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Acta Tropica

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224980/factors-responsible-for-the-post-slaughter-loss-of-carcass-and-offal-s-in-abattoirs-in-south-africa
#1
Ishmael Festus Jaja, Borden Mushonga, Ezekiel Green, Voster Muchenje
Global demand for food is surging upward due to the expansion of human population. Hence food production and supply need to double with little or no waste to meet this demand. Food loss at any point in the farm to fork chain inhibits the stability of food security at household and national level. A retrospective (AR) and a post mortem meat inspection (PMMI) study to identify major causes of offal and carcass condemnation was conducted in three abattoirs namely, Adeliade, Queenstown and East London abattoirs represented as AD, QT, and EL respectively...
December 7, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224979/perceptions-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-for-the-prevention-and-control-of-lymphatic-filariasis-in-conakry-republic-of-guinea
#2
Bernard L Kouassi, Aboulaye Barry, Kathrin Heitz-Tokpa, Stefanie J Krauth, Andre Goépogui, Mamadou S Baldé, Oumar Barry, Marie L Niamey, Moses J Bockarie, Benjamin G Koudou, Jürg Utzinger
Little is known about the perceptions, attitudes and practices of lymphatic filariasis in Conakry, Republic of Guinea. Yet, such knowledge is important for an optimal design and implementation of setting-specific prevention and control measures. We conducted a cross-sectional study using a mixed methods approach. Qualitative data related to people's general experience with lymphatic filariasis, their perception of the causes of the disease, the onset of elephantiasis, care-seeking behaviour and the socioeconomic impact of lymphatic filariasis were collected by in-depth interviews with 85 respondents...
December 7, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224978/andean-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-andean-cl-uta-in-peru-and-ecuador-the-vector-lutzomyia-sand-flies-and-reservoir-mammals
#3
REVIEW
Yoshihisa Hashiguchi, Eduardo A Gomez L, Abraham G Cáceres, Lenin N Velez, Nancy V Villegas, Kazue Hashiguchi, Tatsuyuki Mimori, Hiroshi Uezato, Hirotomo Kato
The vector Lutzomyia sand flies and reservoir host mammals of the Leishmania parasites, causing the Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador were thoroughly reviewed, performing a survey of literatures including our unpublished data. The Peruvian L. (V.) peruviana, a principal Leishmania species causing Andean-CL in Peru, possessed three Lutzomyia species, Lu. peruensis, Lu. verrucarum and Lu. ayacuchensis as vectors, while the Ecuadorian L. (L.) mexicana parasite possessed only one species Lu...
December 7, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221850/isolation-and-molecular-characterization-of-leishmania-infantum-in-urine-from-patients-with-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-brazil
#4
Manoel Sebastião da Costa Lima, Andressa Cristina Lopes Hartkopf, Rosianne A de Souza Tsujisaki, Elisa Teruya Oshiro, Julie Teresa Shapiro, Maria de Fatima Cepa Matos, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros Dorval
Leishmania infantum is a protozoan that causes visceral leishmaniasis, a potentially deadly neglected tropical disease. The gold standard for diagnosis has traditionally been detection of amastigotes in bone marrow or spleen aspirates, but this is an invasive procedure that carries the risk of serious complications. Newer PCR techniques are opening new avenues and tissues for testing. Therefore, we tested if amastigotes and DNA from L. infantum could be detected in patient urine. We detected L. infantum DNA in six out of 30 urine samples from patients with visceral leishmaniasis and the promastigotes were isolated in culture from the urine of one patient...
December 6, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221852/captive-bred-neotropical-birds-diagnosed-with-cryptosporidium-avian-genotype-iii
#5
Ricardo Silva Novaes, Marcus Sandes Pires, Adriana Pittella Sudré, Teresa Cristina Bergamo do Bomfim
Currently, there are only three valid species of Cryptosporidium infecting avian hosts, namely, Cryptosporidium meleagridis, Cryptosporidium baileyi, and Cryptosporidium galli, in addition to 13 genotypes of unknown species status, such as Avian genotypes I-VI, the black duck genotype, the Eurasian woodcock genotype, and goose genotypes I-V. The objectives of this study were to microscopically diagnose the presence of Cryptosporidium in birds from a commercial aviary located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; genotypically characterize species and/or genotypes of genus Cryptosporidum; and conduct sequencing and phylogenetic analyses to compare the obtained DNA sequences with those deposited in GenBank...
December 5, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221851/ccr5-chemokine-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-in-ocular-toxoplasmosis
#6
Geraldo M de Faria, Christiane M Ayo, Amanda P de Oliveira, Alessandro G Lopes, Fábio B Frederico, Aparecida P Silveira-Carvalho, Mariana Previato, Amanda P Barbosa, Fernando H A Murata, Gildásio Castello de Almeida, Rubens Camargo Siqueira, Luiz C de Mattos, Cinara C Brandão de Mattos
C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is a chemokine receptor that influences the immune response to infectious and parasitic diseases. This study aimed to determine whether the CCR5Δ32 and CCR5 59029 A/G polymorphisms are associated with the development of ocular toxoplasmosis in humans. Patients with positive serology for Toxoplasma gondii were analyzed and grouped as 'with ocular toxoplasmosis' (G1: n=160) or 'without ocular toxoplasmosis' (G2: n=160). A control group (G3) consisted of 160 individuals with negative serology...
December 5, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217380/evaluation-of-rapid-pfhrp-2-pldh-based-tests-in-diagnosing-microscopy-confirmed-falciparum-malaria-in-hodeidah-governorate-yemen
#7
Ahmed A Azazy, Ali Jamaly Alhawery, Rashad Abdul-Ghani, R A Alharbi, Shaia S R Almalki
Along with the determination of malaria infection rate among suspected patients attending hospitals in Hodeidah governorate, the present study evaluated the accuracy of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP-2)/parasite-specific lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH)-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for the diagnosis of microscopy-confirmed falciparum malaria. An overall malaria infection rate of 19.3% (57/295) among suspected patients attending hospitals was microscopically confirmed. The sensitivity of thin blood films for the detection of malaria parasites was 79...
December 5, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217379/major-epidemiological-factors-associated-with-leptospirosis-in-malaysia
#8
REVIEW
Bashiru Garba, Abdul Rani Bahaman, Siti Khairani Bejo, Zunita Zakaria, Abdul Rahim Mutalib, Faruku Bande
INTRODUCTION: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by a diverse pathogenic leptospira species and serovars. The disease is transmitted directly following contact with infected urine and other body fluids or indirectly after contact with water or soil contaminated with infected urine. OBJECTIVES: While a wide range of domestic and wild animals are known to be reservoirs of the disease, occupation, international travel and recreation are beginning to assume a center stage in the transmission of the disease...
December 5, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217378/serological-evidence-of-bovine-herpesvirus-1-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-and-schmallenberg-virus-infections-in-relation-to-reproductive-disorders-in-dairy-cattle-in-ethiopia
#9
Kassahun Asmare, Berhanu Sibhat, Gelagay Ayelet, Endrias Zewdu Gebremedhin, Kassaye Aragaw Lidete, Eystien Skjerve
Reproductive disorders in dairy cattle have been noted to be common in urban and peri-urban dairy production system in Ethiopia. The available reports on the causes of these disorders, however, are not conclusive. A case-control study was designed to investigate the possible association of major reproductive disorders in dairy cattle with exposure status to bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Cows with history of abortion/stillbirth were considered as cases (n=204) while, those cows with no such history were taken as control (n=359)...
December 5, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217383/detection-of-latino-virus-arenaviridae-mammarenavirus-naturally-infecting-calomys-callidus
#10
Jorlan Fernandes, Renata Carvalho de Oliveira, Alexandro Guterres, Débora Ferreira Barreto-Vieira, Ana Claudia Pereira Terças, Bernardo Rodrigues Teixeira, Marcos Alexandre Nunes da Silva, Gabriela Cardoso Caldas, Janice Mery Chicarino de Oliveira Coelho, Ortrud Monika Barth, Sergio Paulo D'Andrea, Cibele Rodrigues Bonvicino, Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos
Mammarenavirus species are associated with a specific rodent host species, although an increasing number of virus has been associated to more than one host, suggesting that co-evolution is less robust than initially thought. There are few eco-epidemiological studies of South America mammarenaviruses in non-endemic areas of Arenavirus Hemorrhagic Fever, affecting specially our current knowledge about animal reservoirs and virus range and host-virus relations. In Brazil, seven arenavirus species were described in seven different rodent species...
December 4, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217382/new-records-of-13-species-of-black-flies-diptera-simuliidae-from-myanmar
#11
Hiroyuki Takaoka, Wichai Srisuka, Wanchai Maleewong, Atiporn Saeung
A faunistic survey of black flies in Shan State, central Myanmar, was carried out in 2013. A total of 16 species were collected, of which 13 species are newly recorded from Myanmar. Among 13 newly recorded species, S. (S.) chiangmaiense Takaoka & Suzuki varied in the number of pupal gill filaments from eight to 10. This survey increases the number of species of black flies from Myanmar from 8 to 23. They are classified in five subgenera of the genus Simulium: one in Asiosimulium, seven in Gomphostilbia, one in Montisimulium, two in Nevermannia and 12 in Simulium...
December 4, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217381/adiponectin-levels-and-insulin-resistance-among-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#12
Raoni Freitas Carvalho, Ajax Mercês Atta, Isabela Silva de Oliveira, Taciana Pereira Sant'Ana Santos, João Pedro A Santos, Maria Isabel Schinoni, Maria Luiza Brito de Sousa-Atta
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with insulin resistance (IR), rapid disease progression, and decreased virological response to antiviral treatment. In addition, obesity is a risk factor for chronic hepatitis C evolution and is associated with IR. As adiponectin is an adipokine that is associated with obesity and IR, this study aimed to investigate serum levels of adiponectin among patients with HCV infection and IR. Thirty-three patients with untreated HCV infection underwent testing of serum adiponectin levels (capture ELISA) and were compared to 30 healthy subjects with similar body mass indexes (BMI)...
December 4, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208358/effect-of-epicatechin-a-flavonoid-on-the-no-and-nos-activity-of-raillietina-echinobothrida
#13
Mitali Chetia, Robin Das
(-)-Epicatechin, a natural flavonoid reportedly has huge pharmacological properties. In this study the cestocide effect of (-)-epicatechin is demonstrated in Raillietina echinobothrida. Although the antiparasitic activity of (-)-epicatechin has been demonstrated against protozoa, helminthes and ectoparasites, in the present study the cestocide activity of (-)-epicatechin is shown to be related to a decrease in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and nitric oxide (NO) production. On exposure to 0.53mg/ml each of epicatechin, reference drug praziquantel and Ѡ Nitro-L- Arginine Methyl Ester (NOS inhibitor), the parasites attained paralysis at 10...
December 2, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203378/occurrence-of-acanthamoeba-genotypes-in-central-west-malaysian-environments
#14
Mohamad Hafiz Abdul Basher, Init Ithoi, Rohela Mahmud, Awatif Mohamed Abdulsalam, Agus Iwan Foead, Salwa Dawaki, Wahib Mohammed Mohsen Atroosh, Veeranoot Nissapatorn, Wan Omar Abdullah
Acanthamoeba species are ubiquitous free-living protozoa that can be found worldwide. Occasionally, it can become parasitic and the causative agent of acanthamoebic keratitis (AK) and Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis (GAE) in man. A total of 160 environmental samples and 225 naturally-infected animal corneal swabs were collected for Acanthamoeba cultivation. Acanthamoeba was found to be high in samples collected from environments (85%, 136/160) compared to infected animal corneas (24.89%, 56/225) by microscopic examination...
December 1, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198600/heterogeneous-distribution-of-culex-pipiens-culex-quinquefasciatus-and-their-hybrids-along-the-urbanisation-gradient
#15
M V Cardo, A Rubio, M T Junges, D Vezzani, A E Carbajo
2 The mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex, hereafter referred to as the Pipiens Assemblage, are vectors of arbovirus of worldwide concern including West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis. Given their distinct eco-physiology and vectorial capacity, accurate specimen identification and insight in the environmental drivers of their distribution are essential for the understanding of disease transmission patterns. Using a PCR-based identification protocol, we characterized the spatial distribution of Cx. pipiens, Cx...
November 30, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196196/molluscicidal-activity-of-manilkara-subsericea-mart-dubard-on-biomphalaria-glabrata-say-1818
#16
Robson Xavier Faria, Leandro Machado Rocha, Eloísa Portugal Barros Silva Soares Souza, Fernanda Borges Almeida, Caio Pinho Fernandes, José Augusto Albuquerque Santos
Schistosomiasis is promoted for species from Schistosoma genus affecting over 200 million people worldwide. Molluscicides are an efficient method to control this disease, being able to reduce intermediate host snail Biomphalaria glabrata number. In function of resistance cases using niclosamide, natural products are promisors to discover new drugs. Manilkara subsericea is endemic to Brazilian sandbanks of Rio de Janeiro State and wide ranges of biological activities. However, there is no studies evaluating its effects as molluscicidal agent...
November 30, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197500/dengue-endemic-and-its-impact-on-the-gross-national-product-of-brazilian-s-economy
#17
Everlam Elias Montibeler, Daniel Ribeiro de Oliveira
In history disease has caused social and economic damage. Dengue is an illness typically found in the tropics that has affected more and more people. In Brazil, according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), in 2013 at least 12.9% of the population (25.8 million) reported already having had dengue in their life. So, how wide are the economic impacts that dengue's contagion has on the gross national product? Using Leontief's method, it became possible to estimate the direct and indirect impact on the workforce and output by one country...
November 29, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197499/leptospira-reservoirs-among-wildlife-in-brazil-beyond-rodents
#18
Felipe Fornazari, Helio Langoni, Pâmela Merlo Marson, Diego Borin Nóbrega, Carlos Roberto Teixeira
Leptospirosis is a disease of great importance in tropical regions. Infection occurs mainly through contact with water contaminated with the urine of infected animals, especially that of rodents. Despite the diversity and abundance of wild fauna in Brazil, little is known about the role of other wild species in the epidemiology of leptospirosis. This study aimed to investigate new reservoirs of Leptospira among wildlife in Brazil, using serological and molecular diagnoses in a large-sized sample. Biological samples were collected from 309 free-ranging mammals, belonging to 16 species...
November 29, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196197/behavioral-asymmetries-in-ticks-lateralized-questing-of-ixodes-ricinus-to-a-mechatronic-apparatus-delivering-host-borne-cues
#19
Giovanni Benelli, Donato Romano, Guido Rocchigiani, Alice Caselli, Francesca Mancianti, Angelo Canale, Cesare Stefanini
Ticks are considered among the most dangerous arthropod vectors of disease agents to both humans and animals worldwide. Lateralization contributes to biological fitness in many animals, conferring important functional advantages, therefore studying its role in tick perception would critically improve our knowledge about their host-seeking behavior. In this research, we evaluated if Ixodes ricinus (L.) (Ixodiidae) ticks have a preference in using the right or the left foreleg to climb on a host. We developed a mechatronic device moving a tuft of fox skin with fur as host-mimicking combination of cues...
November 28, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191519/opisthorchis-felineus-infection-prevalence-in-western-siberia-a-review-of-russian-literature
#20
REVIEW
Olga S Fedorova, Marina M Fedotova, Tatiana S Sokolova, Ekaterina A Golovach, Yulia V Kovshirina, Tatiana S Ageeva, Anna E Kovshirina, Olga S Kobyakova, Ludmila M Ogorodova, Peter Odermatt
In this study we reviewed Russian scientific literature (scientific publications, book chapters, monographs) published between 1 January 1979 and 31 August 2015 from two sources: Main database of the Russian Scientific Electronic Library (eLIBRARY, http://elibrary.ru/), and the Scientific Medical Library of Siberian State Medical University (http://medlib.tomsk.ru/). Specifically, the review details the infection prevalence of Opisthorchis felineus (O. felineus) in Western Siberia, Russian Federation. From the primary key words screening, 1591 records were identified from which 32 Russian-language publications were relevant...
November 27, 2017: Acta Tropica
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