kacey C Ernst
Little is currently known about the spatial-temporal dynamics of dengue epidemics in arid areas. This study assesses dengue outbreaks that occurred in two arid cities of Mexico, Hermosillo and Navojoa, located in northern state of Sonora. Laboratory confirmed dengue cases from Hermosillo (N=2730) and Navojoa (N=493) were geocoded by residence and assigned neighborhood-level characteristics from the 2010 Mexican census. Kernel density and Space-time cluster analysis was performed to detect high density areas and space-time clusters of dengue...
January 3, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048977/phlebotomine-sandflies-diptera-phlebotomidae-of-lanzarote-island-canary-islands-spain-ecological-survey-and-evaluation-of-the-risk-of-leishmania-transmission
#12
Francisco Morillas-Márquez, Victoriano Díaz-Sáez, María Jesús Morillas-Mancilla, Victoriano Corpas-López, Gemma Merino-Espinosa, Patricia Gijón-Robles, Joaquina Martín-Sánchez
Phlebotomine sandflies are natural vectors of Leishmania spp. and their expansion throughout has been evidenced in the last few years due to the global warming and changes in human behavior, worsening leishmaniasis problem. However, phlebotomine sandflies have been captured in small numbers on the Canary Islands, particularly on the island of Lanzarote, where only one limited survey was carried out almost thirty years ago. The proximity of this island to Morocco, in addition to the high number of tourists, sometimes accompanied by their dogs, from leishmaniasis endemic regions, highlights the importance of studying the sandfly fauna on this island in order to determine the transmission risk of leishmaniasis Thirty-eight sampling sites spread across the island were studied, and ecological features were gathered to identify the ecological traits associated to the presence of sandflies...
December 31, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043784/snail-shells-as-larval-habitat-of-limatus-durhamii-diptera-culicidae-in-the-yungas-of-argentina
#13
Carolina Mangudo, Raúl E Campos, Gustavo C Rossi, Raquel M Gleiser
The shells of dead snails collect water from rainfalls producing aquatic microenvironments called gastrotelmata. These habitats are small and hold simple detritus based on animal communities, being rotifers and culicids the most studied. Although a high diversity of aquatic microhabitats has been reported as larval habitats of mosquitoes in Argentina, the shell of snails has not been investigated yet. We report the shells of three species of native Megalobulimus genus as larval habitats of a neotropical mosquito and suspected vector of bunyaviruses, Limatus durhamii, and describe these microhabitats in the Yungas forest of Argentina...
December 30, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042000/mycotoxigenic-potentials-of-the-genera-aspergillus-fusarium-and-penicillium-isolated-from-houseflies-musca-domestica-l
#14
J Z Phoku, T G Barnard, N Potgieter, M F Dutton
A study on the potential of houseflies (Musca domestica L.) to spread fungal spores in Gauteng Province, South Africa proved that houseflies are vectors for fungal spores. Therefore, there is a need to determine the toxigenic potentials and to identify the mycotoxins produced by fungal isolates derived from this study. In total 377 potentially toxigenic isolates of Aspergillus (186), Fusarium (85) and Penicillium (106) species (spp.) were isolated. These isolates were further tested for their ability to produce aflatoxins (AFs) [aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2], deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B1 (FB1) ochratoxin A (OTA), and zearalenone (ZEA) by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) respectively...
December 29, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041999/occurrence-and-first-molecular-characterization-of-sarcocystis-spp-in-wild-boars-sus-scrofa-and-domestic-pigs-sus-scrofa-domesticus-in-romania-public-health-significance-of-the-isolates
#15
Kálmán Imre, Claudia Sala, Adriana Morar, Mirela Imre, Cătălin Ciontu, Ion Chisăliță, Andreea Dudu, Marius Matei, Gheorghe Dărăbuș
Domestic and wild pigs, as intermediate hosts, can harbor tissue cysts of three Sarcocystis species namely S. miescheriana, S. suihominis and S. porcifelis. Out of them, S. suihominis is zoonotic. Romania is a country with high consumption of raw and/or undercooked traditional pork products. This fact may greatly favor the acquiring of the zoonotic Sarcocystis infections by humans, as definitive host. Based on this consideration and in order to investigate the occurrence and public health significance of Sarcocystis spp...
December 29, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040483/mosquito-repellents-an-insight-into-the-chronological-perspectives-and-novel-discoveries
#16
REVIEW
Johirul Islam, Kamaruz Zaman, Sanjukta Duarah, Pakalapati Srinivas Raju, Pronobesh Chattopadhyay
Mosquito being the major medically important arthropod vector; requires utmost attention to reduce the sufferings and economic consequences of those living in the endemic regions. This is only possible by minimising the human-mosquito contact by an absolute preventing measure. However, unfortunately, such absolute measures are yet to be developed despite enormous efforts and huge investments worldwide. In the absence of vaccines for number of mosquito-borne diseases, repellents could be an attractive option for both military personal and civilians to minimise the risk of contacting different mosquito-borne diseases...
December 29, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040485/ecological-characteristics-of-simulium-breeding-sites-in-west-africa
#17
Robert A Cheke, Stephen Young, Rolf Garms
Twenty-nine taxa of Simulium were identified amongst 527 collections of larvae and pupae from untreated rivers and streams in Liberia (362 collections in 1967-71 & 1989), Togo (125 in 1979-81), Benin (35 in 1979-81) and Ghana (5 in 1980-81). Presence or absence of associations between different taxa were used to group them into six clusters using Ward agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis. Environmental data associated with the pre-imaginal habitats were then analysed in relation to the six clusters by one way ANOVA...
December 28, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040484/development-of-an-experimental-model-of-schistosomal-myeloradiculopathy
#18
Tiago Pinheiro Vaz de Carvalho, Teresa Cristina Abreu Ferrari, Josimari Melo de Santana, Victor Antônio Santos Viana, José Aislan Correia Santos, Wheverton Correia do Nascimento, Kamilla Mayara Lucas da Cruz, Karina Conceição Gomes Machado de Araújo
Schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR) is a severe form of presentation of schistosomiasis in which Schistosoma spp. affect the spinal cord. The aims of the present study were to develop an animal model of SMR caused by S. mansoni, to characterize both sensory and motor abnormalities in the infected animals, and to investigate the relationship of the sensory, motor and histological findings with the progression of the infection over time. Mechanical sensitivity and behavioral tests were performed followed by euthanasia in male Wistar rats divided into six groups of five animals each, on days 5, 10, 20 and 30 after infection of S...
December 28, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040482/schistosoma-antigens-downregulate-cxcl9-production-by-pbmc-of-htlv-1-infected-individuals
#19
Luciane Mota Lima, Luciana Santos Cardoso, Silvane Braga Santos, Ricardo Riccio Oliveira, Sérgio Costa Oliveira, Alfredo Miranda Góes, Alex Loukas, Maria Ilma Araujo
: HTLV-1 is the causal agent of Adult T cell Leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) and HTLV-1-associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The immune response to HTLV-1-infection is polarized to the Th1-type, and the presence of CXCL9/CXCL10 chemokines may lead to an increase in the recruitment of pro-inflammatory molecules in spinal cord tissue, contributing to the damage observed in the development of HAM/TSP. It has been observed that in chronic helminth-infections, such as schistosomiasis, there is a deviation toward the Th2/regulatory immune response...
December 28, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040481/estimating-the-intra-cluster-correlation-coefficient-for-evaluating-an-educational-intervention-program-to-improve-rabies-awareness-and-dog-bite-prevention-among-children-in-sikkim-india-a-pilot-study
#20
Aashima Auplish, Alison S Clarke, Trent Van Zanten, Kate Abel, Charmaine Tham, Thinlay N Bhutia, Colin R Wilks, Mark A Stevenson, Simon M Firestone
BACKGROUND: Educational initiatives targeting at-risk populations have long been recognized as a mainstay of ongoing rabies control efforts. Cluster-based studies are often utilized to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices of a population in response to education campaigns. The design of cluster-based studies requires estimates of intra-cluster correlation coefficients obtained from previous studies. This study estimates the school-level intra-cluster correlation coefficient (ICC) for rabies knowledge change following an educational intervention program...
December 28, 2016: Acta Tropica
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