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Acta Tropica

Norashikin Mohd-Shaharuddin, Yvonne Ai Lian Lim, Nur-Amirah Hassan, Sheila Nathan, Romano Ngui
Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) are soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) that causing trichuriasis in human. Trichuris vulpis, a canine whipworm has also been reported occasionally in humans. However, an overlapping dimension in the morphology and due to the limited external characters between both species may lead to the potential for misdiagnosis. Although there has been an extensive study on the distribution of whipworm in both human and animal hosts, little is known about the molecular epidemiology of Trichuris species in both hosts...
November 27, 2018: Acta Tropica
Daniel Frías Lasserre, Jader de Oliveira, Heloisa Pinotti, João Aristeu da Rosa
Mepraiaspinolai, M. gajardoi and M. parapatrica occur in distinct regions in Chile. The females of the three species are micropterous. The males of M. gajardoi are brachypterous, those of M. parapatrica can be brachypterous or macropterous and those of M. spinolai can be micropterous, brachypterous or macropterous. Morphological studies were carried out by scanning electron microscopy offemale specimens collected in the wild. Head, thorax and abdomen characters of the three species there were not previously studied by SEM allowed a clear distinction amongst the three species...
November 27, 2018: Acta Tropica
Hipólito Castillo-Ureta, José Marcial Zazueta-Moreno, José Guadalupe Rendón-Maldonado, José Israel Torres-Avendaño, Héctor Samuel López-Moreno, Vicente Olimón-Andalón, Victor Manuel Salomón-Soto, Fabiola Patricia Pérez-Sánchez, Edith Hilario Torres-Montoya
Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by different species of protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Dogs have been proven as primary hosts of the parasite. Cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis in humans caused by Leishmania mexicana have been reported in Sinaloa; however, the vectors and hosts involved in the epidemiology of the parasite in northwestern Mexico are still unknown. Given the public health implications of this parasite's domestic hosts regarding the permanence and transmission of the disease to humans, the objective of the present study was to detect and determine the species of Leishmania that caused the first three cases of autochthonous canine leishmaniasis in the state of Sinaloa, Mexico...
November 27, 2018: Acta Tropica
Ayelen T Eberhardt, María Del Rosario Robles, Lucas D Monje, Pablo M Beldomenico, Rocio Callejón
A new species of Trichuris (Nematoda: Trichuridae) is described from the capybara, Hydrochoeris hydrochaeris (Rodentia: Caviidae), from two localities of Corrientes Province, based on morphological characteristics and ITS1 and ITS2 of nuclear rDNA region sequences. This species present morphological differences with 28 species of the genus described from North and South American rodents. Also, the new species is molecularly characterized and differentiated from those species from Muridae, Cricetidae and Myocastoridae rodents recorded from North and South America, Europe and Africa...
November 27, 2018: Acta Tropica
Hiroyuki Takaoka, VAN Lun Low, Tiong Kai Tan, Mohd Sofian-Azirun, Chee Dhang Chen, Koon Weng Lau, Xuan DA Pham
Simulium pumatense sp. nov. is described from Vietnam, and is placed in the Simulium feuerborni species-group of the subgenus Simulium (Nevermannia) Enderlein. Its morphological characteristics include the relatively smaller numbers of the following three numerical features: inner teeth of the female mandible (15-18), minute conical processes (16) on the female cibarium, and male upper-eye facets (in 15 vertical columns and 16 horizontal rows). Keys are constructed to distinguish this species from four species of the same group in Vietnam...
November 26, 2018: Acta Tropica
Mohamed A Hussein, Haytham A Ali, Bahgat A Abd El-Rhman, Timour N Morcoss, Ahmed Elsadek Fakhr, Ayman Abdel Aziz Swelum, Abdullah Alowaimer, Hammed A Tukur, Islam M Saadeldin
This study was conducted to evaluate an adjuvant, Montanide (IMS 3015), in improving the quality of Rift Valley fever (RVF) vaccine relative to the traditional adjuvant, aluminum hydroxide gel. Vaccinated sheep were evaluated using biochemical analysis, kidney function tests, liver function tests, and immunological tests. Sheep vaccinated with Montanide (IMS 3015) adjuvant showed significantly higher total protein, total globulin, and gamma globulin concentrations from the second week until the fifth month than the controls...
November 22, 2018: Acta Tropica
Waraporn Jumpato, Ubon Tangkawanit, Komgrit Wongpakam, Pairot Pramual
Information regarding vector-parasite association is necessary for fully understanding the epidemiology of vector borne diseases yet, this information is lacking in the case of Leucocytozoonosis in the Oriental region, despite a high incidence of the disease. In this study, we used a molecular approach based on mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) sequence to detect the parasite, Leucocytozoon, in potential black fly (Simuliidae) vectors in Thailand. A total of 404 wild caught black flies representing six morphological species of two subgenera were examined...
November 22, 2018: Acta Tropica
Mehmet Karakuş, Suha Kenan Arserim, Özge Erişöz Kasap, Metin Pekağırbaş, Duygu Aküzüm, Bülent Alten, Seray Töz, Yusuf Özbel
Leishmaniasis is an arthropod borne disease that is endemic in 102 countries and one and half million new cases are reported each year. Sand flies are the one and only proven vectors of the disease and dogs are the main reservoirs in urban areas. Karaburun peninsula is located in most western part of Turkey and is reported to be an endemic area for human and canine leishmaniasis. The most recent study was undertaken more than 15 years ago in The peninsula and no clear data available for vectors or reservoirs...
November 19, 2018: Acta Tropica
Joseph Lemaitre, Damiano Pasetto, Javier Perez-Saez, Carla Sciarra, Joseph Francis Wamala, Andrea Rinaldo
The correlation between cholera epidemics and climatic drivers, in particular seasonal tropical rainfall, has been studied in a variety of contexts owing to its documented relevance. Several mechanistic models of cholera transmission have included rainfall as a driver by focusing on two possible transmission pathways: either by increasing exposure to contaminated water (e.g. due to worsening sanitary conditions during water excess), or water contamination by freshly excreted bacteria (e.g. due to washout of open-air defecation sites or overflows)...
November 19, 2018: Acta Tropica
Carlos Sacristán, Fernando Esperón, Ana Carolina Ewbank, Josué Díaz-Delgado, Eduardo Ferreira-Machado, Samira Costa-Silva, Angélica María Sánchez-Sarmiento, Kátia R Groch, Elena Neves, Gustavo Henrique Pereira Dutra, Waleska Gravena, Vera Maria Ferreira Da Silva, Milton C C Marcondes, Adriana Castaldo Colosio, Marta J Cremer, Vitor L Carvalho, Ana Carolina O Meirelles, Juliana Marigo, José Luiz Catão-Dias
Herpesvirus (HV) infections in cetaceans are frequently associated with skin and mucosal lesions. Although HV infections have been reported worldwide, their occurrence in southern Atlantic marine mammals is still poorly understood. We tested skin, oral and genital mucosal beta-actin PCR-positive samples from 109 free-ranging Brazilian cetaceans using a universal herpesvirus DNA polymerase PCR. Herpesvirus-positive skin samples from a Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), a dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima), a Bolivian river dolphin (Inia boliviensis), and a lingual sample from an Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis) were histologically evaluated...
November 19, 2018: Acta Tropica
Kanae Shiokawa, Alejandro Llanes, Antreas Hindoyan, Luis Cruz-Martinez, Shamara Welcome, Sreekumari Rajeev
In this study, we investigated Leptospira infection and exposure in small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus), an invasive animal species, in two different sites in the Caribbean island of Saint Kitts. Overall a low seroprevalence (12/148; 8.1%: 95%CI: 3.7-12.5) was observed. Agglutinating antibodies to serovars Mankarso (3.4%), Copenhageni (2.7%), Icterohemorrhagiae (1.4%), Bratislava (1.4%), Canicola (1.4%), Autumnalis (0.7%), Alexi (0.7%), Pomona (0.7%) and Grippotyphosa (0.7%) was observed on the microscopic agglutination test...
November 19, 2018: Acta Tropica
Eyaba Tchamdja, Peter-Henning Clausen, Abalo Essosimna Kulo, Komlan Batawui, Burkhard Bauer, Jan Van Den Abbeele, Vincent Delespaux, Antje Hoppenheit
The study assessed an integrated trypanosomosis control strategy in drug-resistant hotspot villages of northern Togo. This strategy comprised (i) rational trypanocidal drug use in symptomatic cattle, (ii) vectors and ticks control by targeted bi-monthly insecticidal spraying of the lower body parts of cattle and (iii) strategic deworming with Albendazole in the beginning and the end of the rainy season. The program was implemented between June 2014 and October 2015 in four villages in northern Togo, which had been previously identified as drug resistant hotspots for diminazene diaceturate (DA) and isometamidium chloride (ISM)...
November 19, 2018: Acta Tropica
Paola Paradies, Dora Buonfrate, Roberta Iatta, Fabrizio Iarussi, Giovanni Giorli, Vincenzo Ostilio Palmieri, Mariateresa Sasanelli, Francesca Perandin, Jan Šlapeta, Antonio Capogna, Domenico Otranto, Zeno Bisoffi
In dogs, information on treatments against S. stercoralis infection is rare and anecdotal. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the treatment outcome of S. stercoralis natural infection in sheltered dogs. Furthermore, based on the potential risk of infection, people working in the infected shelter were also tested. Seventeen sheltered dogs positive to S. stercoralis using the Baermann test were treated with ivermectin 200 μg/kg/sid/os for two consecutive days. Only two dogs showed clinical signs suggestive of strongyloidiasis (diarrhea, weigh loss) at diagnosis...
November 19, 2018: Acta Tropica
Sam Khanbabaie, Mehdi Riazi, Chiat Han Chang, Muhammad Hafiznur Yunus, Rahmah Noordin
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a neglected zoonotic disease with a worldwide distribution and is a major public health problem in some areas. Diagnosis of CE is mainly based on clinical symptoms, imaging and serological testing, however, improvement in serodiagnosis is still needed. This study was aimed at detecting circulating Echinococcus antigen in CE patients using a lateral flow dipstick (LFD) assay. Three types of hydatid antigens i.e. hydatid cyst fluid (HCF), native antigen B (nAgB) and recombinant antigen B (rAgB) were prepared and polyclonal rabbit antiserum was raised against each antigen...
November 17, 2018: Acta Tropica
A E Carbajo, M V Cardo, D Vezzani
Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) (Linnaeus) is currently the major threat among arbovirus vectors in the Americas. We examined its past, present, and future distribution patterns in the South American fringe in association with environmental and demographic variables at two spatial scales. We updated the database of the occurrence of Ae. aegypti per locality and modelled by GLMM the past occurrence (until 2000) and its expansion (2001-2017) as a function of air temperature, precipitation, altitude, and population...
November 17, 2018: Acta Tropica
Consolato Sergi, Nicola Serra, Claudia Colomba, Ayansina Ayanlade, Paola Di Carlo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2018: Acta Tropica
Ana Caroline Melo Dos Santos, Edilson Leite de Moura, Denise Macêdo da Silva, Alexandre Wendell Araujo Moura, Jean Moises Ferreira, Abel Barbosa Lira Neto, Aline Cristine Pereira E Silva, Verônica de Medeiros Alves, Tatiane Luciano Balliano, Karol Fireman de Farias, José Luiz de Lima Filho, Elaine Virgínia Martins de Souza Figueiredo
Serotonin and nitric oxide seem to be involved in Dengue virus infection. The aim of this study was to investigate if SNPs in serotonin and nitric oxide are associated with dengue severity. A retrospective case-control study was conducted, with groups of dengue fever (DF; n = 78) and dengue hemorrhagic fever patients (DHF; n = 49). Genotyping was performed using qPCR and PCR. The power of the sample size was calculated by G*power software. The heterozygous SL for 5-HTTLPR SNP was significantly correlated with protection against progression to DHF in the codominant SS/SL/LL (OR = 0...
November 16, 2018: Acta Tropica
Candy Chuah, Geoffrey N Gobert, Baha Latif, Chong Chin Heo, Chiuan Yee Leow
Schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical parasitic disease caused by the trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects approximately 207 million people worldwide. Among the five main species infecting humans, Schistosoma mansoni and S. japonicum are responsible for the majority of hepatointestinal schistosomiasis. Human settlements near fresh water sites that lack proper sanitary systems often contribute to the transmission of disease. This risk particularly impacts on travellers or immigrants who come into contact with larvae-contaminated water...
November 16, 2018: Acta Tropica
Thaisa H S Fonseca, Jessica M S Gomes, Marina Alacoque, Marcos A Vannier-Santos, Maria A Gomes, Haendel G N O Busatti
Trichomonas vaginalis is an amitochondrial parasite that causes human trichomoniasis. Despite metronidazole effectiveness, resistant cases are becoming more frequent. This scenario reveals the need to develop new therapeutic options. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is an experimental treatment that involves the activation of photosensitive substances and the generation of cytotoxic oxygen species and free radicals to promote the selective destruction of target tissues. In previous work, we identified an excellent in vitro PDT activity using methylene blue and light emitting diode against metronidazole sensitive and resistant strains of T...
November 14, 2018: Acta Tropica
I A Giantsis, A Chaskopoulou
Phlebotomine sand flies constitute a group of haematophagous insects of great medical and veterinary importance. Despite the significant knowledge on the biology and behavior of adult sand flies in the wild, there is little information available on the ecology of their larval stages due to difficulties of detecting them in the soil. So far, investigations on sand fly breeding sites have been based on methods to catch emerging adults or on microscopic examination of the soil for the presence of immatures, neither of which is very precise or efficient for studying immatures in the field...
November 13, 2018: Acta Tropica
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